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Nrf2 regulator of detoxification, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and

cytoprotection is raised by health promoting factors

Martin L. Pall1, Ph. D.*, and Stephen Levine2, Ph. D.

Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State

University, 438 NE 41st Ave., Portland, OR 972323312, USA

Founder and former CEO of the Allergy Research Group

Allergy Research Group, 2300 North Loop Rd., Alameda, CA 94502, USA
Nrf2 master cytoprotection & detoxification regulator is raised by many health promoting
The transcription factor Nrf2 activates the transcription of over 500 genes in the human
genome, most of which have cytoprotective functions. Nrf2 produces cytoprotection by
detoxification mechanisms leading to increased detoxification and excretion of both organic
xenobiotics and toxic metals; its action via over two dozen genes increases highly
coordinated antioxidant activities; it produces major antiinflammatory changes; it stimulates
mitochondrial biogenesis and otherwise improves mitochondrial function; and it stimulates
autophagy, removing toxic protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles. Health
promoting nutrients and other factors act, at least in part by raising Nrf2 including: many
phenolic antioxidants; gamma and delta tocopherols and tocotrienols; DHA and EPA long
chain omega3 fatty acids; many carotenoids of which lycopene may be the most active;
isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables; sulfur compounds from allium vegetables;
terpenoids. Other health promoting, Nrf2 raising factors include low level oxidative stress
(hormesis), exercise and caloric restriction. Raising Nrf2 has been found to prevent and/or
treat a large number of chronic inflammatory diseases in animal models and/or humans
including various cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, lung diseases, diseases of toxic
liver damage, cancer (prevention), diabetes/metabolic syndrome/obesity, sepsis,
autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, HIV/AIDS and epilepsy. Lesser evidence
suggests that raising Nrf2 may lower 16 other diseases. Many of these diseases are probable
NO/ONOO() cycle diseases and Nrf2 lowers and lowers effects of NO/ONOO() cycle
The most healthful diets known, traditional Mediterranean and Okinawan, are rich in Nrf2
raising nutrients as apparently was the Paleolithic diet that our ancestors ate. Modern diets
are deficient in such nutrients. Nrf2 is argued to be both lifespan and healthspan extending.
Possible downsides to too much Nrf2 are also discussed. Nrf2 is not a magic bullet but is
likely to be of great importance in health promotion, particularly in those regularly exposed
to toxic chemicals.

Corresponding author. Tel: +01-503-232-3883; E-mail:


Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid2related factor 2) has been known for over 10 years, to be an
important transcriptional activator of antioxidant genes, producing important antioxidant
protective responses. It has also been known for about the same time period, to be
activated by many, but not all, phenolic antioxidants, such that much of the antioxidant
effects of these compounds are produced through this regulatory response, rather than
exclusively through direct chain breaking antioxidant chemistry.
However Nrf2 has been shown more recently to have many cytoprotective effects that go far
beyond antioxidant effects. These include activation of over two dozen genes involved in
detoxification of a wide variety of xenobiotic toxicants. Nrf2 and the system that regulates
Nrf2 lowers inflammatory responses, it improves mitochondrial function and stimulates
autophagy, a process by which both toxic protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles
can be degraded. Three of these effects, the lowering of oxidative stress, inflammatory
biochemistry and improving mitochondrial function should lower the pathophysiology
involved in dozens of chronic inflammatory diseases and so may be expected to be useful in
the prevention or treatment of many common chronic diseases.
It has also been shown, in recent years, that many health promoting factors other than
phenolic antioxidants act to raise Nrf2 activity. Most of these recent findings have been
reviewed in a whole series of recent reviews [122] and it is the role of this paper to summarize
the vast scope of these new findings, including the healthpromoting and disease preventing
effects of Nrf2.
The important detoxification roles of Nrf2 mean that raising Nrf2 activity is likely to be of
particular importance to the hundreds of millions of people around the globe who are
regularly exposed to toxic chemicals that cause diseases characterized by oxidative stress,
inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction, diseases which include most of the chronic
diseases of 21st century life.
Diseases prevented and/or treated by raising Nrf2, at least in animal models
There are a very large number of chronic diseases, listed in Table 1 that have been shown to
be prevented and/or treated by raising Nrf2. Conversely, lowering or knocking out Nrf2
function has often been shown to increase susceptibility to the same diseases. Most of these
studies have been done in animal models although there are also an increasing number of
human studies being reported.

Table 1. Diseases where raising Nrf2 is reported to be useful in prevention and/or treatment
in animal models and/or humans
2,4,16,23, 2831

Cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis, ischemic cardiovascular
disease, vascular endothelial dysfunction, heart failure
Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimers, Parkinsons, ALS,
Huntingtons disease
Cancer (prevention)
Chronic kidney diseases
Metabolic diseases: Type 2 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; obesity
Several types of toxic liver disease
Chronic lung diseases including emphysema, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis
Autoimmune diseases
Inflammatory bowel disease
Multiple sclerosis

