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DEVELOPMENT OF HOMOEOPATHY & CONTRIBUTION OF KANPUR STUDENTS Dr. Christian Frederic Samuel Hahnemann, the inventor of Homoeopathy, was born on 10th April 1755 at Meissen in Germany. He did his MD in Medicine in the year 1779. Hahnemann was dissatisfied with the mode of treatment adopted in those days by the physicians which was unscientific and unprincipled. So, he was in search of scientific principle for the cure of the patients which would decide relationship between disease and medicine. Hahnemann refused to practice the unscientific system of medicine adopted in those days and devoted himself in other scientific discoveries. He also translated many English Books into German in order to enrich the German Science literature, He also learned many other languages like Greek, Latin, English, Italian, Hebrew, Spanish, Arabic and French. Thus he was a real genius One day in 1790, while he was translating Cullen's Matria Medica fom English into German language. He found a foot-note in the chapter of Chinchona Bark, popularly known as China, used to cure malaria fever from which quinine is derived. The foot-note mentioned that if Chinchona Bark is taken by a healthy person, it would develop Malaria like symptoms in that healthy person. This footnote struck his mind and he thought that is it the principle of relationship between the disease and the medicine for which he was craving for long. But before declaring this as a principle he wanted to verify the same. He took six long years to verify this relationship by experimentation and proving. Apart from Chinchona Bark, he tried other medicinal substances also which also proved the truthfulness of this principle. In 1796 he wrote an article in the famous Hufeland’s Journal declaring his new principle which he invented and had a thorough proving. The article entitled "On the New Principle of Ascertaining the Curative Properties of Drugs” This historic essay in 1796 marks the birth of Homoepathy. Born in Germany, Homoeopathy quickly spread throughout Europe, United States of America and India. It was recognised as true and scientific system of medicine without side-effects. He named his new principle as Similia Similbous Curentor i.e. like is treated by like and named this science as Homoeopathy. Other system he named as Allopathy. Homoepathy entered India in 1810 through the doors of Calcutta: Dr. Mahendra Lal Sirkar, a renowned Allopath was so extremely impressed by its efficacy that he converted into a Homeopath. Dr. Sirkar was inspired for this conversion by Sri Rajendra Lal Dutt, popularly (2) known as Rajen Babu. In the same way in 1867 Dr. P.C. Majumdar also converted into Homoeopathic Practice by leaving Allopathy. Dr. Majumdar and Dr. D.N. Roy started the first Homocopathic College at Calcutta in 1881, its name was ‘Calcutta Homoeopathic Medical College!. Dr. Mahesh Chandra Bhattacharya started the first Homoeopathic Pharmacy in India. ‘Thus dependence on imported Homoeopathic medicines lessened to a great extent, Dr. Sirkar started the first Homoeopathic Journal in India viz, Indian Homoeopathic Review’. In 1944 ‘All India Institute of Homoeopathy’ was established. In the post Independence era, the Govt. formed a Homoeopathic Enquiry Committee on 17 February 1948, The Committee submitted its report on 30 September 1948. The Govt. of India accepted the report in total, thus a landmark was made ia the legalisation of Homoeopathic practice and Homoeopathy got legal recognition as a scientific system of medicine for the treatment of sick persons. On Committee's recommendation a Central Homoeopathic Council was formed with its branches in all the provinces as Sate Homoeopathic Council. The Homoeopathic Central Council Bill was passed by the Parliament on 19thDecember 1973. ‘The U.P. Vidhan Sabha passed the Homoeopathic Bill in 1952 resulting into the formation of U.P. Homoeopathic Medicine Board. Apart from registering the Homoeopathic practitioners, the Board also tock the responsibility of giving Homoeopathic education. The poard registered a number of Homoeopathic Colleges in different cities of Uttar Pradesh. Thus thousands of students enrolled themselves in these colleges. The Board awarded them B.M.S. Diploma after completing the four year course. However, the quality of education given in these colleges was very poor, which resulted into the State wide agitation by the