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Formula

Gradient

f
f
f
x y z
x
y
z
f
1 f
f
f
r
z
r
r
z
f 1 f
1 f
f
R

R
R
R sin
f

Divergence

A
Ay Az
A x

x
y
z
1 rAr 1 A Az
A

r r r
z
2

1 R AR
1 A sin
1 A
A 2

R sin
R
R sin

Curl
A Ay Ax Az Ay Ax
x
z
A z

1 Az A Ar Az
1 rA Ar
r
z
A

r
r

1 sin A A 1 1 AR RA 1 RA AR
A

R

R sin


R sin
R
R R

Laplacian

2 f

2 f 2 f 2 f

x 2 y 2 z 2

2 f

1 f 1 2 f 2 f

r
r r r r 2 2 z 2

1 2 f
1

f
1
f 2
R
2
sin
2
R sin 2
R R R R sin
2

2 f
2

Cartesian

Cylindrical

Spherical

x, y, z

r, , z

R, ,

Ax x Ay y Az z

Ar r A Az z

A A
AR R

Ax Ay Az

Ar A Az

AR A A

Coordinate
parameters

Vector A

Magnitude A
Position
vector, OP

Unit vector
product

Dot product

A B
Cross product

A B
Differential

x1x y1y z1z


for point P( x1 , y1 , z1 )

r1r z1z
for point P( r1 , 1 , z1 )

R1 R
for point P( R1 , 1 , 1 )

x x y y z z 1
x y y z z x 0
x y z

r r z z 1
r z z r 0

R
1
R
R
0
R

y z x
z x y

r z
z r
z r

Ax Bx Ay B y Az Bz

Ar Br A B Az Bz

AR BR A B A B

x
Ax
Bx

y
Ay
By

z
Az
Bz

r
Ar
Br

A
B

z
Az
Bz

R
AR
BR

A
B

A
B

dx x dy y dz z

dr r rd dz z

Rd R sin d
dR R

ds x dy dz x

ds r rd dz r

Differential
surface, ds

ds y dx dz y

ds dr dz

ds R R 2 sin d d R
ds R sin dR d

ds z dx dy z

ds z rdr d z

ds R dR d

Differential
volume, dv

dx dy dz

r dr d dz

length, d

R 2 sin dR d d

Transformation Coordinate Variables


Cartesian to
r x2 y2
Cylindrical
tan 1 ( y / x)
Cylindrical to
Cartesian

Cartesian to
Spherical

zz
x r cos
y r sin
zz
R x2 y2 z 2

tan 1 ( x 2 y 2 / z )
tan 1 ( y / x)

Spherical to
Cartesian

x R sin cos
y R sin sin
z R cos

Cylindrical to
Spherical

Spherical to
Cylindrical

R r2 z2

tan 1 (r / z )

r R sin

z R cos

Unit Vectors
r x cos y sin
x sin y cos

Vector Components
Ar Ax cos Ay sin

z z

Az Az
Ax Ar cos A sin

x r cos sin
y r sin cos
z z
x sin cos
R
y sin sin z cos
x cos cos
y cos sin z sin
x sin y cos

A Ax sin Ay cos

Ay Ar sin A cos
Az Az
AR Ax sin cos
Ay sin sin Az cos
A Ax cos cos
Ay cos sin Az sin
A Ax sin Ay cos

sin cos
x R
cos cos sin

Ax AR sin cos

sin sin
y R
cos sin cos

Ay AR sin sin

cos sin
z R
r sin z cos
R
r cos z sin

A cos cos A sin


A cos sin A cos
Az AR cos A sin
AR Ar sin Az cos
A Ar cos Az sin


sin cos
r R

A A


cos sin
z R

A A

Ar AR sin A cos
Az AR cos A sin

Id R
4R 3
Id J s dS Jdv

Q d ,

dH

Q s dS ,
Q v dv

H d I

QQ
F12 1 2 2 a R1 2
4 0 R

enc

F1

J s dS

m B dS 0
m A d

tan

D E

du
F Q E u B m
dt
dF Id B

4 r
d
V
4 r

E d 0
E 0
E V
2V 0
R

I J dS

W
Q

s
J ds

B A

0 8.854 10 12 Fm 1

t
B

dS
t

D
t

1 1
2

1 1
2

10

dx
c
xdx

c2
dx

ln x x 2 c 2

2 32

32

2 12

c x c2
1

c2

12

12

dx
1
x
tan 1
2
c
c
c
xdx
1
ln x 2 c 2
2
2
2
x c
xdx
x2 c2
2
2 12
x c

Vemf u B d
I d J d .dS , J d

x
x

Vemf
Vemf

0 4 10 7 Hm 1

T rF mB
m ISa n

v D

0 Id
4R
2
A 0 J

B H
A

Qenc D dS

tan 2

B 0

e D dS

R21

2 4

1

d
a R
4 0 R 2
dS
E s 2 a R
4 0 R
dv
E v 2 a R
4 0 R

V AB E d

m B dS

d 1 d 2 a R2 1

L1 L 2

H J

F
E ,
Q
Q
E
a R
4 0 R 2

I 1 I 2
4