The finding that raising Nrf2 may be useful in prevention and/or treatment of this list of
diseases seems almost too good to be true. However these diseases all have both oxidative
stress and inflammatory aspects to them and many of them are also known to involve
mitochondrial dysfunction. Protein aggregates have causal roles of several of them,
aggregates that may be removed by Nrf2dependent autophagy. A number of these diseases
are caused by toxic exposure and may be lowered by Nrf2dependent detoxification. The
data on obesity are mixed, but with most data showing that Nrf2 acts to lower obesity. One
of us (MLP) has argued that many of these diseases are caused by the NO/ONOO() cycle, a
vicious cycle mechanism involving oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial
dysfunction, as well as other factors (discussed further below). It is therefore quite plausible
that because of the common factors involved in these diseases, the Nrf2 regulatory response
may prevent and/or treat each of them.
There are reports that still other diseases may be prevented or treated by raising Nrf2,
although these other diseases have been less studied than those listed in Table 1. These
include hemoglobinopathies including sickle cell disease and thalassemia [37], malaria[38],
spinal cord injury[39], traumatic brain injury[40,41], altitude sickness [42,43], the three classic
psychiatric diseases, major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder [4447], gastric
ulcers[48,49] , glaucoma[50], agerelated macular degeneration [51], cataract[52,53] ,
pathophysiological responses to herpes activation [54] and benign prostatic hyperplasia[55,56] .
These diseases all involve oxidative stress and inflammatory aspects. Nrf2 is also shown to
protect cells from effects of ionizing radiation [57,58]. Nrf2 was reported to lower skin
sensitization produced by sensitizing chemicals [59,60]. Clearly we need much more research
on these Nrf2 activities before any conclusion can be made, but these studies suggest that
the disease spectrum for which Nrf2 may be protective may be larger than that covered in
Table 1.

Gene Activation via Nrf2

Nrf2 is most known for its role in activation of genes having antioxidant effects. It acts by
binding in the nucleus, along with some other proteins known as Raf to what are called
antioxidant response elements (AREs) in the promoter regions of genes. However these
AREs occur not only in promoter regions of antioxidant genes but also genes involved in
other functions, particularly other cytoprotective functions. While over 500 genes are
activated by Nrf2, there are also genes whose activity is lowered by Nrf2, some of which may
be regulated by transcription factors regulated by Nrf2 and others may be regulated through
AREs having repressive effects [4]. In summary, Nrf2 acts to activate numerous genes but it
can also act via other transcription factors to increase or decrease transcription of various
genes and may also be able to repress some genes through its direct effects on transcription.
Nrf2dependent antioxidant effects
Among the antioxidant genes activated by Nrf2, one of the most commonly studied is the
heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) gene which converts free heme, which has prooxidant effects into
iron, carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, with the last being converted into the antioxidant
bilirubin via an activity also raised by Nrf2, encoded by the two biliverdin reductase genes [1,2].
The iron released by heme oxygenase is sequestered by ferritin, since Nrf2 induces each of 4
ferritin genes, preventing ironproduced oxidative stress [1]. This coordinate control of
multiple genes producing proteins that are functionally linked in producing an important
biological response has been found repeatedly in Nrf2mediated gene regulation. There are
also antioxidant responses produced by CO from its regulatory role. Heme oxygenase
appears to have a very important role in producing Nrf2 responses, based on studies using
specific enzyme inhibitors or HO1 gene knockout mice. A possible explanation for such an
important role is discussed below.
A second commonly studied antioxidant gene activated by Nrf2 is the quinone
oxidoreductase gene (NQO1), which produces an enzyme that prevents semiquinone redox
cycling and consequent oxidative stress [2]. Two superoxide dismutase genes (SOD1 and
SOD2) are activated by Nrf2, with each SOD lowering oxidative stress by lowering
superoxide. The functionally linked catalase and two glutathione peroxidase genes are each
induced by Nrf2, with each of these enzymes acting to lower H 2O2, produced from
superoxide by the SODs. So again, we see Nrf2 mediated coordinate regulation of multiple
antioxidant genes [2].
Reduced glutathione (GSH) has often been described as the most important low molecular
weight antioxidant produced in the human body. Each of the three genes encoding enzymes
required for the de novo synthesis of GSH are activated by Nrf2, as is the gene for glutathione
reductase [the enzyme that converts oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to GSH] [1,2]. Genes
encoding 8 enzymes that have roles in the synthesis of NADPH, the reductant needed by
glutathione reductase are also activated by Nrf2. Other genes encoding enzymes that have
roles in using GSH for antioxidant purposes, including two glutathione peroxidase genes
(discussed in the previous paragraph), and the glutaredoxin 1 gene are each Nrf2 activated [2].

Five genes involved in thioredoxinrelated antioxidant responses are activated by Nrf2,

