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1
..................................................................6
1.1. .................................................................................................6
1. 2. - .............................6
1. 2.1. .............................................................................6
1.2.2. ............................................................................7
1.3. ..................................................................8
1.3.1. ........................................................................................8
1.3.2. ..................................................................................9
1.3.3. ..................................................................................9
1.3.4. .............................................................................................9
1.4. ........................................................10
1.5. ...................................................................................11
1.6. ........................................................15
1.6.1. ..................................................................15
1.6.2. ................................................................16

................................................................................................20
2.1. ...............................................................................................20
2.2. .......................................................................20
2.3. / ...........................................22
2.4. ...................................................................................23
2.5. .....................................................................23

2.6. ....................................................24
2.7. .......................................................................25

3
()........................................................29
3.1. .............................................................................29
3.1.1. ............................................................29
3.1.2. ................................................................................................30
3.2. .....................................................................................31
3.3. ......................................................................32

4
..................................................................................................38
4.1. ..........................................................................38
4.2. (World Health Organization).................40
4.2.1. , ......................41
4.2.2. , ......................44
4.2.3. , , ......45
4.2.4. .....................50
4.3. ....................................51
4.3.1. ..........51
4.4. ..................................................55
4.4.1. 89/391/.................................................................................55
4.4.2. 86/188/.................................................................................58
4.4.3. 2003/10/..................................................................................61
4.5.
...................................................................69
4.6. ...........................................70
4.6.1. ...............................................................................70
4.6.2. .....................................................................73
4.6.3. ...........................................................................77

4.6.4. ..............................................................................79
4.6.5.
............................................................................................................80
4.6.6. .......................................................................84
4.7.
................................................................85

5
..........................................................................87
5.1. ..............................................................................87
5.2. -, -, C-, G-...................................88
5.3. 1Hz
200Hz............................................................................................................90
5.4. ................................................95
5.5. ..............................................................97

6
...................................................................................................103
6.1. ............103
6.2. ........................................108

7
...........................................................................................109

..............................................................................................113

............................................................................116

(Links)...................................................................119


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Fletcher Munson, Bell
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fletcher%E2%80%93Munson_curves

16

1. , Harvey Fletcher & Wilden A.


Manson (1933). http://www.sengpielaudio.com/Fletcher-MunsonIsNotRobinson-Dadson.pdf


Robinson and Dadson4,
(ISO 226).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson%E2%80%93Dadson_curves

17

2. , D.W. Robinson and


R.S. Dadson (1956). http://www.sengpielaudio.com/Fletcher-MunsonIsNotRobinson-Dadson.pdf

phon,
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18

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24

, :
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27

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30

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31

, 50 /, 100

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32

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Vibroacoustic disease (VAD)


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33

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,
Marianna Alves-Pereira Nuno Castelo Branco, 140
6.
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.


.
(, ) .
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, ,

6

Vibroacoustic Disease: The need for a new attitude towards Noise, by Marianna Alves-Pareira and Nuno

Castelo Branco. Public Participation and Information Technologies, 1999, Published by CITIDEP & DCEA-FCTUNL, CITIDEP 2000. http://www.citidep.pt/papers/articles/alvesper.htm

34

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35

(audiogram), 7.
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. L 137 24/05/1986 . 0028 0034

36

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,
9

: (EEA, European Environment Agency),


www.eea.europa.eu/el/
10

Commission of the European communities, Future noise Policy - Green Paper. , 04.11.1996,

COM(96) 540 Final. :


http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/greenpap/htm#situ

38

8 . 80 dB (A) ,

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39

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Community Noise, 1995,
,
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11

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12

: http://www.who.int/docstore/peh/noise/Comnoise-1.pdf

40


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44

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46

LAeq,

Db(A)

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48

: (World Healthy Organization)


3:
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49

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50

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http://eur- lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31986L0188:EL:HTML

60

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(86.188.)
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61

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69


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23

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, COM(96) 540 final, 4 1996.


www.ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/greenpap.htm#situ
24

EL L 189 25 2002, .12 - .25

25
L 76, 23 1992
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, 2010-2015,
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2002

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2010 2015
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27

L 18, 24 1980, .26, L 117 4


1983, . 15

28

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( 24 ).

