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It surprisedme to realizethat the earliestpieces of Americanart illustratedhere are
closerin time to ChristopherColumbusthan to us. The independencecelebratedin
our nation'sBicentennialwas the culminationof generationsof effort in a New
Worldas fraughtwith privation,difficulty,and dangeras with promise.Todayour
houses are so full of comfortableEarlyAmericana-luxurious wing chairs and
weightylookingglasses-that it is easyto forgetthat, formanyyearsof ourhistory,
glassandwallpaperand textilesweremoreluxuriesthan commonplaces;that rooms
weresmallandceilingslow to containthe fireplaceheat throughbitterwinters;that
Colonialclothes arescarcebecausefabricswereusedandreuseduntil they fell apart.
Americanshad to contend with the necessitiesof the wildernessas well as the
bountiesof eventualprosperity,anda realizationof the fullrangeof Americanhistory
makeseven more impressivethe artisticachievementsshown in this picturebook
and in A BicentennialTreasury:AmericanMasterpieces
from the Metropolitan,an
exhibitionthat will open in January.All these worksaredrawnfromthe Metropolitan'scollection. Begunin 1910,when Americanartwaslookeddownuponas a pale
reflectionof Europeanstylesratherthan a compellingand innovativetraditionin its
own right, it has since become the finest collection of Americanart in existence,
artsandfurnitureto paintings,prints,photographs,anddrawings.Becauseof limited
space,only a fractionof the collectioncouldbe shownat one time. But in the next
few yearsthis will be remedied,as the Museumembarkson the constructionof the
AmericanBicentennialWing, which will combinebeautifullyspaciousexhibition
rooms,conservationstudios,educationhalls, and a garden
court.Forthis immenseundertakingwe have receivedan outpouringof supportfrom
corporations,fromfoundations,fromthe City of New York,and frommany individuals.One person,however,deservesspecialcreditfor bringingthis dreaminto
reality:Mrs. Charles S. Payson-trustee, benefactor,friend, whose gift of five
million dollarsformsthe heart of the project'sfunding, and whose recent death
Mrs. Vincent Astor, another of the Museum'smost generousand imaginative
trustees,has made possiblethis Bicentennialexhibition and picturebook, which,
like the AmericanBicentennialWing, paytributeto the proudaccomplishmentsof
this nation and its people.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin
Museumof Art, FifthAvenueand82 Street,
Copyright? 1976by The Metropolitan
New York,N.Y. 10028.Secondclasspostagepaidat New York,N.Y. Subscriptions
$11.50 a year.Single
copies$2.95. Sentfreeto Museummembers.Fourweeks'noticerequired
availableon microfilmfromUniversityMicrofilms,313 N. FirstStreet,Ann Arbor,Michigan.Volumes
I-XXXVIII(1905-1942)availableas a clothboundreprintset or as individualyearlyvolumesfromArno
Press,330 MadisonAvenue,New York,N.Y. 10017,or fromthe Museum,Box 255, GracieStation,New
Studio.Editorof the Bulletin:
by the Metropolitan
KatharineStoddertGilbert;AssociateEditor:JoanK. Holt. Art Director:StuartSilver.Design:Irwin
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin
Among the firstobjects to enter the American Wing were severalof the earliest
masterpiecesillustratedhere. The Ipswichchest (Figure1) came in companywith
the greatbanister-backarmchair(Figure5) and the richlyveneeredslant-topdesk
(Figure 7). They were part of the collection of over seven hundred works
assembledby a heritage-consciousBostonian, EugeneBolles. Some of these were
lent to the MetropolitanMuseumfor its Hudson-FultonCelebrationof 1909-an
Frontispiece: Detail of Figure 58, The
exhibition staged in part to test the question of whether or not American
Hatch Family by EastmanJohnson. AlfrederickHatch, a prominent New York decorative arts deserved a place in an art museum. The resultant reviews and
broker,his wife, and nine of their children public response were so favorablethat the Bolles objects were purchasedand
are shown here. Aside from being a representedto the AmericanWing in 1910by its firstgreatbenefactor,Mrs. Russell
markablegroupportrait,the picture is an
excellent document of the domestic in- Sage.
Fromthis auspiciousbeginning a sixty-five-yearprocessof learning, refining,
teriorof the well-to-do class of the 1870s.
and acquisition by five successive curatorsand their colleagues has led to the
Gift of FredericH. Hatch, 26.97
formationof the most comprehensivecollection of American decorative arts in
the nation. As a result of its foundation and duringthe progressof its development, all other suchAmericancollections, both publicand private, were inspired
to be, and the science of the studyof American decorativeartswas established.
A half-century'saccumulationof experienceand knowledgeaffordsthe refined
qualitative and aesthetic judgmentsthat we have made for your pleasuretoday.
Individually,and then as a group, the American Wing staff has painstakingly
selected fromover ten thousandpieces ourmost eloquent statementsof changing
tastes in American craftsmanship.Whether or not these individualworksare all
to the contemporaryviewer'sadmiration,they stand apartin this collection and
amongthose elsewhereas superlativeexpressionsof their time and as a tributeto
On the cover: This proud American
eagle, probablymade sometime between
1800 and 1830, is said to have come from
the vicinityof Philadelphia.Wood, gilded,
h. 62 in. EllaMorrisde PeysterFund,59.89
The artistic accomplishmentsof our country from the seventeenth through the
early twentieth century are the subject of this exhibition, which honors the
Bicentennial. Impressiveas these objects are, they are only the very tip of the
iceberg. Fromour collection of thousandsof examplesof American architecture,
painting, furniture,photography,prints, sculpture, ceramics, glass, silver, and
textiles-the nation's, and the world's, most extensive assemblage of this
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin
65 The works illustrated in A BicentennialTreasury:American Masterpiecesfrom the Metropolitan have been discussed by the following: American Paintings and Sculpture: Doreen Bolger. Condition is another vital concern. Here is presented a part of the cultural heritage of the United States of which we can be proud. Anonymous gift. scratches. Alexander Hamilton (ElizabethSchuyler)afterits authorization by Congress in 1777 and then used at Hamilton House. they are for the most part in superbcondition. We had to ask the hypothetical questions curators often ask of themselves: What is the absolute best in the collection? If I could retrieve only a few things in a disaster.material-members of the various departments had to select approximately one hundred objects. but they. Craig Miller. polished. and Natalie Spassky. and. scrapes.Just how many masterpieces can an artist create? Are the materials or the subjects rare?In what numbers have the objects survived? Certainly.was made by Mrs. Gruber. age is another element. tend to agree on what lends a certain work that specialness that sets it apart. Philip Pieterse Schuyler. Frances M. But the greatestmust be judged on their intrinsic quality-and if quality is there. drawn. John K. 56. Howat. Heckscher. carved. fading. Morrison H. or sewn. in memory of WilliamWillis Reese. It is appliquedon the back of an English flag said to have been sewn in the Colonies by Alida Schuyler for her father. The objects in the Bicentennial Treasuryare rare. joined. patches. accordingto tradition. scholarly recognition. and BerryB. what would they be? Every curator has personal preferences. John K. eyes.Printsand Photographs:David Kiehl. and laterat The Grange. like collectors. amazingly. R. task to choose from among the many available works. it should not be too differentnow from when it was new. Twentieth Century Art: Henry Geldzahler. which. in New YorkCity. they have been selected because they are beautifully designed. and other physical and mental patination. Howat Curator of American Paintings and Sculpture Co-ordinator for the exhibition The Museumowns a thirteen-starAmerican flag. who in 1667 was in command of Fort Orange. any amount of tears. and even additions can be surmounted or be of less concern. American Wing: Marilynn Johnson Bordes. 167 . we find a wonderful variety of creativity wherein the artist'smind. and more than occasionally frustrating. Tracy. Among the attributes to consider is rarity. they are of the highest quality. Sharp (who also served as joint co-ordinator of the exhibition). and maybe a little extra care. Great age usually implies raritybut age may also contribute historic distance. the late John McKendry. and Weston J. But in the final analysis. Does the object retain its physical integrity?If it had a reasonably happy existence. Naef. painted. Lewis I. It has been an exhilarating and difficult. they are old. In them. breaks. and hands have worked magically together to create that specialness that makes a masterpiece. John Caldwell.
jstor. and extend access to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin ® www. preserve.org .A BicentennialTreasury: American Masterpieces from the Metropolitan The Metropolitan Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize.
Madeby Cornelius Kierstede. reflectscraftpracticesbroughtto the Coloniesby Englishjoiners. 2 A uniquely New York form.stamped baseband.caryatidhandles. Pairedleaves.about 16601680.Its rectilinear form is inherent in the traditional joined oak panel and frameconstruction.the bowlcombinesthe horizontalshape. the ornament of simple geometricshapesand stylizedplants is basedon Jacobeanvernaculardesignsof late medievaland Renaissancederivation.andnaturalisticflowersof the late 17th centurywith the strong. made in Ipswich. which flourishedduringthe first two decadesof the 18th century. three-dimensional quality rare in American furniture of the period.Following Dutch custom. with a naturalistic. dominatethis boldly carved and carefullybalancedcomposition. this lavishlydecoratedsix-lobedbowl attests to the skillof the city'searlysilversmiths and the luxurioustasteof its prosperous burghers. .while variations on diversplantformsandrounded figuresprovidea rich accompaniment. Massachusetts. it was most likely filled with brandied raisinsand passedto guestswho helped themselveswith silverspoons. repetitive baroquerhythmsand extravagantornamentof the WilliamandMary style. probably about 1700-1710.1 This profuselycarvedchest.
fullybaroque note is soundedby the cast masksand garlandscascading down the handle. Departing from the solidly rectilinear characterof 17th-centuryfurniture. made about 1705-1725by Simeon Soumain. .the tablenow bearsa laterenrichmentof blackpatterningon redand a marbleizedtop. shelf.3 This remarkableMassachusettsfolding tableis composedof elementsfound on contemporarycupboards:splayed frame. is emphasizedby the low. has unusuallystrongproportions. Apparentlythe only table of its kind. The tankard's splendid decoration.this silvertankard. with vigorousinterplaybetweenangular frameand foldingcirculartop. and emphaticallycurved handlegivethe impressionofgreatheartinessand overflowingabundance.wheretankards traditionallyhad a broad stance. heavy balusters.evenforNewYork. which is wider at the basethan it is high.it showssurprisingmovementin its form. it is one of the most appealing expressionsof the weighty exuberanceof the 17th-centurystyle.andverylikelyoriginally painted. which began to supplantcarvingafterabout 1670. The fullnessof the body. 4 Marvelouslyrotund. Madeof oakandmaple.A moreopulent.Typicalof New Yorkduring the late 17thandearly18thcenturiesare the stampedleafborderandmeanderat the base. overhanging lid and deep baseband. robustform. and applied decoration.
