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HA HC ACID AMIN V PROTEIN

Bs. Chi Mai

Ha hc acid amin v protein


Mc tiu:
1. Trnh by c cu to, phn loi acid amin
2. Trnh by c cc lin kt trong phn t
protein, cc bc cu trc ca protein
3. Trnh by c tnh cht l ha ca protein v
ng dng
4. Trnh by c vai tr sinh hc ca protein

HA HC ACID AMIN
nh ngha: Acid amin l nhng cht hu
c trong phn t c hai nhm chc
carboxyl v amin cng gn vi carbon
Trong t nhin c 20 aa thng gp cu
to nn protein
Phn loi:Da vo gc R chia lm 5
nhm: Acid amin c gc R khng phn
cc, R phn cc nhng khng tch in,
R nhn thm, R base, R acid.

Cu trc v c tnh ca acid amin

-carbon l carbon bt i (tr glycine)

Ti pH 7.0 acid amin l ion lng tnh


Acid amin c cu trc hnh t din
Nhm carboxyl

Nhm amino

-carbon
Chui bn

ng phn quang hc ca
acid amin

Cc sinh vt ch tng hp v
s dng L- acid amin

Acid amin c gc R
khng phn cc (6 aa)

Tnh k nc

Prolin (pro, P) vng imino acid


Glycin (gly, G) l acid amin duy nht khng c
ng phn quang hc, khng k nc
Alanin (ala, A) R = nhm methyl
Valin (Val, V)
Leucin (Leu, L)
Isoleucin (Ile, I) - 2 carbon bt i

Acid Amin c gc R cha


nhn thm (3 aa)

Tt c rt k nc
Gc R l nhn thm
Hp th UV ti 280 nm
Phenylalanin (Phe, F)
Tyrosin (Tyr,Y) -OH c kh nng ion ha (pKa = 10.5)
Tryptophan (Trp, W) 2 vng gm c vng indol

Acid amin acid (2 aa)


Cha nhm carboxyl (tnh acid yu hn nhm carboxyl)
Tch in m ti pH sinh l
Aspartat (Asp)
Glutamat (Glu)

Acid amin kim (3 aa)

a nc
Tch in dng ti pH sinh l
Histidin (His) nhn imidazol tn ti di dng ion dng,
l acid amin duy nht c kh nng m pH sinh l.
Lysin (Lys) tch in dng ti pH 7.0
Arginin (Arg) - guanidinium ion lun tch in dng, l
acid amin c tnh kim nht
H

H+

+:

pKa = 6.0

Acid amin c gc R phn cc


nhng khng tch in (6 aa)

R phn cc, a nc, c th to


lin kt H

Hydroxyl ca Ser v Thr c kh nng


ion ha yu

Serin (Ser, S) ging Ala thm nhm


-OH

Threonin (Thr, T) c 2 carbon bt


i

Asparagin (Asn, N) amid ca acid


aspartic

Glutamin (Gln, Q) amid ca acid


glutamic
Methionin (Met, M) start amino
acid, rt k nc, S tn ti di dng
lin kt thioeste

Cystein (Cys,C) S dng


sulfhydroyl (thiol), quan trng trong
to cu disulfur tnh acid yu

Tnh cht ca acid amin


Tnh cht lng tnh
Phn ng ninhydrin: khi un nng acid
amin phn ng vi ninhydrin to phc
mu xanh tm (tr prolin cho mu vng)
Cc phn ng mu c hiu ca acid
amin

Ha hc protein
Phn loi:Theo hnh dng
1.Protein hnh si: t l chiu di/chiu rng
> 10. L cc protein cu trc
2.Protein hnh cu: t l chiu di/ chiu rng
< 10. L cc protein chc nng
Phn loi: Theo cu to
1.Protein thun: Ch do aa cu to ln
2.Protein tp: ngoi aa cn c thnh phn
khc khng phi aa (nhm ngoi)

CU TRC CA PROTEIN
Cc loi lin kt trong phn t protein:
Lin kt peptid
Lin kt disulfur
Lin kt hydro
Lin kt ion (lin kt mui, lin kt tnh
in)
Tng tc k nc

Polyme ca cc acid amin:


s to thnh lin kt Peptid

Lin kt peptid l mt lin kt na i

Lin kt peptid c c tnh ca mt lin kt na i.O ca nhm


carbonyl tch in dng mt phn, N ca nhm amin tch in
dng mt phn.

Lin kt Peptid c cu trc phng

-Cu trc na i ca lin kt peptid ngn cn s quay t do


xung quanh lin kt C-N; gi lin kt C-N trn cng mt phng
v gn vi cc nguyn t O v H. Cc mt phng lin kt ny
c th xoay xung quanh nguyn t C
-Lin kt ng ha tr, bn vng.