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2015

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2007/34/ 14 2007. ,

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(Commission of European Community), 10.3.2004, COM


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33

Noise from two-wheeled vehicles, 2000, TRL for the European Commission,
L 211 4 2001, 92/23/
,
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35

L 105, 28 1977, .1, L 277 10


1997, .24

36

L 201, 1 2009, .18

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European Association for Railway Interoperability (


),. : http://www.aeif.org/

77

To 2002 TSI
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38

L 257, 10.10.1996

39

293//6-10-81

79

4.6.5.

,
, .
2000/14/40

.
, 9 , :
1) 79/113/, 19 1978,
(EE L 33, 8.2.1979,
.15, 85/405/ L 233, 30.8.1985, .9)
2) 84/532/, 17 1984,
(EE L 300,
19.11.1984, .111, 88/665/ L 233, 30.8.1985,
.42)
3) 84/533/, 17 1984,
(EE L 300, 19.11.1984,
.123, 85/406/ L 233, 30.8.1985, .11)
4) 84/534/, 17 1984,
(EE L 300, 19.11.1984, .130,
87/405/ L 220, 8.8.1987, .60)
5) 84/535/, 17 1984,
(EE L 300,
19.11.1984, .142, 85/407/ L 233, 30.8.1985,
.16)
6) 84/536/, 17 1984,
(EE L 300, 19.11.1984,
.149, 85/408/ L 233, 30.8.1985, .18)
7) 84/537/, 17 1984,

(EE L 300, 19.11.1984, .156, 85/409/ L 233,
30.8.1985, .20)

40

L 162, 3 2000, .1

80

8) 84/538/, 17 1984,
(EE L 300, 19.11.1984, .171,
88/181/ L 81, 26.3.1988, .71)
9) 86/662/, 22 1986,
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95/27/ L 168, 18.7.1995, .14)

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41

EE L 220, 30.8.1993, .23

81

4: EE L 162, 3.7.2000, . 7
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:162:0001:0078:EL:PDF

82

5: EE L 162, 3.7.2000, . 8
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:162:0001:0078:EL:PDF

(. ),
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- 35-40 db(A),

42

L 212, 6 2003, .49

84

- 40 db(A), ,
- 30 db(A), ,
3-5 db,
.

4.7.

, ,
1996,
. :
- ,
.,
, .
-
-
/
.
, :
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/greenpap.htm#situ
, ,
1972,
, 1996
, , .

1972

1982

1988/90

1995/96

82 db(A)

80 db(A)

77 db(A)

74 db(A)

89 db(A)

82 db(A)

80 db(A)

78 db(A)

91 db(A)

88 db(A)

84 db(A)

80 db(A)

11: 1972-1996 (
).

85

8 10 db(A),
.

3

1980

1989

<80 .

78 db(A)

77 db(A)

75 db(A)

>80<175 .

80-83 db(A)

79 db(A)

77 db(A)

>175 ..

83-86 db(A)

82 db(A)

80 db(A)

12: 1980-1989, (
).

86

5

5.1.

,
,
, , ,
,
, , .
,
, (,
), (Low
Frequency Noise - LFN), 1 Hz 200 Hz,
1 z 20 Hz 20Hz- 200Hz. ,
,
20Hz, ,
( ),
.
- [WHO],
55 db
(A) , 45 % ,
.
, ,
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-

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, 10, 20 30 ,
.

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87

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200Hz, .
, DIN 45680.
, TA Laerm- 6
26 1998 - 1 1998. ,
- .
,
, ,
,
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5.2. -, -, C-, G-
1,
(phons),
, db,
, . ,
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db ,
( db), .
- (A-weighting)
,
db(A). , , B
C, 55 db 85 db >85 db, .
, -

88

. ,
1Hz -20Hz.
G-, ISO 7196 (1995),
LPg db(G).
,
24 Db , 25 Hz . ,
( ), 10 Hz, G - . 1Hz 16
Hz, 12 db .
G , 0 100 Hz:


G-

db (G)


G-
db (G)

0.25

-88

5.0

-12.0

0.315

-80

6.3

-8.0

0.4

-72.1

8.0

-4.0

0.5

-64.3

10.0

0.0

0.63

-56.6

12.5

4.0

0.8

-49.5

16.0

7.7

1.00

-43.0

20.0

9.0

1.25

-37.5

25.0

3.7

1.6

-32.6

31.5

-4.0

-28.3

40

-12.0

2.5

-24.1

50

-20.0

3.15

-20.0

63

-28.0

4.0

-16.0

80

-36.0

100

-44.0

13: G-, ISO 7196 (1995).

