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CHNG 3

KIM

3.1 KHI NIM CHUNG


kim l s o kh nng trung ha acid ca nc. i khi khi nim kh nng trung
ha acid thay th cho khi nim kim cng c s dng trong mt s ti liu.
kim ca nc t nhin do mui ca cc acid yu gy nn, mc d cc cht kim yu
v kim mnh cng c th gy ra kim. Bicarbonate l dng kim ch yu v
chng c to thnh t mt khi lng ng k kh carbonic c mt trong t v
khng kh xem phng trnh sau:
CO2 + CaCO3 + H2O Ca2+ + 2HCO3Cc mui ca acid yu nh borate, silicate v phosphate c th c mt vi khi lng
nh. Mt vi loi acid hu c kh b oxy ha sinh hc, v d nh acid humic, to thnh
cc mui cng gy nn kim trong nc. Trong nc b nhim hoc tnh trng
k kh, mui ca cc acid yu nh acid acetic, propionic v hydrogen sulfide cng c
th to thnh kim. Trong mt s trng hp khc, ammonia hoc cc hydroxide
cng gy nn kim cho nc.
Trong nhng iu kin nht nh, cc ngun nc t nhin c th cha mt lng
ng k kim carbonate v hydroxide. iu kin ny thng xy ra trong ngun
nc mt c to pht trin. To s dng kh carbonic, dng t do v kt hp, trong
nc v pH thng t tr s 9 n 10. Nc l hi lun lun cha kim carbonate
v hydroxide. Nc sau khi c x l lm mm bng phng php ha hc c s
dng vi hoc sa thng cha carbonate v hydroxide.
Mc d rt nhiu cht gy ra kim trong nc, nhng mt phn ln kim ca
nc t nhin do ba cht sau gy ra theo th t ph thuc vo gi tr pH t cao n
thp: (1) hydroxide (OH-), (2) carbonate (CO32-) v (3) bicarbonate (HCO3-). Vi hu ht
cc mc ch thc t, kim do cc cht khc gy ra trong nc t nhin l khng
ng k hoc rt nh.
kim ca nc, v nguyn tc, do mui ca cc acid yu v cc loi baz mnh
gy ra v cc cht ny l dung dch m gi pH khng gim nhiu khi a acid vo
nc. V vy, kim cn l s o kh nng m ca nc v c s dng rng ri
trong lnh vc x l nc cp cng nh nc thi.

ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai


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3-1

CNG TY MI TRNG
TM NHN XANH

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3.2 NGHA MI TRNG


Nh bit, kim ca nc t c ngha v mt sc khe cng ng. Nc c
kim cao thng khng ngon v ngi tiu th thng tm cc ngun nc cp khc.
Nc c x l bng phng php ha hc thng c pH cao cng khng c
ngi s dng a chung. V nhng l do trn, tiu chun v kim cho nc x l
bng phng php ha hc c ban hnh.
3.3 PHNG PHP XC NH KIM
kim c xc nh bng phng php nh phn vi dung dch acid sulfuric H2SO4
N/5 (0,02N) v biu din bng n v tng ng CaCO3. V d cc mu nc c pH
trn 8,3 c nh phn theo hai bc. Trong bc th nht, mu nc c nh
phn bng dung dch acid cho n pH thp hn 8,3 ti im cht ch th phenolphthalein
i mu t hng sang khng mu. Vic nh phn trong pha hai c thc hin n pH
thp hn khong 4,5 tng ng vi im kt thc ca bromcresol green. Khi pH ca
mu nc thp hn 8,3, ch cn nh phn mt ln n pH 4,5.
Vic chn pH 8,3 l im kt thc cho bc nh phn th nht tng ng vi im ion
carbonate chuyn thnh ion bicarbonate:
CO32- + H+ HCO3-

(3 1)

Vic s dng pH khong 4,5 lm im kt thc cho bc nh phn th hai tng ng


vi im ion bicarbonate chuyn thnh acid carbonic:
HCO3- + H+ H2CO3

(3 2)

Trn c s Phng trnh pH = (pKn pKB logC0), im kt thc chnh xc cho


vic nh phn ph thuc vo nng ion bicarbonate ban u ca mu nc. Chng
ta thy rng Phng trnh trn tr thnh:
pH (im tng ng bicarbonate) = 3,19 log[HCO3-]

(3 3)

ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai


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14
13
12
11
10
9
8
pH 7
6
5
4
3
2
1

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iem uon

hydroxide

carbonate

iem uon

OH-+H+H2O CO32-+H+HCO3- HCO3-+H+H2CO3

mL acid

Hnh 3.1 ng cong nh phn ca hn hp hydroxide-carbonate.