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5 Tall-backchairs. contrast dramaticallywith the face.Fromthese sources. .boldforms. The stiffnessinherentin the straight backof this New Englandchairis counteredby the wide seat and inviting. dignity.combiningscrolled crest rails. 6 RobertFeke'sportraitof TenchFrancis. Feke was bor in the Colonies. This controlled interactionbetween elements of contrastingscale and movementrepresents the William and Marystyle at its best. is remarkablefor its almost monochromatic treatment. the forceful swirlsof the armsarepoisedon the delicate tops of the legs.The most indigenouslyAmerican of these had banisterbacksand native rush seats ratherthan the cane or leatherbacksand seatsof Englishmodels. whose life is basedlargelyon conjectureand surviving works. but his style was shapedby Englishitinerantartistsand mezzotints. and vase-shapedturnings.In a precarious but perfect equilibrium.This portraitis also importantas one of the few signedand dated pictures by Feke. a Philadelphialawyer.he inheritedhis decorativebaroquemanner and aristocraticidealsof elegance. relaxed slope of the arms. which is stronglylit from the right.in subtle gradations of brown. which rise from scrolledfeet throughsuccessivelymore elongatedvase shapes.Its simple. while others show that he paintedin New England. and formality.it placeshim in Philadelphia in 1746.is amongthe mostpowerfulpaintingsof 18th-century America. curving Spanish feet. This somewhat stark composition. set the style for seating in the first quarterof the 18th century. less sophisticated than contemporaryEnglishportraiture.
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While the form. adding a pleasing lilt to this table's prancinggrace. Long yearsof usefulnesshave mellowed the top. and Spanish feet.personablestancegivesthis mapleNew Englandtable a stylishness rarefor its type. The desk'strimlinesandneat bandsand moldingsmake a beautifullybalanced statementin keepingwith the subdued radianceof the woods. In the kind of delightfulantithesisfound in William andMarypieces. bulbstraight-sided ous feet paintedto look like ebony.7 The use of large. basically a largestool. is like that of many portabletablesof the early1700s. which echoes the smartsplayof the beautifullyproportionedlegs. 8 A jaunty. . the shimmeringburlveneers are a fascinatingmaze of ripples culminatingin two oval whorlson the top.it has been enhanced by a scalloped skirt. found on case furnitureof the period. more common to William and Marychairs.The feet are carvedwith an unusuallystrongoutward sweep. the ratherdiminutive.flat boardsin constructionand highly patternedveneers fordecorationwasfashionablynewwhen this slant-topdesk was made in Massachusetts about 1700-1720. and have also warpedit slightly. desk standson big. Exquisitely matched.
this teapothasharmonious lines that flow around the pearshaped body and over the domed lid.almost languid.Madein New Yorkby PeterVan Dyck between 1715and 1725. The contoursare well rounded.9 Gracefulcurvespredominatein the Queen Anne style. which firstappeared in Americansilverabout1715.no ornament disruptsthe reflectivesurfacesof the silver. Aside from a coat of armsin a baroquecartouche. . The metal's brilliance is exploitedin the facetsof the octagonal spoutand the cut-cardworkon the lid.setting off the more vivacious curves of the spout and sweeping wooden handle.
animals. gilded.10 A dazzling world of fantasy is created on this chest by japanning.a technique meant to simulateOriental lacquerthat was in high fashionabout 1710-1750. In keeping with the fancifuldecoration.oversizeflowers. wavy peredlegs MadeinMassachusetts about1710-1725.and typical of William and Maryhigh chests. undulatingpattern. The motifs were raised. . and here they stand out vividly distinct in a relaxed. and varnished. in which people.andtinypavilions happily coexist. the chest is one of the few japanned piecesfromthis earlyperiod. is the whimsicalunderstructure of sharplytaand skirt and stretchers.
" Easychairswere designedfor comfort: fully stuffed or padded.sheep. roomy.A fine exampleof the New EnglandQueen Anne type.and deer inhabit a charming landscape workedin colorfulcrewel.Newport1758. but now subtly mutedshades. .but not so this one (detailat the left). That they were usuallyreservedfor the sick or elderlyis suggestedby their appearanceonly in portraitsof agedsitters.p I 11 This RhodeIslandchairis the most importantof all American18th-century easychairs. The chair's cover is finely worked bargelloneedlepointin a diamondpattern of once bright.Jr.Backswereoftencovered with inexpensivefabric. it retainsits original upholstery."Gardner. Birds. with wingsprovidingheadrestsor protection from draftsor the heat of open fires.and is unique in being signed and dated by the upholsterer.
The uppersections of highboysor secretarydeskshad flat frontswith flutedpilastersand were topped by broken-archedpediments. Rhode Island. sums up classic Newport design. The crisplycarvedscallopshellson the skirt and top capture the full geometric beautyof theirnaturalforms. The straight. Thisblock-frontdeskfromSalemhasall the bestfeaturesof the style. and its execution in the finest mahogany is flawless.the carvedshell was the invention of the Townsendsand Goddards. time's unique contributionto the beautyof the deskremains. . Itsproportions are perfect.By this good fortune. when antique furniturewas stripped as a matter of course. But what makes this piece stand out fromits peersis the deeplyluminous darkred-brownpatina.12 By the mid-18thcenturythe richest Massachusettscase furniturewas boldly modeled in serpentinecurves. Newport. developed its own distinctive style of cabinetwork. the leading cabinetmaking familiesin Newport. while the projecting shells (detail above). in bulging bombe forms. The trademark of the stylewasthe block front with shell carving.The carefully chosen grainof the desk top and doorsformsitsown gracefulcurvingpatter.counters the horizontalpatternof the drawers. which was made in 1765 and retainsthe label of John Townsend. Sixty-fiveyears ago. Verticalblocking. The skirt and even the feet continue the baroquemovement of the front. alternatelyprojectingandreceding. emphasizethe top. The concave middle block draws attention to the center. the desk's formerownerthoughthighlyenoughof the rich. While the block front was borrowedfrom Boston furniture.during the third quarterof the 18th century. This chest. old colorunderthe scaleof dirt to have had the finish rubbeddown by hand ratherthan scraped. whose sinuously sculpted ribs fragment reflected light. or in rhythmically projectingblock fronts. 13 At the peakof its prosperity. thick cornice uncompromisinglycapsthe tightlyintegratedcomposition of the masterfullittle chest.
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oxwomm _11 g I_ 111 ~~~~in 16 One of the greatdocumentsof Colonial painting.andsomewhat austerein color and arrangement. and scallopedskirtsit is British." This portraitof Platt. The American School was done by Matthew Pratt in 1765.including"3 red window curtains. who taughtvirtuallyeverymajorartistof the fledglingUnited States until his death 1820. or anotherfrom the same set. In its ample proportions. 15 This remarkableside chair unites Englishdesignwith Colonialexecution. may be the pictureso modestly valued.00. his house fairlybulged with furnishings.in constructionandin richnaturalisticcarving it is Philadelphian. he may have specifiedthat his furniturebe made locallyin the Londonfashion-an explanationfortheirEnglishcharacter."a stapleof 18th-centuryEnglishpainting.or"conversationpiece.The picture speakseloquentlyof the youthful eagernessof Pratt(probablystandingat left) andhis companionsas they ponder lessons propoundedby West (seated casuallyin a Chippendalechair). painstakingly drawn. paintedby John Mare in New Yorkin 1767. . hard in finish.opulentredcurtains anda nicelycarvedChippendalechair.4 red ditto." and "One large framed picture--$1.Todaywe value it highly as the finest of Mare's surviving portraits. Large. while a matching table is shown in Peale's1772 portraitof Lambert'sbrotherJohn.14 Jeremiah Platt died insolvent in New Haven in 1811. renowned as the richest in preRevolutionary Philadelphia. Both must have been partof John's1770parlorfumishings. appearsin CharlesWillson Peale's1770portraitof Philadelphiamerchant LambertCadwalader. it is a rare attempt by an American at the informalgroup portrait.saddle seat. The chair.carefullymodeled.but. Subdued in color.and somewhatawkwardly composed. when he was in Londonstudyingwith his countrymanBenjaminWest. accordingto the inventory. With Britishgoods boycotted.the of the pictureis a forcefulrepresentation wealthy merchantsurroundedby symbolsof his success. red cord and tassels.
dentil fret.this cake basket.Itsundulating body.a fluidarrangementof serpentine curves. 18 A rareformin Americansilver. which is monogrammedin a flowery script befitting this delicaterococo creation.carver. with one areaof decorationmoving into the next: shellson the rimcontinue the gadrooninginto the pierced panels. architectural forms with romantic. of Thomas Affleck. while wavy bands of repousse beadsextendbeyondthe panelsinto the solid silver bottom.is gracedwith an exquisitelyairyelegance. A perfect illustrationof the styleis this chest on chest.In piece'sstatelyarchitectural dramaticcontrast is the phoenix-like bird.andJamesReynolds.The flutedcolumns. . is piercedalternatelywith arabesquesand quatrefoilsin a diaper pattern.The designis beautifullycohesive. naturalisticornament. fashionedabout 1765 by MyerMyersof New York. believedto be the joint work. and graceful broken-scroll pediment preserve the character.17 The cabinetmakersof pre-RevolutionaryPhiladelphiapracticeda sophisticatedversionof the EnglishChippendale style. the essenceof which wasthe dynamicjuxtapositionof classical.which is all movementand asymmetryas it risesfromthe pediment. cabinetmaker. in about 1772.