89

5.3.
1Hz 200 Hz

110-115db(G), - G 43. +20db

, , 85-90 db(G)
.
ISO 226:200344, ,
db, (1 Hz- 200
Hz), :


, Hz


,
db


, Hz


,
db

4.0

107

40.0

51

8.0

100

50.0

44

10.0

97

63.0

38

12.5

92

80.0

32

16.0

88

100.0

27

20.0

79

125.0

22

25.0

69

160.0

18

31.5

60

200.0

14

14:
1 Hz 200 Hz, ISO 226:2003.

- .
5 Db, ,
,
. , 10.0 Hz,
, 97 db, 92 db.
,
43

E 75 db

44

ISO 226:1987.

90

1Hz 200 Hz (
), (10%) 55-60 ,
db(A).

,
Hz


,
-,

db(A)
db (G)

db(A)

8.0

95

-77.8

17.2

10.0

92

-70.4

21.6

12.5

88

-63.4

24.6

16.0

84

-56.7

27.3

20.0

75

-50.5

24.5

25.0

62

-44.7

17.3

31.5

55

-39.4

15.6

40.0

46

-34.6

11.4

50.0

39

-30.2

8.8

10

63.0

33

-26.2

6.8

11

80.0

27

-22.5

4.5

12

100.0

22

-19.1

2.9

13

125.0

18

-16.1

1.9

14

160.0

14

-13.4

0.6

15

200.0

10

-10.9

-0.9

: ISO/CD 1996-1, AS 1259.1-1990

15: , 10%
55-60 , - ( db()).

,
63 Hz,
- 5 db,
- 0 db,

91

,
( ),
( ) :

8-63Hz

80Hz

100Hz

>100Hz <200Hz

5 db

10 db

15 db

17

0 db

5 db

10 db

12

16: 1Hz200Hz.

, ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
,
120 db ( 150db) ,
( )
, ,
( ), , , ,
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
,

110-115db, . ,
115 db
/ 85 db (A),
.
,
,
,
.
, ,

,

, .

92

45 ,
:
- 3 6 Hz
- 6 12 Hz

110 dB

- 12 24 Hz

- 6-12 Hz, , 500Hz-2kHz


75 Db,

, ,

.
, ,
,
, ( ).

,
- , db(G), 1Hz
200 Hz, 24 , :
85 db(G), , .

90 db(G), , .

-
(1Hz 63 Hz) :

45

Dr- Ing. Hani Mahmoud El Nokrashy, Nokrashy Engineering, Infrasound Under Control. An de
Masch 24, D-25488 Holm, . :
www.nokraschy.net/Infrasound.pdf
, .

93

120-125 db. /.
+ 5 db. , 06:00 .. 22:00 ..
+ 0 db. , 22:00 .. 06:00 ..

- /
(audible noise),
.
.
, ,
:
- 85 db (A).
.
- 50 db (A). ( )
, .
- 35 db (A). ,
.
85 db (A),
,
,
(),
,
,
(
,
),
,
, ..

94

( )
, :
- OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administrator)46: 90-115 db ,
, 25 -8 .
- NASA (National Air and Space Administration) 47: 120db, 24 , 116z ( )
- NZ OSHS (New Zealand Pccupational Safety & Health Service)48,
, von Gierke
and Nixon and Woodson49,
136 dB 123 dB , 1 Hz 20
Hz,, 8 .
, , +/- 3 db.
, (4 ), 3
db, .
- ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists)50: 145db,
1Hz 80 Hz, 2
.

5.4.
,
,

. , , .
,
, ,
( ,
, ).

46

www.osha.gov

47
NASA (National Air and Space Administration). 1995. 5, Natural and induced environments.
:
http://procure.msfc.nasa.gov/jsc/documents/RFIBJ2PP1I/ssp50005rb5.pdf.
48

NZ OSHS (New Zealand Pccupational Safety & Health Service). 1996. Approved Code of Practice for the
Management of Noise in the Workplace. Occupational Safety & health Servise, Department of Labour,
Wellinghton, . :
http://www.osh.dol.govt.nz/order/catalogue/pdf/NoizeACOP.pdf
49

von Gierke, H.E. and Nixon, C.W. (1976). "Effects of Intense Intrasound on Man" in Infrasound and Low
Frequency Vibration, edited by W. Tempest. Academic Press, New York, NY, 115-150.