Bicarbonate [HCO3-] nng 0,01M tng ng vi kim 500 mgCaCO3/L c im
kt thc phi l 4,19. Cc xem xt ny yu cu acid carbonic hoc carbonic c to
thnh t bicarbonate khng b mt t dung dch. iu ny rt kh khn lm chc
chn v v l do ny cc xem xt trn c ngha ln v mt l thuyt.
pH thc ca im kt thc khi xc nh kim tt nht l c xc nh bng cch
nh phn theo in th. Yu t ny c ngha c bit quan trng i vi nc t
nhin m kim tng cng l tng cc nh hng ca cc mui acid yu trong
bicarbonate ch l mt phn. pH ca im gy kt thc trn ng nh phn (xem
Hnh 3.1) l im kt thc tht. Gi tr pH ti cc im kt thc tng ng i vi cc
kim khc nhau t Phng trnh (3 3) hoc trong Standard Methods ch c gi tr
cho cc dung dch bicarbonate v khng c p dng cho nc thi sinh hot hoc
sn xut, thm ch ngay c nc t nhin.
3.4 CC PHNG PHP BIU DIN KIM
Do kim do rt nhiu cht gy nn. Cc cht ny thay i t nc sch nc b
nhim nh nc thi sinh hot v nc thi cng nghip, n cc loi bn b phn
hy. Cc phng php biu din gi tr kim cng thay i mt cch ng k; v vy
cn phi gii thch phng php biu din mt cch chi tit v xc nh cc lnh vc m
cc phng php biu din c s dng.
kim phenolphthalein v kim tng cng
Phn tch ng cong nh phn i vi kim mnh (do kim hydroxide), i vi
carbonate natri, cho thy rng tt c hydroxide u c trung ha ti thi im khi pH
gim n 10 v carbonate chuyn thnh bicarbonate ti thi im khi pH gim xung
khong 8,3. Trong hn hp cha c hydroxide v carbonate, carbonate lm thay i
ng cong nh phn im gy khc co pH 8,3 nh trnh by trong Hnh 3.1. V iu
ny, trong thc t kim o ti im kt thc phenolphthalein c coi l kim
ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai
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phenolphthalein. Hin nay, khi nim ny c s dng rng ri trong lnh vc x l


nc thi v vn c s dng trong mt s lnh vc phn tch nc.
Nu vic nh phn mt mu nc c cha c kim carbonate v hydroxide c
tip xc qua im kt thc phenolphthalein, bicarbonate phn ng vi acid v chuyn
thnh acid carbonic. Phn ng ny xy ra hon ton khi pH h thp hn khong 4,5
(xem Hnh 3.1). Khi lng acid yu cu phn ng vi hydroxide, carbonate v
bicarbonate biu din kim tng cng. V kim thng c biu din bng n
v CaCO3; cho nn dung dch H2SO4 N/50 c s dng trong vic nh phn kim.
Cc tnh ton c th thc hin nh sau:
o kiem phenol = (mL dung dch H2SO4 nh phan en pH 8,3)

o kiem tong cong = tong mL H2SO4 nh phan en pH

1.000
mL mau

(3 - 4)

