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6/5/2015

Amphiboles

Amphibole:structure,chemistry,petrogenesis

StructureAmphibolesconsistofdoublechainsofsilicatetetrahedraalignedalongthecaxis
oftheunitcell.

withtheindividualchainslinkedbycationsinoctahedral(andoccasionallygreater)
coordination.Thestructureofamphibole,withchainlinkingcations,isshownbelowas
projectedalongthecaxisoftheorthorhombicunitcell.

InamphiboletheM1,M2andM3sitesareoctahedralandoccupiedbyMg2+andF2+.
WhiletheM4sitesaretypicallyoccupiedbyCa2+,andtheAsitesmaybeoccupiedby
Na+orbevacant
ChemistryThebasicformulafortheamphibolegroupis:
http://jaeger.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/msandifo/Teaching/Minerals/amphibole.html

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WX2Y5Z8O22(OH)2
whereWrepresentsthecontentofthelargeAsitewhichmaybeoccupiedbyNa,CaorK
butisfrequentlyvacantX(Ca,Na,K,Mg,Fe)isthecontentoftheM4sitewitheither6
fold(octahedral)or8foldcoordinationY(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)isthecontentofthe
octahedralM1,M2,M3sites,andZ(Si,Al)thecontentofthetetrahedralsites.
Amphibolesshowextensivesolidsolutionindicatingtheoperationofnumerousexchange
vectorsinthismineralgroup(inotherwords,amphibolesareprettymuchcompositional
"garbagecans").ThecompositionoftheNaCaAlsolidsolutionseriesrelatingtheblue
amphiboles(e.g.glaucophane),thealuminousamphiboles(hornblendes)andthesodic
hornblendes(edenite,pargasite)tothekeycomponenttremolitecanbedescribedwithjust
threeexchangevectors:AlviAlivMgvi1Siiv1,NaviiiAlviCaviii1Mgvi1,andNaAAlivSiiv1vA1
(wherevstandsforvacancy,andAisalargebutvariablycoordinatedsitethatisoften
vacantoronlypartiallyoccupied):
tremolitevACaviii2Mgvi5Siiv8O22(OH)2
tschermakitevACaviii2Mgvi3Alvi2Aliv2Siiv6O22(OH)2
pargasiteNaACaviii2Mgvi4AlviAliv2Siiv6O22(OH)2
edeniteNaACaviii2Mgvi5AlivSiiv7O22(OH)2
hornblendevACaviii2Mgvi4AlviAlivSiiv7O22(OH)2
glaucophanevANaviiiCaviiiMgvi4AlviSiiv8O22(OH)2
(notethattwofurtherdimensionaltotheamphibolecompositionalspaceareimpliedby
theFeMg1,KNa1exchangevectorsmakinga5dcompositionalspace!)

Notethatthepreciseformoftheexchangevectorsthatcanbeusedtodescribethe
compositionalspaceisnotunique,andcaneasilybemodifiedasshownbelow.

http://jaeger.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/msandifo/Teaching/Minerals/amphibole.html

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InthisfigurethenewaxisNaAMgviAlvi1vA1isequivalenttoNaAAlivSiiv1vA1minus
AlviAlivMgvi1Siiv1(i.e.,"edeniteexchange""tschermak'sexchange").Thisfigurealso
showsthattheregionofcompositionalspaceaccessiblebysuchexchangevectorsis
limited.
Theamphibolegroupisdividedintotheorthoamphiboles

anthophyllite

Mg7Si8O22(OH)2

gedrite

AlAlMg1Si1

NaAlSi1v1

FeMg1

NaFe6Al3Si7O22(OH)2

andtheclinoamphiboles,themainmineralsofwhichare

tremolite

Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2

actinolite

FeMg1

Ca2Fe5Si8O22(OH)2

cummingtonite

MgCa1

Mg7Si8O22(OH)2

grunerite

FeMg1

Fe7Si8O22(OH)2

hornblende

AlAlMg1Si1

Ca2Mg4Al2Si7O22(OH)2

NaAlSi1

NaCa2Mg5Al3Si6O22(OH)2

FeMg1

NaCa2Fe5Al3Si6O22(OH)2

glaucophane

NaAlMg1Ca1 Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22(OH)2

http://jaeger.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/msandifo/Teaching/Minerals/amphibole.html

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Amphiboles

Petrogenesis

http://jaeger.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/msandifo/Teaching/Minerals/amphibole.html

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