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2556

EVALUATION OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE OF NON-DUCTILE


REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDING
LOCATED IN THAILANDS HAZARD AREA

TEWA BUETTNER
BUNSIRI PERMSUWAN

This thesis is part of the Bachelor of Engineering course.


Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Burapha University
2013

II



3
3 1 2
3
(pushover analysis)

3
3
(.. 2550)
3 1
15224.48
4.74 2 14315.26
4.34 7837.67
2.35 3
19688.38 18.73
3 3

3
:

, , ,
,

III

Abstract
This study emphasized to investigate the earthquake force resistance of non-ductile
reinforced concrete building which constructed in Thailand. The 3-story RC building was adopted
to evaluate the earthquake resistance capacity when it subjected to earthquake force. A 3-story
RC building is assumed to locate in three intensity levels of Thailands hazard area, surveillance
zone, first zone and second zone. The RC frame was modeled as a two-dimensional. The
moment-rotation relationship consists of yielding moment, capping moment and capping rotation
obtained in plastic hinge model are determined from Ibarra and Krawinkler (2005). The capacity
curve indicated that the 3-story RC building remains elastic behavior when the earthquake force
regarded as base shear subjected to the building not more than 16000 kilogram forces and it can
resist the maximum base shear in inelastic range around 19000 kilogram forces before collapse.
When the building subjected to the earthquake forces from three intensity levels of Thailands
hazard area, although the global behavior the building remain elastic but also the damage due to
concrete crushing and/or rebar yielding are occurred in local behavior of beam and column.
Keywords :

Nonlinear static procedure, pushover analysis, plastic hinge, Thailands hazard


area

IV


.

. .



.................................................................................................................................... II
Abstract..................................................................................................................................... III
..................................................................................................................... IV
....................................................................................................................................... V
.................................................................................................................................. VII
............................................................................................................................. X
1
1.1 ..................................................................................
1.2 .....................................................................................
1.3 ..................................................................................................
1.4 ....................................................................................

1
2
2
2

2
2.1 .................................................
2.2 Plastic hinge...............................................................................
2.3 Sway mechanism
2.4 Capacity design................................................
2.5 Flexural Over-strength..........................................................................................
2.6 .........................
2.7 .....
2.8 .............
2.9 .................................................................................................

3
4
9
10
14
15
22
29
37

VI

( )

3
3.1 .......................................................................................
3.2 ............................................................................................
3.3 ............................................................................

39
47
55

4
4.1 ..................................
4.2 .....
4.3 1............
4.4 2............

61
65
68
71

5
5.1 ...................................................................................................
5.2 .......................................................................................................

74
75

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................

76
77

. Moment Chord rotation....................


. ...............

79
89

......................................................................................................

94

VII


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

1 ............
.........................................................................................
.
..............................
plastic hinge........
..........
........
Beam sidesway mechanism Column sidesway mechanism
............................................................
... ..................
- .........................................
Bauschinger .........................................................
R-5 ( l/d = 2.75).............................

.................................................................................
..................................................................
-......................
..........................................
..................................................
3 ...................................................................................................
1................................................................................................
............................................................................................
2................................................................................................
3................................................................................................
........................................................................................
............................................................................

4
5
6
7
8
11
11
12
12
16
17
17
18
19
20
21
21
22
27
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

VIII

( )

3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20
3.21
3.22
3.23
3.24
3.25
3.26
4.1
4.2
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

.............................................................................
.......................................................................
SD30.............................................
SR24.............................................
GB3..................................................................................
B2.....................................................................................
B4.....................................................................................
- 2.........................................................
2 - 3.............................................................
3- ......................................................
..............................................................
...................................................................
...............................................
Dead load...................................................
Live load....................................................
Super Impose Dead load............................
.......
1...............
2...............
..............................................................................
............................................................
.......................................
........................................
.......................
1...............................................
1................................................
1...............................

46
47
48
49
50
50
51
51
52
53
53
54
54
55
56
56
59
60
60
62
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

IX

( )

4.10 2................................................
4.11 2.................................................
4.12 2................................

71
72
73

2.1 .....................................
3.1 ...............................
3.2 (Base Shear)......................................................................................
3.3

3.4
1
3.5
2

14
57
57
58
58
59

1.1
17 2538

(
)


2537 5.1
25

50 12 2538
7 -
250





(.. 2550)
Pushover Analysis

1.2
-

-

1.3
- 3
2
-

- 1
2
(..2550)
- Frame 2
- Pushover Analysis
SAP2000 V.15.0.0

1.4
- 3

- 3

- 3

2

2.1
(Ground motion)



(Damping)

(Elastic Response Spectrum) 2.1
1

(Elastic)



2.1 1

(Elastic)

(Inelastic) (
)

2.2 Plastic hinge









(Ductility ratio) 2.2

m
y

(2.1)

( )