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Manysuch motifs weremereornament. illustrates the rich style favoredin BerksCounty.while unicors and doves. traditionallygiven to a brideby her father. madeabout1780.butherethey may have been used as symbolsto enrich a dower chest.19 The German Protestantswho settled in close-knit communitiesaround Philadelphiain the early 18th century broughtwith them the folk traditionsof the Palatinate. historicallysymbolsof purity. This chest. inhabit archedwhite panels.They loved paintedfurniture and often decorated storage chests with bright peasant ornament. . Red and white tulips proliferateon a darkground.
surroundedby birds. possibly named "Canter. is the fancifulmedleyof flowerson the original crewelworkseat. is an imaginative. and pattern in a sophisticated composition. the lady sits on a Chippendale-style chair. cutout S. done in 1790 by RufusHathaway. . It exhibitsthe curiousdichotomycharacteristic of works of the self-taught:a naive. probablymade by MajorJohn Dunlap in New Hampshirebetween 1770 and 1790.So. The tension between curvedand straightlines finally explodesinto the cheerfullyexaggerated ears and bold archedcrest rail of this ruralmasterpiece. all-inclusivenarrativeelement combinedwith an almostabstractuseof line. butterflies.an itinerant Massachusetts artist. and scallopedseat rail-are confined in a severely rectilinearpattern of straight supportsand stretchers. decorative quality of the work. color.and some of the resultswere wonderfullyoriginal. and a cat. 21 City styles had their echoes in America'shinterlands.disciplinedinterpretationof the Chippendale style.This chair. too." The reductionof draperyfoldsto linear. Elegantlydressed. rhythmicaldesignsand the inclusionof the inscriptionreaffirmthe two-dimensional. Dunlap'scharacteristicdecorative features-fan.20 One of the finest Americanprimitive paintings is Lady with Her Pets.
The compelling realism of the image is enhanced by the facility with which tactile qualities are explored: the intricate texture of lace. the legs are animal-like. In contrast to this architecturaltreatment. the dull sheen of silk. the high polish of the reflecting table top (detail below). and the smoothness of the succulent fruits. Mrs. John Winthrop confronts the 20th-century viewer in this arrestingportrait painted by John S. . Great technical skill and a rare ability to portraycharacter distinguish the work of our foremost native-born Colonial portraitist. This vast area for kettles and cups is supported by a single shaft-the upper part a fluted column. with muscular knees and sinewy ankles and claws.22 With an appraisinggaze. tilting top. Winthrop shared "the delights of intellectual companionship" with her husband. a ball. Copley in 1773. one magnificent piece of mahogany with a scalloped edge. 23 During the 18th century serving tea became an important part of polite hospitality. The top of this supreme example. compressed as if by the weight above. Mrs. a Harvard professor. spins freely when used or tilts up for storage. Such bold integration of architectural and natural motifs is a hallmark of the Philadelphia Chippendale style of the 1760s and 70s. The wife of one of America's first prominent astronomers. the lower. In Philadelphia the most popular type of tea table had a circular.
--N ppl- .
rocks. Copleyin Englandin 1782. facile style favoredby the English school. confident young man. when the boy enlisted in the Royal Navy as a midshipmanon the Belliqueux.24 Thisportraitof a youngseaman.createdan accomplished portrait in the English manner. this memorablelikeness of a fashionable. andsophisticatedcomposition were other hallmarksof the style thatmadeStuartone of the leadingportraitpaintersin England. .commandedby his father. 25 The declineof portraitcommissions precedingthe Revolution sent Gilbert Stuart to London in 1775. and anchor. The picture demonstrates Stuart'sskillful use of an amorphous backgroundto set off the well-defined face of the subject and his talent for creating vivid. The vigorousbrushwork. Here theatricaleffects prevail:in the dramaticlightingof this self-assured figureand in the romanticallyobscure backdropof sky. shows Stuart'smastery of the rich. painting instead in fluent. was paintedbyJohnS. luminous flesh tones. Probably paintedthere between 1780 and 1785.the twelve-year-oldAugustus Brine. boat. holding a book and glancing out of a painted frame. Admiral James Brine. broadlybrushedpassages. Copley abandonedthe linearity and intricatetexturesof his earlierpictures and. The Museum's only example of Copley'sEnglishpictures.informalpose. it contrasts markedlywith his more candid American works (Figure 22). which areenhancedby the softgreenof the coat.
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26 Despite its fragility,this goblet, or
pokal, gives an impression of
strength-an effectundoubtedlyimportant to this piece, presentedin 1788 to
stockholdersfrom Bremen, Germany,
who invested in the Amelung
glassworksat New Bremen, Maryland.
Typicalof Amelung glassis the superb
engraving, the greenish cast, the invertedbalusterstem, and a domedfoot
with plainrim. In style, the pokallooks
back to the baroqueand rococo rather
than to the newly popularneoclassical
taste. In craftsmanship, it shows a
maturity of which the Maryland
a fittingvesselfor a toastfromthe New
Worldto the Old.
27 Settees were unusual in Colonial
America, possiblybecause they were less
practical than full-sized sofas, which
were suitable for reclining. This one,
with its mate the only known upholstered Chippendale settees made in
Boston, employs English decorative
motifs to enrich its graceful lines. Boston makers favored English-style clawand-ball feet with raked talons, and
asymmetrical C-scrolls and acanthus
leaves carved on the knees, a motif
adapted directly from a set of chairs imported before the Revolution. The
flared wings and bow-shaped back of
this settee, however, are a suprememanifestation of the curvaceous New England rococo design of the 1770s.
28 Because costly mirrorglasswas often
imported to the Colonies already encased in elaborate frames to enhance its
beauty and protect it from damage,
18th-century American looking glasses
are rare. This exquisite example, conceived as a pier glass to be placed above a
table betwen two windows, was probably made in New York about 1780, just
as rectangular mirrors were being
supplanted by more fashionable oval
ones. Its design combines the complex
curves and scrolls of the fully developed
rococo style with a pure neoclassical
geometric form to produce a fleeting
moment of perfect visual harmony between opposites.
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29 In Philadelphiain 1795, two years
GeorgeWashingtonfromlife. The picture, which was a great success and
home, has become one of the bestknown images in American art.
but few of them have the vitality and
suggeststhat it musthave been painted
at least in partfrom life. The rich, vibrantflesh tones, set off by the green
drapery, and the freely expressive
of the subject.
30 (above) On April 30, 1789, George
Washingtontook the oath as firstpresident on the balconyof City Hall, New
York. No full-scale media coverage
flashed across the country; instead,
printappearedin 1790. Becausemostof
our knowledge of the early Republic
later visual imagesfraughtwith artistic
license, Amos Doolittle'scandid inauThis print,
and the Connecticut engraver'sfour
views of the battles of Lexington and
Concord of 1775, have a raritytoday
that obscurestheir original intent, to
give modest, factualaccountsof events
of the new nation.
31(below) The unusual romanticism
foundin the city views by the Philadelphia artist William Birch rank them
among the masterpiecesof American
graphicarts. In this rare view of New
York,engravedabout 1803, the imagination is at firsttotallycapturedby the
surreal,theatricalquality of the strikingly white horse grazing calmly on
Brooklyn Heights. The carefully delineatedskylineof the then recentlyrebuilt metropolisbecomesapparentonly
after this initial response has passed.
Birch'spainterlyuse of color, which is
uncommon in Americanprintsof this
period,enhancesthe compositionaleffects and transcends the twodimensionallimits of the print.
thislookingglassis one of a pair made in Massachusetts about 1790-1810. bellflowers. with the additionof a symbolof the new Republic. work-this glass presents Federal at its best.and beribbonedsheavesof wheat.egglomise. craftsmanship . Like contemporary glassesmore commonlyimportedfrom of England.fans. Rarenot only in its domesticoriginbutalsoin the varietyof skillsemployedin its making-carving.32 A superbexampleof the neoclassical taste that swept the United States afterthe Revolution. urns.the eagle. wireandcomposition gilding.it bearsmotifscharacteristic the work of the Scottish architect RobertAdam:patera.
this desk is an original. tambour slides. an extraordinaryrichness. Such masterful manipulationof surfaceornament provesSwifta cabinetmakerof imagination and flair. burl/flame. of about 1805. New Hampshire-have long been noted for the finest veneered and inlaid Federal furniture. flame-grain birch panels. often featuring. . of ReubenSwift of New Bedford. Extoo. Salem. inlaid/plaingive this early Federaldesk. and Portsmouth.33 Dramatic contrasts in wooddark/light. Distinctive elaborationsare the diaperedmarquetryon the top drawers andthe playof patternedveneersandof geometric-shaped panels. is that it bearsthe label traordinary. Areasnorth of New Bedford-Boston.who wasunknownuntil the Museum acquired the desk in 1974. as here. inlaid pilasters. and patterned stringing.Massachusetts.Although related to Northshorework.intricate interpretation of prevailing styles.
Some of the classical motifs on the looking glass (Figure32) appearhere:wheat. and an um carvedwith leaves. which may carryout the vintage motif on someof the architecturalelementsof Derby'shouse. casualarrangement. basedupon plate 2 in Hepplewhite'sCabinetmaker's Guide (1788).its warty skin split open to revealthe medicinal contents. Made in Salem. Massachusetts.are a departurefromJamesPeale'susualtight drawing. 35 Carved ornament adds distinction to this shield-backedchair. Not so common are the grapeclusterson the front legs. . it is one of a group associated with the merchant EliasHasketDerbyand the architectof his Salem mansion. Samuel Mclntire. splats. and restrainedcoloring.paintedduringthe 1820s.Here he exploitsthe variegatedtexturesandcontoursof vegetablesanda rarebalsamapple.and rich palettein the remarkableBalsamApple and Vegetables.about 1795.formalcomposition. Although Pealeemployedan austere table-top support and a neutralbackgroundtypical of still-life paintingin the earlyRepublic.his bounteousselectionof objectslooksaheadto the optimisticmood and scientific interest associatedwith this subject at mid-century.ribbons.and base of the back.34 The juicy handling of pigment. who occasionallycarvedfurnituremade by local cabinetmakers.
to be boxlikeand heavy. A favorite neoclassical shape. Below the pediment is one final oval. they not only unify the cabinet base and bookcase but alsobreakup a formthat could appear.36 Ovals seem to dance across the wood and glass surfaces of this secretary-bookcase made in Salem. Massachusetts. echoingthe majordesigntheme. . about 1800-1810.without such decoration.The bold shapingof the rhythmicallyrepeatingmullionson the bookcasedoorsseems to point upward to the urn-capped pediment. Highly successfulin its integrationof decoration andform.this superbsecretaryis as ornamentalas it is utilitarian.
