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Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

GM CHU U VITNAM
Ths Hs : NGUYN ANH TUN
Hi vin Hi M thut Tp HCM
Ging vin i hc Quc t Hng Bng

nht S Giang Ty nht Gm Chu u


Cu truyn tng trn ca cc hc gi - nh nghin cu, cc Nh su tp,
cc Bo tng Ngh thut ... trn th gii minh chng v mt dng Gm Vit
ni ting trn ton th gii hin nay.
Mi dng gm u c lch s pht trin ring. Gm Chu u cng c
hnh thnh, pht trin, thng trm theo dng chy ca lch s nc Vit. Chu
u, theo ngha Hn l bn thuyn . Vo th k XV, Chu u l mt x nh
thuc huyn Thanh Lm, chu Nam Sch, trn Hi Dng, nm lin k vi t
ngn sng Thi Bnh, mt nhnh ca sng Lc u, c th v Thng Long, ra
bin, rt thun li trong giao thng, bun bn. Gm Chu u l dng gm m
ngh cao cp, c nin i vo khong th k XIII- XIV, pht trin rc r vo th
k XV-XVI. Sang th k XVII, gm Chu u b tht truyn ti qu hng ca n,
nguyn nhn gy ra tht truyn cho gm Chu u l cuc chin tranh ginh
quyn lc gia hai tp on phong kin Trnh- Mc ti vng chu Nam Sch, k
trc tip bc t gm Chu u l Trnh Tng- k dnh thng li trong cuc
chin tranh phi ngha y . Th nhng, cc sn phm gm Chu u lu lc khp
ni trn th gii trong cc Vin Bo tng, trong cc b su tp c nhn v c
bit trn xc cc con tu m ngoi bin vn m thm bo v chn gi tr ca
mt thng hiu gm Vit. V, trong mt s tnh c ca lch s, cc bc mn b
mt c vn, lm nh ln ho quang rc r ca gm Chu u ni ting mt
thi.

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

I- S PHT HIN LY K V MT DNG GM VIT TNG THT


TRUYN V V N S T NGH GM CHU U
Ngi ph n Vit no l tc gi chic bnh c bo him c triu USD
ang c trng by trang trng Bo tng Hong gia Th Nh K ? Ngi ph
n Vit no l s t ca mt dng Gm m ni nh b Dessagodard - Gim c
ngnh Ngh thut chu ca Tp on u gi Befterfields ti San Francisco
M rng: "Vic pht hin dng gm Chu u, ang tr li cho Vit Nam mt
chng quan trng trong di sn ngh thut m ngi ta tng ngh hon ton
bin mt"?
Ngy 10/6/1980, mt l th t cn b ngoi giao ngi Nht gi cho ng
Ng Duy ng - B th Tnh y Hi Hng (Hi Dng v Hng Yn hin ti)
vi ni dung:
"Knh gi: ng Ng Duy ng - B th Tnh y Hi Hng.
Tha ng, tn ti l: Makoto Anabuki, hi trc l B th th 2 ca i s qun
Nht Bn, nay l cn b ngoi giao Nht Bn ti Tokyo.
Hm nay ti xin nh s gip ca ng v vic sau y:
T trc n nay ti nghin cu v vn ha Vit Nam ni chung, gm c Vit
Nam ni ring. Gn y, ti mi bit l Vin Bo tng Th Nh K vn bo tn 1
l hoa lam Vit Nam c sn xut t Vit Nam hi th k XV, th k XVI.
L y mang ch Hn nh sau: Thi ha bt nin nam sch chu tng nhn Bi
Th H bt. Mi ba ch Hn ni trn c ngha l: Nm 1450, mt ngi th
tn l b (c) Bi Th H Nam Sch chu v hoa vn trn l.
Theo ti bit th thi Vit Nam thuc nh Minh chia nc Vit Nam thnh 17
ph (t chc hnh chnh), trong c Lng Giang ph. Lng Giang ph c 3
chu l Lng Giang chu, Thng Hng chu v Nam Sch chu. Trong Nam
Sch chu c 3 huyn l Thanh Lm huyn, Ch Linh huyn v Bnh H huyn.

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

C ngha l phm vi ca Nam Sch chu hi l trung phn v bc phn ca


tnh Hi Dng.
Di thi Vua L Li (L Thi T) th chia Vit Nam thnh 5 o (ng, Bc,
Ty, Nam, Hi Ty). Di thi L Nhn Tng th t chc hnh chnh nh th
no, chng ti khng c t liu iu tra. C l khng thay i t chc hnh
chnh ca hi L Thi T, v lc Vua L Nhn Tng tc v mi c 2 tui.
Di thi L Thnh Tng th t 12 o, trong c Nam Sch o v sau nm
1490, vua ci bin t chc hnh chnh v Nam Sch o tr thnh Hi
Dng x.
Vy ti mun bit thi L Nhn Tng c Nam Sch chu khng? u? B
(hay l c) Bi Th H l ngi nh th no? Hc k thut v trn gm u?
Hi sn xut gm (l gm) t u?
iu ny rt quan trng trong lch s Vit Nam ni chung, lch s th cng
nghip v vai tr ca n b ni ring.
Xin ng ch th cho nhng chuyn gia nghin cu 13 ch Hn ni trn v nu c
kt qu th xin cho ti bit qua i s qun Nht Bn ti H Ni (hp th s 49
H Ni).
Hn na nu c th xin gii thiu cho ti nhng chuyn gia kho c hc v
m thut, ngh thut tnh Hi Hng trao i kin vi nhau.
Xin cm n ng!
Nay knh
M.ANABUKI
Cn b B Ngoi giao.
Chic bnh cc k qu gi ny c lu gi Bo tng Hong gia
Topkapi, nguyn l mt cung in cc k nguy nga lng ly ca Th Nh K
c xy dng vo nm 1465 - 1487, mt biu tng k nguyn vng nm trong
thnh ph Istanbul c knh nguy nga v trng l ca cc hong Ottoman.
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Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Chic bnh gm hoa lam qu gi ny c mua bo him vi gi 1 triu USD


chng t n khng ch l bo vt ca Th Nh K m cn l ca c ngnh Gm
th gii.

Chic bnh triu USD bo tng Th Nh K.


Lc ng Anabuki tham quan, n vn c ch thch hn nhin l gm ca
Trung Quc . S hn nhin cng c lgc ch Trung Quc l ci ni ca
gm s th gii v nhng ch in trn bnh l ch Hn. Tuy nhin, ng Anabuki
ng ng khi c 13 ch Hn kia v quyt tm tm ra ngn ngun ca Nam
Sch chu l u? Bi Th H l ai? Cui cng, sau khi tra nt s sch, ng
mi bit Nam Sch chu Vit Nam. Vn l mt ngi c cm tnh vi x s

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

hnh ch S, ngay t hi bao cp phong ta gt gao nht, ng vn vit th cho B


th Ng Duy ng vi mt hy vng lp l cui ng hm.
Thng tin t ngi Nht nh mt tia sng mnh t phng xa di v khin
ng B th ni ting mt thi Ng Duy ng, ngi ni ting l thn dn v c
t duy ci cch nng nghip nh B th Kim Ngc ca Vnh Ph khng th ngi
yn.