students demanding better education and the Govt. interference in the affairs of the Board. The students demanded that instead of the Diplomaa five year Degree Course should be awarded to the stiidents by some recognised University. The students also demanded that each and every Homoeopathic College of the State should have its own Building, because most of the Colleges were run in rented building. ‘The first such student agitation for the upliftment of Homoeopathic education was called upon in 1958 by the students of National Homoeopathic College, Lucknow. Dr. Ganga Bux Singh, who was a student there, took the leading role in the agitation. The other student leaders were BM, Nagpal, B.P. Singh and Badrul Hasan. The main demand of the students was that instead of the B.M.S. diploma by the Board they should be awarded G.H.MS. five year degree by an University. The Students Union of Lucknow University also supported the demand of the Homoeopathic students and actively took part in the agitation. The students successfully called (3) ‘Lucknow Bund’. After prolonged agitation the demand of the Homoeopathic students was met. A Homoeopathic Faculty was created at Agra University and the University awarded G.H.M.S. degree to the. students of the National Homoeopathic College, Lucknow. This was unique achievement as it was for the firsttime in India that a University provided graduate degree to the Homoeopathic students, The National Homoeopathic College, Lucknow was taken over from the control of U.P. Homoeopathic Medicine Board and it came under direct control ofthe State Govt. However, the ambitions of the Board took a vast turn and it allowed many Homoeo Colleges to be opened in different cities of U.P. like Lucknow, Kanpur, Allahabad, Jaunpur, Azamgath, Ghazipur and Moradabad. By this step of the Board the number of Homo¢opathic students increased many fold, but the quality of education deteriorated resulting into another spell of Homoeopathic student agitation covering the whole state of Uttar Pradesh, The Federation asked the students to boycott the Annual Exams of B.M.S. conducted by the U.P. Board. The agitation was lead by many student leaders such as Ram Niwas Rai, A.P. Singh, M.P. Sonkar, D.P.S. Chauhan, Radhey Shyam Srivastava and R.D. Singh. The agitation reached its climax in May 1972 at the time of Board Exams. About forty students of Kanpur Homoeopathic Medical College, who were boycotting the Exams.were arrested under the leadership of final year student Arvind Arora. This arrest accelerated the whole agitation and the U.P. Govt. took first step for the uplifiment of Homoeopathy in the State by appointing a Deputy Director of Homoeopathy under the State Director of Medical & Health (Allopathy). Although this was just a beginning of development of Homeopathy, a lot more required to be done. But nothing happens automatically. A push and a driving force was still required. As before the Homoeo Students of Uttar Pradesh again took the i Govt. to undertake the reforms required for the upliftment of Homoeopathy. Anottier spell of iative to force the Homoco Students agitation and crrest swept the state lasting many years. This final blow of students agitation of Uttar Pradesh was lead by the students of Kanpur. These students had the support ofr. G.B. Singh, the hero of the Lucknow agitation of 1958, who was now the Principal of Kanpur Homocopathic Medical College, Kanpur. During the 1972 agitation the students entered the Homoeopathic Board building and set fire interrupting the Board meeting, ‘The preparations for the third round of agitation started in 1973-74, The UP. Homoeopathic Students Federation was reorganized, Duwan Pal Singh Chauhan was made its president, He visited all the Homoeo Colleges of the State to mobilse the students for the final assault against the Board and to force the Govt. to take steps to put Homoeopathy in-an honourable place. (4) The main demands of the students were that all the Homoeopathic Colleges of the State should be taken over by the Govt. fom private hands and run properly. The second main demand was that instead of the B.M.S. diploma a five year degree course must be’ started in all the colleges, like National Homoeopathic College, Lucknow. Although for the Govt. it was not a difficult job, but for the students itdid not prove easy. As D.P.S. Chauhan was busy in organising the state unit of the students, BN. Acharya took charge of organising