5,0
4,8 1.000
(3 - 5)
4,6 mL mau
4,0

Trong vic xc nh kim tng cng, pH ti im kt thc c mt quan h trc tip


n khi lng kim carbonate ban u ca mu.
kim hydroxide, carbonate v bicarbonate
Trong phn tch nc, cc loi kim c mt trong nc v khi lng ca tng loi
thng c yu cu xc nh. Thng tin ny c bit cn cho qu trnh lm mm
nc v cho nc trong l hi. kim hydroxide, carbonate v bicarbonate thng
c tnh ton da trn cc s liu c bn khi nh phn baz mnh v carbonate
natri. Ba qui trnh sau thng c s dng tnh ton cc loi kim: (1) tnh ton
ch t s o kim, (2) tnh ton t s o kim v pH v (3) tnh ton t cc
phng trnh cn bng. Qui trnh u tin l qui trnh c in da trn cc mi quan h
thc nghim tnh ton cc loi kim khc nhau t kim phenolphthalein v
kim tng cng. Cch tnh ton ny c s dng cho cn b k thut khng c kin
thc c bn v ha hc mi trng. Cc kt qu ca phng php tnh ton ny ch l
gn ng i vi cc mu nc c pH trn 9. D vy, cc nh ha hc nc v cc k
s c lin quan n qu trnh lm mm nc, kim sot n mn, phng chng lng cn
pH cao u cn bit cn bit cc loi ion v nng ca chng. V l do ny, cn
phi c kh nng tnh ton nng ion hydroxide, carbonate v bicarbonate tt c
cc gi tr pH vi chnh xc cn thit. Vic tnh ton vi chnh xc cao ny c th
c thc hin bng qui trnh (2) hoc (3).
Qui trnh hai c chnh xc cho cc mc ch thc t v cng s dng kim
phenolphthalein v kim tng cng. Hn na, s o pH ban u phi yu cu phi
c chnh xc cao tnh ton trc tip kim hydroxide. Trong qui trnh ba, cc
phng trnh cn bng khc nhau ca acid carbonic c s dng tnh ton nng
ca cc loi kim khc nhau. Qui trnh ny cho kt qu vi chnh xc cao i
ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai
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vi cc thnh phn, thm ch khi chng c mt trong nc mg/L, khi s o pH c


thc hin chnh xc. i khi nng thp ca cc kim cng ng vai tr quan
trng. kim tng cng cng nh pH c yu cu. Hn na, cn phi xc nh s
o ca cht rn ha tan hiu chnh hot tnh ion vi so o nhit la chn hng
s cn bng thch hp. Cc k s mi trng cng nh cc nh ha hc mi trng
cn phi hiu c s ca cc qui trnh ny. Cc qui trnh c trnh by di y.
Tnh ton t s o kim
Trong qui trnh ny, kim phenolphthalein v kim tng cng c xc nh v t
cc s o ny tnh ton kim hydroxide, carbonate v bicarbonate. Cc tnh ton ny
c th c thc hin bng cch cho rng (khng chnh xc) kim hydroxide v
kim carbonate khng cng tn ti trong mt mu nc. iu ny cho php nm kh
nng sau: (1) ch c hydroxide, (2) ch c carbonate, (3) hydroxide v carbonate, (4)
carbonate v bicarbonate v (5) ch c bicarbonate. Hnh 4.6 v 4.8 biu din rng vic
trung ha hydroxide c thc hin hon ton khi lng acid a vo gim pH
n 8,3 v khi dng mt na lng carbonate b trung ha. Khi tip tc nh phn
n pH 4,5, mt khi lng khng ng k acid c s dng trung ha hydroxide
v mt khi lng acid dng bng khi lng trung ha carbonate n pH 8,3, c
s dng trung ha carbonate. iu ny l thng tin c bn xc nh cc dng
kim hin trong nc v khi lng ca tng loi. Biu biu din s nh phn vi
cc kim kt hp vi nhau c trnh by trong Hnh 3.2
Hydroxide+carbonate
carbonate

hydroxide

hydroxide
Carbonate+bicarbonate
carbonate

hydroxide
carbonate

carbonate

Phenolphthalein

iem cuoi

pH 8,3
bicarbonate

bicarbonate

Bromcresol xanh iem cuoi

bicarbonate

pH 4,5

Hnh 3.2 th nh phn mu nc cha cc dng kim khc nhau.


Ch c hydroxide. Cc mu ch cha kim hydroxide c pH cao, thng cao hn
10. Vic nh phn hon thnh ti im kt thc phenolphthalein. Trong trng hp ny
kim hydroxide bng kim phenolphthalein.
ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai
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Ch c carbonate. Cc mu ch cha kim carbonate c pH 8,5 hoc cao hn. Vic


nh phn n im kt thc phenolphthalein chnh xc bng mt na vic nh phn
tng cng. Trong trng hp ny, kim carbonate bng kim tng cng.
Hydroxide carbonate. Cc mu cha kim hydroxide v carbonate c pH cao,
thng cao hn 10. Vic nh phn t im kt thc phenolphthalein n im kt thc
bromcresol green th hin mt phn hai kim carbonate. V vy kim carbonate
c th c tnh ton nh sau:
o kiem carbonate = 2 (nh phan t pH 8,3 en 4,5)