Nm 1983, di s ch o ca Tnh y Hi Hng, n nghin cu ngh


c truyn gm s m c bit l gm Chu u c tin hnh. Qua s nghin
cu, in d, su tm v nhiu ln khai qut ca Bo tng Hi Dng cng cc
c quan chc nng trong nc cng nh nc ngoi lm pht l di
lng t ca mt ngi lng thun nng ho lnh hin ti , mt trung tm Gm
m ngh cao cp vi hng ngn mu m gm nh bt, a, bnh l , cc con
ging , tng trang tr ,...cng nhng dng c sn xut nh bao nung, con k, l
t... Thn Chu u l mt trong 14 a im c kho st, khai qut, nghin
cu vi su trung bnh 2m .

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Cuc khai qut ln ny l o chnh ngay mnh t m bo tng tnh trc


y mua li ca mt h gia nh trong lng, c din tch 360m. Tuy ch mi o
hai h khong 100m2, nhng kt qu thu c rt quan trng. l vic pht
hin ti y cc nn mng l nung gm. Ti tng vn ha 4, pht hin nhiu loi
hnh di vt gm mnh bao nung, gm men, con k, x than
Ba loi gm men ngc, gm hoa lam v men trng, nhng ch o vn l
loi men ngc, c sn xut vi trnh tinh xo khng km g gm Long
Tuyn bn Chit Giang, Trung Quc. iu tuyt vi l sn phm men ngc
c nung n chic, mi sn phm ring mt bao nung, cho ra i sn phm
hng ha c cht lng cao. Th v hn l qua cc di vt tm c, c th khng
nh nhng loi hnh gm Chu u c s dng trong Hong cung Thng
Long t th k XV
Vic pht hin l bu nung gm hai ngn cho bit cng ngh sn xut v
quy m sn xut mt n v gm s xa Mt khng gian sn xut gm s
bao gm l nung v xng sn xut. Cuc khai qut cui nm 2014 l cuc ln
nht trong by ln thc hin...
Ti hi ngh cng b kt qu khai qut ln th 7 ngy 17/1/2015 va ri,
cc nh khoa hc xut cn c k hoch u t nghin cu, khai qut kho
c hc lm sng t hn na gi tr ca di tch lch s lng ngh gm Chu
u. Cn c chin lc quy hoch bo tn, pht huy gi tr lng gm c Chu
u, phc v tham quan, du lch.
Ta nh nng cng cha ng trong rng c nh thc, nhng g tinh ty
nht ca my trm nm trc t trong lng t Chu u bng bng tnh dy .
S kin ny lm kinh ngc cc nh s hc, kho c hc, hc gi trong v ngoi
nc v cng lm sng st ngay c vi ngi dn lng Chu u.
Tuy nhin, gii m 13 ch Hn trn bnh gm hoa lam ti bo tng Th
nh k ni trn, phi mt ng ng ngt 30 nm...

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Mi ba ch Hn trn chic bnh hoa lam c nh mt mt m kh hiu,


nh gii khoa hc d ngay trong l th ny, ng Anabuki dch rng, y
l mt ph n, tn l Bi Th H to tc. ng ngh cc nh kho c hc v
nghin cu ngh thut cho bit tiu s ca b Bi Th H, ngi hc ngh lm
gm u m sng to nn tc phm xut sc nh vy. ng cng khng
qun nhc rng y l vn quan trng v th cng nghip v thng nghip
ca Vit Nam th k XV, c bit l vai tr ca ngi ph n.

Theo ng Tng B Honh, Ch tch Hi S hc Hi Dng, trc khi nhn


c l th ca ng Anabuki, cc nh s hc trong tnh su tm c nhiu
gm hoa lam v men a mu lu kho bo tng tnh t nhng nm 60 ca
th k XX. Hin vt tng t cng c mt s bo tng trong nc, trong
khng t tc phm ca ng Huyn Thng, ghi r qu qun, ngy thng nm sn
xut, ni t hng, ngi t hng, hu ht tp trung vo i Mc Mu Hp
(1563 - 1593) nhng trong nhiu nm vn cha tm ra ni sn xut.
Nam Sch chu do nh Minh t liu cn tn ti n nin hiu Thi Ha
(1443 - 1453), khi m sau khng chin chng Minh, L Li i hai ph Lng
Giang v Tn An, nguyn l L Hng v Nam Sch thi Trn thnh ng o?
i Nam nht thng ch cho bit, n i Din Ninh (1454-1459) mi i
thnh Nam Sch Thng H L. Vy thi Thi Ha vn tn ti Nam Sch chu.
Nh vy 9 ch u c gii m v khng nh tc gi vit ng nin hiu v
a danh ng thi. c bit hc ba l 4 ch cui: "Bi Th H bt", nhiu
hc gi hiu rt khc nhau. qu thc l mt ci by. Ngn ng vn nhiu
ngha trong nhng ng cnh khc nhau, nht l ch Hn : phn ln hc gi H
Ni, dch "Bi Th H bt" l: ng h Bi, v chi.

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Nhng c vt lin quan n b Bi Th H

Li c nhiu hc gi lp lun cng rt thun tai rng thi phong kin nht l
th k XV nn trng nam khinh n v cng khc nghit nn ph n khng c
tn tc m ch c tn hiu, cng chng ai l ph n m dm "k tn" lu danh
mnh trn nhng sn phm bun bn c.
Ngc li, cc nh s hc a phng m tiu biu l ng Tng B Honh,
Ch tch Hi S hc Hi Dng hiu khc. Cch hiu kh tng ng vi ng
cn b ngoi giao Nht, dch l: Bi Th H v. C s ca n theo ng Honh
trong lch s d him, vn tm c khng t ph n c ghi tn trn gm,
vi t cch l tc gi.
Khi ng Tng B Honh nhn c 7 trang gia ph ca gia tc n ti Bi
Th H, trang Quang nh, huyn Gia Phc, nay l thn Quang Tin, x Hng
Quang, huyn Gia Lc (Hi Dng) do ng Bi Xun Nhn v Bi c Li l
hu du cung cp. Di y l bn dch: Thng ging, u xun, nm Bo i
Nhm Thn (1932), hu du 13 i ca h L trng Bi c Nhun, sao y nh
bn c, thy t l Bi nh Ngha, nguyn n t Minh Ngc, Nam Xang,
Bnh Lc, H Nam, sinh nm inh Mo, thi Trn Hin i Vng, nin
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Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