2.2

(Flexural mode)
plastic hinge


2.3

2.3
2
2.2.1 A
Fe

(Kinetic Energy) (absorb)
(Potential energy)



2.4
2.2.2 B
= Fi Fe



(absorb)

(dissipate) (Plastic hinge) 2.5


plastic hinge

2.4
( : , : )
2.2 plastic
hinge (Curvature
ductility) 2.5

(2.2)

( )

1

3 l p / l 1 0.5 l p / l

(2.3)

plastic hinge l
plastic hinge

l p 0.08l 0.15db f y

( MPa , 1

(2.4)

2.5 plastic hinge


plastic hinge
(Ductile flexural yielding) crushing (shear
failure) (bond pull-out failure) crushing
plastic
hinge
(Cyclic loops)
2.5 1
2.5 - (Elasto-plastic)

2.3 Sway mechanism



2.6

2.7



plastic hinge
plastic hinge
3
plastic hinge
2 2.8 plastic hinge
Beam sidesway mechanism Beam hinge mechanism plastic
hinge Column sidesway mechanism Column hinge mechanism
Beam sidesway mechanism plastic hinge
Column sidesway mechanism plastic hinge
plastic hinge
column sidesway
mechanism (curvature ductility)
beam sway mechanism beam
sway mechanism
beam sidesway mechanism

Column sidesway mechanism soft-story


mechanism

beam sidesway mechanism
plastic hinge capacity design approach

10

2.4 Capacity design


plastic hinge

plastic hinge


- (Weak beam-strong column)


2.4.1 1
(Design flexural capacity
strength reduction factor )
( 2.6 2.7)
2.4.2 2
plastic hinge
plastic hinge
ACI 2.9 Capacity
design method Prof. Paulay, Pristley and Park Canturbury

Ve

M n1

Wu

M n1 M n 2 Wu L

L
2

M n 2
L

(2.5)

11

2.6

2.7

12

2.8 Beam sidesway mechanism Column sidesway mechanism

2.9
2.4.3 3

plastic hinge ACI
(Special moment resisting frame)

13

6
M c M g
5

(2.6)

M c
M g

M c M g

(2.7)


2.4.4 4

(Confinement)

(Buckling)
ACI


2.4.5 5
plastic hinge
plastic hinge -

14

2.5 Flexural Over-strength


plastic hinge

flexural over-strength
flexural over-strength ( ) nominal strength ( )
M 0 0 M n

(2.8)

over-strength factor

plastic hinge

2.5.1
SR24, SD30, SD40 1
2.1
(ksc) AIT

Steel grade
(ksc)

%
SR24
2,400
3,600
50
SD30
3,000
3,870
29
SD40
4,000
4,800
20
2.5.2
(T-beam action)
2.5.3 strain hardening
2.5.4 (confinement)

15

2.6
2.6.1


(a/d) a/d (flexuredominated beams) a/d (Sheardominated beams)
- (Flexure-dominated beams)
2.10 ... a/d = 4.5

(stiffness)

5

stiffness reload

Bauschinger effect 2.11 2.12
buckling

- (Shear-dominated beams)
2.13 2.14 ...
a/d =2.75 ( R-5) a/d = 4.41 ( R-6)
R-5
R-6 R-5 R-6 stiffness reload
R-6
R-5

stiffness reload

16

2.15 (
)



15d

Sliding
shear failure a/d

2.10 ...

17

2.11 -

2.12 Bauschinger

18

2.13 R-5 ( l/d = 2.75)

2.14 R-6 ( l/d = 4.46)

19

2.15
2.6.2




crush
Peffect

20

2.16
2.6.3

( )
unbalanced moment

unbalancedmoment
unbalanced moment
16
V j As1 f y As 2 f y H

(2.9)

joint shear failure


joint shear failure 90

2.17

(Bond failure)
(slip)

21

bond
pull-outfailure joint shear failure bond pull-out failure
2.18
joint shear failure bond pull-out failure

capacity design

2.17

2.18 -

22

2.7 ( M )
n



M y , y , M c / M y , cap, pl , pc , , c c
capping
M c / M y pc K s K c K s Ke y / cap , pl M c M y / M y
Kc Ke ( y / pc ) M c / M y M y M c
capping hysteretic strength hysteretic stiffness

2.19
- M y M


u s

ku d

23


(equivalent rectangular stress distribution)
Whitney
0.85 f '

1c
1ku d
c

1 0.85

f 'c 280ksc

(2.10)

1 0.85 0.05

280ksc

(2.11)

1 0.65

f 'c 560ksc

f 'c 280
70

f 'c 560ksc

(2.12)

f s s Es
f y Es

=

0.85 f

(2.13)

'c ab As f s

As f s
0.85 f 'c b

(2.14)

( M n )

T C ( ju d ) d
T

a
2

24

M n T ju d As f s d

(2.15)