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Filledwith life andmovement.dwarf the sides engulfing houses and sailing vessel. probablymadeby or for PhebeWarer.balancedcomposition is rendered in unusual stitchlike which add to the fascinabrushstrokes. who marriedHenry Cotheal of New Yorkin 1803. Buildings are seen in distortedperspective.Scale is disregarded as enormoustrees. createdan intriguing design based on flattened shapeswith undulatingcontours. The simultaneously whole powerful. this primitive artist. Exoticbirdsperchnearby and deer gambolamong domesticanimals. a pattern derivedfromthe tree-of-lifeon Indian cottons.a shepherdtends his flock.37 A world of pastoralinnocence is suggestedby this appliquedcoverlet. workingin about 1825.a mostdelightful exampleof Americanfolk art. tion of The Plantation. Distance is suggestedby arrangingthe variouselements verticallyon the hillside. Brancheswith calico and chintzflowersburstfroman ur.and a man presentsa birdcage(a suitor'sgift?) to a fashionablydressed woman.Belowthe um (detailbelow)a boy playswith bow and arrow. almost of the picture. . yet curiouslytranquil.two girlsadmire a bouquet. fromfrontand side. 38 (above) Ignoringthe conventionsof academic painting.the coverlethas a timelessappeal.
sauce a l'orange neverfaredbetterin early19th-century Americathan in this superbsilverclassical sauceboat.Animalformsdrawnfrom the archaeologicalneoclassicismof "le style antique"are used successfullyas handleand spout. which wears a collar of flourishing anthemia.with its intricatelychiseled skin. .39 Sauce bearnaise. harmonize with the handsome boat shape and eager-looking ram'shead spout. one of a pair in the French taste made about 1812 in Philadelphiaby the FrenchemigreAnthonyRasch. The whole is given a deservedlift by winged-lionfeet typicalof the period.The vigorouslines of the serpent.
The originalormoluornamentsareperfectly balanced in their placement in the apron center and canted comers.no English masterexecutedthese formsso deftlyor equaled the impeccable reeding and carvingon this choice mahoganyframe. The richestcouches. has the quality and sophisticationof any producedin Parisat the time.Curiously.ashere. judiciously placed verde-antiquedolphins and gilt swans makethis one of the bestcomposedand most sumptuousof the ten pier tables knownto have beenmadein the shopof Honore Lannuierin New York. . were based on Greco-Romanforms he derived from the 1808LondonChairmakers' andCarvers'BookofPrices.40 This couch.An American interpretation of the French Empire style. The curvilinearlines of the curulelegs andgracefullyscrolledarms. wasmadeby DuncanPhyfeforthe merchant princeThomasCorell Pearsall. and the theme of gilt decorationis neatly repeatedby the rosettesin the paneled recess of the platform. 41 Pure white marble. wereoccasionally finished with cane panels.handledto perfection by Phyfe. this table. a powerfulexampleof New YorkCity'sRegencystyle in 1810. rich gleaming rosewood veneers. which were cool in summerand fitted with cushionsin winter. made about 1815.
Cole advocateddrawingout of doors. and portfolio perched on a rocky outcropfar above the Oxbow. The romanticCole. asLouis LegrandNoble wrotein the artist'sbiography: "He almost daily walked. the year beforehe completedthis pictureof the Oxbow(on the ConnecticutRiver.Manyconsiderit his most individualwork.In 1835. for they bring beauty in their train.42 Thomas Cole began painting the graciously varied landscape of the northeasternUnited Statesin 1825."Here (detail opposite)Cole has includeda pictureof himself. andfeelsthe influenceof the elements. glistening blue sky.near Northampton. umbrella. Massachusetts). . storm-tossedwoods. Cole wrote: "My soul dwells in a mortal tenement.andrivermeandering gentlythroughfarmlands. who wasalsoa writerandpoet. his folding chair." Replete with thunderheads. Still I would not live where tempests never come. and sketchedthe landscape.snatchingas he walkeditschoicestdetails.and.and duringhis subsequentcareer. detected the hand of God in the physicallandscapeand attemptedto expressthat essence in his paintings.his work establishedhim asa founderof the Hudson RiverSchool.this richly paintedpictureis a powerfulevocation of Cole'sspecialworld.sketchingon the spot.
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from an American artist. In its subtly moulded back frame and har- suporun a ransupporting sta lace stay momosly placed rali. Morse's portraitof his daughterSusanpraisedin 1837 by a critic.l~ 43. While most of Phyfe'sdesigns were drawnline forline fromthe Frenchfashion periodicalMesangere'sMeubleset ObjetsdeGouit.. but the perfect balance and carefulplacementof brassinlayandgilding make it exceptionallygraceful.. thick draperyand cushions. .it is a distinctlyPhyfecreation. And when of the heavyneoclassicalinterpretations the FrenchRestaurationhad run their course by 1850. are typicalof the style. is not."Even DuncanPhyfe is reputed to have called it "butcher furniture.glowingsky. acanthus molding. Kench h a 45 "The drawingof the figureis masterly: the color harmoniousand flowing: the attitude perfect ease.the mahoganysidechair here.nthe theykl. one of a pair made about 1825. ProfessorSilliman of Yale."but.. B. moniously carefullydrawnEgyptianlotussplat.. as he gave up art in favor of his invention. constitute this picturethe most perfect full-length portraitthat we remember. the broadflowingfolds of the drapery.two of the most satisfyingforms of this awkward era. the telegraph. ironically. Today Susan seems almost inundatedby the paraphernalia of polite romantic classicism-urn." Thus warmlywas SamuelF. referredto them as "ponderousand frigid monstrositiesof the classicalstyle.Forthis reasonwe have chosen pieces by Phyfe'sworkshop.no one surpassedhim in the executionof this new fashion.and skillful disposition of the accessories. made about 1830. reviewingthe historyof furniture in connection with the CrystalPalace exhibition of 1853.This richlyconceived composition was Morse's last majorwork. . The simplelines and plain surfaces of this rosewoodpillarcardtable. 44 There have been few kind remarksabout the pillar and scroll versionsof the AmericanEmpirestylesince its insurgencein the 1830s.
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it is actually more than just a jolly recollection of life arounda countryciderpress. radiatesa sense of heartiness and well-being. it celebrates William Henry Harrison'spresidentialvictory.46 Cider Making. One of the best works by William Sidney Mount.often humorous scenesof ruralLongIsland. Although being swept along by the current. who had relied on a folksy "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" campaign. who specializedin easy-going. Commissionedin 1840 by a New York Whig.Mount. enveloping it in a misty atmosphereof uniform. beautifully drawn and painted. a meticulousrealismconcernedwith light and atmosphere. this is an early example of American luminism.sympathizedwith Harrison. color. the travelersappearmotionless. Here Mount points up the joys of the "vintage"of 1840. 47 GeorgeCaleb Bingham'sFurTraders Descending the Missouri is permeated by a strong luminosity that obscuresthe contoursof the distantterrain. opposingthe "radical"policies of Martin Van Buren. . frozenin a classicallybalancedtriangle.glowingtone. Painted about 1845. At the sametime this light clarifiesforeground elementssuchasthe deadbirdandcrisply drawnfigures. filled with light. and air.who are united to their environmentof skyandwaterbymirrorlike reflections (detail above).
a wild romanticism rarely found in daguerreotypes. shortlyafterthe Frenchprocesswas introduced.William Longfellow. its subtlesheen. Occasionally. even Lola Montez-and the team became famousfor stoically classical images of the nation's patricians.48 Albert Sands Southworth and Josiah Johnson Hawes pioneered daguerreotypes in Boston in 1841. They attracted illustrious sitters-among them Daniel Webster. ZacharyTaylor.they experimentedboldly:not only is this Boston beauty posed coquettishly for a lady. but the background is painted russet.No other mediumcould so elegantly representthe relief of the wrinkledtextile. . or the intricatepatternof the mantilla.
At first. 50 Rippling curves and naturalistic formsmarkthis rococo revivaletagere. Followingartisticfashion of the day.andit is one of the few pieces to be done entirelyby his own handratherthanbeing cut by skilledItalianstonecutters.and as interpretedin New York in the 1850sbecamea style in its own right. and cyma bracketsbackedby a mirror. as I feel old. when modelingit..49 This bust of Andrew Jacksonwas felt by Hiram Powersto be one of his finest works. Mr. but he was admonishedby Jackson:"Makeme as I am. but it is hardly an idealizedportrait. foliage. PowersdrapedJackson in classical robes.Unflinching realism dominates the work... madebetween1850and 1857. whose water-worn rocks (rocaille is "rockwork")werea sourceforthe style'sirregularmotifs." Powerscarved the bustin marblein Italyin 1837. Powershesitatedto show the aging president'stoothless mouth and wrinkled face. Powers. New York.then the acceptedpractice. Then a new form. I have no desire to look young. the etagere often had a pier-tablebase topped by shelvesin tiers(e'tages)...and be true to nature always.andbearing the labelof AlexanderRoux'sshop.Herea waterfall effect. evokes 18th-centurygrottoes."Rococo"-the wordsounds repetitiveandrollinglikethe qualitiesit designates-originated in 18th-century France. . a cascade of C-scrolls.
. about 51/2by 10 feet.placed in a windowlike framethat was flankedby tropical foliageand illuminatedby gasjets.51 FredericChurch'spanoramicview of the Ecuadorian Andeswasa sensation fromthe time it wasfirstexhibitedin the artist'sstudioin New Yorkin 1859. bit by bit.he wasgiven a viewing tube so that he could explore. vegetation. is a dazzlingcompendiumof minutelyrendered wildlife. After the visitor had experiencedthe total grandeurof the painting. and terrain (details left and opposite above). the unendingarrayof details.Heart of the Andes was originallyexhibitedin a darkenedgallery. This huge canvas. To heighten the sense of reality.
52 Harmonious. Although Lake George was depicted from almost every aspect by 19thcenturyartists. The delicate finish. . Kensett'sLake George. Kensett concerned himselfwith the more sereneaspectsof nature.Here the peacefulmajestyof the dramatic. light. if any.mountain-boundlakeis interruptedonly by an Indian in a canoe. panoramicview. opalescent sky.muted tones create a delightfullysoft atmospherethat pervades John F.few. the cracks and mosses on rocks. painted in 1869. could rival the power and expressivenessof Kensett's painting.the changinghues of waterand sky. and almostsurrealperceptionof shimmering quiet make it a masterpiece.