including peroxiredoxin1 and 6 which destroy peroxides including peroxynitrite, an
extremely reactive oxidant responsible for nitrosative stress [1]. The enzymes produced by
these five genes and also glutaredoxin mentioned in the previous paragraph, represent a set
of important and interacting antioxidant enzymes [61] each of which is coordinately regulated
by Nrf2.
In summary, it can be seen from the above that there are 23 genes involved in antioxidant
protection each of which is activated by Nrf2. There are in addition, still other genes
activated by Nrf2. These include genes encoding products that act to remove toxic products
of lipid peroxidation, others encoding enzymes that have roles in removing or repairing
protein oxidation products and still others similarly regulated that help remove products of
oxidative DNA damage in the process of DNA repair.
Detoxification genes activated by Nrf2
To the hundreds of millions of people around the world who are exposed daily to substantial
levels of toxicants, detoxification may be the most important Nrf2dependent cytoprotective
mechanisms. Hayes and DinkovaKostova [1] list a total of 25 different genes that are
activated by Nrf2, each of which encodes an enzyme that acts in detoxification of various
toxic xenobiotics. Among those 25 genes [1] are 12 that have roles in metabolism of various
carboncontaining xenobiotic toxicants leading up to but not including conjugation. They
also list 5 genes activated by Nrf2 that increase glutathione conjugation, one that increases
sulfate conjugation and two that lead to glucuronidation. Each of these eight genes have
roles in increasing toxicant excretion which follows upon conjugation. There are also Nrf2
activated genes that increase transport of xenobiotic chemicals from the cell, thus increasing
subsequent excretion from the body.
Two potentially important detoxification genes, not discussed in ref. [1] are the Mt1 and Mt2
genes for metallothionein, both of which are induced by Nrf2 [62]. Metallothionein has roles in
chelating, transporting and excreting both essential and toxic metals, including cadmium,
mercury, lead and arsenic[63]. However it should be noted than when metallothionein was
studied in a relatively shortterm study of cadmium toxicity, it was concluded that Nrf2
effects on antioxidant responses were more important than were metallothionein effects in
producing resistance to cadmium toxicity[62]. Metallothionein levels have been shown to
have a role in determining lead toxicity [64]. Toyama et al [65] showed that Nrf2 stimulated
mercury excretion with such excretion attributed by the authors to increased reduced
glutathione. It should be noted that reduced glutathione is the most common low molecular
weight thiol in the body and because mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic all react with thiol
groups, Nrf2dependent raising reduced glutathione may be expected to increase
detoxification of each of these toxic metals. The Nrf2 activating nutrient, curcumin has been
shown to lower hepatotoxicity of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and mercury
with such lowered toxicity attributed to both Nrf2 activation and direct chelation by
curcumin[66]. This paragraph only reviews a fraction of the available information that relates
to Nrf2 and toxic metal exposure. Nevertheless it suggests that Nrf2 probably has a
substantial role in producing resistance to toxic metal exposure.
Nrf2 has a wide range of detoxification effects, producing increased resistance to toxic
organic xenobiotics and toxic metals.

Antiinflammatory effects of Nrf2

Nrf2 activation produces a wide variety of antiinflammatory effects including lowered NF B
and lowered activity of a series of inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines,
adhesion molecules, COX2, MMP9 and iNOS [6,15,16]. The interaction between Nrf2 and NFB
is very complex, with each having effects that both increase and decrease the other.
However it is clear that[6] NF B pathway is inhibited by several Nrf2 activators but the
specific mechanisms responsible for Nrf2 mediated lowering of NFB is still somewhat
uncertain. However[6] Conversely, recent experimental evidence indicates that NF B may
directly repress Nrf2 signaling at the transcriptional level. Two direct antiinflammatory
effects of Nrf2 are that it stimulates the transcription of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL10
gene[5] and it has also been shown to lower regulatory responses produced by TGF.
In conclusion, Nrf2 produces a large number of antiinflammatory effects, with many
mediated by lowering NFB activity and some others mediated through Nrf2dependent
increases in IL10. NFB acts in turn to lower Nrf2 activity. The mechanisms involved in Nrf2
dependent lowering of NFB activity are complex and not completely understood, although
it seems likely that Nrf2dependent lowering of oxidant levels has a role.
Mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy
Most of the diseases listed in Table 1 are also characterized by energy metabolism and
mitochondrial dysfunction. One of the mechanisms that may be included as cytoprotective
may be increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Nrf2 produces such increased mitochondrial
biogenesis acting in part by activating a related gene, Nrf1 [20]. A large number of other genes
involved in energy metabolism are also activated by Nrf2 [1] and are thought to contribute to
both mitochondrial biogenesis and improved mitochondrial function. There is a lot of
crosstalk between Nrf2 and the AMPK protein kinase [67], which is stimulated by AMP and
which therefore monitors energy levels. It is possible therefore that this may be an
important interaction in controlling mitochondrial responses.
It is also the case that a number of healthpromoting nutrients that stimulate Nrf2 also act to
increase the process of autophagy by which damaged organelles and also damaging protein
aggregates can be degraded proteolytically, with such autophagy occurring, in part, via a
Nrf2dependent process[68,69] . This stimulation of autophagy is useful in removing damaged
mitochondria and other damaged organelles. It is also useful in removing protein aggregates
that have roles in neurodegenerative and other diseases and autophagy has antioxidant roles
are well. However it should be noted, that autophagy is inhibited by very high levels of Nrf2.
In summary, Nrf2dependent autophagy may be useful as a cytoprotective response in
multiple ways, one of which has roles in improving mitochondrial function.
While most of the health promoting effects of Nrf2 can be understood in terms of its
antioxidant, detoxification, antiinflammatory and autophagy effects and its ability to
stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis, still other health promoting effects may also occur. For
example, in many of the chronic inflammatory diseases, there is substantial
pathophysiological tissue remodeling involving fibrosis. Nrf2 has been reported to have
antifibrotic effects in the lung, liver and kidney [7073], acting by stimulating dedifferentiation of
fibroblasts. Much of this antifibrotic effect is thought to be produced by an anti
inflammatory action of Nrf2 which lowers TGFsignaling.