C
M n C ju d 0.85 f 'c ab d

(2.16)



( Modulus of
Rupture : f r 2.0 f 'c kg/cm2)

(section
uncracked) (strain distribution)

a 2.14 2.15 2.16
M n

f
M n As f s d 1 0.59 s
f 'c

As
bd

bd 2 f s 1 0.59

fc

f 'c

(2.17)

bd
(yielding failure)
s y f s
f y ( 5600 kg/cm2 ACI ...)
2.14 2.15 f s f y
a

fy
As f s

d
0.85 f 'c b 0.85 f 'c

cm

(2.18)

25

M n T ju d As f y d a kg-cm

fy

f 'c

M n As f y d 1 0.59

M n bd 2 f y 1 0.59

M n As f y ju d M n Rubd 2 kg-cm

ju 1 0.59

fy

f 'c

Ru f y 1 0.59

fy

f 'c

(2.19)

kg-cm

(2.20)

kg-cm

(2.21)
(2.22)

fy

f 'c

(crushing failure)
u 0.003 mm/mm
f s
s y

=

0.85 f

'c ab As f s = s Esbd

(2.23)

a c 1ku d
s u d c / c
(2.21) m u Es / 0.851 f 'c
1

k m ku m 0
2

m m
mp

2
2
2

ku

(2.24)

26

c ku d s
(2.23) (2.15)
(balanced failure)

u = 0.003 mm/mm
s = y f s f y

b b
b

( balanced steel ratio )
cb
u 0.003 mm/mm s y

f y / Es
0.003

d cb
cb

0.003
cb
fy

0.003 E
s

b 1 0.85 f 'c
fy

ab

0.003
1
fy

0.003 E
s

0.003
0.003 f y / Es

(2.25)

Es 2.04 106 kg/kg


b 1 0.85 f 'c
fy

6,120
6,120 f y

(2.26)

M n As f y d

ab
2

M n bbd 2 f y 1 0.59b

fy

f 'c

kg-cm

(2.27)

27



Interaction Diagram

e
h

fy
0.85 f 'c

, t m 2.20

Pn

M n Pn e

2.20

(2.28)

28

pc
(2.29)

pc (0.76)(0.031)v (0.02 40sh )1.02 0.10

v
sh

( P / Ag f 'c )

Mc

(2.30)

M c / M y (1.25)(0.89)v (0.91)0.01cunits f 'c

( sh f y ,w / f 'c )v
f 'c

cunit

( P / Ag f 'c )
MPa
1
MPa 6.9 ksi

f 'c

fy

y
yield ,

(2.31)

y y , f y ,b y , s

y, f
y ,b
y ,s

cap, pl

yield
yield
yield

cap , pl

plastic rotation capacity

cap, pl 0.12(1 0.55asl )(0.16)v (0.02 40sh )0.43 (0.54)0.01c

units

f 'c

(0.66)0.1Sn (2.27)10.0

(2.32)

29

= 1
asl = 0
v
( P / Ag f 'c )

Sn

f 'c


cap, pl
sh
cunit 1
MPa 6.9 ksi
asl

f 'c

fy

2.8

.. 2550
5 (3) .. 2522 8 (3)
.. 2522 (
3) .. 2543
29 32 33 41 42 43



1 49 (.. 2540)
.. 2522
2



1

30

2


3
(1) 1
()


()

()


()
()
()
()
()
()

(2) 2
()


()

()


()

31

()
()
()
()
()

4 3


(Limited Ductility)

6 (.. 2527)
.. 2522
5
6






32

(1)
V = ZIKCSW
V
Z
I
K
C
S


7
8

11

12
W

25
(2)

()
Ft = 0.07 TV
Ft 0.25 V T 0.7
Ft 0
()

Fx

(V Ft ) wx hx
n

wh
i 1

Ft
Fx

i i

33


10
V

wx , wi x i
x i
hx , hi
i = 1
x = 1
n

w h 1 n
i 1

i i

7 (Z) 1 0.19
2 0.38
8 (I)

(1) 3
(2)
(3)

I
1.50
1.25
1.00

34

9 (K)

(1) (Shear Wall)
(Braced Frame)
(2)
(Ductile Moment-Resisting Frame)
(3)


()
25
()

()


(Rigidity)

(4)

K C 0.12
0.25
()
(1) (2) (3) (4)

K
1.33
0.67
0.80

2.5

1.0

10 (T)

(1)
T

0.09hn
D

35

(2)
T = 0.10 N

D

N
11
(C)
hn

C=

1
15 T

0.12 0.12
12
(S)

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

S
1.0
1.2
1.5
2.5

(Shale)
60

60

36

9


(Undrained Shear Strength) 24 (2,400
) 9

C S 0.14 0.14
0.26 0.26
13
(Story Drift) 6 (1) (2)
0.5
14

:





49
(.. 2540) .. 2522



37

2.9
Krawinkler Seneviratna (1998)
2, 5, 10, 20, 30 40 2 8
4 (
Northridge) 9
FEMA 273
5
5
5
Williams Albermani (2003)

3, 6, 10
(Nonlinear Static
Procedure, NSP) FEMA 356
MPA NL

RHA



FEMA 356 MPA

MPA
FEMA 356

NL RHA
Chintanapakdee Chopra (2003)
3, 6, 9, 12, 15 18
1, 1.5, 2, 4 6 20
MPA
NL RHA

38

MPA NL RHA
2 3
NL RHA


MPA 30
(Response
Spectrum Analysis , RSA) (Elastic)
(Underrestimate)
( )

3
SAP2000
1 2

..2550

3.1
3.1.1
- 3 12.85 m
-
200 kg./m.2
- ACI 318-89

- 10 cm
-
3 GB3, B2 B4 0.20.4m
3.6
- 3 -
2 0.30.3m 2- 3 0.250.25m
3 - 0.20.2m
3.7

40

3.1 3

41

3.2 1

42

3.3

43

3.4 2

44

3.5 3

45

3.6

46

3.7

3.8

47

3.1.2

-
210 kg/cm2
- 2 SR24 SD30
2,400 kg/cm2 3,000 kg/cm2

3.2
3.2.1

3.9

48

3.10 SD30

49

3.11 SR24

50

3.2.2 ( Section Properties)


- (Frame Properties)

3.12 GB3

3.13 B2

51

3.14 B4

3.15 - 2

52

3.16 2 - 3

53

3.17 3-

3.18

54

3.2.3 (hinge Properties)

3.19

3.20

55

3.3



3.3.1


200
kg/m2
3.21 ,
3.22 3.23

3.21 Dead load

56

3.22 Live load

3.23 Super Impose Dead load

57

3.3.2



..2550


-
3.1 ( W )
(kg)

3,168
2,304
11,520
0
116
17,108
3
6,600
2,304
11,520
4,800
240
25,464
2
6,600
2,304
11,520
4,800
375
25,599

5,808
2,304
11,520
4,800
476
24,908
1
5,808
2,304
11,520
4,800
476
24,908

117,987
(Base Shear)
V ZIKCSW

3.2
zone

1
2

(Base Shear)
Z
I
K
C
0.19
1
1
0.12
0.19
1
1
0.12
0.38
1
1
0.12

S
1.2
2.5
1

W(kg) V(kg)
117987 3138
117987 5829
117987 5380

58

Fx

(V Ft ) wx hx
n

wh
i 1

i i

3.3
( Fx )


3
2

hx (m)

11.65
8.65
5.65
2.95
0.25

wx (kg )

17,108
25,464
25,599
24,908
24,908

hx wx

Ft (kg )

199,308
220,264
144,634
73,479
6,227

V (kg )

0
0
0
0
0

3,266
3,266
3,266
3,266
3,266

Fx (kg )

971
1,074
705
358
30

3.4
( Fx ) 1


3
2

hx (m)

11.65
8.65
5.65
2.95
0.25

wx (kg )

17,108
25,464
25,599
24,908
24,908

hx wx

199,308
220,264
144,634
73,479
6,227

Ft (kg )

V (kg )

0
0
0
0
0

6,066
6,066
6,066
6,066
6,066

Fx (kg )

1,804
1,994
1,309
665
56

59

3.5
( Fx ) 2


3
2

hx (m)

11.65
8.65
5.65
2.95
0.25

wx (kg )

17,108
25,464
25,599
24,908
24,908

hx wx

199,308
220,264
144,634
73,479
6,227

Ft (kg )

V (kg )

0
0
0
0
0

5,599
5,599
5,599
5,599
5,599

Fx (kg )

1,655
1,840
1,208
614
52

3.24

60

3.25 1

3.26 2


1 2 Pushover Analysis

(Capacity Curve)

4.1
4.1.1 (Capacity curve)
4.1 19,688.38 kgf
18.73 cm 1 15,224.48 kgf
4.74 cm 2 14,315.26 kgf
4.34 cm 7,837.67 kgf
2.35 cm

62

22000
()

20000

()

Pushover Curve

()

18000

Base Reaction (kgf)

16000

() (4.74,15224.48)
(4.34,14315.26)
14000

12000

10000

8000

(2.35,7837.67)

6000
4000
2000
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Displacement (cm)

4.1
4.1.2 ( Plastic hinges mechanism )

- Yield (Y)
- Immediate Occupancy (IO)

63

- Life Safety (LS) 75%

- Collapse Prevention (CP)


90%
- Failure (F)