hiu Xng Ph 11 (1387). ng l con tng qun Bi Quc Hng, ngi ph


t L Thi T bnh gic Ng (Minh), nguyn qun lng Cng Kh, tng Bt
Xuyn, huyn Chng c, tnh Sn Ty, nhp c lng Quang nh nm inh
Hi, thi Trn Gin nh Vng, nin hiu Hng Khnh th nht (1407).
ng b sinh 2 ngi con ti Quang nh: Con th nht l Bi Th H,
khng c con ni, b l ngi th c ti lm bnh gm. Con th hai l Bi nh
Khi, sinh nm Qu Mo, thi Bnh nh Vng, nm th 1423. Thy t Bi
nh Ngha l ngi c ch ln, dng cm, c ti phi nga, ni ting mu tr.
Khi t nc c bin, t phng s t quc, tng qun, khi lm trn th i u o
qun, khi v trn thnh ng Quang, ngi chin u oanh lit, hy sinh lm lit,
v sau khng tm c m tng. Thy t c cng ln trong chin trn, sau c
L Thi Tng im cng danh, ban lc quan in 55 mu Thuyt tch h Bi,
trang Quang nh c ngh c lm snh s lu i, khi ngh l n ti Bi Th
H. B l ngi c ti vn chng, ch p, k ti v ha. B ci trang lm nam
gii, thi ti tam trng, phm quy, b quan trng ui. Sau b ly chng
huyn Thanh Lm, chu Nam Sch nhng khng c con.
Ngi ph n ti nng c nhiu con ng tin thn, b c ngh cng vi
chng l ng ng S, mt ch ln v trang Quang nh vo nm Thi Ha thp
nin (1452) cng em trai l Bi Khi chiu tp ngi lm thu, dng l, bc
trang, ni y thun ng thy, gn sng nh o, giao thng vi chu Nam
Sch, ch tc nhng sn phm c bit, cng hong triu, xut cho nhiu thng
nhn nc ngoi nh: Trung Quc, Nht Bn, phng Ty, trao i gm vc, g
rng, c, go, vng bc. T y, ngh thnh t, nm ny qua nm khc ti lc
tng nhiu, gia nh h hng giu mnh, cng nhau khi dng trang. n thi
t nc lon lc, bn hung tc trit ph, con chu xiu tn, khng th tc
nghip, ngh vinh suy vong, ngh ht.
Gia ph vit gn, sc tch, chnh xc v nm thng. T gia ph trn m bit
c l lch ca ngi ph n c bit ny t gia cnh, lch s, c bit l hc
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Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

vn, ngh nghip gm s, tnh hnh giao thng vt bin th k XV. Ngi lp
gia ph cc k trn trng khi gi Bi Th H l n ti. Gia ph vit nm Bo i
Nhm Thn (1932), do c Bi c Nhun, chu 13 i, trng chi 3, sao t mt
gia ph c. Vy gia ph c liu c cn?
Ngy 27/6, gia nh h Bi li em n cho Hi S hc c vi trang ca
gia ph c, vit nm Minh Mnh 13 (1832) tc trc bn sao mt th k, vit
trn la. y l t liu rt qu, xc nh cho s chnh xc ca bn sao. Gia ph
th hai ny cho bit nm sinh (1420) ca n ti Bi Th H v cho bit nhng t
liu ny sao t mt gia ph xa v t tm bia c. Vy mt tm bia c ny nay
liu cn? Cuc truy tm c th m din tin. ng Hong nh li: T nhng d
liu ny, chng ti suy ra mt s vn . B Bi Th H thi n tam trng, phi
chng y l k thi tin s? Vy k thi tin s y vo nm no? T nm 1442 n
1450, khi b l ngh nhn lm gm ch c hai khoa thi: Nhm Tut (1442) v
Mu Thn (1448). Ngi ph n thi phong kin 29 tui yn b gia tht t
lu. Vy b ch c th d k thi tin s u tin ca triu L s (1442). K thi
ny Nguyn Tri lm c quyn. Mt ngi c tri thc v bit ti lm gm
nh b th khng th ch c mt mnh vn (ch vit) trn gm, c th c
nhiu m nay cha bit.
Ngy 12/8/2006, nhn ngy gi th 507 ca b, Hi S hc Hi Dng, kt
hp vi UBND huyn Gia Lc v x ng Quang t chc hi tho v n ti Bi
Th H qua di vt nc ngoi v 2 cun gia ph ca h Bi nhm bc u
khng nh vai tr ca b v nhng ch nhn gm Chu u, ng thi thc y
vic tip tc su tm nhng di vt c lin quan. Cc nh khoa hc nhc nh
hu du ca b v Bo tng tnh phi c bit quan tm n nhng di vt c ch
Hn cn lu trong gia nh v a phng, nht l gm, g, bia k v sch
v xa.
Cng vic ny c anh Bi c Li l hu du i th 15 c bit quan
tm v nhit tnh su tm. S tha thit vi t tin ca bc chu cht y gp
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Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

nhng may mn him thy. Sau mt nm ch i, ngy 16/5/2007 anh Li tm


c con ngh l gm c, ni m gia ph ni l do ng S xy dng nm
Thi Ha thp nin (1452), cao 22cm, di 27cm, rng 6,5cm, pha ui c
ch vit, mang cho cc nh s hc nghin cu. Hnh dng cng nh cht liu
ca con ngh ny khng c g l v c mt s hin tng tng t nhng h
khai qut ti Chu u v lng Cy, iu quan trng l 2 dng ch: Quang
Thun nht nin, Quang nh trang, Bi Th H to, c ngha: hin vt do Bi
Th H, trang Quang nh, to vo nm Quang Thun th 1460.
y l di vt v cng quan trng xc nh vai tr ca n ti Bi Th H,
d l cc i nho cng khng th dch l ng Bi no to chi c! Nhng
vn may khng dng li . Ngy 10/7/2007, anh Li li mang cho cc nh
khoa hc chic a cn sng men, vn l mt ph phm c ngi xa loi b
ngay chn l ch khng a vo bun bn. a c ng knh trn 14cm,
chn cao 0,7cm, to dng mt bng hoa 12 cnh, hoa vn khc chm theo truyn
thng L Trn. Gia y c bng hoa 9 cnh, trong ng trn ng knh 9cm.
Trn sn khc hoa cc lin hon, rt tinh t, ta k tng gn l. Xng gm
vng nht, hi th, men cha chn nn th rp, cha phn quang. Pha ngoi
trn. Trn qut sn nu nht. a ny nu nung chn s c mu xanh nht, d
nhm vi gm L Trn. Hin vt tng t c l Thanh Khi (Trng
Khnh, Gia Lc) Chu u. c bit, di trn ca hin vt ny vit theo
ng trn st a 18 ch Hn nt mnh. (Din Ninh nht nin, Gia Phc huyn,
Quanh nh trang, t Bi Th H, Bi Khi to). C ngha l: vo nm Din
Ninh th nht (1454), ti trang Quang nh huyn Gia Phc, ch l Bi Th H,
em l Bi Khi to (chic a ny). Cc hin vt ny chng ta c th bit c
kh nng m thut ca ca n ti trn 3 loi hnh: v (hoa lam trn bnh Th
Nh K), iu khc (con ngh-1460 v sau l con rng ln ng ba sng nh
o), v khc chm (trn a-1454).

