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# HERIOT - WATT UNIVERSITY

## School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society

Foundation Engineering
CLASS EXAMPLE

A 12m thick layer of normally consolidated clay has its upper surface at ground level.
Originally, the clay was completely saturated with the water-table occurring at the top
of the clay; however, due to nearby pumping operations, the water table fell by 4m
and was maintained at this level. Ground level was subsequently raised by 1.5m using
imported fill with a compacted to a bulk unit weight of 16.7kN/m3.
After some months, the upper surface of the clay was found to have experienced an
average final settlement of 550mm. The specific gravity, G, of the clay particles was
2.65 and its original moisture content was 37.8%. Assuming that the clay remained
saturated after pumping determine an approximate value for the compression index,
Cc, of the clay.
Note: Bulk unit weight of a soil = w(G +eSr)/(1+e) where w is the unit weight of
water. g = 9.81m/s2.

SOLUTION