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# HERIOT - WATT UNIVERSITY

## School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society

Foundation Engineering
CLASS EXAMPLES

A bored pile has been designed to carry an axial design load due to permanent and variable
actions of 2.60MN. It is to be installed in a deep layer of uniform, saturated clay with a
characteristic undrained shear strength, cu,k , of 65kN/m2. An adhesion factor of 0.4 can be
assumed for the clay. Cut-off level is 1m below ground surface.
(a)

The boring equipment available limits the maximum pile shaft diameter to 1.25m and
the depth to 20m. Determine whether a straight-shaft could be formed with this
equipment which would be capable of supporting the required load. Base and shaft
partial factors should be taken from Table (a), set R4 with explicit verification of
serviceability limit state (SLS) and using a model factor of 1.2; partial factor on soil
properties should be taken from Table (b), set M1.

(b)

An under-reaming cutter is available which can form a bell with the top of the bell
being 2.0m above the pile tip. Calculate what overall depth of pile is required if a 3m
diameter belled-base is formed and the pile shaft diameter (D) is 1.25m. Note: neglect
2D above the bell as not contributing to shaft resistance. Use the same partial factors
as in (a).

You can assume that the unit weight of concrete = unit weight of clay.

Resistance

Symbol

Set
R1

Base

1.0

R4 without
explicit
verification
of SLS
2.0

Shaft
(Compression)

1.0

1.6

R4 with
explicit
verificatio
n of SLS
1.7
1.4

Set
Soil Parameter

M1

M2

## Angle of shearing resistance*

1.0

1.25

Effective cohesion

1.0

1.25

1.0

1.4

Weight Density

1.0

1.0

SOLUTION