4.1 4.2
4.48 cm () 14,766.41
kgf 1 Y IO 2
IO 3 Y Elastic
6.73 cm () 17,898.18
kgf 1 2 Y IO 3
IO Yield Elastic
18.73 cm () 19,688.38
kgf 1 3 Y
IO LS F 2 IO
LS Y 1 IO
LS 2 IO Inelastic
23.92 cm () 19,428.76
kgf 1 Y
IO F 2 LS F 3
IO Y 1
IO , LS F Y 2
IO Inelastic

64

()

()

()
Yield

Immediate Occupancy

()
Live Safety

Collapse Prevention

4.2

Failure

65

4.2
4.2.1 (Capacity curve)
1
2 3 30 kg 358 kg 705 kg 1,074 kg
971 kg 4.4 7,837.67 kgf
2.35 cm 4.5

4.4

66

22000

Base Reaction (kgf)

20000
18000

Pushover Curve

16000

14000
12000
10000

8000

(2.35,7837.67)

6000
4000
2000
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Displacement (cm)

4.5

80

90

67

4.2.2 (Plastic hinges mechanism)


4.5 4.6
() 1
2 3 Y IO

Yield

()

()

()

()

Immediate Occupancy

Live Safety

Collapse Prevention

4.6

Failure

68

4.3 1
4.3.1 (Capacity Curve)
1 1
2 3 56 kg 665 kg 1,309 kg 1,994 kg
1,804 kg 4.7 15,224.48 kgf
4.74 cm 4.8

4.7 1

69

22000

Base Reaction (kgf)

20000
18000

Pushover Curve

16000

1
(4.74,15224.48)

14000
12000
10000

8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Displacement (cm)

4.8 1

80

90

70

4.2.2 (Plastic hinges mechanism)


4.8 4.9
() 1
2 3 Y IO

Yield

()

()

()

()

Immediate Occupancy

Live Safety

Collapse Prevention

4.9 1

Failure

71

4.4 2
4.4.1 (Capacity Curve)
2 1
2 3 52 kg 614 kg 1,208 kg 1,840 kg
1,665 kg 4.10 14,315.26 kgf
4.34 cm 4.11

4.10 2

72

22000

Base Reaction (kgf)

20000
18000

Pushover Curve

16000

2
(4.34,14315.26)

14000
12000
10000

8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Displacement (cm)

4.11 2

80

90

73

4.4.2 (Plastic hinges mechanism)


4.11 4.12
()
1 2 3 Y
IO

Yield

()

()

()

()

Immediate Occupancy

Live Safety

Collapse Prevention

4.12 2

Failure

5

3
Pushover Analysis

5.1
5.1.1 (Earthquake intensity)
- 1 (Base Shear)
5,829 kgf
- 2 (Base Shear)
5,380 kgf
- (Base Shear)
3,138 kgf
1

5.1.2 (Performance of reinforced concrete frames)


- 19,688.38 kgf
18.73 cm
- 1 15,224.48 kgf
4.74 cm
- 2 14,315.26 kgf
4.34 cm
- 7,837.67 kgf
2.35 cm
1 2

75

5.1.3 ( Plastic hinges mechanism )


- 1 2
1
2 3 Yield (Y)
Immediate Occupancy (IO)

5.2
-

1 2

-






-
(S)
(S)

-
(..2550)


[1.] ,
.. 2550
[2.] , , .. 2546
[3.] , ,
2541
[4.] ,
, 5 .. 2554
[5.]

Curtis B Haselton and Gregory G. Deierlein, Assessing Seismic Collapse Safety of


Modern Reinforce Concrete Moment Frame Buildings, Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering Stanford University, 2007

77

1.

2.

82/3 5 20260

E-mail

holy-lord@hotmail.com

90 11 27260

E-mail

mai__2241@hotmail.com

.
Moment Chord rotation

80

Moment Chord rotation


GB3
b

( Single reinforcement )

= 20 cm , h = 40 cm , d = 36.3 cm , d ' = 3.7 cm ,

f 'c

= 210 kg/cm2

210 9.81
20.6
100

Mpa

fy

= 3,000 kg/cm2

3, 000 9.81
294.3
100

Mpa

= 0.85

0.62
Ash
4
sh

0.0014
sb
20 20

As

3 1.22
3.39
4

cm2 ,

As '

C 0.85 f 'c ba

0.85 210 20 a

T As f y

3.39 3000

T C

10170
0.85 210 20

2 1.22
2.26
4

10,170

= 2.85 cm

Mn T d
2

2.85

10170 36.3

354,679

kg-cm

3,547 3547

kg-m

M y M n 0.9 3,547

= 3,192

kg-m

3,192 9.81
1, 000

31.32

kN-m

My

kg

cm2

81

P
Ag f 'c

0
20 40 210

=0

; P 0 kg

Mc
1.25 (0.89)v (0.91)0.01cunit f 'c
My
M c 31.32 1.25 (0.89)0 (0.91)0.01(1)(20.6)
Mc =