Cu trc lp th hay gp
ca lin kt peptid (ng phn)

Cu hnhTrans;
Hay gp trong t nhin v
thun li v khng gian

Cu hnh Cis ;
Him gp v khng thun
v khng gian

Cc lin kt bnh n cu trc ca


protein

1. Tnh in/ion 3. Tng tc k nc


2. Lin kt Hydrogen 4. Lin kt Disulfur

Cc bc cu trc ca protein
Cu trc bc mt ca
protein l do s lng,
loi v trnh t sp xp
cc acid amin trong chui
polypeptid to nn.
Lin kt quyt nh cu
trc bc 1 l lin kt
peptid.
Cc protein khc nhau c
cu trc bc mt khc
nhau

Phn loi cu trc bc hai


1. Cu trc xon (Alpha helix)
2. Cu trc gp np beta (-sheet)
3. Quai v im quay

Cu trc xon alpha


Linus Pauling v Robert
Corey a ra u tin vo
(-helix)
nm 1951
Max Perutz xc nhn trong
keratin
Ph bin trong proteins
Lin kt H bnh n cu trc
bc 2

Xon phi hay xon tri

Xon tri him gp trong t


nhin!

Xon phi -helix


S gc aa/ vng
xon: 3.6
Chiu cao 1 gc aa:
1.5 Angstrom
Chiu cao 1 vng
xon: 3.6 x 1.5A = 5.4
Angstrom
Nguyn t H ca
nhm amin to lin
kt hydro vi oxy ca
nhm carbonyl cch
4 aa, hnh thnh
quai c 13 nguyn t.

Cu trc xon alpha

Quai v im quay
Quai:
Thng cha cc gc a nc.
Tm thy trn b mt protein.
Ni xon alpha v gp np beta.
im quay:
Quai c < 5 aa c gi l im quay
Cc im quay beta rt hay gp

Cu trc tm beta (gp np beta)


Cng do Pauling v Corey a ra nm 1951
Cc chui c th song song hoc i song
Chiu di ca mi gc aa:
3.47 Angstroms vi cc chui i song
3.25 Angstroms vi cc chui song song
Mi chui trong cu trc tm beta c th xem
nh xon helix vi 2 gc aa / vng xon

Gp np Beta

Cu trc gp np
Beta to thnh t
nhiu chui beta sp
xp cnh nhau.
Cc chui c th song
song hoc i song.
Cu trc tm i song
n nh hn.

Cc chui bn trong gp np beta


Cc chui bn (gc R ca aa) quay ln trn hoc
xung di mt phng ca tm beta.
2 n 15 chui beta/tm beta
Mi chui khong 6 amino acid

Chui bn trong cu trc -helix


Cc gc R ca aa hng
ra pha ngoi ca trc
xon
Cc aa c chui bn
cng knh t gp trong
alpha-helix
Glycine v proline lm
mt n nh cu trc
alpha-helix

Cu trc bc ba
Tt c cc protein hnh
cu c cu trc bc 3.
Cc phn t protein
c cu trc bc 2 b v
gp li to cu trc khng
gian 3 chiu hnh cu.

NHN HEM

PHN T MYOGLOBIN

Myoglobin l protein
c trong t bo c. Cc
lin kt H, lin kt ion,
tng tc k nc v
cu disulfur bnh n
cu trc bc 3

Cu trc bc 4
b e ta c h a in

b e ta c h a in

Ch cc protein c t 2 chui
Polypeptid tr ln mi c
th c cu trc bc bn.
Cc lin kt H, lin kt ion,
tng tc k nc
bnh n cu trc bc bn

a lp h a c h a in

a lp h a c h a in
ir o n - c o n t a in in g
h a e m g ro u p

Phn t Hemoglobin

Tnh cht l ha ca protein


Tnh cht lng tnh: Ty theo pH mi trng
m protein tn ti di dng tch in m,
dng hay trung ha v in.
pH ng in ca protein l pH mi trng m
ti protein tn ti di dng trung ha v
in.
Tnh ha tan: Protein hnh cu tan trong nc
hay dung dch mui long to dung dch keo.
Dung dch keo bn vng nh s tch in cng
du ca cc tiu phn keo v lp o nc.

Tnh cht l ha ca protein


Tnh kt ta: Loi b lp o nc v
trung ha in tch th protein kt ta.
S bin tnh: cu trc bc 2, 3,4 b
ph v (cc lin kt b ph v tr lin
kt peptid).

Chc nng sinh hc ca protein

Vai tr cu trc
Vai tr xc tc: enzym
Vai tr vn chuyn:
Vai tr bo v
Vai tr vn ng
Vai tr iu ha
Cc vai tr khc