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Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Tip , anh Li li l m mang cho cc nh s hc chic mm ng


han g, ng knh 48cm, chy mt phn pha ngoi. Chic mm vn l gia
bo, do b anh Li ct gi, thi chy gic Php, ngi nh xa ca gia nh b t
ph, chic mm ng b mt mng tng ln, pha ngoi la lim chy nham
nh nhng bn trong ch cn nguyn vn. Sau khi c ra v xt phn, Hi S
m c 18 dng, gm 379 ch, trong c mt s ch nm. y l mt bn sao
bia m ch, c nhng thng tin v cng qu.
Vic khc vn bia m ch vo mm ng khng phi c ngun gc Vit
Nam m t thi Thng Chu Trung Quc (th k IX trc CN) ngi ta
ghi tiu s nh vua th nm ca nh Chu vo mt mm ng, chn trong huyt
m, ngi Trung Quc gi l bn s (s vit trn mm). Cc nh s hc khi
phc ton b vn bn nh bn gc v bn phin dch.
Bn dch mt trc bia : M ngi v k ti h Bi, tn hy l H. Hai
dng bn phi bia ghi: Ngy 10 thng 10 nm Cnh Thng Nhm Tut (1502),
phu qun (chng) l ng Phc lp bia. Phu nhn, sinh nm Canh T (1420),
thi Bnh nh Vng L Li. Dng bn tri bia ghi: Sau ng S (chng
trc) cng nhng ngi lm thu gp nn, cht bin ng. Phu nhn ti gi
ly i gia ng Phc, ngi trang Chu (u). Phu nhn l mt trang n ti v,
thng vn, lm ch thng on (i) Nht Bn, Trung Quc, phng Ty, n
nc ngoi bun bn c phm (gm s).
Tht bun thay, phu nhn k ti lm bnh gm m li khng con. Sau v
trang Quang nh, hng cng lm cha, nh lng, lm th ch xy dng nh th
h; hng cng bc cu n Th, Lm Kiu ( bn huyn). n m 12,
thng 8 nm K Mi (1499), tri t cung phong, ma gi, sm chp. L thay,
phu nhn nm trong bnh phong m pht ra nh sng hng nh con rng bay ln.
on phu nhn ha. Sau rt thing, ai c tm cu cng, tt hin ng. Ch dn:
Khi thi th thay i, bia c huyt t c gi t thing, cm ch mi vi phm.

12

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Gia ph ch cho bit b ly i gia ng S, cn sau th no khng r.


Bia cho bit, ng ng S mt ln ch huy on tu vt bin bun bn, gp nn,
cht bin ng cng vi thy th on. Sau b ti gi ly ng ng Phc,
mt ng ch l gm Chu u. B thnh ch thng on, vt bin bun bn
vi nhiu chuyn i Trung Quc, Nht Bn v Ty phng bn gm. Chi tit
ny v cng quan trng v ngoi thng ca Vit Nam th k XV. Cc nh
nghin cu kinh ngc ch, trc h ngh hng hi Vit Nam xa km pht
trin, ch c nhng thuyn thng, thuyn mng hay thuyn g nh loanh quanh
gn b gn vng ch t dm ngh n thng thuyn ln vi b su bum, cho
khng l c kh nng vt bin ng n cc quc gia khc. Khi quan st
nhng sn phm gm Chu u c v cc chi tit tu vt bin, h thng inh
ninh l nhng hnh nh do thy th nc ngoi k li cnh mnh hay gp trn
bin cho th gm Vit Nam nghe, sau cc ngh nhn ta tng tng ri v
li.
Qua t liu ny, c th ni, l hnh nh trc quan ca thy th v thng
nhn Vit Nam trn ng vt bin, bun bn vi nc ngoi, trong c
ngh nhn Bi Th H k v nhng sng gi, vt v khi bn ba cng nhng
con sng bc u, nhng trn cung phong thnh n ca bin c hay nhng qui
th, qui ng ca ngn khi. in hnh l mt a hoa lam ng knh 36cm,
hin lu gi trong mt b su tp Adilaide, Nam c. Lng a v tch kh c
bit, 2 thuyn ln, trn ng vt bin, gp gi ln, bum h xung, trn
mt sng x d di, c 3 thy th ri xung nc, trong c 1 ngi ang b
mt con c khng l nut n tht lng. Cnh tng xm xt mt mu bi ai.
II S KIN PHT HIN V KHAI QUT CC C VT TRN CC CON
TU M NGOI KHI BIN NAM VIT NAM .
Ngay t nhng nm 1980 , gm c Chu u xut hin khi ng dn
Qung Nam ko li vt ln c nhng mn gm c men trng xanh lam

13

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

mu sc rt chm cng nt v trau chut v em by bn ri rc trn cc va h


th c Hi An .
c bit , vo nhng nm 1995-1995 cc ng dn Vit nam khi i nh c
tnh c pht hin c mt s xc cc con tu c b m ngoi khi C Lao
Chm - Nng v chnh ph Vit nam vi 18 nc hp tc tin hnh trong 2
nm (1998 - 2000) trc vt c t trong con tu m ny hn 40 vn c vt
gm s Chu u c nin i c gim nh t th k XV tr thnh mt s
kin truyn thng ni ting th gii . Trong hn 40 vn c vt c 27 vn c
vt cn lnh, ngoi phn lu li cho Vit Nam 10% th 24 vn c vt m tp
on trc vt c mang v San Francisco v Los Angeles M bn u
gi. Theo s liu thng k ca nh bn u gi M, c vt gi thp nht cng
khng di 1.000 USD, c chic bnh gm t b c Chu u cao 24cm c
cc nh su tm kin quyt tranh mua, y gi ln ti 512.000USD.
Mt chic nm ru hnh rng trong con tu m c lao Chm chng hn
ton th sn phm l mt s hi ha gia hnh khi v nt v. Nhng th khng
c v nh cc bp c cun cun ca con rng cng tot ln hnh khi m ta
khng cm nhn c r rng n tot ra t u. Mt con rng tht sng ng,
oai phong nhng cng tht d thng v gn gi. c bit mn s hnh
rng ny l c bn, ch c mt chic duy nht trong hn 240.000 mn c
trong con tu m c lao Chm. Hnh con rng ny c lm biu tng ca
trang web www.Hoianhoard.com , ni gii thiu v bn u gi cc mn c vt
ny. Chic nm ru hnh con rng y c bn vi gi 200.000 USD ! N
xng ng l mt bo vt quc gia .
V chic a v hnh con ngan (vt xim) c bn vi gi 70.000 USD
cng vy, trong th bc i, lao ti nh tn cng mt cu b no , i mt
nhu li hn ln mt s da nt, trng n tht oai phong lm lit nhng cng tht
bun ci v d thng! Nhng nt v sinh ng v phng khong nh vy ta
c th nhn thy bt c mn no ca Chu u. Ti y cng lu gi mt l
14