38.39 1, 000
9.81

= 3,914

= 38.39

kN-m

kg-m

cap, pl
cap, pl 0.12(1 0.55asl )(0.16)v (0.02 40sh )0.43 (0.54)0.01c

units

f 'c

(0.66)0.01sn (2.27)10.0

0.12(1 0.55(1))(0.16)0 (0.02 40(0.0014)0.43 (0.54)0.01(1)(20.6) (0.66)0.01(21.44) (2.27)10.0(0.0078)

0.0237

redians

pc
pc (0.76)(0.031)v (0.02 40sh )1.02 0.10
(0.76)(0.031)0 (0.02 40(0.0014))1.02 0.10

0.0549
cap , pl pc

redians 0.10
= 0.0237 + 0.0549

= 0.0786

redians

1 Moment Chord rotation GB3


Point
A
B
C
D
E

Moment ( kg-m )
0
3,192
3,914
0
0

Chord rotation ( redians )


0
0
0.0237
0.0786
0.0786

82

B2
b

( Double reinforcement )

= 20 cm , h = 40 cm , d = 36.1 cm , d ' = 3.9 cm ,

f 'c

= 210 kg/cm2

210 9.81
20.6
100

Mpa

fy

= 3,000 kg/cm2

3, 000 9.81
294.3
100

Mpa

= 0.85

2
Ash 2 4 0.6
sh

0.0014
sb
20 20

As
R

2 1.62
4.02
4

6,120 As ' As f y
1.7 f 'c b1

6,120d ' As '


0.85 f 'c b1

c R R2
a 1c

cm2 ,

As '

2 1.62
4.02
4

6,120 4.02 4.02 3,000


1.7 210 20 0.85

= 2.07

6,120 3.9 4.02


0.85 210 20 0.85

= 31.62

2.07 2.072 31.62

= 0.853.92

cd '

fs '
0.003 Es
c

3.33

cm2

= 3.92 cm

cm

3.92 3.9

0.003 2.04 106


3.92

= 31.22

M n 0.85 f 'c ba d As ' f s '(d d ')


2

3.33

0.85 210 20 3.33 36.1


4.02 31.22 36.1 3.9
2

413, 408 kg-cm


4,134

kg-m

kg/cm2

83

M y M n 0.9 4,134

= 3,721

kg-m

3, 721 9.81
1, 000

36.50

kN-m

My

P
Ag f 'c

0
20 40 210

=0

; P 0 kg

Mc
1.25 (0.89)v (0.91)0.01cunit f 'c
My
M c 36.50 1.25 (0.89)0 (0.91)0.01(1)(20.6)
Mc =

44.75 1, 000
9.81

= 4,561

= 44.75

kN-m

kg-m

cap, pl
cap, pl 0.12(1 0.55asl )(0.16)v (0.02 40sh )0.43 (0.54)0.01c

units

f 'c

(0.66)0.01sn (2.27)10.0

0.12(1 0.55(1))(0.16)0 (0.02 40(0.0014)0.43 (0.54)0.01(1)(20.6) (0.66)0.01(21.44) (2.27)10.0(0.0111)

0.0243

redians

pc
pc (0.76)(0.031)v (0.02 40sh )1.02 0.10
(0.76)(0.031)0 (0.02 40(0.0014))1.02 0.10

0.0549
cap , pl pc

redians 0.10
= 0.0243 + 0.0549

= 0.0792

redians

84

2 Moment Chord rotation B2


Point
A
B
C
D
E

Moment ( kg-m )
0
3,721
4,561
0
0

Chord rotation ( redians )


0
0
0.0243
0.0792
0.0792

C5A
b

= 20 cm , h = 20 cm , d = 20 3.9 = 16.1 cm , d ' = 3.9 cm

f 'c

= 210 kg/cm2

210 9.81
20.6
100

Mpa

fy

= 3,000 kg/cm2

3, 000 9.81
294.3
100

Mpa

0.62
Ash
4
sh

0.0014
sb
20 20
ab k1

0.003d
fy
0.003
Es

Pb ab 0.85 f 'c b

0.85 0.003 16.1


3000
0.003
2.04 106

= 9.180.8521020

0.85 f 'c abb d b


2

eb '
Pb

= 9.18

cm

= 32,773

kg

f y As '(d d ')

9.18


2
0.85 210 9.18 20 16.1
3, 000 2 1.6 (16.1 3.9)
2
4

eb '
32, 773

85

eb ' =

16

eb eb '

cm

(d d ')
2

fy
0.85 f 'c

e 9.9

h 20

16

3, 000
0.85 210

0.495


2
4 1.6
4


20 16.1
m 16.8 0.025

16.1 3.9
2

= 16.8

= 0.025
= 0.42

e 0.495 , m
h

= 9.9 cm

0.336

0.43
3

86

Pn
0.43
bhf 'c

1
= 0.432020210

Pn

= 36,120

M n Pn e

= 36,1200.099

M y Mn

= 0.93,576 = 3,218

My

3, 218 9.81
1, 000

= 31.57

P
9,589

Ag f 'c 20 20 210

kg

= 3,576

kg-m

kg-m

kN-m
= 0.11

; P 9,859

kg

Mc
1.25 (0.89)v (0.91)0.01cunit f 'c
My
M c 31.57 1.25 (0.85)0.11 (0.91)0.01(1)(20.6)
Mc =