Starr King.who.The first American photographerto treat landscapeas a serioussubject.he took viewsof YosemiteandnorthernCalifornia that were as dramatic and wellreceivedasthe greatlandscapepaintings of Church and Bierstadt.53 (upperleft) Duringthe 1860s. . Watkins created images of antediluvian wilderess. Watkins revolutionized the courseof Americanphotography.felt that nature in itselfcould be a workof art. Paralleling their artistic vision. in Califoria. deeply influenced by John Ruskin. the Boston transcendentalistauthor. pays homage to Thomas StarrKing.This 1864 view of Mt. a Garden of Eden awaitingthe first inhabitants.Carleton E.
praised when John Quincy Adams Wardfirst exhibitedThe IndianHunter in 1862. Watkins and EadweardMuybridgeand reflects the prevailingbelief in "Manifest Destiny"-the assumptionthat divine will parallelednational interestin the country'swestwardexpansion. giving the 16-inch-high groupa senseof monumentality. His vision of soaringsnow-cappedmountains andbroadfertilevalleyswas inspiredby the westernphotographsof C. the young warriorstealthilytrackshis prey. E.and it is still one of the most popularstatuesin the park. This vigorous realism. markedthe end of neoclassicismandthe beginningof an erain which naturalism dominated American sculpture.Firstexhibited in 1864. 55 Bathed in soft morninglight.Bierstadt used sketches and photographsmade duringa trip west to paint The Rocky Mountains. it soon vied with Church'sHeart of the Andes (Figure51) as America'sgreatest landscapepainting. restraininghis dog.54 Bow in hand. the firstAmericansculptureto be so honored. triangular composition. AlbertBierstadt's peacefulencampmentof ShoshoneIndiansis an Edenicimageof the unsettledAmericanWest.A large version of The Indian Hunter was placedin New YorkCity'sCentralPark in 1868. But classicism continued to influence Ward'sart:herehis objectiveportrayalis combined with a classical. .
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58 Using rich. andconcernforline arederivedfromhis workas an illustratorand engraverduring the Civil War."which derived from 18th-century"conversation pieces"and enjoyedgreatvogue in the affluentperiodfollowingthe Civil War.Johnsonwas the most accomplishedpractitionerof the informal.anatomyand perspective.is an incrediblysuccessful synthesisof Thomas Eakins'smajor interests.presumably the scene of a skirmishor battle. in which the gliding motion characteristicof scullingseemsarrested by a patternof horizontaland vertical lines createdby boats and oars. a well-outfittedUnion officer. Its highlynarrativequality. only four years after Homer began to paint in oils. landscape. while the casualposessuggest the influenceof photography. a bedraggledbut dignified friezeof Confederatesoldiersfacestheir captor. Done in 1866.56 Max Schmitt in a Single Scull.somberpalette. 57 In WinslowHomer'sPrisonersfrom the Front. .This scene on the SchuylkillRiverin Philadelphia is illuminatedby a strong light that uniformlyclarifiesdetail:fromthe striking portraitin the foregroundto such vignettes as the swimmingducks and puffingsteamboatin the distance. domestic"portraitinterior. reflections. Eastman Johnson brilliantly orchestratedportraitsof the Hatch familyand the opulent decorof their libraryinto a unified composition. paintedin 1871. warm colors.andclouds.Commissioned in 1871by AlfrederickHatch.it wasconsideredby Johnsonto be his masterpiece. this picture is perhaps his most sensitive study of America'stragic national conflict.His incisivelydrawnfiguresand setting are organizedin a carefullycontrolledcomposition. The confrontationis dramatizedby the isolation of these figuresfrom the dismountedsoldiersin the middledistance and by the desolatesetting. The highly finished realism of this paintingis shapedby his draughtsmanlike style. a WallStreetbroker.
His technical brillianceandpopularsubjectmatter madehim the mostemulatedAmerican still-lifepainterof his generation.who frequentlyreworkedhis picturesover a periodof years.These vibrantcolors combinewith free brushworkand fluid compositionto producea pastorallandscape of poetic beauty.and grenadillapiccolo.boat. and lock. horseshoe. 60 MoonlightMarineis one of Albert PinkhamRyder'smost effectiveromantic interpretations of the sea. Here detailis obscuredby a softeveninglight. brown.all of the elements of his canvasesarecarefullyselectedand synthesizedto create a mood that permeatesthe whole.afterInness's second trip to France. the partlyopen doorsuggestsdepth behind it. sinuouscontours.Inness'spictures. stringsorbalancedprecariously Hamett delights in the textures and subduedcolorsof the old violin and its gleamingstrings. do not mirrornature. 61 In Music and Good Luck. done in 1888. . and gold foliage of the clusterof oak treesin the center.like theirs.hasp. Datingfromthe 1870s-1880s.the picturehas an enamel-likesurfaceand richcoloringunusualforthis artist.continuousdesign. presentingobjectsin a daringrangeof spatial planes:the sheet musicand calling cardareshownwith edgesbent. WilliamMichaelHamett pushes trompe-l'oeilpaintingto its limits. evokingits vastnessanditspotentialforbothfearful turbulenceand profoundpeace. in the metalhinges.59 Sunlightbreaksthroughthe billowing cloudsof George Inness'sAutumn Oaks. and Daubigny. and sails create a vigorous. heavy items are suspendedon on nails. not flat.ivory.in the silver. Ryderpaintedin broadmasses and fluid. which unifies rather than articulates.illuminatingthe richred.so that the silhouettesof cloud-shapes.Autumn Oaks waspaintedin about1875. where he was influencedby the Barbizonlandscape painters Corot. Rousseau. Within the confines of his foot-square canvas.
and blues is thinly painted to remove any traceof the artist'shand.The mostimportant productof his sojournin Paris.the compositionis definedin broadhorizontals punctuatedonly by elegantcalligraphic reeds.it is a poeticlandscapethatrejectsspecificity for evocation.done in 1885. This picture marks Twachtman'sabandonmentof the imanddarkpalettehe had pastobrushwork learnedin Munich. .62 John Henry Twachtman'sArquesLa-Bataille. is a subtle orchestrationof color and design: its cool palette of delicate grays.A viewof a rivernearDieppe.it allies his workwith that of the AmericantonalistJamesAbbottMcNeillWhistler. greens.
green.sequinsglistenlike dew. RobertMooreRiddle in an ambiguoussetting. irisappearas they might at dawn:muted tones of yellow. .America'sfirstmajor womandesigner. the sitter is framed in a seriesof rectangles.which increase in intensityas they diminishin size. The pictureis enlivenedby the blue and gold Canton tea set on the table and the fluid brushworkof the delicate lace near the sensitivelyportrayed face.whereforeground and background-virtually the same color-nearly merge.Anticipating Art Nouveau in its curvingforms. In Cassatt's wellconstructeddesign. This departure from traditional spatial relationships shows her debt to the French artists Degas and Manet and her growing awarenessof Japaneseprintsin the early 1880s.forAssociatedArtists. glittering paillettesand beads. lavender.64 Drawn in silk threads. 63 MaryCassatt places the imposing figureof Mrs. a groupthat includedLouisTiffany. the portierewas createdabout 1884 by CandaceWheeler.and graymingle in the wavingfronds. The shimmering quality and tactile richnessof a fine textile makethis portiere (detail below) the epitome of the sumptuousnessreached by high-style decorativeartsof the 1880s.
as beautiful as Japanese work.New York.65 Mary Cassatt concentrated on themesshe knew best. 66 Deceptively simple in its straight linesandsparseornament. . delineatetop and base and give movementto the static rectangle. shows the new vision of reform furniture. of 1891.The thoughtful relating of ornament to structure. Chrysanthemums. flatteningoverall pattern. with emphasis on blank space.Made about 1880." Its richnessof color.. Godwin.of which this is the finest examplein the Japanesetaste. which seem to be fluttering down. she translatedthem into the familiar techniques of softgroundand drypointetching.The formfollowsthe preceptsof CharlesEastlake.thiswardrobe is actuallya studiedcomposition. unconventional perspective. creatingimages of the kind of comfortableeleganceenjoyedby womenof her socialrank. W. it bearsthe markof Herter Bros. but the decoration resembles japonesquedesigns of the English architect E. is one of an innovative seriesthat caused the painterCamille Pissarroto marvel that the result was "admirable. and the remarkabletouch of the stark envelopeagainstwarmflesh contribute to the monumentalityof this print. The Letter.FascinatedbyJapanesewoodblockprintsof similar subjects. and it'sdone with printer'sink.who deploredthe excessesof mid-centuryfurniture.
of about 1883.67 JamesWhistleroften usedportraits to investigateformalproblemsof design and color. reflects his preoccupationwith subtlecoloreffects. and stylizedbutterflyhis signature. .strongsilhouette.while the reduction of content to the most essential and expressiveforms. Into a paletteof white. pink domino.The dark.full-lengthfigureon a neutralgroundhas precedents in Courbet'sworks. and the monogram itself show Whistler'sinterestin Japaneseart.and black. he introducedcolor only in the flesh. Arrangementin Flesh Colour and Black: Portrait of Theodore Duret. gray. subtle asymmetrical placementof figure.
lies at her feet. Interest in monotypes was reawakened in the late 19th century as artists experimented with the carefully inked and wiped plates in imitation of Rembrandt. unique impression.The framewasdesignedby the architectStanfordWhite. a complimentary reviewof Saint-Gaudens's standingLincoln. Susan Macdowell. Her left hand.A critic. In the course of this experimentation. allowing only a single.Virtuallysketchesin bronzeand marble. of about 1890.delicately but richly worked. the flatteringor aggrandizing artistportraysherslouchedin a chair. renderedwith extremeprecision.and a yearlaterSaint-Gaudenscreatedthis portrait.shown abouta yearaftertheirmarriagein 1884. is one of the finest. masterfully inked print.One was of his wife. 70 Many of Thomas Eakins'sfamily and friends were the subjects of the penetratingportraitsthat werehis main interestformuchof his career. Chase had a bravurastyle that was a natural for this medium.Van Rensselaerwrote. a foil to the surroundingwarm earthcolors. . Harry. Chase) is a stunning example of an uncommon graphic technique. this large.they areremarkable for depth of feeling and freshnessof execution. One of his most moving is this spontaneouslymodeled bronzeof MarianaVanRensselaer. Mrs. monotype.lies in her lap atop an Orientalbook. 69 Augustus Saint-Gaudens'sreliefs areamongthe mostsensitiveportraitsof the 19th century. Not his wife.gives it a vibrantquality.Itssurface. in 1887. A close friendshipdeveloped. Among the early exponents of monotype. Reverie: A Portraitof a Woman (probably Mrs.in a stronglight that emphasizesthe weary look abouther eyes. Eakins'sdog. Eakinsdelightsin the dazzlingice-bluesatinof her dress. etched lines were replaced by ink brushed on the surface of the plate.68 Catching the flashing brushstrokes of William Merritt Chase at his best.
