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Unit 7: Food:

Matter & Energy of Life

I. Energy Flow
A. Photosynthesis green plants use
suns energy to make sugars (food)
1. 6CO2 + 6H2O + Solar Energy
C6H12O6 + 6O2
2. Energy used for digestion
3. 10-15% used in growth

I. Energy Flow
B. Cellular Respiration use of O2 to break large
molecules down and release energy
1. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 686 Calories
2. Energy used for reactions, transporting
molecules, making new molecules, walking,
talking, etc.
3. ATP adenosine triphosphate energy
storage molecule
*1 glucose molecule produces 38 ATP

Human evolution and food


c. Energy in Action
Conversions you will need:
1 Calorie = 4184 Joules (rounded to
1 Calorie = 1000 calories
3500 Calories = 1 lb of weight

C. Energy in Action
*We measure energy in food with Calories.
Examples: p. 577
1. How many Cal/hr can a 100 lb person
a. weight lifting 120 Cal/hr
b. jogging 600 Cal/hr
2. How many Cal/hr can a 150 lb person
a. playing basketball 600 Cal/hr
b. walking 300 Cal/hr

D. Gain Some, Lose Some

p. 579 Examples: (150 lb person)
1. 250 +125 = 375 Cal from ice cream sundae
a. i. 375 Cal/4 Cal/min = 93.75 min / 60 min= 1.56 hrs
ii. 375 Cal/5 Cal/min= 75 min / 17 min/mile= 4.41
iii. 375 Cal/7Cal/min= 53.6 min / 60 min/hr = .893 hr
b. 375 Cal = lbs?
375 Cal * 1lb/3500 Cal = .11 lbs
c. .11 lbs x 16 weeks = 1.76 lbs

D. Gain Some, Lose Some

. . . pg. 579 continued:

2. a. eat less of something else

b. explain . . .
c. Skipping good food to eat junk food
3. Q = m x Cp x T
a. Q= 1500 x 4.18 x 37 = 231,990 J
b. 231990 J / 4200 J/Cal = 55 Cal

D. Gain Some, Lose Some

a. 6 glasses = ______ ? = 26 glasses
55 Cal
b. No, you would drown
4. Playing basketball 10 Cal/min
240 Cal / 10 Cal/min = 24 min

II. Carbohydrates
A. Monosaccharides = simple sugars (5
or 6 carbons
1. glucose C6H12O6 blood sugar
2. fructose C6H12O6 fruit sugar
3. galactose C6H12O6 found in milk

II. Carbohydrates
B. Disaccharides 2 monosaccharides
1. sucrose (fructose + glucose)
table sugar
2. lactose (glucose + galactose)
milk sugar
3. maltose (glucose + glucose) malt

II. Carbohydrates
C. Polysaccharides polymers (long chains)
of monosaccharides
1. starch food storage molecule for
ex. Potatoes, corn, etc.
2. cellulose structural molecule in plants
ex. Fibers in wood
3. glycogen food storage molecule in
ex. meats (stored in liver).


III. Lipids (Fats)

A. Excess food energy is stored as fat
1. Twice as much energy as
B. Fat Molecules = triglycerides = 3
fatty acids + glycerol
1. Fatty Acids long hydrocarbons
with glycerol attached
2. Glycerol = alcohol

III. Lipids (Fats)


C. Saturated Fats
Saturated Fats all single bonds
connecting hydrocarbons
1. whole milk, cheese, butter (animal
- solid at room temperature
2. build up as artery plaque

D. Unsaturated Fats
Unsaturated Fats at least 1 double
or triple bond connecting the
hydrocarbon chain
1. Monounsaturated vs Polyunsaturated
- one double bond vs many double
2. Plant Products Oils, (liquids at room

E. Hydrogenation
E. Hydrogenation adding H2 to break a C=C
1. Converts oils (liquid) to solid (ex: peanut
2. Helps prevent spoilage
3. Some hydrogenation creates Trans-fats
- increase LDL (bad cholesterol) level

IV. Proteins
A. The Basics
1. Make up muscles, tendons, hair,
fingernails, etc.
2. Transport materials in our bodies
(cell transport, hemoglobin).
3. Are Enzymes (speed up chemical
4. important in muscle movement
5. Control metabolism

IV. Proteins
6. Proteins are made of amino acids
7. Peptide bonds link amino acids
-dipeptide = 2 amino acids
-polypeptide = many amino acids

IV. Proteins
Amino acids link together to form a
polypeptide (protein)
The protein folds into a specific
shape that is critical to its

B. Dietary Protein
Dietary Protein is digested in
stomach and small intestine
1. Fish, meat, beans
2. We need 20 different amino acids to
3. 11 amino acids can be made by
your liver
4. 9 amino acids are essential in our

B. Dietary Protein
Complete protein= contains all
essential amino acids
5. Your body does not store amino
(extra is eliminated as waste)
6. Too much protein stresses liver and
Quinoa, bean, vegetable salad
complete protein without meat

C. Enzymes
Enzymes = catalysts (speed up
chemical rxns)
1. Have ase ending (amylase, lactase,
2. *Enzymes
Lock & Keyare
*Enzymes are specific to
substrate (lock & Key)

3. Enzyme activity is affected by:
* Temperature (if too high or too low)
*pH (if too high or too low)

V. Other Stuff in Foods

A. Vitamins needed for growth,
health, reproduction, and LIFE
1. Specialized
2. Required in small quantities
3. We can produce some of them (others
we need in our diet)


4. Water-soluble vitamins
Ex: B vitamins, Vitamin C, Folic Acid
- dissolve in blood stream
- not stored in body
- can be destroyed by heating
5. Fat-soluble vitamins
Ex: Vitamins A (eyes), D (bones & teeth), E
K (blood clotting).
- stored in body fat
- can build up to toxic levels

B. Minerals
Minerals 32 elements necessary for life
1. Macrominerals >100 mg/kg body
mass*(need more of)
-calcium (bones & teeth)
-chlorine (muscle function, hydration)
-magnesium (protein synthesis)
-phosphorous (DNA, RNA, ATP, cells, bones,
-Potassium protein synthesis, electrolyte

B. Minerals
..Macrominerals continued:
-Sodium (hydration, cell processes)
-Sulfur (proteins)
2. Trace Minerals (microminerals)
-copper (needed for iron absorption)
-fluorine (teeth)
-iodine (healthy thyroid)
-iron (hemoglobin/oxygen transport)
-selenium (antioxidant)
-Zinc (immune system, heals cuts)

3. How Much? RDA

RDA = recommended dietary
Pg 628 629
*Problems 1 - 5

C. Food Additives
1. Antioxidants- prevent fat spoilage
2. Coloring agents enhance visual
3. Flavoring agents (msg, spices)
4. Preservatives prevent spoilage and
bacterial growth
5. Sweeteners (sugar, fructose,
aspartame, mannitol, sorbitol)
6. Emulsifiers improve food texture

IV. FDA Regulations

FDA = Food & Drug Administration
A. Federal Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Act 1938
1. Pesticide residue
2. Artificial color
3. Carcinogens
4. Mutagens change DNA
B. Delany Clause requires animal testing (1950s)
C. Food Quality & Protection Act (1996)
-companies can use additives that may have
negligible risk

IV. FDA Regulations

D. Continuing Concern
1. Nitrites inhibit bacteria growth
-increase in carcinogen?
2. Artificial Sweeteners
- Saccharen was thought to cause
- Aspartame decomposes w/heat
- Splenda can be used in cooking