38.21 1, 000
9.81

= 3,895

38.21 kN-m

kg-m

cap, pl
cap, pl 0.12(1 0.55asl )(0.16)v (0.02 40sh )0.43 (0.54)0.01c

units

f 'c

(0.66)0.01sn (2.27)10.0

0.12(1 0.55(1))(0.16)0.11 (0.02 40(0.0014)0.43 (0.54)0.01(1)(20.6) (0.66)0.01(21.44) (2.27)10.0(0.025)

0.0223

redians

pc
pc (0.76)(0.031)v (0.02 40sh )1.02 0.10
(0.76)(0.031)0.11 (0.02 40(0.0014))1.02 0.10

0.0374

redians 0.10

87

= 0.0223 + 0.0374

cap , pl pc

= 0.0597

redians

3 Moment Chord rotation C5A


Point
A
B
C
D
E

Moment ( kg-m )
0
3,218
3,895
0
0

Chord rotation ( redians )


0
0
0.0223
0.0597
0.0597

4 M y , y , M c , cap, pl , cap, pl pl
Column

My

Mc

cap , pl

cap , pl pl

GB3
B2
B4

(kg-m)
3,192
3,721
6,773

(radians)
0
0
0

(kg-m)
3,914
4,561
8,304

(radians)
0.0237
0.0243
0.0257

(radians)
0.0786
0.0792
0.0806

88

5 M y , y , M c , cap, pl , cap, pl pl
Column
C5-A
C5-B
C5-C
C5-D
C4-A
C4-B
C4-C
C4-D
C3-A
C3-B
C3-C
C3-D
C2-A
C2-B
C2-C1
C2-C2
C2-D
C1-A
C1-B
C1-C
C1-D

My

Mc

cap , pl

cap , pl pl

(kg-m)
3,218
3,218
3,218
3,218
6,233
6,233
6,233
6,233
7,709
7,709
7,709
7,709
7,709
7,709
7,709
7,709
7,709
7,709
7,709
7,709
7,709

(radians)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

(kg-m)
3,895
3,828
3,868
3,904
7,468
7,361
7,421
7,421
9,212
9,084
9,159
9,255
9,116
8,979
9,148
9,137
9,223
9,010
8,844
9,021
9,159

(radians)
0.0223
0.0169
0.0200
0.0230
0.0174
0.0138
0.0157
0.0157
0.0267
0.0214
0.0243
0.0287
0.0226
0.0178
0.0239
0.0235
0.0272
0.0188
0.0140
0.0192
0.0243

(radians)
0.0597
0.0391
0.0504
0.0629
0.0407
0.0289
0.0350
0.0350
0.0674
0.0482
0.0585
0.0755
0.0524
0.0368
0.0569
0.0554
0.0693
0.0398
0.0261
0.0410
0.0585

90


(Base Shear)
V ZIKCSW

- ( Z )

Z = 0.19
1
Z = 0.19
2
Z = 0.38
- ( I )
I = 1.00
- ( K )
K = 1.00
- ( C )
( T )
0.09hn
D
0.09 11.65
T
0.30s
12.00
T

C=
C=

1
15 T

1
0.122
15 0.30

0.12 0.12

C = 0.12

91

-
( S )

S = 1.2
1
S = 2.5
2
S = 1.0
- (W)
6 ( W )
(kg)

3,168
2,304
11,520
0
116
17,108
3
6,600
2,304
11,520
4,800
240
25,464
2
6,600
2,304
11,520
4,800
375
25,599

5,808
2,304
11,520
4,800
476
24,908
1
5,808
2,304
11,520
4,800
476
24,908

117,987
V ZIKCSW

7 (Base Shear)
zone
Z
I
K
0.19
1
1
1
0.19
1
1
2
0.38
1
1

C
0.12
0.12
0.12

S
1.2
2.5
1

W(kg) V(kg)
117987 3138
117987 5829
117987 5380

92


Ft 0.07 TV

Ft 0.25V T 0.7
Ft 0

Ft

=0

= 0.3 < 0.7 )

- ( Fx )
Fx

(V Ft ) wx hx
n

wh
i 1

i i

8
( Fx )


3
2

hx (m)

11.65
8.65
5.65
2.95
0.25

wx (kg )

17,108
25,464
25,599
24,908
24,908

hx wx

199,308
220,264
144,634
73,479
6,227

Ft (kg )