Nrf2 activity is raised by many healthpromoting nutrients and other factors

The amazing list of health promoting factors that have been shown to act, at least in part, by
raising Nrf2 are shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Healthpromoting factors that raise Nrf2 activity

Healthpromoting factors
Many but not all phenolic antioxidants
tocopherols and tocotrienols (but tocopherol has little activity)
Isothiocyanates from broccoli, cabbage and other cruciferous foods
Triterpenoids and other terpenes
Sulfur compounds including allyl sulfides in garlic/onion/allium foods
Many carotenoids with lycopene apparently the most active
Fish oil (long chain omega3 fatty acids DHA and EPA)
Modest oxidative stress (hormesis)
Exercise, works in part via modest oxidative stress; may also work in the
vasculature via laminar shear stress [9]

Each of the nine factors listed in Table 2 have an extensive literature on their health
promoting effects. Although all nine have been shown to raise Nrf2 activity, several of these
can clearly act in other ways not involving Nrf2 to promote health.
For example, four of the nutritional factors are well establish to act independently of Nrf2 as
Phenolics, including tocopherols/tocotrienols, can act as chain breaking antioxidants.
Carotenoids can act as scavengers of singlet oxygen and peroxynitrite.
Fish oil has antiinflammatory properties by acting as precursors of eicosanoids.
Exercise can act in ways independent of Nrf2.
The phenolics act via three mechanisms to raise Nrf2, but some phenolics are completely
inactive in this process. The ones that appear to act most directly, are ortho or para
dihydroxyphenols which can get oxidized to quinones [2] which then act to raise Nrf2. The
role of the phenol ring structures are also seen in the second type of chemical listed in Table
2, the different forms of vitamin E. These are also phenolic forms, but the phenol ring
structures in the &forms are much more active than are tocopherol in raising Nrf2 [74,75].
Tocopherol, the common form of vitamin E used in supplements, has modest activity in
raising Nrf2; it may decrease Nrf2 activity in vivo, however, because it increases the
degradation in the body of the other forms of vitamin E, including the &tocopherols and
However each of these 9 factors, when tested in Nrf2/ mouse knockout mutants have been
shown to have lost most of their healthpromoting properties as compared with their activity
in Nrf2+/+ mice [see, for example, refs 8491]. This shows, therefore that much of their
health promotion requires the presence of a functional Nrf2 gene, at least in the mouse.
Other cell culture studies on these nutritional factors have also supported an important role
for Nrf2 elevation in response to these factors, as well.

Caloric restriction, another health promoting factor, acts in part by raising Nrf2 [9294]. There
are traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, European and Native American herbals that have been
shown to act by raising Nrf2. Two of these were discussed earlier [95] but a full consideration
of such herbals goes beyond the scope of this review.
There are still other phytochemical Nrf2 raising factors, some of which are harder to
characterize than the categories listed in Table 2. For example, a number of plantderived
acetylenic compounds also raise Nrf2[2]. Dithiolethiones from cruciferous plants also act to
raise Nrf2[2] as does lipoic acid. It has also been reported that butyrate produced from
dietary fiber fermentation in the colon, acts to raise Nrf2 in colonocytes [96]; this butyrate
action may have implications regarding dietary fiber and Nrf2 control in the lower GI tract.
Three of these classes of chemicals act via their oxidation products to raise Nrf2 levels. The
long chain omega3 fatty acids DHA and EPA act via their oxidation product 4
hydroxyhexenal and other oxidation products to raise Nrf2 [27,28,97] . The carotenoids act,
primarily and possibly entirely, via their oxidation products to raise Nrf2 [78,79]. Many of the
phenolic antioxidants that raise Nrf2 are thought to act via their quinone oxidation products
in raising Nrf2[16]. Sandberg et al[5] have argued that chronically inflamed tissues may
become less susceptible to agents raising Nrf2. Similarly, Kumar et al [2] state that
Unfortunately, longterm inflammatory signaling can result in decreased Nrf2 activity and
decreased antioxidant and defense capacity. It may be useful in therapy of diseases of
chronic inflammation to use these three classes of Nrf2 raising nutrients, because the higher
rates of oxidation of these nutrients in inflamed, oxidative stressed tissues may act to
counteract otherwise lowered Nrf2 responses in such tissues.
The two most healthful known diets, the traditional Mediterranean diet and the traditional
Okinawan diet, are both rich in Nrf2 activating nutrients
The traditional Mediterranean diet which is thought to be ideally the Cretan diet and perhaps
the southern Greek and southern Italian diets of the 1960s and the traditional Okinawan diet
of the same time period, are thought to be the most healthful human diets known, with high
overall lifespans, large numbers of centenarians and low incidences of cancer and
cardiovascular disease[98105]. Diets in both of these locations are thought to have become
much less healthful in recent decades, but studies of these two traditional diets are still
important parts of our understanding of dietary factors that may influence human health.
The question being raised here is whether it is likely that nutrients raising Nrf2 activity in
these diets have an important role in producing the health promoting properties of these
two diets.
The dietary factors listed in Table 2 which raise Nrf2 are all of plant origin except for the long
chain omega3 fatty acids which are best obtained from seafood. Consequently, it may be
argued that the best diets for raising Nrf2 are diets with regular seafood consumption but
otherwise containing large amounts of foods derived from plants, particular plants with low
calorie densities which are likely to be consumed in larger quantities and therefore provide,
in general more phytochemicals. Both the traditional Mediterranean and Okinawan diets
clearly fit this description [98105]. Furthermore several of the nutrient categories known to
raise Nrf2 listed in Table 2 are thought to be high in each of these diets (see Table 3).