50

www.acdih.org

95

, ELLIOTT H. BERGER ,
Protection for Infrasonic and Ultrasonic Noise Exposure,
(. EARLOGConference series), ,
3 ,
, , :

6: www.aearo.com/pdf/hearingcons/earlog14

, 3 ,
,
30 Hz. ,
,
. ,
.
,
( )
. ,
[frequency converters]
, 10%,

, .
Helmholtz,
.
100 Hz, 16.6
Hz 12.5 Hz, .
, .

96

Dr-Ing. Hani Mahmoud- Infrasound


under control , .
, ()
2m 10m,
20 m2 17 Hz 130 db.
, , ,
15. ,
. ,
(), , 1,8 m
14 cm.
:
- 128 132 db ,
- 110 115 db , 1 m
- 105 107 db , 5 m
,
125 db 95 db
3db, . ,
8 . ,
,
.
, ,
.
5.5.
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences(NIEHS),
National Toxicology Program(NTP),
,
-
- .
2001, Infrasound - Brief Review of Toxicological Literature,
,
,

.
, ,
90db
. ,
, ,
, ,
. .

97

,
, 110db.
110db, 24
.
, / ,
140db.
, :
- +10db 51 6-16Hz,

- 115-135db, 5-10Hz, 15 ,
,
,
- 127-133db,
, ,
,
,
. , ,
.

1. Andresen, J., and H. Moller. 1984. Equal annoyance contours for infrasonic
frequencies. Journal of Low Frequency Noise and Vibrations 3(3):1-9. EMBASE record
85169104.

18 , 18-25 , 4
. ,
,
( 1-2 db),
. , ,
95 db.

2. Borredon, P., and J. Nathi. 1973. Physiological reactions of human subjects exposed
to infrasounds. Rev. Med. Aeronaut. Spat. 12(46):276-279. (French) EMBASE record
74130187.

51

, ,
115 db.

98

42 , 19-23 , 7,5 z 130


db, 50 .
.

3. Danielsson, A., and U. Landstrom. 1985. Blood pressure changes in man during
infrasonic exposure. An experimental study. Acta Med. Scand. 217(5):531-535.
20 , 20-30 ,
- 6Hz, 12Hz 16z, 3 : 95db,
110db 125db , 20 .
- 16z/125db 50hz/50db,
.
,
() ,
. ,
30 , 8mm Hg.
4. , :
- 15 :
)65 dB ,
) 110 dB,

) 7Hz 125 dB ,
) 125-dB 110 db.
- 30 (, , , )
- 15 7 Hz, :
) 125 db
) 132 db
) 142 db

, which
led the authors to conclude that "adverse effects of infrasound have been xaggerated

5. Johnson, D.L. 1982. Hearing hazards associated with infrasound. In: Hamernik,
R.P., D.Henderson, and R. Salvi, Eds. New Perspectives on Noise-Induced Hearing
Loss. Raven Press,New York, NY, pp. 407-421.
:
- , 140db,
30 , temporary threshold shift (TTS) of

99

auditory
-
, 5 , TTS
- 1000 Hz, TTS
,
140 db , ,
- 24 ,
118 db.
6. Karpova, N.I., S.V. Alekseev, V.N. Erokhin, E.N. Kadyskina, and O.V. Reutov. 1970.
Early response of the organism to low-frequency acoustic oscillations. Noise Vib. Bull.
11(65):100-103.
,
5-10Hz, 100135 db, 15 . , ,
, , ,
. ,

.
7. Landstrom, U., and M. Bystrom. 1984. Infrasonic threshold levels of physiological
effects. J.Low Freq. Noise Vib. 3(4):167-173.
6-16Hz, 10 db hearing
threshold,
.
8. Lidstrom, I.M. et al. 1978. The effects of ulfrasound on humans. Invest. Rep. (Umea
University, Sweden) 33:1-42.
40 ,
14-16 Hz, 125db,
blood pressure was decreased causing
deterioration of blood suffusion of vital organs; heart rate and blood pressure were
increased during psychological tests;
alertness was decreased; the electrical resistance of the skin was decreased more
quickly versus
unexposed individuals; and hearing threshold and time perception were altered.
8. Mohr, G.C., J.N. Cole, E. Guild, and H.E. Gierke. 1965. Effects of low frequency and
infrasonic noise on man. Aerosp. Med. 36(9):817-824.