V (kg )

0
0
0
0
0

3,266
3,266
3,266
3,266
3,266

Fx (kg )

971
1,074
705
358
30

93

9
( Fx ) 1


3
2

hx (m)

11.65
8.65
5.65
2.95
0.25

wx (kg )

17,108
25,464
25,599
24,908
24,908

hx wx

199,308
220,264
144,634
73,479
6,227

Ft (kg )

V (kg )

0
0
0
0
0

6,066
6,066
6,066
6,066
6,066

Fx (kg )

1,804
1,994
1,309
665
56

10
( Fx ) 2


3
2

hx (m)

11.65
8.65
5.65
2.95
0.25

wx (kg )

17,108
25,464
25,599
24,908
24,908

hx wx

199,308
220,264
144,634
73,479
6,227

Ft (kg )

V (kg )

0
0
0
0
0

5,599
5,599
5,599
5,599
5,599

Fx (kg )

1,655
1,840
1,208
614
52



EVALUATION OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE OF NON-DUCTILE
REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDING LOCATED IN THAILANDS HAZARD
AREA

.



3
3 1 2
3
(pushover analysis)

3
3
(.. 2550)
3 1
15224.48
4.74 2 14315.26
4.34 7837.67
2.35 3
19688.38 18.73
3 3

95

Abstract
This study emphasized to investigate the earthquake force resistance of non-ductile
reinforced concrete building which constructed in Thailand. The 3-story RC building was adopted
to evaluate the earthquake resistance capacity when it subjected to earthquake force. A 3-story
RC building is assumed to locate in three intensity levels of Thailands hazard area, surveillance
zone, first zone and second zone. The RC frame was modeled as a two-dimensional. The
moment-rotation relationship consists of yielding moment, capping moment and capping rotation
obtained in plastic hinge model are determined from Ibarra and Krawinkler (2005). The capacity
curve indicated that the 3-story RC building remains elastic behavior when the earthquake force
regarded as base shear subjected to the building not more than 16000 kilogram forces and it can
resist the maximum base shear in inelastic range around 19000 kilogram forces before collapse.
When the building subjected to the earthquake forces from three intensity levels of Thailands
hazard area, although the global behavior the building remain elastic but also the damage due to
concrete crushing and/or rebar yielding are occurred in local behavior of beam and column.

96

1.)




17 2538




(
)





2537 5.1

25


50

12 2538
7
-
250



(.. 2550)
Pushover Analysis

2.)

3

SAP2000
1
2




..2550

97

2.1

M c

3
12.85 m

200 kg./m.2
ACI 318-89


10 cm

M c / M y (1.25)(0.89)v (0.91)0.01cunits f 'c

y y , f y ,b y , s

cap , pl

cap, pl 0.12(1 0.55asl )(0.16)v (0.02 40 sh )0.43


(0.54)0.01cunits f 'c (0.66)0.1Sn (2.27)10.0

2.2

2.2.1




M y , y ,
M c / M y , cap , pl , pc , , c
pc
pc (0.76)(0.031)v (0.02 40sh )1.02 0.10

98

2.2.2









..2550
- (Base Shear)

7,837.67 kgf
2.35 cm

V ZIKCSW

Fx

(V Ft ) wx hx
n

wh
i 1

i i

3.)
3.1


19,688.38 kgf
18.73 cm
1
15,224.48 kgf
4.74 cm 2
14,315.26 kgf
4.34 cm

3.2
(Plastic hinges mechanism )



4.48 cm
() 14,766.41 kgf
1
Y IO 2
IO 3

Y

Elastic

6.73 cm ()

99

17,898.18 kgf 1 2
Y IO
3
IO

Yield Elastic

18.73 cm ()
19,688.38 kgf
1 3
Y IO
LS F
2 IO LS
Y
1 IO
LS 2
IO
Inelastic

23.92 cm ()
19,428.76 kgf
1
Y IO
F 2
LS F 3
IO
Y 1
IO , LS F
Y
2 IO
Inelastic

()

()

()

100

()

3.3


()

1
2 3
Y IO

3.4
1

()

1
2 3
Y IO


1
3.5
2

()

1
2 3
Y IO

101

5)

4)
4.1
(Earthquake intensity)
1


4.2 (Performance of
reinforced concrete frames)

1 2

4.3
( Plastic hinges mechanism )


-




1 2

-

-

(S)

(S)

102

(..2550)

[1.] ,



.. 2550
[2.] ,
, ..
2546
[3.] ,

, 2541
[4.] ,

, 5 .. 2554
[5.] Curtis B Haselton and Gregory G.
Deierlein, Assessing Seismic Collapse
Safety of
Modern
Reinforce
Concrete Moment Frame Buildings,
Department of Civil and Environmental
Engineering Stanford University, 2007