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

hng gm mu xm ca ngh nhn ng Huyn Thng lm t nm Hng Tr


th 2 (1589).
C th ni nhng con tu m ny l nhng kho bu, qung b cho tinh hoa
vn ha x ng ni ring v vn ha Vit Nam ni chung ra ton th gii. Ni
nh b Dessa Godard - Gim c ngnh ngh thut chu ca Tp on u
gi Befterfields ti San Francisco rng: "Vic pht hin dng gm Chu u,
ang tr li cho Vit Nam mt chng qu gi nht trong di sn ngh thut m
ngi ta tng ngh hon ton bin mt".
Th ra gm Chu u theo chn nhng thng thuyn ca ngi Vit c
lu lc n 32 quc gia trn th gii - n nay cn nhiu vn c vt qu gi ang
c lu gi khp cc chu lc, c mt 46 bo tng danh ting trn th gii
t chu sang chu u. Hng lot s kin tip theo ca dng gm ny lm
bng hong c gii su tm, nghin cu gm s ton cu. Gm c Chu u
c trc vt t nhng con tu m di y bin Vit Nam (C Lao Chm,
Hn Dm, Hn Cau, Bnh Thun v C Mau).
Kh nng i bin ca cc thng on Vit qua nhng li ph bnh ca
ngi Ty phng c dn li trong sch ca Jean Chesneaux, cun
"Contribution l'histoire de la nation Vietnamienne", bn dch Anh ng: "The
Vietnamese Nation - Contribution to a History . Nh hng hi George Windsor
Earl vit trong s nht k ca ng trn ng dn l mt chic thng thuyn
n Singapore vo u th k th 17 nh sau: "... Bo tp tht d di ngoi bin
khi, thiu cht na th thng thuyn ca chng ti b gy c ct bum.
Thi tit tip tc xu nh th trong nhiu ngy. Vy m khi ang thn trng
dn tu vo eo bin, chng ti cht nhn ra 6 chic thuyn nh ca ngi Vit
ang ging ht mi cnh bum tin thng ti trc. Ti ngh (li Thuyn
trng George Windsor Earl): My ngi Vit ang lo li nhng con thuyn
b nh m cch thc vn chuyn vt sng ln gi tht l ti tnh. Ti ba
ca h khng thua km bt c mt thy th on hng nht no ca ton khu
15

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

vc u Chu. on thuyn b t teo khng c mt chic no vt qu 50 tn,


vy m nhng ngi i bin ny c th bp c sng gi Bin ng vo gia
ma bo t , rt t thng thuyn no ca cng ty chng ti dm th hi hnh
trong gia ma bin ng nh vy.
My chc nm qua , vi nhng bng chng sng ng v nhng c vt
gm Chu u hin din cc Bo tng danh ting trn th gii v t xc nhng
con tu m c coi l chn ng, lm o ln mi suy ngh , nhn thc v
gi tr ca cc dng gm s th gii, buc nhiu nh nghin cu gm s nht
lot phi chp tay tht ln rng: "Nht s Giang Ty (TQ), nht gm Chu u".
Nht - y l hng u, l nh cao ca th gii. Mt s so snh qu thc trc
k c nhng ngi bo gan nht ca ngnh gm s Vit Nam cng chng bao
gi dm m gia ban ngy.

a gm Chu u v 9 con rng, biu tng 9 i vua nh L

16

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Nm ru hnh rng gm Chu u

17

Hi tho: Gm ng
ng Nai & cc vng
v ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vnn
pht trin

Bnh chim Phng gm


m Chu u

m thng
th trang tr men tam thi .
Bnh gm Chu u chm

18

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

19

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Mt l hng mi c vt ln t cuc khai qut tu m

III- QUY TRNH K THUT LM GM C TRUYN VIT NAM


20

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Sn phm gm c to nn trong qu trnh lao ng, sng to vi quy


trnh k thut cht ch, chun xc. Quy trnh sn xut gm c gm nhiu cng
on, tng kt li gm 5 khu chnh : Lm t, to hnh sn phm, trang tr hoa
vn, trng men v nung t. l quy trnh chung ca mi lng ngh, tuy nhin
tng cng on c thc hin khc nhau tu theo trnh ca lng ngh .

M hnh sn xut gm truyn thng

1 - Khu lm t (thu t) : Trc ht, phi chn t st v t cao lanh loi tt.
Sau , t c tinh luyn qua nhiu cng on ly c t tt nht s dng
vo lm gm . t khi khai thc nguyn tng, thng rn nn phi ti nc cho
no ri dng mai thi mng, loi b tp cht, dng chn nho k ri p thnh tng
ng ln, thi i thi li nhiu ln to nn t c mn, do . Cng on ny gi
l luyn t hay thu t .
2 - To hnh sn phm (chut gm) C 3 phng php chnh : To hnh trn bn
xoay, to hnh bng khun v nn p bng tay. C sn phm c to bi s
kt hp ca c 3 phng php trn.

21

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

- To hnh trn bn xoay: t luyn k , kt hp v t bng tay cho thot kh ,


va do, nn thnh dy di to, ngi th chut ngt tng on, khoanh trn
gia bn xoay (nu lm sn phm ln) , nguyn khi t (nu lm sn phm
nh ) chn phi p bn, hai tay chut. Mi sn phm to, nh, dy, mng u do
hai bn tay iu khin, khng c khun mu nht nh, kch thc tng c do
mc mt, c sai lch nhng khng ng k .
- To hnh bng khun: Qua khai qut tm thy mt s khun gm ti di tch
Chu u (Nam Sch), Hp L (Bnh Giang) l bng chng chc chn ca k
thut ny. Phng php to hnh bng khun thng dng sn xut cc loi
sn phm c khi lng ln nh: Bt, a, chn...
- To hnh bng phng php p nn bng tay: y l k thut ra i
sm nht, th s nht cc di tch gm s c . K thut nn bng tay c th
hin r cc con k, inh gm, bao nung, lon, vi, cc loi con ging, tng...
3 - Trang tr hoa vn: Sn phm gm c trang tr hoa vn bng nhiu phng
php nh:
- V trn gm (v trn men v v di men): Sn phm gm sau khi trng men
ri trang tr hoa vn c gi l v trn men; Trang tr hoa vn trc ri trng
men sau gi l v di men.
- Ct gt v khc vch: Sn phm gm sau khi chut xong c phi nng, khi
no t se cng th tin hnh sa, gt, co nhn...theo ng mun. Cc chi tit
khc nh: Quai, tai hoc trang tr cc hnh ng vt ni, hoa l... cng c thc
hin giai on ny. Khc vch l phng php trang tr hoa vn ch yu ca
gm thi tin s. Ngi th gm v hoc khc vch trc tip ln xng gm sau
em nung.
- In hoa vn bng khun: Mt s sn phm gm c hoa vn khc chm vo
xng gm c thc hin bng phng php in khun. K thut ny c p
dng nhiu trong phng php lm gm thi L - Trn, in hnh l cc sn
phm gm men ngc v gm men hoa nu.
22