Table 3
Estimated Nrf2 raising nutritional components in the two most healthful diets known

Traditional Mediterranean
High consumption from olives
and olive oil, herbs, legumes,
eggplant, many leafy green


High consumption, especially

from tomatoes and leafy
green vegetables
High consumption from fish;
also purslane and walnuts
provide fatty acid precursors
to the human body
Probably average for
European diets

omega3 fatty

High from Mediterranean

herbs, olives, peel of fruits
and eggplant
High consumption of garlic
sulfur compounds and onions
Information derived from [98105].

Traditional Okinawan Diet

High consumption from soy, many
green vegetables and herbs; also
provided by purple sweet potato
varieties; Okinawan spinach (Perilla,
major source of rosmarinic acid)
Very high consumption from sweet
potatoes and many leafy green
High consumption from fish; also leafy
green vegetables provide some fatty
acid precursors to the human body
High from cruciferous vegetables and
daikon radish, but no higher than other
East Asian diets
Uncertain; substantial levels in Perilla
and some other herbs; may be high[99]
Relatively high (onions, other allium),
probably similar to Chinese diet

It can be seen from Table 3 that each of these healthpromoting diets are very rich in
nutritional components that raise Nrf2, including five of the six types of Nrf2 activating
components listed in Table 3. The traditional Mediterranean diet is most characterized by
high consumption of olives and olive oil, which are known to contain very high levels of
phenolics and terpenoids; both olivederived phenolics and terpenoids have been shown to
raise Nrf2. The main caloric source in the traditional Okinawan diet is the sweet potato, often
including purple sweet potatoes [98]. All sweet potatoes are very high in carotenoids and
purple sweet potatoes are very high in anthocyanin phenolics which are potent Nrf2
activators. Murakami et al[99] showed that a large number of specific vegetables in the
traditional Okinawan diet are potent agents that lower the production of both superoxide
and nitric oxide in leukocytes, suggesting that these vegetables act in part by raising Nrf2. In
some cases, they[99] implicated both phenolics and terpenoids in producing these responses,
again suggesting a possible Nrf2 effect. While it is unlikely that all of the phytochemicals that
may produce healthpromoting effects in these two diets are acting mainly or solely via Nrf2,
it is likely in our opinion, that Nrf2 has a major role in the health promotion in each of these
two diets.

The Okinawan diet is thought to be very similar to what is often called the Paleolithic diet [105],
the diet that our ancestors ate during much of human evolution. The only substantial
difference is that in the Paleolithic diet, most of the omega3 fatty acids came from wild
terrestrial animals and plants, both of which are quite rich in omega3 fatty acids [106], rather
than primarily from fish. Specifically, the Okinawan diet is thought to closely resemble the
Paleolithic diet in having very high levels of phenolic and carotenoid antioxidants as well as
high omega3 levels, probably also terpenoids and essentially no grain consumption [105], all of
which may be relevant to Nrf2 control. It seems likely, therefore, that we evolved with much
higher levels of Nrf2 raising nutrients in our diets and that almost all of us are currently in a
dietary deficiency state for Nrf2 raising nutrients. This may be responsible for much of the
extraordinary predominance of chronic diseases afflicting modern populations, characterized
by oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Is Nrf2 a master regulator of longevity and healthspan?
The concept that Nrf2 is a master regulator of not only longevity, but more importantly of
healthspan was suggested by Lewis et al [107] in their paper entitled Nrf2, a guardian of
healthspan and gatekeeper of species longevity. They state [107] that There is mounting
evidence across evolutionarily distant species that Nrf2AREdependent components are
associated with both longevity and extension of healthspan. These studies include a
number of genetic studies in the mouse and in several other species, showing that raising
Nrf2 activity produces prolonged lifespans and healthspans and that lowering Nrf2 produces
shorter lifespans and healthspans. The mouse studies are particularly important here
because genetic manipulation in transgenic mice allows one to easily determine effects of
both raised and lowered Nrf2 activity. One change that may contribute to determining
lifespans and healthspans is replicative senescence of cells which has been reported to be
delayed by Nrf2[108]. Conversely, a knockout of the Nrf2 gene leads to premature cellular
senescence[109]. These roles of Nrf2 in determining cellular senescence rates should not be
surprising, given the roles of oxidative stress in producing cellular senescence [110].
This general notion regarding Nrf2, longevity and healthspan is, of course, strongly
supported by the many diseases including diseases of aging that are lowered, at least in
animal studies by raising Nrf2 (Table 1). It is also strongly supported by the various health
promoting nutritional and other factors that all raise Nrf2 and act, at least in part through the
raising of Nrf2 (Table2). It is supported as well by the high levels of Nrf2raising nutrients
found in the two most healthful diets known, the traditional Mediterranean diet and the
traditional Okinawan diet (Table 3).
How is Nrf2 regulated by the health promoting factors listed in Table 2?
Each of refs [122] has reviewed the mechanisms by which Nrf2 is regulated and each provides
some information on how various factors raise Nrf2. Their discussions on mechanisms of
Nrf2 regulation are, in general, much more detailed than is the discussion here.
Consequently, the reader is encouraged to go to them and in particularly to [14] for more
detailed information than is provided here.
Nrf2 protein under what have been called noninduced situations is mostly contained in an
inactive complex with another protein known as Keap1. Keap1 has five reactive cysteine