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Chase executed many superboils but fewequalForthe LittleOne in intimacy. 72 In 1889 Theodore Robinson painted this striking landscape in Givemy. Chase revels in the fluidityof his pigments. Robinsoncrowdsthe center of his picture with houses seen fromhigh above theirrooftops. His composition.A virtuosoartist.in textureand contour. glowinglight.71 The impressionistWilliam Merritt Chasebringshis fascinationforopen-air lightindoorsin thisstudy. the Frenchvillage where he had earlier met the impressionist ClaudeMonet.arrangedon a disconcertingdiagonal.of about1895.leavingthe foregroundbareexcept fora white scrap. he studiedsun-drenchedarchitecturein a limitedrangeof pastel tones.relegatesthe figure and furniture to the middleground. but his insistenceon solidformsandrectilinear contours mark Bird's Eye ViewGivemy as his individual statement. of his wife sewing in their Long Island home. Like this Frenchartist. wheretree-boundfieldsrecedeto a high horizonline andnarrowstripof sky. .The visualinterestcreated by these shapescontrastswith the bare foregroundand the muted distance. Sunlight through the window caressesthe foldsof her white dressand pinkblouseandenlivenswoodsurfaces. and freshcomposition. Ignoring detail.
Mme. PierreGautreau)is a studyin lineardesign. Sargent'searlyportraits. which resolutely graspsher gown. 74 This table of rosewood.MadameX (Mme.In its combinationof classicalvolutesand palmettes with such whimsical ornament as the globe encircledby starsof the nationalbanner. . X's rather sharpfeaturesarerenderedwith a crisply drawnoutline that flows the length of her arm to her hand. which fosteredhighly individual.73 The most famousof John S. it wascondemnedforthe sitter'sprovocative attitudeand the artist'spreoccupation with formratherthan his subject's appearance. free interpretationsof classicalmotifs.but it has since been proclaimedone of his finest portraits. The undulatingcontours of her unnaturally colored flesh are emphasized by a stark backgroundand plungingdecolletage.it showsthe kindof eclecticismoftenfoundin the BeauxArts style. The table'scraftsmanshipis so superb that expertsonce thought it could not possiblyhave been made in America. Vanderbiltby Herter Brothersin the years1880-1882. lavishly carved and inlaid with gleaming andbrass.wasundoubtmother-of-pearl edly the focal point of the librarydecoratedforWilliamH. Completedin 1884.
is typical of late 19thcenturyobjects made for membersof America'saffluentsociety. which were sometimes mounted.. in silver.as this one is. .mayhavebeen influenced by shapesof medievalViking wooden vessels. and turquoise.The designersof Tiffany& Co.mother-of-pearl. who made the cup in 1892or 1893.75 An exuberantlift to the handles anda pleasantswellto the bodygive this loving cup a character that is both whimsicaland sturdy.The ornatesurface. On a small scale.featuringa patter inlaidwith silver. the cup echoes the opulentmood of the Vanderbiltlibrarytable (below).however.
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At this timeSteichenwasasmucha painterasa photographer. . Steichen stretchedthe limits of photography-making exceedingly facileuse of his materials-to createan artistic statement of exquisite beauty and delicacythat paralleledthe aesthetics of Americantonalistpainting. 77 The Steeragecombinesa boldcomposition. detailto he hasreducedrepresentational a fluidpatternof flattenedshapes.76 The pageantry of flags and the movementof crowdsfill this sweeping view of St.and he created in his photographsgraphicequivalentsof his paintings. he conceived his picturein termsof designand as an expression of his own concern for humanbeings:"A roundstrawhat. round shapes of iron machinery. with a touchinglyhuman subject. Mark'sSquareby Maurice one of the firstAmericans Prendergast. 78 Edward Steichen's charismatic platinumprintsof the FlatironBuilding reflectthe concordanceof the artsprevailingat the turnof the century. achievedby applying a mixture of watercolor and lightsensitive gum arabic to the finished print.his favoritemedium. Prendergastspent two yearsabroad.where he developed his singularwatercolor style.focusing on the strongverticalsof the flagpolesrecedinginto the distance.primarilyin Venice. I sawa picture of shapes and underlyingthat the feeling I had about life. .. lucentwatercolor.a mastcuttinginto the sky.The Museum'sfour versions of this subject. in 1907.taken in 1905. immigrantsin the hold of a trans-Atlanticship. AlfredStieglitzhas spokenof how. the stairwayleaning right. . the funnelleaningleft. seen here in one of the most ambitiousworkscreatedduringhis stay.. basedon geometricmechanical shapes. to respondto the influencesof French Workingin transpost-impressionism.Beginning in 1897." It is said that Picassosaw this photographabout the time he paintedhis cubist masterpiece Les Demoisellesd'Avignon and foundrelevancein it to his work. are each in a differenthue.
A Wall. saturatedcolors.unusual foran artistof his day. done in 1895. Northeaster. open landscape.the complexpatternsof rocksandthe variegatedcolorsof the sea are complementedby an unmodulated sky.This fluidapplication contrasts with sharper.1v 79 Working in his isolated studio at Prout'sNeck on the ruggedMainecoast. A wide.The vitalityof his pictures makes him one of the most popularAmericanpainters. dryly brushedtouches such as bladesof grass between the wall and sidewalkor the branchesof frangipanirisingin a burstof intensewarmthagainstthe blue sky.Foliagenearthe gate is painted in deep. is one of his finest.Homer'spictureis a powerfulstatement. . Very much home-grown. of 1908. creatingcool shadows. Bellows stands halfway betweenhis teacher.andleadensky. Nassau. and anotherHenristudent. almostprosaic subject.WinslowHomershowshis masteryof watercolors.RobertHenri. Winslow Homer painted some of his most dramatic marines. wherefreshwhite papershowsthrough to varythe surface.datingfromHomer'ssecond triptherein 1898. capturesthe dazzlinglightof a cloudlessCaribbeanday. and displaysHomer'ssuperbcontrol of pictorialelements:his paletteis limitedbut effective. renderedin the essentialsof massiverock.EdwardHopper.his composition. is enlivened by diagonalrhythmsand upwardburstsof sprayandfoam.Translucentwashes have been applied to sky and wall. it is paintedbroadlyyet with the rightnessof touch that readsas claritywhen viewed at a distance. Bellowsnever visited Europe.filledwith light and air. who carriedsimplificationand clarification of formsthroughlight still further (Figure90). 80 George Bellows'scommitment to paintonly whathe sawis evident in Up the Hudson.poundingsurf. 81 Within this simple.blockedout in broad masses.
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Melvin commissioned this memorial from Daniel Chester French to honor his three brothers killed during the Civil War. in 1909. After the Women's Christian Temperance Union protested against the figure's "drunken indecency. . While Victory holds high a triumphant laurel. Sculpted with a bravuraunsurpassedin American art. twinkling eyes. 83 Thrusting aside an American flag. her downcast eyes and unsmiling mouth project melancholy. gave the statue to the architect Charles McKim. Massachusetts. Mourning Victory emerges dramatically from a block of white marble." the gift was reMcKim then presented jected. This is a replica by French of the finished monument erected in Concord. who placed it in the library designed by his firm in Boston's Copley Square. FrederickMacMonnies. Her spiraling baroque form. and richly textured surfaces help to create one of the most gleeful imagesin American art. joyous mouth. the figure combines graceful ArtNouveau-like lines with movingly expressive content. whose Trusteesenthusiasticallyaccepted her. It was undoubtedly with this ambivalent sense of pride and lamentation that James C.82 Bacchante and Infant Faun epitomizes the jubilance of the Beaux Arts style that dominated American sculpture at the turn of the century. Bacchante to the Metropolitan. The sculptor.
with little articulation of form.close-upview. this watercolordepictsthe artist's sister. . Sargent. which seemsto drawthe spectatorinto the cool mysteriousshadows. He achieves brilliant highlightsby exposing the white paper. and two companions in the gardensof the Generalife.84 Paintedabout 1912by John S.at the easel.and enlivens fluid surfaceswith chalkycalligraphiclines. to wellworked.Sargentvividlydemonstratesthe versatilityof this mediumin a technique rangingfrom transparentwashes. Spain. heavily saturated areas in which vigorous brushstrokes create deep. Sargentplaced his figuresin an oblique. rich shadows.former residenceof the sultansnear Granada.
t:OnL.----i..s ..:s ZiR r: .sar L L "--i I r .sl 9-" ::s 8s18" 2. -- i4 --r - :::i jBgq i. I llls -W6 d --:-I- Bc B a:s P:i a -::----'- : BBFP9? :::e I .
broodingview of life often depicted.Thecentralform. Between the bamboo stalks are wateryhues of aquamarine.it is a startlingly advanced and integrated work. decorative. flags and insignia underlining the officer'sauthority.86 The windowmade by FrankLloyd Wright for the Coonley playhousein innoRiverside. swells compellinglyon the canvas. with a heavy. Frombronze lilypads. when Hartley'sart was more finished and controlledthan any other time in his career. confetti. and teal. the blossomsare opalescent at the edge-ivory tinged with blueandlavender-and wherethe light irradiates them.The inclusionof numbers and letters anticipates the worksof StuartDavis andJasperJohns. Wright called it "Kinder-symphony.Illinois. flags. rose.Wrightfelt that windows were more than just gapingholes and ideal for ornamenting rooms. turquoise. Perhaps his flowershadesbestconveythe originality of his vision.translucentbamboo ladenwith lotuses. Broadbrushingadds power to the alreadystrongimagery." for it is based on things children loveballoons.A forcefulabstraction. . Portraitof a GermanOfficer was painted in Germanyin 1914.Centeredin yellow and gold. the Coonley window(only the centralpanel is illustrated)has survivedits removalto become a successfulgallerypiece as well. Handsome. The primary colors and pattern bring to mind the worksof the Dutch painterMondrian and his followers. flushedwith pink.stemsthrustupwardto support a canopyof brilliant. paradoxically. 85 Livingplantsseem transmutedinto metal and glass in this lamp of about 1910 by Tiffany Studios. and vermilion. 87 The paintingsof MarsdenHartley come close to Germanexpressionismin feeling.is a remarkable vation: a non-objective design conceived in 1911 before non-objective paintingwas generallyknown.withitsdisparate elements.LouisTiffany's glass interpretationsof plant life won world-wide recognition. The finest of AmericanArt Nouveau.in brightcolors.