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

4 - Trng men: C nhiu cch trng men khc nhau nh: Phun men, di men ln
b mt sn phm gm c kch thc ln. Nhng men, qut men i vi loi sn
phm gm c kch thc nh. Nhng thng dng nht vn l phng php km
c: Tc l trng men bn trong sn phm trc, trng men bn ngoi sau. Dng
go da mc men rt vo bn trong sn phm, lc sao cho u, trng men bn
ngoi th cm sn phm nhng vo thng ng men cho men lng kn b mt
sn phm. Ngoi ra cn s dng phng php "quay men" hoc "c
men". Quay men l hnh thc trng men bn trong v bn ngoi sn phm cng
mt lc, tc l cm sn phm cn trng men mt tay mt tay quay vo thng
men gi l quay men. c men, tc l ch trng men bn trong lng sn phm.
Cch trng men thin bin vn ho tu thuc vo kch thc ca sn phm, c
sn phm s dng cng mt lc nhiu cch trng men.
5 - Nung t: y l cng on quan trng quyt nh s thnh cng hay tht
bi ca mt m gm. C nhiu loi l c s dng nhng ph bin l l cc v
l bu.
- Phng php nung gm bng l cc: y l kiu l gm c nht c s dng
mt cch ph bin. L p bng t qua la nh gch non (chim 80%), p
nh, nho vi t tht, p cao dn ln theo hnh bu dc, chiu di gp 3 chiu
rng, kch thc trung bnh l 5m x 1,7m, cao khong 1,5m. Pha u l c mt ca
trung bnh 70cm x 70cm. Khi nung phi np tht kn ca trnh b mt nhit nh
hng n sn phm. Cui l c hai ng khi, cao trn 3m. Nhin liu nung gm
bng l cc ch yu l ci g v mt phn than . Nhit trong l ln ti trn
1.000oC.
- Phng php nung gm bng l bu: L xy bng gch chu la, kch thc
trung bnh 5m x 2m, cao 1,8m, nc cun hnh vm nh mui b. Mt l thng
c 9 - 10 bu k tip nhau tit kim nhin liu. Dng l bu khng cn bao
nung, xp sn phm cho mt m nung xong th ca l phi xy kn li. La
c nhm t ca l ti bu thp nht qua bu th hai bng ci theo rnh ca
23

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

bu. Bu th hai nhit th lp ca li tip nhit cho bu th ba. Thc hin ln


lt nh vy cho n bu cui cng. Nhin liu dng cho l bu ch yu l ci
g v mt phn nh than , nhit trong l t ti 1300oC.
IV- CC C IM NI BT CA GM CHU U
mi thi k, nhng hoa vn, cht liu v k thut to hnh chnh l c
im gm Vit t k cu chuyn v thi i ca chng .
Theo ph PGS. Ts. Nguyn nh Chin - nguyn Ph Gim c Bo tng
Lch s Quc gia : c 2 c im ni bt khng nh tnh thun Vit v chn
gi tr ca dng gm Chu u : l k thut to hnh gm v cch trang tr
hon ton c tnh c lp v khc bit vi cc dng gm khc v tinh xo
t n trnh rt cao.
Theo ng Tng B Honh nguyn Gim c Bo tng Lch s Hi Dng
: Gm c Chu u c sn xut ch yu l cc sn phm cao cp dng cung
tin cho triu nh v theo n t hng ca khch nc ngoi ch khng c cc
mt hng dn dng .
Gm Chu u c kiu dng c to hnh t nhin , cht men sng, hoa
vn ha tit trang tr c ti dung d nhng th hin rt tinh t , khong t .
Cc loi men ni ting mt thi ca Chu u c bit n nhiu l men trng
trong, hoa lam, men ngc, xanh lc, xanh ru, vng nht, vng m, men tam
thi (ba mu men l xanh lc, v vng) th hin m bn sc dn tc Vit
Nam mang mt phong cch gm thun cht Vit, vi nhng nt bt ti hoa
phn nh trung thc nn vn minh ca chu th sng Hng .
Gm Chu u c s k tha ca gm Vn yn (Kip Bc) th k XIII, gm
L-Trn v lp men ngc v to khc hoa vn chm ni, kiu dng thanh thot.
Bi vy gm Chu u thi t c 4 tiu chun l tng cho sn phm
gm , l : Mng nh giy, trong nh ngc, trng nh ng, ku nh chung .
Phng php ch to v k thut to hnh ca gm c Chu u t trnh
cao : chut , to dng trn bn xoay, ngt sn phm thnh nhiu on ri lp
24

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

ghp li, gia cng bng cch p ni, v, khc, vch, nn, c ... Xng gm
phn ln c mu xm nht, cng rn, c loi trng c, trng trong. Phng
php trang tr rt a dng, phng khong, tr tnh, hi ha, tinh xo nh v,
khc, ha, p

y bt gm Chu u c qut mt lp son nu

Cc bt a i L thng cn du con k r rng; gm Chu u kho


hn, du con k khng cn na. y cc chn a thi L thng tr t
mc, y ca gm Chu u thng c qut mt lp son nu, mu m,
thng khi vn cn nguyn du bt. Lp son nu ny khng phi l men, m ch
l mt lp son pha mu nu rt mng bo v y chn a. y cng l
nhng c im phn bit gm ta v gm Trung quc . Gm Trung quc
khng bao gi tr t mc, hay qut son nu, cng khng c du con k. Con
k l mt k thut hon ton Vit Nam. K thut ny d lm cho mn km i
cht phm cht, nhng li l mt pht kin ring ca ngi th Vit Nam, nhm
trnh cho chn a khng b dnh vo nhau khi nung m li tit kim c din
tch l .
25

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Gm Chu u cn c coi l gm o v hoa vn tinh xo ca nhng sn


phm ny u mang m nhng gi tr nhn vn ca Pht gio v Nho gio .
Chnh nhng hoa vn c o khin cho gm Chu u khng th ln vi
cc loi gm khc. Sn phm gm Chu u k tha s thanh thot, uyn chuyn
ca gm thi L, vc dng khe khon ca gm thi nh Trn. Thin nhin v
cuc sng ca c dn sng Hng c phn nh thng qua cc hnh v ngh
thut trn bnh gm rt phong ph .
K thut v trang tr trn sn phm gm Chu u thng s dng cc loi
bt lng mm ( loi bt thng dng ca cc nh Nho ) a mu men ln b
mt sn phm gm mc ( nu l v di men ) v trn b mt men trng ( nu l
k thut v trn men ) , nt v p dng theo phng php Phng bt , to nt
v phng khong , tung ty th hin s iu luyn , thun thc ca ngi v ,
hay li v Cng bt t m , chi tit ty theo tng ti , cm hng ngi v
. Hoa vn trang tr trn gm c Chu u phn nhiu l sen, cc, c cch iu
di nhiu dng thc khc nhau v hng chc loi hoa vn cch iu khc .
Ngi th gm xa thi hn dn tc vo nhng nt hoa vn phong ph, phn
nh sinh ng thin nhin vo cuc sng dn d : hnh ngi i nn, o di,
mc ng chn tru, chim u trn cnh hoa o, n chim ngi, chim cu bay
trn cnh ng...

