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 Founded by Ian Bailey
and Jan Lovie in 1980
 The chart has the
shape of an inverted
 The character size
change is a logarithmic
progression of letter

LOGMAR CHART  LogMAR is the base Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution  LogMAR chart is used when precision is required in the examination of visual acuity  LogMAR visual acuity. usually used in research studies 2 .

Assessment LogMAR visual acuity was 0.1 LogMAR for each row  0.02 LogMAR for each letter correctly identified. 3 .

5. 3. the patien can not read any letter on the top line Move the chart to be 2 meters 4 . Positioning patient on 4 m from chart Instruct to cover his left eye and not to squint Instruct to read letters from top to bottom Use a score sheet : identify the correct letters and note it Continue read the letter until the patien unable read any letter. 8.Step by Step Procedure 1. 6. Do to the right eye too Note the score of visual acuity If. 7. 4. 2.


6 .

Visual acuity conversion : 7 EXAMPLE .

H. of the National Eye Institute in 1982 chose the Bailey-Lovie layout Sloan letters (C.R.Z) a standarized method of visual acuity measurement for the 8 .S.D.K.V.O.ETDRS  Rick Ferris et al.N.

ETDRS Acuity Testing .

1. log unit) • Equal spacing of the letters on a log scale • Individual rows balanced for letter difficulty • To prevent memorization. . The three standard versions of the ETDRS chart are R.ETDRS Design • Same number of letters per row (five letters per row) • Equal spacing of the rows on a log scale (the rows are separated by 0. 1 and 2. different versions of the ETDRS test chart are available.

What is a visual impairment? .

000 Profound .Levels of visual impairment • World Health Organization has a classification system: • When the vision in the better eye with best possible glasses correction is: • 20/30 to 20/60 Mild • 20/70 to 20/160 Moderate • 20/200 to 20/400 Severe • 20/500 to 20/1.

20/40) can have difficulty functioning. while someone with worse acuity (e. • less than 20/1. Visual acuity alone is not a good predictor • Someone with relatively good acuity (e.g..000 Near-total visual impairment. or total blindness • There are also levels of visual impairment based on visual field loss (loss of peripheral vision).Levels of visual impairment cont. .. or near total blindness • No light perception Total impairment. 20/200) might not be having any real problems.g.

VA alone not a good predictor Visual acuity 20/40 • With visual field loss Visual acuity 20/200 • With no visual field loss .