1.000
mL mau

v kim hydroxide = kim tng cng kim carbonate carbonate


bicarbonate. Cc mu cha kim carbonate v bicarbonate c pH cao hn 8,3 v
thng thp hn 11. Vic nh phn n im kt thc phenolphthalein th hin mt
phn hai kim carbonate. kim carbonate c th c tnh ton nh sau:
o kiem carbonate = 2 (nh phan en pH 8,3)

1.000
mL mau

v kim hydroxide = kim tng cng kim carbonate


Ch c bicarbonate. Cc mu ch cha kim carbonate c pH 8,3 hoc thp hn,
thng l thp hn. Trong trng hp ny kim bicarbonate bng kim tng
cng.
Cc phng php c cp phn trc tnh ton gn ng kim c
thay th bng phng php chnh xc hn c trnh by di y.
Tnh ton t s o kim v pH
Trong qui trnh ny, s o pH, kim phenolphthalein v kim tng cng phi c
thc hin.
Hydroxide. Trc tin, kim hydroxide c tnh ton t s o pH, s dng
hng s phn ly ca nc,

[OH ] =

Kn
[H + ]

(3 6)

Tnh ton ny yu cu s pH phi chnh xc xc nh [H+]. V vi nng


hydroxide 1 mg/L tng ng vi kim 50.000 mgCaCO3/L, mi quan h trn c
th c biu din thun li hn.
kim hydroxide = 50.000 x 10(pH - pKn)

(3 - 7)

ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai


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3-6

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nhit 240C, pKn = 14,00. D sao n thay i t 14,94 00C n 13,53 400C. V
vy, vic o nhit ng vai tr quan trng hiu chnh pKn. Mi quan h gia pH,
nhit v kim hydroxide c trnh by bng th trong Hnh 1.3.3. c
chnh xc cao hn, phi xc nh nng cht rn ha tan hiu chnh hot ion,
mc d trong trng hp ny vic hiu chnh l khng ng k v khng cn thit trong
hu ht cc mc ch thc t. Trong cun Standard Methods c sn biu cho
php tnh ton nhanh kim hydroxide trn c s s dng s o pH, nhit v cht
rn ha tan.
Carbonate. Khi kim hydroxide c xc nh, s dng cc qui trnh trc tnh
ton kim carbonate v bicarbonate. kim phenolphthalein biu din ton b
kim hydroxide cng vi mt phn hai kim carbonate. V vy, kim carbonate c
th c tnh ton nh sau:
kim carbonate = 2 ( kim phenol - kim hydroxide)

(3 - 8)

o kiem hydroxide, mgCaCO3/L

100
40
20
10
4

5 0C

150C

1
250C

0,4

350C

0,2
0,1

10

11

12

Hnh 3.3 Mi quan h gia kim hydroxide v pH cc nhit khc nhau.


Bicarbonate. Vic nh phn t pH 8,3 n 4,5 do mt phn hai kim carbonate
cng vi ton b kim bicarbonate cn li. R rng rng, kim bicarbonate biu
din kim cn li sau khi tr i kim bicarbonate tr thnh:
kim bicarbonate = kim tng cng ( kim carbonate kim hydroxide)( 3 - 9)
Tnh ton t cc phng trnh cn bng
Vic phn b cc loi kim khc nhau c th c tnh ton t cc phng trnh
cn bng kt hp vi phng trnh trung ha in tch (cn bng ion) trong dung dch.
ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai
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CNG TY MI TRNG
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bo ton in tch, tng nng ng lng ca cc cation phi bng tng nng
ng lng ca cc anion. kim tng cng l s o nng ng lng ca
tt c cc cation v anion kt hp vi kim c trnh by nh sau:
[H+] +

o kiem
50.000

= [HCO3-] + 2[CO32-] + [OH-]

(3 10)

Cc phng trnh cn bng phi c xem xt l Phng trnh (3 6) v Phng trnh


phn ly bc hai ca acid carbonic,

{H }{CO } = K
2

{H CO3

(3 - 11)

A2

T s o pH, [H+] v [OH-] c th c xc nh bng cch s dng phng trnh (3


6). Ch cn kim khng c bit l [HCO3-] v [CO32-] v chng c th c xc
nh t li gii ng thi ca phng trnh (3 10) v (3 - 11). Sau y l cc phng
trnh kt qu:
o kiem carbonate
mgCaCO3/l
o kiem carbonate
mgCaCO3/l