100

(4 1
24-46 ), ,
150 db,
.
, , , , .
9.Moller, H. 1984. Physiological and psychological effects of infrasound on humans. J.
Low Freq. Noise Vib. 3(1):1-16.
- 16 3 , 20 db
hearing threshold,
, ,
.
10. Okada, S. 1990. Study on the measurement of infrasound and perceptible
response to infrasound in life environment. Jpn. J. Health Hum. Ecol. 56(5):236-250.
,
, ,
: 102db 6 Hz, 93 db 10 Hz, 92 db 13
Hz, 85db 20 Hz.
1 db .
11. Okada, A., and R. Inaba. 1990. Comparative study of the effects of infrasound and
lowfrequency sound with those of audible sound on sleep. Environ. Int. 16(4-6):483490.
18 , 20-25 ,
, :

- 10 20 Hz

- ( 25- 1600Hz 40-60 db)



.
12. Slarve, R.N., and D.L. Johnson. 1975. Human whole-body exposure to infrasound.
Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 46(4):428-431.
4 20-25 , 120 Hz, 120-144db, 8 .
,
.

101

13. Strandberg, U.D., P. Bjerle, A. Danielsson, S. Hornqwist-Bylund, and U.


Landstrom. 1986.Studies of Circulation Changes During Exposure to Infrasound.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Solna, Sweden, p29
11 16 z, 125db 1 ,
diastolic [increase] systolic [decrease] ,
.

102

6.1.
,
,
. ,
.
:

( )


( )

, , (
), . ,
,
20 Hz .
,
20 Hz,
.
,
.
(flat) ,
20Hz . ,
, (
), .
,


, .

103

,
, :
, Hz

,
db

2.0

-8.37

2.5

-7.56

3.15

-6.72

4.0

-5.85

5.0

-5.04

6.3

-4.20

8.0

-3.33

10.0

-2.52

12.5

-1.71

16.0

-0.81

20.0

0.0

17:
.

, (flat ), 20 Hz
.

104

1 :

db,
, :
y = 3,6336 ln(x) 10,885
, x: y:
,
, ,
(
).
,
12Hz, 20 db, ,
, : 21,86 db
, y = 3,6336 ln(12) 10,885 = -1,86
, :
y1 = 20db + 1,86 = 21,86 db
,
(
), G-. ,
,
, G-.
G-,
, db(G).

105

G-,
, , :

2: G-


, ,
. , x: y:
, :
2Hz 16Hz, y = 17,354 ln(x) 40,047
16Hz 20Hz, y = 0, 325x + 2,5
20z 100Hz, y = -33,51 ln(x) + 110,91
( 3 )

flat 20 Hz.

20 db 12 Hz,
y1 = 20db + 1,86 = 21,86 db
16 Hz,
y = 17,354 ln(x) 40,047

106

:
y = 17,354 ln(12) 40,047 = + 3, 076
G-.
y1 , :
y1 = 21,86 db + 3,076 = 24, 93 db (G)

19 Hz 10 db, :
y = 3,6336 ln(19) 10,885 = -0,19
, .
db,
:
y1 = 10 + 0,19 = 10,19 db
G-, :
y = 0,325x + 2,5
( 16Hz < x < 20 Hz )
y = (0,325 * 19) + 2,5 = 8,675
, , db (G),
:
y1 = 10,19 db + 8,675 = 18,865 db(G)

107

6.2.

.
) , 17:00 ., ,
:

,
15-30 db (G) ,
, .
(>40Hz) .

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.

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110

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111



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112



) , 13:30 ., ,
:

13 z, Db(G),
24, 03 db(G), . 34
Hz, 46 db(G),
(. . 5.3, . 90).

) , 22:00 .

113

, 42Hz,
, 45 db (G),
. 11 Hz, 12 db(G),
.

11,7 db(G), 29 Hz.

, , .
4Hz 8 z, 11,35 db(G) 20,3 db(G) .

(
),
5.3, 90.

114


Dr- Ing. Hani Mahmoud El Nokrashy, Nokrashy Engineering,
Infrasound Under Control ( . ),
:

1:
-

49.0 Hz 80 db

2:
-

19.0 Hz 77 db

2: ,
-

12.5 Hz 68 db
16.6 Hz 72 db

(peaks)
,
.

115

-
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. 1998. ISBN 960-7219-67-8
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(Links)
www.europa.eu
www.eea.europa.eu
www.who.int/en/
www.noisesolutions.com
www.multi-science.co.uk
www.wikipedia.com
www.google.com
www.iatronet.gr
www.hellenicparliament.gr
www.helina.gr
www.aeif.org
www.osha.gov
www.nasa.gov
www.acgih.org
www.gpoaccess.gov
www.elinyae.gr

119