residues, in each of which reaction of inducing chemicals with the cysteine thiol, can start a
process leading to release of Nrf2 from Keap1. Following release, Nrf2 can move into the
nucleus, complex with other proteins called Maf, bind to ARE sequences on DNA and
stimulate transcription of adjacent genes. The agents that react with these thiols are
electrophilic and or oxidative and the reaction with these thiols is thought to be the most
important mechanism of regulation of Nrf2. The five different cysteine thiols differ from one
another in what compounds they react with.
However there are many other mechanisms that come into play, making the Nrf2 control
system very complex. There are several protein kinases that have roles in regulating Nrf2,
including the ERK/JNK pathway, PI3K/Akt/ GSK3 pathway, protein kinase C, AMPK [67] and
protein kinase G. In addition, when Nrf2 is bound to Keap1, Nrf2 tends to be targeted for
proteasomal degradation, so that its levels are kept low. Release from Keap1 increases the
stability of Nrf2 roughly 7fold, leading to substantially increased levels. Furthermore, Nrf2
stimulates the transcription of its own gene and also the MafG gene, thus further stimulating
Nrf2dependent transcription. The P62 protein involved in autophagy that is activated by
Nrf2 also is involved in a positive feedback loop, increasing Nrf2 activity [68]. While the
mechanisms in the previous three sentences act to amplify Nrf2 activation, there is also two
mechanisms that lower Nrf2 activation. Nrf2 also stimulates transcription of the Keap1 gene,
lowering Nrf2 elevation. Furthermore Nrf2 also stimulates the transcription of a gene
encoding INrf2, a protein that also lowers Nrf2 activity [111].
Nrf2 is also regulated by micro RNAs, including miR200a, that lower the translation of the
Nrf2 mRNA or mRNAs of Nrf2 related proteins[112,113]. Because levels of miR200a are
regulated by histone acetylation [113], such acetylation may bring in another level of control;
this may explain part of the action of the histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate, discussed
above, in raising Nrf2[96]. Furthermore, the protein designated p300/CBP is an
acetyltransferase that acetylates both histones and Nrf2 itself, with Nrf2 acetylation
stimulating its activity in AREmediated gene transcription [114]. Consequently, the histone
deacetylase inhibitor butyrate may also act by increasing Nrf2 acetylation to increase Nrf2
transcriptional activity.
Another regulatory linkage is that agents that stimulate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)
increase Nrf2 transcription, leading to increases in Nrf2 activity, a subject that has only fairly
recently attracted much attention [115].
Protein kinase G has recently been shown to have a substantial role in activating Nrf2 [116119].
Its role may explain one of the longstanding puzzles about Nrf2, why does heme oxygenase
1 (HO1) induction have such an important role in the action of Nrf2? This has been shown in a
number of studies of Nrf2 action, where a specific inhibitor of heme oxygenase has been
shown to greatly lower the biological effects of Nrf2 activation. Why then should HO1 be so
important in the action of Nrf2? One of the products of HO1 enzymatic activity is CO, which
acts, as does NO, to greatly stimulate the production of cGMP and therefore of protein
kinase G stimulation of Nrf2[119,120]. It follows from this that HO1 induction by Nrf2 may be an
important positive feedback loop, producing a much more rapid increase in Nrf2 activity and
therefore Nrf2dependent responses over time following any initial steps raising Nrf2 activity,
than will occur in the absence of increased HO1 activity. It is our opinion, that substantial


indirect effects of Nrf2 may be produced via increased cGMP/protein kinase G, effects that
are distinct from this positive feedback loop.
How then do the agents listed in Table 2 stimulate Nrf2 activity? Isothiocyanates [2,7], H2O2
and other oxidants, phenolic antioxidants, long chain omega3 fatty acids and carotenoids
act by reaction with Keap1 reactive thiols with the last three of these acting through their
oxidation products. Allium sulfur compounds, isothiocyanates and carotenoids act via ERK
stimulation[121,122], with the latter two acting via two distinct mechanisms to raise Nrf2. Some
flavonoids and other phenolics, including some that are inactive in the Keap1 reactions act as
AhR agonists[123], some act via protein kinase signaling [124] and some act via their quinone
oxidation products directly on Keap1 thiols [2]. Terpenoids are thought to act via three distinct
mechanisms, directly on the Keap1/Nrf2 protein complex, through protein kinase regulation
and also via miRNA regulation[2,19].
It follows from all this that phytochemicals and other agents can increase Nrf2 activity by
reacting either directly or through their oxidation products with different cysteine residues
on Keap1, by regulating the activity of a number of different protein kinases, by stimulating
the AhR receptors or by acting via histone acetylation or other mechanisms to influence
micro RNA synthesis and therefore Nrf2 activity. It follows from this that phytochemicals and
other agents that act in different ways to raise Nrf2 may be expected to act synergistically
together. An example of such synergism was reported by Saw et al [125] who showed that the
carotenoid astaxanthin and the fish oil fatty acids DHA and EPA acted synergistically with
each other in raising Nrf2. The components of Protandim were shown in cell culture to act
synergistically in raising Nrf2 responses, probably due to the role of multiple signaling
pathways in their actions in raising Nrf2 [95].
Consequently phytochemically rich diets such as the traditional Mediterranean diet and the
traditional Okinawan diet may be expected to be more active in Nrf2 activation than may be
suggested from just looking at the activities of their individual Nrf2 raising nutrients, due to
such synergisms.
Can too much Nrf2 over extensive time periods be toxic?
In general as indicated in ref. [107] raising Nrf2 produces prolonged lifespans and healthspans
in animal studies. In addition, human diets rich in nutrients that raise Nrf2 including the
traditional Mediterranean and Okinawan diets produce longer lifespans and lowered disease
incidences. However, there are situations where chronic highlevel Nrf2 stimulation produces
pathophysiological responses in the body. Perhaps the clearest, welldocumented example
of this is where high level chronic raising of Nrf2 levels by TCDD (dioxin) leads to
chloracne[126,127]. TCDD also has other, Nrf2 independent toxic effects but these acnelike
changes skin properties are clearly caused by excessive, longterm levels of Nrf2, such that
chloracne may serve as a marker for excessive Nrf2 stimulation. Arsenite and other
arsenicals can also produce similar skin responses, acting via excessive Nrf2 activity [127], but
again arsenite has other Nrf2 independent toxic effects. Both the TCDD and the arsenite
effects act through AhR stimulation to produce elevated Nrf2 activity. These skin effects of
excessive Nrf2 appear to be caused in part by the elevated sensitivity of keratinocytes to