the students of Kanpur, B.N. Acharya became president of the Kanpur Homoeopathic College students in 1975. With the creation of the new post of Deputy Director of Homoeopathy, the State Govt. opened about 30-35 dispensaries every year mainly in the remote areas, where Allopathic facilities did not reach the poor masses. After 1975 another landmark in the Homoeopathic History was made. The Govt. ordered that every District Hospital of the State should have a Homoeopathic Wing comprising one Homoeopathic physician, a Homoeo Pharmacist, a Ward Boy anda Sweeper. The State Homoco student agitation started gearing up again in 1977.At that time the State President was Fateh Bahadur Verma, Jai Ram Rai was its Secretary and B.N. Acharya of Kanpur was its Vice President. In 1978 B.N. Acharya became the President of U.P. students. ‘The agiatation reached its climax in 1978-79 under the leadership of B.N. Acharya and other students. The students were on ‘do or die’ mission. They boycotted the Exams and continued with the agitation till all their demands were met. With the boycot of the exams, many students completed their four year course in 6-7 years. Even then they did not back out and were determined to come out with positive results, so that Homoeopathy gets its dignified position in the State. The sacrifice of the students was unparallel. Many even went to Jail. At this juncture others who accelerated the movement were D-P.S. Chauhan, Radhey Shyam Srivatava and R.D. Singh, all fom Kanpur. As before Dr. G.B. Singh continued to inspire and guide the students in their pious cause. During this long agitation B.N. Acharya was President of the State Unit as well as Kanpur ‘Homoeopathic Students Union. Under his leadership following steps were taken by the Kanpur students to force the Govt. tomeettheir demands : 1. On.A5th July 1977 the students gave their arrest at Lucknow. The group of students arrested included five girl students of Kanpur. The girl students who were arrested were Sudha Rani Jaiswal, Rina Banerjee, Harsh Bala Gupta, Amar Sarvajeet Kaur and Rajni Vinayak. (5) 2 On 23rd February 1978 the students marched from Kanpur to Delhi by bicycle under the leadership of Pradeep Shukla and Ashish Srivatava. At Delhi they met the then Central Health Minsiter Raj Narain. They asked the Minister to interfere to solve the Homoeo. student problems in the state of Uttar Pradesh. 3. From June 15 to June 30 1978, a Homoeopathic fortnight was celebrated at Kanpur in which following programmes were taken up : i) On 15th June 1978 the students demonstrated in front of the District Magistrate residence and gave him memorandum to help solve the homoeo students! problems. ii) On 16th June the students demonstrated infront of the Narcotic Commissioner's office against the order of the Government by which the Homoeopathic medicines were declared liquor. The students demanded that such an unlawful order should be scrapped forthwith. iii) | From 24 to 25 June the students remained on symbolic hunger strike’in front of the Mahatma Gandhi statue at Pool Bagh, Kanpur. iv) Kanpur Homoeopathic College, Civil Lines, Kanpur was the centre of state Homoeo students agitation, where on 24th June a public meeting was organised to gain support of the public for the agitation. v) -* On25th June apublic meeting was organised at Phoo Bagh, Kanpur. vi) On30th June a Public meeting was held at Gumti No. 5 at Kanpur. This fortnight agitation notonly moblised the students and the public, but also forced the Govt. to take immediate steps to solve the Homoeo problems. This agitation became necessary a the then Chief Minister of U.P. Sri Ram Naresh Yadav had earlier declared that inspite of the students boycott, the Exams. will be held as scheduled. However, the students accepted the challenge of the C.M. and said that unless their demands are met, they will continue to boycott the Exams., come what may. The C.M. had ordered that the Exams. would be held under Kanpur University from 25th February 1978. But the students demonstrated in front of the V.C. of Kanpur University Dr. Abrahm on 17th February 1978 forcing him to cancel the proposed exams, Because if the Exams. would have held the whole agitation would have finished and the demands would have remained unfulfilled. Earlier, in order to mobilise the publi, the students organised ‘Kanpur Bund’ on 18th November 1977, on 6th April 1978 and on 25th April 1978. During the