26

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

m Kendy nh thi- gm Chu u


Cc ngh nhn Chu u khai sinh mt dng gm qu vi nc men
sng v v p tinh t, khng ch k tha xut sc gm L-Trn v men ngc v
hoa vn vi kiu dng thanh thot, m cn vt tri cc di tch v cht lng
gm hoa lam .

m Kendy hoa lam v Ln h cu- gm Chu u

Bt chn cao Chu u v cc dy hoa lam

27

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Men gm Chu u rt phong ph: nh men ngc (celadon), men nu, men
trng, men lc. Tuy nhin tiu biu nht l men trng trong vi hoa vn mu
xanh (men trng chm) v men trng trong vi hoa vn ba mu vng, nu v
xanh lc (men tam thi). Men ngc, men trng, men nu v men nu en thng
b ln vi gm i L Trn, tuy nhin, hoa vn trn men L nhiu nh hng
Pht gio, hoa vn Chu u phn nh i sng nng thn Vit Nam, hoa vn
trn men L thng c v bng cch khc chm hay khc ni, hoa vn Chu
u c v bng men mu.

Mt a gm Chu u v men tam thi

Men trng chm v men tam thi ni danh v c a chung hn c. Men


trng chm (nn men trng, hoa vn mu xanh bic) chim s lng cao nht.
Cc mn vt c ngoi khi Nng Hi An cng u l men trng
28

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

chm. Do , khi ni v gm Chu u, ngi ta ch thng bit v loi ny


m t n cc loi men khc. Loi gm Chu u hng nht ny nhiu
mn p tuyt vi, bt xa nh Minh, v p khng km g gm men lam
ca nh Thanh bn Trung quc .
Tuyt vi nht l hoa vn trn men trng mu chm (lam) v men tam thi,
hnh nh thun ty Vit Nam. Ngi th gm v tu l chui, nhnh rong, chim
s, chim chch che, tm, c bng, cc, ra, cng rau mung, bng hoa cc, hoa
sen. Cng nh cc bnh m Vit Nam i trc, thng hoc lm ta mi thy mt
vi bnh, m thi Chu u c quai cm, cn ngoi ra, ni quai cm ch l mt
vt trang tr nh con ra, con c, bng sen nh gm Vit Nam cc thi
trc.
Hnh dng gm Chu u tht phong ph: Bt chn cao, bt chn thp,
t, a, chn, tc, bnh, m, u, chu, lu, h, bt hng, bt trm, chn n,
hp, l, bnh vi, nghin mc, c c nghin mc hnh con tru, con cua, ri li
cn chi ca tr em nh cc hnh tng con g, con cc, con ln, ngi ci
nga, t cc mn dng trong nh ngi dn, trong nh cha, trong nh
gii trng gi, cho n xut cng
Hai sn phm tiu biu c sc nht ca gm Chu u c l loi bnh c
cao hoa lam (trong dn gian c gi l bnh c ti ) v bnh hoa lam T b cn
c gi l bnh cha, m tng trng cho m dng - tri t - v chng .
Bnh T b mang dng hnh cy n t b tng trng cho phi m, t, m
hin thn cho ph n Vit Nam. Ha tit lng chim Lc Vit chy quanh ming
bnh th hin truyn thng ca con Rng chu Lc. Vai bnh v ha tit ng
hnh gm kim, thy, mc, ha, th. Thn bnh th hin bng ha tit tng, cc,
trc, mai vi sng nc. Phn chn bnh c to vin bi nhng ha tit
cnh hoa sen th hin o gio ngi Vit.

29

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Bnh T b Chu u v trang tr Hoa iu

Ngoi cc cuc khai qut cc l gm c lng Chu u, loi bnh t b


ny thng c tm thy t cc tu bun m ngoi khi Hi An Nng.
Nh tn gi, bnh t b c hnh dng ging cy n t b dng ng. Mnh
thun trn, c nh, ming loe, thn trn phnh to, thng c bn tng hoa vn,
trong lng ming bnh cng c hnh v hoa l. Tng th nht chung quanh c
bnh hoc v nhng tu l chui hay hnh cy la; tng th hai khi hnh hoa cc,
hoa mu n, khi th nhng chui hnh xon c ng; tng th ba ln nht l
hnh chim chch cho, chim s hay l nhng v t sng bin, bn cnh nhng
v hnh hoa l; tng di cng l cc vi nhng vng trn hnh bu dc
chng ln nhau.

30

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Bt ung nc, bnh t b, hp ng trang sc, ly ung ru

Theo khi nim trit hc phng ng, bnh c ti mang tnh dng th
hin ngi chng, ngi cha l tr ct, nn tng l ch da vng chc v xa hn
na l tri t v tr, hoa vn c trang tr bng hoa cc i a, bnh hoa lam
th hin cho ngi chnh nhn qun t.
Tc (hay bi) l ly ung ru chn cao. Ngoi nhng tc men ngc, mu
xanh trong, cn c nhng sng kin k diu nh tc thn kim quy. n trong
chn tc ny l mt qu ni l hnh ra thn kim quy ngi di y, khi
ru c rt vo, th hnh thn kim quy t t ni ln theo mc ru trong lng
tc.
a Chu u rt p, men trng trong vi hoa vn mu chm. C nhng
a tam thi rt ln, ng knh n khong 50cm, nhng thng thng th vo
khong hn 25cm ng knh. Hoa vn trong lng a thng gm hai phn.
Vnh a rng 5cm, v cnh rau, nhnh l, tm a v nhiu hnh rt p: Hnh
con cng, con vc, con ngh, c chp vt v mn, hu chy trn ng c, bn
khm trc, b la, i chch che, n vt bi trn h sen, trn thy chin, cnh
mai, a cc, a mu n ng knh 15cm. Vnh ngoi thnh a cng

31

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

v nhng hnh hoa l rt chi tit, hoa vn mu xanh chm, a ln thng l men
ba mu (Tam Thi). Cng vi bnh t b v bt Chu u, a Chu u l nhng
mn p v ni ting, c rt nhiu vin bo tng v nh su tp quc t a
chung.

a gm Chu u, trang tr ti hoa iu, th k 15, hin vt ca Bo tng


thnh ph Machida.

32

Hi tho: Gm ng
ng Nai & cc vng
v ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vnn
pht trin

a gm Chu u tam thi, v trang tr ti hoa iu, th k 15, hi


hin vt ca
Bo tng thnh ph
Machida

a gm Chu u tam thi , v trang tr ti song iu, th k 15 - 16, hin vt


ca Bo tng M thut
t Fukuoka.