This keratinocyte role also shows up in perhaps the most dramatic effect of excessive Nrf2. It
was shown that Keap1 transgenic mouse knockout mutants developed hyperkeratosis in the
esophagus and forestomach during gestation, which led to death from malnutrition after
birth[128]. This was shown to be caused by excessive Nrf2 activity [128].
Months long, high level chronic elevation of Nrf2 is produced by certain conditions in the
mouse, conditions that produce cardiac dysfunction [129,130]. While it is unclear how much of
this dysfunction is caused by Nrf2, this may be another example where chronic, high level
Nrf2 elevation may produce pathophysiological responses.
It is generally accepted that steady high level Nrf2 activity is much more likely to be damaging
than is variable activation [2,131]. As stated earlier[131], Pharmacologic induction of the
pathway, however, allows for pulsed induction rather than permanent induction of the
Keap1Nrf2signaling axis, which may reduce any untoward effects of constant pathway
activation. The same reasoning applies to Nrf2 raising nutrients consumed at certain times
of the day.
The possibility of what may appear to be paradoxical Nrf2 effects may occur where there is
no Nrf2 at all, in Nrf2 knockout mutant cells. For example, it has been reported that such
knockout cells are deficient in the activation of inflammasomes, showing that some Nrf2
activity may be required for some inflammatory responses [132].
In conclusion, it may be expected that levels of Nrf2 raising nutrients that occur in the
Mediterranean or Okinawan diets will produce predominantly healthpromoting effects.
Nevertheless, very high chronic, longterm Nrf2 elevation can produce pathophysiological
effects like almost any regulatory effect taken to extreme. Therefore, one needs to take care
not to raise Nrf2 levels too high for too long. It is possible that some individuals may be
much more susceptible to such pathophysiological effects, given the great amount of
genetic heterogeneity in the human population. One way of minimizing any
pathophysiological effects is to vary the levels of Nrf2raising agents in the body at different
times of the day. The acnelike skin responses to excessive, chronic longterm elevation of
Nrf2 activity may serve as a visual indication of whether such excessive Nrf2 activity is
occurring in humans in response to Nrf2 raising agents.


Gao et al[4] state that Nrf2 activation or inhibition responding to oxidative or electrophilic
stress , and designed to restore redox homeostasis, paves a new way to understand prevent
or even cure complex diseases. The list of diseases in Table 1 where raising Nrf2 acts to
prevent and/or treat the disease, at least in animal models is truly stunning. The regulation of
Nrf2 and the regulatory responses produced by it are summarized in Fig. 1.
The action of 7 classes of healthpromoting nutrients (box, inner left side, Fig.1) are each
known to act to a great extent by raising Nrf2, as are 3 other health promoting factors. The
two most healthful diets known, the traditional Mediterranean and Okinawan diets and the
Paleolithic diet are all thought to be rich in Nrf2 raising nutrients, whereas modern diets are
deficient in such nutrients (Fig.1, left). These findings strongly suggest that healthpromotion
by these diets acts, to a great extent via Nrf2 but that most of us are currently deficient in
Nrf2 raising nutrients. Nrf2 acts, in turn via transcription of roughly 500 genes, to raise
antioxidant responses, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism, detoxification of
carboncontaining xenobiotics and toxic metals, autophagy of toxic protein aggregates and
dysfunctional organelles and greatly lowering many inflammatory responses (Fig. 1, lower
right). It is not surprising, therefore, that a large number of chronic diseases characterized
by oxidative stress, inflammation and often mitochondrial function can be treated and/or
prevented by raising Nrf2, at least in animal models (Fig.1, right). Nor should it be surprising
that Nrf2 has been proposed to produce both lifespan and healthspan extension, given the
many diseases of aging characterized by oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial
dysfunction (Fig1, upper right).
There are 16 other diseases that are reported to be prevented and/or treated by raising
Nrf2[3760], with each Nrf2linked disease based on one or two studies. One would tend to
ignore these, except for the fact that each of these diseases are diseases of oxidative stress
and inflammation and therefore may plausibly be impacted by Nrf2; and also except for the
fact that these are all based on recent and rapidly increasing numbers of studies (Table 4),
suggesting that we are still in the early stages of findings about disease impacts of Nrf2.
Table 4: Nrf2 & Other Diseases
(Citations 3760)
(5 months)