50.000 [(o kiem/50.000) + [H+] (Kn/[H+])]


+

1 + ([H ]/2KA2)
50.000 [(o kiem/50.000) + [H+] (Kn/[H+])]
1 + (2KA2/[H+])

(3 12)

(3 13)

nhit 250C, Kn l 10-14 v KA2 l 4,7.10-11. Tuy nhin, cc gi tr ny thay i d


dng cng vi s thay i nhit . Hot tnh ion cng thay i ng k cng vi nng
ion, nh trnh by trong Phn 4.3. Vic hiu chnh ny kh di, Standard
Methods trnh by th nh gi carbonate v bicarbonate da trn c s xem xt
trn. th ny, cng nh Phng trnh (3 12) v (3 - 13) thu c kt qu kim
biu din di dng CaCO3. Trong nhiu trng hp c th phi xc nh nng thc
ca carbonate v bicarbonate. Vic chuyn nng t miligram trn lt ca CO32- hoc
HCO3- nh sau:
mg/L CO32- = mg/L kim carbonate x 0,6

(3 14)

mg/L HCO3- = mg/L kim bicarbonate x 1,22

(3 15)

Nng mol c th c tnh ton bng cch chia miligram trn lt cho trng lng
miligram phn t ca ion:
[CO32-] =

mg/L CO3260.000

va

[HCO3-]

mg/L CO3261.000

(3 16)

ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai


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3.5 MI QUAN H GIA CARBONIC, KIM V pH TRONG NC T NHIN


T cc phng trnh
CO2 + H2O H2CO3 + HCO3- + H+
M(HCO3)2 M2+ + 2HCO3HCO3- CO32- + H+
CO32- + H2O HCO3- + OH-

(3 - 17)
(3 - 18)
(3 - 19)
(3 - 20)

R rng rng carbonate v ba dng kim l cc phn ca mt h thng tn ti


dng cn bng v tt c cc phng trnh u lin quan n HCO3-. S thay i nng
ca bt c thnh phn no trong h thng s dn n thay i cn bng, thay i
nng ca cc ion khc v kt qu l s thay i pH. Ngc li, s thay i pH s
lm thay i cc mi quan h. Hnh 3.3 trnh by mi quan h gia carbonic v ba loi
kim trong nc vi kim tng cng l 100 mg/L v theo phm vi pH quan trng
trong thc t k thut mi trng. xy dng th ny s dng Phng trnh (2 - 7),
(3 - 7), (3 - 12), (3 - 13). Cc thng tin cho trong Hnh ch s dng cho mc ch m t
nh s khc nhau v mi quan h ca kim tng cng, nhit .
100
90

o kiem mgCaCO3/L

80

HCO3-

70
60
50
40
CO32-

30
20

CO2

10

OH-

0
6,5
Hnh 3.4

7,5

8,5

9,5

10

10,5

11

Mi quan h gia carbonic v ba dng kim ti ti cc pH khc nhau


(gi tr c tnh ton cho nc vi kim tng cng l 100 mgCaCO3/L
nhit 250C).

ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai


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3.6 P DNG S LIU V KIM


Cc thng tin lin quan n kim c s dng theo rt nhiu cch trong thc t k
thut mi trng.
Keo t ha hc
Cc ha cht c s dng keo t nc v nc thi phn ng vi nc to
thnh kt ta hydroxide khng ha tan. Ion hydro gii phng ra s phn ng vi
kim ca nc. V vy, kim tc dng m cho nc dy pH ti u cho qu trnh
keo t. kim phi c mt trong nc mt lng trung ha lng acid c
gii phng ra t cc cht keo t v hon thnh qu trnh keo t.
Lm mm nc
kim l thng s chnh phi c xem xt n trong vic tnh ton nhu cu v vi v
sa trong qu trnh lm mm nc bng phng php kt ta. kim ca nc
c lm mm phi nm trong gii hn ca tiu chun nc ung.
Kim sot n mn
kim l thng s quan trng lin quan n vic kim sot qu trnh n mn. y l
thng s cn phi bit tnh ton ch s bo ha Langelier.
Kh nng m
S o kim c s dng nh mt thng s nh gi kh nng m ca nc
thi v bn.
Cht thi cng nghip
Nhiu cng ty chnh qui cm vic x cht thi cha kim hydroxide vo ngun nc.
cc nh chc trch th thng cm x cht thi cha kim hydroxide vo cng
thot nc. kim cng nh pH l yu t quan trng khi xc nh kh nng x l sinh
hc ca nc thi.
3.7 MT S P DNG KHC CA KIM I VI K S MI TRNG
K s mi trng thng gp nhiu trng hp thc t lin quan n mi quan h
carbonic kim pH v thng phi gii thch cc mi quan h ny.
S thay i pH khi thi kh
Trong thc t, nc c thi kh kh carbonic. V carbonic l kh acid nn khi kh
carbonic dn n lm gim [H+] v v vy lm tng pH ca nc theo phng trnh (1.3
- 1.3). Khng kh bnh thng c khong 0,03% khi carbonic theo th tch. Hng s
ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai
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TM NHN XANH
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Henry [xem Phng trnh (2 - 15)] i vi carbonaic khong 1.500 mg/L-atm nhit
250C; v vy, nng cn bng ca carbonic vi khng kh l 0,0003 x 1.500 hoc
khong 0,45mg/L. T phng trnh (16 - 7) c th c tnh ton rng nc c
kim 100 mg/L c thi kh n trng thi cn bng vi carbonic trong khng kh phi
c pH khong 8,6. Nc vi kim ln hn phi dn n c pH cao hn trong khi thi
kh v mu nc c kim thp dn n pH thp.
S thay i pH khi c mt to
Nhiu ngun nc mt c iu kin tt cho to pht trin. nhng vng to pht
trin mnh, c bit l ni nc cn, pH c th t n 10. To s dng carbonic
cho cc hot ng quang tng hp ca chng v vic kh carbonic dn n pH cao.
Chng ta thy rng vic thi kh kh carbonic dn n pH c th tng n 8 v 9 vi
kim trung bnh. To c th gim nng carbonic t xung di nng cn bng
trong khng kh v tip theo c th gy nn vic tng pH rt cao. Khi pH tng, cc dng
kim thay i vi kt qu carbonic c th c s dng cho s pht trin ca to
vi c dng carbonate v bicarbonate theo phng trnh cn bng sau:
2HCO3- CO32- + H2O + CO2
CO32- + H2O 2OH- + CO2

(3 - 21)
(3 - 22)

V vy, vic kh kh carbonic bng to dn n chuyn cc dng kim t


bicarbonate thnh carbonate v t carbonate n hydroxide. Cn lu rng trong qu
trnh thay i ny kim tng cng bng hng s (khng i). To c th tip tc s
dng kh carbonic ca nc cho n khi pH tng n gi tr nh hng, thng trong
dy pH 10 n 11.
Vo ban m, to sn xut kh carbonic thay v tiu th n. iu ny xy ra v qu trnh
h hp ca chng trong bng ti cao hn qu trnh quang hp tng hp. Vic sn xut
carbonic ny c nh hng ngc v dn n lm gim pH. S thay i ban ngy ca
pH do qu trnh quang tng hp v h hp thng xy ra trong nc mt.
Trong nc t nhin cha mt lng ng k Ca2+, carbonate canxi kt ta khi nng
ion carbonate, theo Phng trnh (3 - 21), ln tch ha tan ca CaCO3 :
Ca2+ + CO32- CaCO3
(3 - 23)
Vic kt ta ny thng xy ra trc khi pH vt qu 10. Carbonate canxi lng cn
nh kt qu ca vic kh carbonic qua hot ng ca to to nn cc cn lng l hn
hp ca st v vi trong h. Cn lng st vi l tin thn ca vi.
kim ca nc l hi
Nc l hi cha c kim carbonate v hydroxide. C hai loi kim ny nhn
c t kim bicarbonate ca nc a vo l hi. Kh carbonic khng ha tan
trong nc l hi v c kh cng vi hi nc nng. iu ny lm tng pH v
chuyn kim t bicarbonate thnh carbonate v t carbonate thnh hydroxide nh
ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai
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3-11

CNG TY MI TRNG
TM NHN XANH
GREEN EYE ENVIRONMENT

GREE

Tel: (08)5150181
Fax: (08)8114594
www.gree-vn.com

trnh by trong Phng trnh (3 - 21) v (3 - 22). Di cc iu kin nh vy, pH


lun cao hn 11.

ThS: Huynh Ngoc Phng Mai


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3-12