Bund, the Homoeo (6) students organised silent March in the streets of Kanpur putting on their Aprons. In the end the students reached the D.M/s residence and gave their memorandum to him pressing for the fulfilment of their demands soon. On 12th December 1978, on 25th March 1980 and on Sth April 1980 the Executive Committee of the U.P. Homoco Students Federation had its meeting at Kanpur Homoeopathic College, Kanpur. In these meetings the Homoeo students of the whole state demonstrated their unity and pledged that unless theirdemands are met they would continue with the movement and boycot of Exams. Steps were taken to take full cooperation of other students, youths and general public to express solidarily with the Homoeo students and their cause. For this purpose a number of meetings were held at Kanpur Homoeopathic College premises. A few such meetings were also held at different parts of the city also, On 29th September 1977 the Central Council of Homeopathy held its meeting at New Delhi. The Kanpur Homoeo students held demonstration in front of the meeting and insisted that theminimum qualification for admission in Homoeopathic College should be Inter Science with Biology, so that the standard of Homoeopathic education is made upto the mark. On Sth October 1977 to 11th October 1977 the 32nd International Homoeopathic Congress was held at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi. On behalf ofthe Homoeo students Sri B.N. Acharya spoke in the Congress and asked the delegates to express their solidarity with the students. The Congress was so impressed that it passed resolution supporting the students aind their demands. The third phase of the Homoeo students ‘do or die’ agitation started in 1977 continued uptill 1981. During these five years a number of students were arrested and went to jail but they did not stepped down. In the end all their demands were fulfilled. The Govt. acceded to their demands giving Homoeopathy its respectable position in the State. The main demands which were met were as follows :- 1) A seperate Homoeopathic Directorate was established which was independent of the Allopathic Directorate 2) Nine selected Homocopathic Colleges were provincialised by the Govt. They were now State Homoeopathic College. 3) Nomore private Homoeopathic Colleges were now allowed to be opened in the State. 4) These State Homoeo Colleges were affiliated to the Agra Universtiy where a Homoeopathic Faculty was already in existence. (7) 5) __ Allthenewadmissions to the Homoeopathic College were now held for five year Degree Course now known as B.H.M.S. since 1982 6) All the admissions now were held under C.P.M.T. Exam for which the minimum qualification was Inter Science with Biology. 7) The post of Homoeopathic Medical Officer in the State was made gazetted and their scales were linked with the recommendations of the Pay Commission. 8) The Pay scales of the Teaching and Non-teaching staff of the Homoeo Colleges in the State were directly linked with the recommendations of the U.G.C. In this way we see that how the Homoeo students of Uttar Pradesh by long agitation and great sacrifice achieved success in putting Homeopathy into a respectable position in the State leading other States to follow the footsteps of Uttar Pradesh in respect of development of, Homoeopathy. Inspite of the leading role of Kanpur students in the State wide agitation, they would have not been so successful without the cooperation of Homoeo students of other districts where Homoeopathic Colleges were in existence like Lucknow, Allahabad, Ghazipur, Azamgarh, Faizabad, Moradabad, Jaunpur and Bijnor. As far as Homoeopathic Medical Association of India (HMAT) is concerned Kanpur took a leading role in its affairs. Dr. V.C. Acharya of Kanpur remained its national president for a number of years. He is also editing a Homoco monthly magazine "All India Homoeopathic Journal" which is published from Kanpur. In the State Unit of HMAI the Kanpur Homoeo Doctors play leadingrrole. et ‘The above has been enriched & compiled by Dr. Arvind Arora of Kanpur, retired Homoeopathic Medical Officer, Govt. of U.P. = Formore details please refer to the book in Hindi i.e. 'Homocopathy Ka Vikas Aur Kanpur Ka Yogdan’ also written by Dr. Arvind Arora published by Kanpur Itihas Samiti, C-1/398, Indira Nagar, Kanpur - 208026. = Formore details about Dr. Arvind Arora 'Mukt' please see his Facebook Page and blogaddressed as wae