33

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Ang ra bt con vt v Ang ra bt v linh th gm Chu u

a gm Chu u v hoa lam

34

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

L T B nh thi gm Chu u

m t b c tay cm v hoa dy gm Chu u

Gm Chu u - m t b 2 lp, lp ngoi chm ni v trang tr vn - phng

35

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Gm Chu u Cc loi bnh t b

36

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

37

Hi tho: Gm ng
ng Nai & cc vng
v ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vnn
pht trin

38

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

39

Hi tho: Gm ng
ng Nai & cc vng
v ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vnn
pht trin

40

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

41

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

42

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

43

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Hnh nh mt s a gm Chu u c kch thc ln rt c gi tr t th k 15


(hin vt tu c C Lao Chm-Hi An, Qung Nam ).

Bt chn cao tam thi v hoa lam gm Chu u th k 15 (hin vt tu c C


Lao Chm-Hi An, Qung Nam ).

44

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Hp hnh voi, gm hoa lam- Chu u, th k 15 (hin vt tu c C Lao ChmHi An, Qung Nam ).
Bt Chu u cng thng l men trng chm, ng knh ming bt t
14 n 16cm, cao t 8 n 10cm, nhiu loi hoa vn khc nhau:khi th chim s
u trn cnh mai, khi th a cc, a mu n, khi th li l khm phong lan
trong lng bt. Vnh trong ca bt cng v nhng vng trn hoa l. Hoa vn
mt ngoi bt thng gm hai tng, pha trn l mt vnh hoa mai, hoa cc cao
khong hn 3cm, tng di, khong 4cm, l nhng c hnh cc vng xon c
tiu biu ca gm Chu u. Trn vnh ngoi ming bt cng c nhng vng
ng tm.

y hp phn iu khc rt tinh xo


45

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

m ng ru Chim phng

m voi gm Chu u

46

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Hp phn v con ging gm Chu u

Mt s t , bt gm Chu u trc vt c t tu m

47

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Ngoi ra cn c rt nhiu h ru hoa vn trng chm v hoa vn tam thi.


Li c cc h ru hnh chim vt hnh con g, cc chn ung tr c quai cm l
chim vt. L hng v chn n thi Chu u ln v p v cng. C nhng
chn n cao 70, 80cm, l hng cao 35, 40cm. Mt s ln c k tn ngi lm
v r nm thng, nh v chng ng Huyn Thng Nguyn Th nh, v
chng Xun Vi L Th Ngc, v chng Bi Du L Th Cn, ng Hu,
ng Tnh Khng
V. SAU BA TH K THT TRUYN, DNG GM CHU DU HI SINH
MNH M .
Mt s kin mang tnh lch s i vi lng gm c truyn Chu u. Nm
2000, ng Nguyn Hu Thng, gim c Cng ty Sn xut, Dch v v Xut
nhp khu H Ni (HAPRO), ngi qu Nam Sch v Chu u thc hin
48

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

mt d n u t sn xut mt hng gm xut khu theo phng php phc ch


gm c v to mu sn phm mi theo phong cch gm c Chu u, nhm khi
phc thng hiu ni ting ca qu hng mnh.
Nm 2001, nhn thy vai tr quan trng trong vic khi phc lng ngh
gm c Chu u kt hp vi du lch lng ngh, Tng cng ty Thng Mi H
Ni u t giai on 1 l 24 t ng xy dng nh xng, c s vt cht,
trang thit b hin i khi phc li dng gm c tht truyn. Nm 2003,
gm Chu u xut cng hng u tin sang Ty Ban Nha. Nm 2004, gm
Chu u khnh thnh gian trng by vi 1000m2 trng by gii thiu cc
sn phm phc ch cc mu m c.
T n nay, XN Gm Chu u khng ch phc hi c hng nghn
mu m gm c m cn y mnh tm kim m rng th trng xut khu.
Nhm qung b thng hiu v gi tr vn ha dn tc, m rng c s sn xut,
nm 2009, XN Gm Chu u c Hapro u t hn 7 t ng xy dng giai
on 2.

Hnh nh trong mt xng sn xut gm Chu u mi


49

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

Nh y mnh u t c s vt cht, tng cng xc tin thng mi nn


thng hiu ca dng sn phm gm Chu u trn th trng quc t c m
rng. Hin sn phm gm Chu u c mt ti nhiu nc trn th gii nh:
Nht, c, Ty Ban Nha, M, Nga. Sn phm c tiu th mnh nn sn xut
ca n v tng trng bnh qun 25%/nm.
Bn cnh vic m rng sn xut, tng cng xut khu, vi li th lng
ngh li gn cc im di tch vn ha lch s, XN ch trng y mnh hot
ng xc tin du lch tng cng lin kt vi cc doanh nghip du lch. Trong
nhng nm gn y, XN gm Chu u tr thnh im n ca nhiu on
khch quc t trong v ngoi nc tr thnh a danh trong bn du lch ca
tnh Hi Dng.
Theo chin lc pht trin t nm 2013 n nm 2020, XN Gm Chu u
s xy dng khu sn xut lng ngh tp trung vi din tch 10ha cho cc h sn
xut kinh doanh trn a bn sn xut tp trung. Chu u tr thnh mt trung
tm du lch lng ngh ti pha Bc, XN s xy dng khu du lch lng ngh sinh
thi, trong nhn mnh cc m hnh sn xut gm t thi sn xut th s
n hin i.
sn phm gm Chu u ngy mt tinh xo p ng yu cu ngy cng
cao ca th trng xut khu, trong thi gian ti bn cnh vic tng cng
nghin cu a ra nhng sn phm mi mang m nt vn ha, ngh thut Vit
Nam, doanh nghip cn y mnh u t c s vt cht, o to tay ngh cho
i ng cng nhn.
Vi nhng n lc ca mnh, gm Chu u c nguyn i tng Tng
t lnh V Nguyn Gip khi Ngi v thm lng Gm tng cho 9 ch vng
:"Gm Chu u tinh hoa vn ho Vit Nam".
Chnh v nhng sn phm c o mang m bn sc vn ha truyn thng,
lng gm Chu u c tnh Hi Dng la chn l im n v l ni t chc
50

Hi tho: Gm ng Nai & cc vng ph cn, gi tr truyn thng & vn pht trin

s kin vn ha ln th hai ca Hi Dng - Hng ng Nm Du lch quc gia


ng bng Sng Hng 2013 .
Chng trnh du lch lng gm c Chu u gm 5 hot ng chnh: Trng
by b su tp gm c v gm ng i, dng bn gm Vit gii thiu v tr
ni bt gm Chu u; vinh danh th gii tay ngh cao v lm gm; tham quan
Cng ty C phn Gm Chu u (n v gp phn a thng hiu gm Chu
u n vi du khch trong v ngoi nc) vi cc hot ng nh: thp hng
cho ngh nhn Bi Th H (ngi c bit n nh t ca gm Chu u), xem
b su tp gm c v quy trnh sn xut, ch to cc sn phm gm hin i; du
lch lng gm c Chu u, tham quan di ch kho c hc, phong cnh lng qu
Chu u, ni lu gi di sn gm Chu u di lng t; thi tm hiu lch s
gm Chu u.
Ht

51