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the other.however. they depict essentially the mood of American life. No attempt is madeto relatethe DelmonicoBuilding to New York'sdailylife.and textures in a quest for abstraction. 89 The rather utilitarianDelmonico Building. unlike the Flatiron (Figure 78). and using his favoriteaccents of extremesunlightand shadowto define the essential shape. from a personalviewpoint.arean expressionof artfor art'ssake.painted in 1929. .Strandtook two directions:one was the searchfor more relevant objective themes. creating abstractpatternsin the soft. when artistsgrappledwith the problemof reality versusabstraction. the studyof shapes. Here in The Lighthouse at Two Lights. in a 1917 platinumphotograph. striking a responsive note in all of us from the most avantgardeto the most traditional.90 (insidebackcover) EdwardHopper continuesthe Americantraditionof obmatter-ofjective painting-the factnessof Homer and Eakins-in the broader terms of contemporary art.The building'sisolationon the promontory reflects the curiously American theme of detachment and loneliness. and light and its definition of scene and mood.headlight. For CharlesSheeler. Sheeler further abstractedit into a statement of the visual geometry inherent in a 20thcenturyAmericancity. was not a noteworthysubjectfor photographers or printmakers. mass is defined by walls of light and shadow. and electric cable suggest realities of the automobile's functionin modem life.its geometric formprovideda subjectcompatiblewith his obsessionfor clarity.while the sinuous shadows and reflections. While the rangeof his subjectsis wide. 88 Paul Strandsaw in the sensuously curvedautomobilea Janus-likesubject that looked forwardand backwardin artistictime.forms.with which he could immortalizethe dynamismof the Americanscene. brownishgraymonochrome. spokes. Minimizingthe windows and other necessitiesfor habitation. brakedrum.Here. which runs through all of Hopper'sworks. After WorldWarI.
25.143 Moses Viewing the Promised Land. InsleyBlair. About 1805.115. Milford. 1801. WoodhullOverton.40. Fosburgh. about1690-1700.73 Daniel Crommelin Verplanck. Philadelphia. 69. Massachusetts. by John S.Pennsylvania. byJohnWill.Gift of Mrs. Brewstertype.WilliamVanRensselaer.53.J.J.1 Edward and Sarah Rutter.about 1640-1660.J. about 1760-1775. Newport.1771.about 1740-1760.65.WilliamBayardVanRensselaer.12.12 .J. andMrs.Giftof Mrs. InsleyBlair.by exchange. Rhode Island.Gift of BayardVerplanck.Gift of Mr. furniture.about 1752-1774. by BenjaminWest.36 Court cupboard.in memoryof her husband. and other works illustrated on the following pages-many of which are part of the exhibition- ?i j Armchair.1 Pewter tankard.51.1 Card table.Gift of Mrs.Albany.NewYork.184.254.J.3 Painted pine archway fromtheVanRensselaer manorhouse.28. Connecticut (?).Gift of Mrs.JamesW. in memoryof Mrs. Copley.114.197.2 Armchair.The paintings. byJoshuaJohnston. InsleyBlair.Friendsof the AmericanWing Fund. NewYork.1765-1769. Gift of EdgarWilliam and Bemice ChryslerGarbisch. 67. InsleyBlair.RogersFund.49.in memory of her husband.
125 Silver teapot.120.44.33.have been included to give some further idea of the great quality and scope of the Museum's collections of American arts.543 Cast-iron Shaker stove. Friendsof the AmericanWing Fund. Gift of Mrs.29 Sofa. LebanonCounty. E.about 1790-1800.471 Kitty.33 Painted poplar chest. Clearwater.Gift of Mrs.256.1 Plate. RussellSage and variousother donors. about 1820. RogersFund. Bequestof A. Gift of Collis P. Gift of EdgarWilliamand Berice ChryslerGarbisch.New York.1786. Boston. about 1810-1811.2.C. Pennsylvania. Baltimore. Huntington.181.83. About 1821-1823. byCharlesWillsonPeale. engraving.58 George Washington.about 1796. I Secretary bookcase. de Forest. by PaulRevere. Maryland. New Lebanon.33. Chadbourne.65.3 General Jean-Victor Moreau. by Fevretde Saint-Memin. Massachusetts. 52. 1825.97. Huntington.RogersFund.about1820-1840. by EdwardHicks.Gift of Mrs. 62.T.1 .585.69. 1779.67. by George White.Jr.RobertW.Pennsylvania. New York. Charles-Balthazar-Julien 1811.203 The Falls of Niagara.100.Gift of WilliamH. drawing.109.
byNunns. Badgerand Co.3 .P.9.S.38. by Zeruah Caswell.Gift of the ErvingWolfFoundation (two-thirdsundividedinterest). 1838. Gift of John D.1 Silver flute.130.7 The White Captive.MorrisK. by Asher BrownDurand.102 The Beeches. Bequestof MariaDeWittJesup.1312 Tete-a-tete attributedto John Henry Belter.1975.fromthe collection of her husband.14. Crimmins. Charles Reginald Leonard.97.in memoryof herfather. by William Sidney Mount.About 1850. About 1855. Gift of Dr.G. 1837. by George Peter AlexanderHealy.23. 1835. Gift of KatharineKeyes.157 Raffling for the Goose.W. Robert Jarvis Leonard.in memoryof EdgarWelch Leonard. Vermont.57.36 Queen Victoria. New York.06.----- Embroidered wool carpet (detail).126.Giftof GeorgeLowther. Darley.153 Euphemia White Van Rensselaer.1845. Bequestof Cornelia Cruger.59 The Coming Storm.s~~~~~~n r-*:tr4 . by Thomas Sully.Homer EatonKeyes.23.by ErastusDow Palmer. by Martin Johnson Heade.:t---r t. Jesup. 94. Castleton. Gift of Mrs.30. 1842. Bequestof FrancisT.160 Piano.1859. marble.15. and Charles Reginald Leonard. Signed:A. 1859. Gift of HamiltonFish.Northrup.
gouache.134 Clock.New York.about 1861.07. Gift of Mrs. New Hampshire. KathrynHait DorflingerManchee. 60.319. 1882. Purchase.1 Ralph Waldo Emerson.2677 Compote by ChristianDorflinger. Hugh J. WilliamM.Henry R. Grant.89. bronze. The ElishaWhittelsey Fund.101 Side chair. New York. by Daniel Chester French. 1891.Brooklyn. Gift of Mr. Gift of George Coe Graves.1 The Boulder and the Flume in Franconia Notch.2. 1975. 1878.06. 1974. by Mary Cassatt. by Ralph Albert Blakelock.1206 The Fitting.232. and Mrs. Gift of Daniel Chester French. Cornin.277 Whistler. The SylmarisCollection.1975. Bequest of Edith H. by Tiffany & Co.2 A Bachelor's Drawer. Gift of Mrs. 1879. 16.193 . McCord.Greenpoint GlassWorks.by MaryCassatt. by John Haberle. drypointand soft-groundetching. Proskauer.4. Purchase.18901894. Gift of H. 1970. Kingsland.212 Portrait of the Artist.4 Banjo.1878. Gift of Paul J. Sachs.611.about 1880. 1880. Luce Gift. 1972. by Charles A. monotype.
Providence.JohnA. About 1900. by Cecilia Beaux.124 The Thinker: Portraitof LouisN.104 . 1900. by John S.1897. 27.19. John Stewart Kennedy Fund. Gift of the Familyof Angelo Mannello. by Augustus Saint-Gaudens.RhodeIsland. Sargent. Sargent.172 The Wyndham Sisters. plateau. 1903.214.141 Mandolin.Ernesta with Nurse. Purchase.26 Amor Caritas. 1974. 1895.by JosephPennell.1234 Mr.67 Rainy Night.1898 (this versioncast in 1918). Gift of Mrs.2 silverby GorhamMfg. 1894. 1900. etching.14. by JulianAlden Weir. by Winslow Homer. gilded bronze. 17.3.17. 1899. Rutherfurd."Martele" Co.HarrisBrisbaneDickFund. Bequestof EdithMinturnPhelpsStokes.505 The Gulf Stream. Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes.Gift of HughJ. 38.CatharineLorillardWolfeCollection. New York.49 The Red Bridge.About1901.111. Grant. and Mrs. Ewer. RogersFund. MariaDeWittJesupFund. Purchase. 1972. 06. by Thomas Eakins. Kenton. by Angelo Mannello. CharingCrossShops. by John S.CatharineLorillardWolfe Collection.65..
3 Coney Island.59. 1916.112 Dancer and Gazelles. bronze.Purchase. by ArthurG. designedby FrankLloydWright. 1928.Across the Room. ChadbourneBequest.59.63. 1924. by Edmund C.Rogers Fund. San Francisco. Alfred Stieglitz Collection. by CharlesHenry Demuth. probablyby DirkVan Erp.about 1915-1925.67. Hear Fund. 49.George A. Dove. About 1915.326 Portrait of Ralph Dusenberry.223 Copper lamp.1915.70. by Childe Hassam.incomefromthe EmilyC.36 The Church at Gloucester.1972.70.141 Table.187. 1918.49.About 1912.54 Woman Walking. by Paul Manship. GeorgeA. 67. Bequest of Adelaide Milton de Groot.1974.206 I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold. by MaxWeber. by Joseph Stella.ArthurH. chromewithblackonyxbase. 25.60. Heam Fund.FrancisLathropBequestFund.California. HearnFund.69 Athletic Contest.1 243 . Tarbell. by GastonLachaise.AlfredStieglitzCollection. About 1905. 49.AlfredStieglitzCollection.