#s of citations


While no doubt it is too early to make a conclusion, it is difficult to escape the suggestion,
from Tables 1 and 4, that we may be on the verge of a new literature on health effects of Nrf2
which may well become the most extraordinary therapeutic and most extraordinary
preventive breakthrough in the history of medicine.
It is our opinion that raising Nrf2 is likely to be the most important health promoting
approach into the foreseeable future. That is not to say that it is a magic bullet. More is not
always better and other health promoting nutrients and other agents acting in other ways
are likely to act along with Nrf2. Agents that lower NF B via Nrf2independent ways are
likely to be useful. So are agents or diets that lower the production of advanced glycation
end products with their RAGE receptormediated inflammatory responses. Nutrients that are
health promoting in other ways, such as B vitamins and vitamin C, magnesium and some
trace elements are likely to be useful, as are agents like high doses of the hydroxocobalamin
form of B12 which lowers peroxynitrite by lowering its two precursors. Other agents that
act to improve mitochondrial function independent of Nrf2 are also likely to be useful, as
Many of the diseases that are thought to be prevented and/or treated by raising Nrf2 activity
are also thought to be caused by what is called the NO/ONOO() cycle. These apparent
NO/ONOO() cycle diseases that respond to Nrf2 include several cardiovascular and
neurodegenerative diseases, asthma, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, spinal cord injury and
glaucoma[133137]. Heart failure is now the best documented NO/ONOO() cycle disease [136].
The 23rd and most recent disease to be proposed to be caused by the local impact of the
cycle is glaucoma[137]. Because the cycle involves oxidative stress including peroxynitrite
elevation, inflammatory aspects and mitochondrial dysfunction, it should not be surprising
that apparent NO/ONOO() cycle diseases may be prevented and/or treated by raised Nrf2.
Because the NO/ONOO() cycle is primarily local, localized in different tissues in different
individuals, it may cause a variety of different diseases, depending on where it is localized in
the body[133137]. One question that should be asked here is whether this notion that the Nrf2
regulatory system may be natures way of preventing NO/ONOO() cycle diseases holds up in
looking at other aspects of the cycle. While clearly increased Nrf2 activity may be expected
to lower the oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammatory and mitochondrial dysfunction parts
of the cycle, and the majority of the cycle elements are part of these three aspects of the
cycle[133137], there are other cycle elements that are not involved with oxidative/nitrosative
stress, inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction. Does Nrf2 also lower pathophysiological
consequences of these other parts of the cycle? Here, the data are limited, but what data we
have are supportive of this prediction. Pathophysiological consequences of excessive NMDA
activity[138140] and excessive intracellular calcium levels [140,141] are both lowered by Nrf2.
Tetrahydrobiopterin oxidation and depletion, another part of the cycle, have been shown to
be elevated in a Nrf2 knockout mouse[142], suggesting but not proving that raising Nrf2 will
lower this part of the cycle. Clearly we need more studies on these issues, but the data
available to date support the view that Nrf2 may well be natures way of preventing
NO/ONOO() cycle diseases. It follows that our dietary deficiencies of Nrf2 raising nutrients
may well be the central cause of the high incidence and prevalence of these diseases in the
modern world.


The stunning apparent breadth of the effects of Nrf2 on diverse diseases produces a
challenge for medicine. Medicine has historically focused mainly on the ways in which these
various diseases differ from one another, as a way of understanding their differences.
However it is possible that these diverse chronic inflammatory diseases all have a similar
underlying mechanism and differ from one another primarily in their localization in the body,
with the differences in localization being responsible for any differences in their etiologies.
That does not necessarily mean that all these diseases are NO/ONOO() cycle diseases, but
that may well be the most apparent available explanation.
It has become commonplace for some physicians and some other scientists to argue against
the importance of oxidative stress in human disease. This despite the extensive and
repeated evidence for the existence of and importance of protein changes produced by
oxidative/nitrosative chemistry in dozens of chronic diseases. Watson, in his recent paper [143],
shows that he knows about the existence of Nrf2, but is apparently completely unaware of
its activation by oxidants and its role in producing complex and extraordinarily well
coordinated enzymatic antioxidant responses. The complexity and coordination of these
responses could not possibly have evolved without strong genetic selection based on the
pathophysiological roles of oxidative/nitrosative stress in the etiology of many diseases. The
Nrf2controlled antioxidant mechanisms are telling us, therefore, that antioxidant
mechanisms are among the most important mechanisms in metazoan evolution. While it is a
major mistake to ignore the other Nrf2 cytoprotective mechanisms, it is also a major mistake
to ignore the compelling evidence that the Nrf2 studies give us on the importance of
enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms.
This paper started out emphasizing the special importance of Nrf2 to the hundreds of
millions of people around the world who are exposed on a daily basis to toxic chemicals. The
role of Nrf2 in producing complex and well coordinated detoxification mechanisms allows us
to focus on raising Nrf2 as a way of substantially lowering the pathophysiological effects of
such exposures by detoxification of the body, lowering levels of both organic, carbon
containing xenobiotic toxicants and also toxic metals.
Conflict of Interest:
One of us (MLP) declares that he is designing two nutritional supplement combinations
aimed as raising the levels of Nrf2. That is our only possible conflict of interest.





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Fig. 1.