You are on page 1of 6

Video Recording Act

In making decisions under the Act, the BBFC was required to consider
'whether or not video works are suitable for a classification certificate to
be issued to them, having special regard to the likelihood of video works
[...] being viewed in the home' and to consider whether a video was 'not
suitable for viewing by persons who have not attained a particular age' or
whether 'no video recording containing that work is to be supplied other
than in a licensed sex shop'.
The Act also required that tapes, disc and packaging should be correctly
labelled with the BBFC certificate and an explanation of that certificate (eg
'suitable only for persons of 15 years and over. Not to be supplied to any
person below that age').
Given the enormous number of video works already in circulation, those
video works that had already been released were given a series of
deadlines by which they must be rated or removed from the shelves.
However, by 1st September 1988 all existing recordings needed to have
been ratIn January 2010, the Video Recordings Act 2010 (VRA 2010) came
into force. This simultaneously repealed and immediately revived without
amendment the Video Recordings Act 1984, in order to correct a
procedural error made during the passage of the VRA 1984.ed

Copy right laws with the radio and music industry

It is important that music or radio stations dont have any copyright on theres
shows or in their music, as it is against the copyright laws to do this. It became
statutory with the passing of the Copyright Act 1911. The current act is the
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Types of work to which copyright
applies, Song lyrics, manuscripts, manuals, computer programs, Commercial,
documents, leaflets, newsletters and articles etc. Computer programs regulations
in 1992 also extended the Copyright of literary works to include computer
programs. There have been many cases of copyright in the music industry, for
example, The Isley Brothers isnt as well known a name as Michael Bolton, and
they share a song with the same name and some of the same lyrics. The Isley
Brothers song was released in 1966 under the name Love is a Wonderful Thing,
Michael Boltons song was released in 1991.
A suit was brought against Michael Bolton by the Isley Brothers for allegedly
lifting parts from their original song of the same name and in 1991 Despite
Michael Bolton and the co-author of the songs argument that there was
insufficient evidence supporting the jurys findings, the district court found in
favour of the Isley Brothers and left the largest award in history for plagiarism in
the music industry intact. The Isley Brothers were awarded 5.4 million dollars,
the calculation based on sixty-six percent of past and future royalties. (Also taken
into account was twenty-eight percent of the past and future royalties of the
album Time, Love and Tenderness as Love is a Wonderful thing is contained
within that album).

Another story involving queen and Vanilla Ice. Vanilla Ice became a household
word for a while, not because of his talent, but because of the copyright
infringement that occurred in 1990 when it came to light that he had sampled
Queen and David Bowies Under Pressure without consent or license. Ice Baby
hit number one on the charts in the United States and Vanilla Ice became the one
under pressure.
Vanilla Ice altered the rhythm of the baseline thinking he would thereby avoid
any question of credit, royalties, license or even permission. This case never
went to court as it was clear that Vanilla Ice had stolen the sample without
permission. He settled out of court with Queen and David Bowie for an
undisclosed but very likely very high amount. Ice Baby has been released in
many different versions, since then, with all of the legal procedures followed.
Another recent one is with Oasis, We all know Oasis from their glory days and the
indomitable hits they gave the world that still live on today as verifiable
anthems. Wonderwall, Champagne Supernova and Stop Crying Your Heart Out
are songs that are still massive hits today. So it comes as a bit of a damper to
learn that the indulgent hit from Oasis, Whatever, was sued for copyright
infringement by Neil Innes of the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band. Innes sue was
successful and Oasis ended up giving him credits for the lyrics and the melody.
Its purpose is to make sure no copyright infringement occurs within the industry,
it does this by stating laws on their page in which musician and singersongwriters should follow in order to avoid copyright. They help aim to protect
the artists music and lyrics from being copied. Since the radio plays songs, its
not unusual that more copyright would happen in the music industry than on the
radio as the radio plays artists music.
If you infringe on someones copyrighted work, you could receive a polite letter
or email from the author asking you to remove the material from your website or
otherwise stop use of the work. You could get a notice demanding you cease and
desist using and distributing the copyrighted work, or you might discover that
your Internet service provider has already removed infringing content. You could
face penalties of up to one thousand pounds.

What is the film act?

The film act of nighteen eighty five dissolved the British fund agency, ending the
leavy system in nighteen fifty one. The Act also abolished the Cinematograph
Film Council and dissolved the National Film Finance Corporation, transferring its
assets to British Screen Finance Limited.
The Act repealed the Films Acts 1960-1980 and also repealed certain provisions
of the Finance Acts 1982 and 1984 and substituted new provisions for
determining whether or not a film was 'British' film eligible for capital allowances.
Under the Finance Acts 1997 (No 2), 1992 (No2) and 1990, these provisions have
been further amended to relax the prohibition on using a foreign studio.
The cinema as an entertainment industry emerged from a series of innovations
in the late nineteenth century, mostly in the United States, France and the United
Kingdom. In the UK, filmmakers established small studios to produce short films
for use by travelling showmen and in music-halls. In the first decade of the
twentieth century, more than thirty film studios were established in and around

London, so all in all, the film act has protected the British and American film
industry as it is still going strong today, There is vast
more British films out now than theres ever been.