75 8 Mapleandoak. Friendsof the AmericanWing Fund.1973. Hoadley.46. 1974. C. Purchase.andFundsfromVariousDonors.poplar.149. Gift of I. Gift of the Estateof Mrs.184.108.40.206. Nash.30 x 23 in.17.97.J.201.FrankB.140 67 Oil on canvas.1. 52. 11.49 x 39 in. 145/8in. and Mrs.162 x 123/ in. 34 in.48 x 733/8in.1 65 Drypoint. 46 in. MorrisK.34.39.2 44 Mahogany. and oak. Hearn.145. Cotheal. JesupFund. Melvin.90 72 Oil on canvas. Engravedwith the armsof MyndertSchuylerof Albany.152. 1. 08.228 6 Oil on canvas.45.53 74 Rosewoodinlaidwith brassand mother-of-pearl.228.612 32 Pine.h.maple.219. The EdwardW. 1.3 17 Mahoganyandpine.pine. Gift of CatharineE. Arold CollectionofNew YorkPrints.38.14 50 Mahogany.andMrs. ArthurHoppockHeam Fund.30.10.231. 357/sx48Y8in. RogersFund.8 60 Oil on wood. 48 in.728 90 Oil on canvas.55 15 Mahogany.Mr.andFundsfrom VariousDonors.1. 16. Gift of Mrs.1 4 Silver.50.34. Purchase. Gift of Mrs.16 20 Oil on canvas.70.52. 82Y8x 43Y4in. 66Y8x 119Y4in.and glass. and Mrs.33.Maps.KaufmannCharitableFoundationFund.34.1 45 Oil on canvas. SamuelD.733/ x 575/8in.GiftofMrs.23. AmeliaB.47 75 Wood inlaidwith mother-of-pearl.JosephPulitzerBequest.h.104 70 Oil on canvas. Smith. Bequestof MaryStillmanHarkness.RussellSage.aftera paintingbyWilliamBirch. Grant. GiftofJamesC.64.743 31 EngravingbySamuelSeymour.282 x 23?2in.4 49 Marble. andebony. LeeFund.Jr.h.ScrevenLorillard.32/4 x 46Y4 in.511/2x 76 in.JohnBierwirthandRobertG. 84 in.MurrayRafskyGift.9 73 Oil on canvas. Inc.07.11 3/16 in.62. The Sylmaris Collection. 781/2in. AlfredStieglitzCollection.h.228.h.Gift in memoryof MaryW.36 x 501/4in.52 35 Mahogany.49.56.22.h. 15.12. w.h.andFletcherFunds. Pratt. 10. 28. Purchase.Gift in memoryof MaryW.EmilyC. LeeFund. Giftof Mrs. RuxtonLove.343/sx504 in.30Y4x 25?4in.57.diam.257 55 Oil on canvas.RogersFund. Rogers Fund. MorrisK. Arold Collectionof New YorkPrints. MorrisK.2 87 Oil on canvas.540.685 2 Silver.h. Hatch. 10.Bequestof EthelYocum. 16in.13/8 x8 15/16in.23.205/8x 157/8in. Giftof EdgarWilliamandBemiceChryslerGarbisch. 16. Giftof Mrs.30.9 66 Ebonizedandinlaidcherry.CandaceWheeler(throughMrs. JesupFund. AmeliaB. Purchase.h.68. 50Y2in.143/4x 177/8in. Bell.27. 96 in.31. Giftof MissAnnie Clarkson.202.95 244 .344 x 32 in. 69.3 39 Silver.VirginiaGroomes.29. TurnerFund. and RogersFunds. PunnettFundand Gift of GeorgeD. AlfredStieglitzCollection.10.68. Giftof Mrs. 83 in.68. 26 x 32Y4in.h.86.Bequestof CharlotteE.126 47 Oil on canvas.64.44/8 x 663/8in.Frederick M.63..170 76 Watercoloron paper.171. 1971. 35 in.40Y8x 35 in.walnut. 13.6 77 Chloridephotograph.and Pictures.AlfredN.h. 13. Sansbury-Mills Fund. 19Y8x 29Y2in.85. 33.1973. Purchase. Giftof Mrs.125. 87.7 10 Mapleandpine.52 27 Mahoganyandmaple. 31/2 in.15. 40 in.9 82 Bronze.52.ormolu.91 18 Silver. RogersFund. 361/4in.76Y8x 353/ in. Avery. 843/4in. 10. 7/8 in. Purchase. JesupFund.43. withcover 1 1/4in.otherwoods.h.J.52 63 Oil on canvas. h. Dodge.1974. Porter.187/sx 15 in. Maps.1 22 Oil on canvas. 141/2in. Fund.43 42 Oil on canvas.40.approx.125.60 x 787/8in.51.50 x 40 in.RogersFund.54. 1970.684 x 413/8in.rosewood.19Y2x 153/in. InscribedTQV forTheunisandVroutjeQuick.aftera drawingby PeterLacour. Aron& Co.43.1 33 Mahoganyandbirch.RussellSage.CatharineLorillardWolfeCollection.6 34 Oil on canvas. MariaDeWitt JesupFund. EdgarJ. Sansbury-Mills Fund.5 78 Photograph.73Y4x 1203/4in.ash.153 7 Olivewoodandwalnutveneers.29 x 24 in. Gift of Mrs. Blankarn Sansbury-Mills Gift.andbrass.84 x 26 in.125.101 64 Silk. pine.544 69 Bronze.07.EdwardRobinson.h.68. 54. RogersFund.31 24Oilon canvas.4 7/16 x 35/8in. 1.3 12 Mahoganyandpine. Gift.95 52 Oil on canvas.54.9 37 Cotton.67.63.109 23 Mahogany.4 25 Oil on canvas. FletcherFund.w. EdgarJ.63. 55.207 58 Oil on canvas. 447/sin.SchuylerVanRensselaer.139 71 Oil on canvas. Lazarus Fund. 68.19 83 Marble. BequestofCecile L. MariaDeWittJesupFund.25.63 3 Oakandmaple.59 38 Oil on wood.maple.h. 34/2 in.90.10.17 81 Watercoloron paper. 313/ in. Gift and EdgarJ.126.The SylmarisCollection. FrancesV.92 57 Oil on canvas.EdwardC. Pratt. glass. 29 x 36Y2in. 1975.RussellSage.66. 1. RogersFund. 27. Purchase. 1. GiftofHughReisinger.soft-ground etching.42 88 Platinumphotograph.50. Victor Wilbour MemorialFund.23. MorrisK. GiftofGeorgeA.62.JosephPulitzerBequest.1 46 Oil on canvas.16 36 Mahoganyandsatinwood.55.43. Gift of GeorgeI.1971.97 59 Oil on canvas. 24 x 38 in. 26. FletcherFund.MarshallP.2.8. Engravedwith the armsofBremen.h. Gift of GeorgeA.40 x 30 in. 101in. Giftof Kenneth0.318 89 Lithograph.18 11/16x 237/8in. h.81 13 Mahoganyandpoplar. 7?4in. Groomes.143/x 21?2in.CatharineLorillard WolfeCollection. 09.167 19 Pine andpoplar.228 43 Rosewoodandormolu.14.1 5 Oak andmaple.marble.by exchange.andaquatint. h.86 29 Oil on canvas.220 51 Oil on canvas.37.LouisV.94.1 40 Mahogany.55 61 Oil on canvas. 463/ in.5 80 Oil oncanvas.andinscription. h.David Dows. The RussellSage Fund. 31/2 in. 45 in.Sachs. DavidHunterMcAlpinFund.VirginiaGroomes. 94. AlfredStieglitzCollection.90.1974.gum printover platinum. JesupFund. h. 27 x 34?8 in. Gift of HughJ.214.Giftof GeorgeCoe Graves. Bequestof MariaDeWittJesup.1 41 Mahogany. Lazarus Fund. WilliamE.1 21 Cherry. Giftof Mrs. Bequestof HerbertL.3 11 Walnut.115. KaufmannCharitableFoundation Fund.RussellSage.h.in memoryof Mrs. 62. MorrisK. h. 104x 90 in. InscribedSSC forSamuelandSusanComell.J. Giftof Mrs. 20Y4in.RogersFund.15 86 Leadedglass. Groomes.h. GiftofMrs. InsleyBlair.Friendsof the AmericanWingandRogersFunds.h. InsleyBlair.218 x 30/4 in. JesupFund.61 48 Daguerreotype with hand-tintedbackground. Gift of the Familyof Mrs. InsleyBlair.ReginaPerlmutterSteinberg.85 62 Oil on canvas.28.Credits for Figures 1. 9 in.97.w. 49/8 in.Mr. by exchange.195.RussellSage. 48/2 x 38V2in. Purchase. andwool.38. Danzigerand HermannMerkinGifts. Alfred StieglitzCollection.120. 34Y2in.4 9 Silver. 521/2in.55. Giftof Mrs.352 x283/ in. 377/8in.62. 60. Gift of Jack Steinberg. N.20 68 Monotype. 146in. Kaufmann CharitableFoundationFund.37.75 84 Pencilandwatercoloron paper. 582 in.39 79 Oil on canvas. 52 in. Giftof CharlesFollenMcKim. SamuelD. Gift of SamuelP.1 54 Bronze.20/4 x 26/2 in. Goelet Gifts.1 14 Oil on canvas.12 15/16x 105/16 in. Bequestof Mrs.h.47. 97 in.75/8x 55/8in. 62?2in.4.8 85 Bronzeandleaded glass. 113/ x 12 in. The EdwardW. Purchase. 10in. Bequestof RichardDeWolfeBrixey. Moore. JohnB.RussellSage. Sansbury-Mills Mayer(subjectto two interveninglife estates).J. Gift of FredericH. C.123 56 Oil on canvas.1. 49. Friendsof the AmericanWingFund. 10.andPictures.CharlesAllen Munn Bequest.325 16 Oil on canvas. 1972. Gift of EdgarWilliamandBerice ChryslerGarbisch.160 30 Engraving. PhelpsStokesand Others. Gift of C.16Y8x 15 in. Heam.h. Giftof MaryCassatt. BoudinotKeith).61 53 Albumenphotograph.Germany.h..201.h. Purchase.93/ x 63/ in. ChadbourneGift. HugoKastorFund.Giftsof GeorgeCoe Graves.RussellSage. 963/4in.34. Purchase.125. GiftofPaulJ.h. Seney.292 x 43Y4in.90 1 Oak.59 28 Mahoganyandglass. Gift of Mrs. 37 in.37 26 Glass.
The Lighthouseat TwoLightsby EdwardHopper.Hugo KastorFund.62.Figure90.95 .
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