Ethical Issues
Use of language in the radio industry is key as there are
many consequences for swearing, and would gain a lot
of public attention which would involve a lot of press
coverage. Here is an example of an article, of when
Chris Moyles had an outburst live on air, gaining many
media coverages.
The BBFC is committed to the development and
expansion of positive policies to promote equal
opportunities in life regardless of individuals gender,
marital status, creed, colour, race, ethnic origin, religious or political beliefs,
sexual orientation, disability or age.
Everyone in our society should have an equal chance to benefit from training and
work opportunities. At Ofcom, they have a duty required by the Communications
Act 2003 (the Act) to promote the importance of equal opportunities to all
radio and television broadcasters. Its there job to basically job take whatever
steps we see fit to make sure that broadcasters are able to comply with their
licence requirements on equal opportunities:
for everyone of either sex;
for everyone of any racial group;
for disabled people.
The Act also says that Ofcom must make sure that every broadcaster we license
has proper arrangements to promote equal opportunities for all.
Having equla oppurtunities would help mre people get work in jobs, such as
directing and producing. With radio it is good to have a mixture of different
people doing different jobs. giving people a oppurtunity in the radio industry is
very rare as its hard to get into. When taking it into account, companys must
employ a specific amount of people that are either, diabled, foreign, or of a
different enthicity. Also, there must be a balanced nu,ber of men and women,
howver looking at statistics from the BBC, man seem to still slightly over power
the radio industry.
Despite an equal gender balance across all staff in English Regions, figures in
2013 revealed that only roughly a quarter of the hours broadcast are presented
by women. The Director General responded swiftly earlier this year by
announcing his ambition, to see a woman presenter on half of the 41 breakfast
shows. The Women in Local Radio initiative which was set up is already delivering
new voices to our presentation line up- amongst them Etholle George on BBC
Radio Suffolk, Nicky Price on BBC Radio Norfolk and Georgey Spanswick on BBC
Radio York. Since July 2013, the number of breakfast shows with female

presenters in BBC Local Radio has doubled and now stands at 16, which is 39%
as a proportion.
The BBC states that it gives all people oppurtunities.The BBC is committed to
being inclusive and accessible to disabled people. Disabled people are a diverse
group with differing requirements, some of which arent always apparent.
Accessibility for our staff will ensure that we attract and retain the most talented
people to contribute to the creativity of the BBC. For our disabled audiences,
accessibility can be central to receiving a quality service and therefore it is
essential that all our services take this into account.
The BBc aims to promotte diversity, here is a booklet to show how commited
they are. Disability Access is one of the five strands of the BBCs Diversity
Strategy, making the commitment to build in accessibility from the start when
developing new products and services, and ensuring sustainable and ongoing
racial sterotypes are often based on a social myth, perpeuted down the ages.
The need for a more accurate portrayal of the diversity of different race is a
priority for political agendas but as ever it seems as though it will take a while for
political thinking to filter through to tv and films. Hollywood movie seem to be
particular offenders when it come to lazy racial sterotypes. A lot of work on race
and media has been focuse on the represntation of black men and women, this is
because there has been a particulaly strong african American culture which
provides viable alternative role models and demands that they are represented
and partly because some of the early racial sterotypes were so obviuos and
offensive. Before taking on a film, ethical issues need to be considered, such as
having a diverse cast, so there is a mixture of black and white people, however
this isnt really a problem anymore as the film industry has changed so much,
whenever you watch a film, there are a mixture of people. However, in Horror
films, black people seem to be the ones killed of first which makes people think
and often causes controversy.

Women in radio industry

Man have dominated the radio industry for a long time, when radio started out it
was just male broadcasters, it was rare that there would be a women, however
now times have changed there is a vast more number of women slowly
dominating the radio industry, despite there still being more men than women.
Facts and figures show that one in five solo voices on the radio is female.That
figure is one in eight during peak-time breakfast and drive hours, In co-hosted
show, you are nearly ten times as likely to hear 2+ male presenters as you are to
hear 2+ female presenters. Solo women are more likely to be on air at weekends
than during the week.
Women in the radio industry I think are stronger than ever, however there are
still studies and reports that say otherwise, there is still a lack of women on tv
and radio, it doesnt meen to say there weak but there just not being pushed out
there enough. Men still outnumber women by a ratio of four to one on UK radio
and TV news bulletins, a new study has found.

Despite efforts in recent years to reverse the trend, researchers at City University
found that there are still at least three male reporters for every one female. Of all
the news programmes analysed, including Radio 4s Today programme, BBC
News at 10, ITV News at 10, Channel 4 news and Sky News, listeners were least
likely to hear a woman speak on the Today programme.
Countrylife presenter Miriam OReily stated There are some tremendous women
out there who should be made more visible but are still not getting equal
representation on these programmes, she said. The men are prominent,
promoted and given opportunities that women are not. Mostly, thats to do with
the fact that men are in charge and they dont take women seriously. There is
still strong women that fight to be as equal and have the same oppurtunities as
men do.

Religious beliefs
British broadcasting laws prohibit religious organisations, political parties, local
government and trade unions from running national analogue terrestrial stations.
Some religious radio stations are available in certain areas on the MW (medium
wave) or VHF (FM) wavebands; others transmit using other methods, some of
them nationally (such as via digital terrestrial TV broadcasting, satellite and
There are several UK-based radio stations which serve a genre group or locality,
such as Cross Rhythms based in Stoke-on-Trent, a contemporary music station
with a local FM community radio licence. Branch FM operates across West
Yorkshire and is a volunteer-run community Christian radio station. Like most
other local Christian stations, they also use the Internet to gain national

How should men and women be represented

I think men and women should be presented equally in the media as we live in
such an equal society, there is no need for sexism of discrimination. Men still
mostly dominate the radio industry, however, there is a vast more amount of
women now than there was when radio first started out.

Does my studio represent people fairly?

I think the radio industry represents people fairly as people get a good time slot
to talk about what hey wsant, the radio gives people a way to express
themselves and the music they play and what they want to talk about. Being on
the radio gives someone a good chance of entertaining the public.

Related Interests