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Educational Emphasis
(Scientific Skills)

controlling variables and classifying data.Scientific Skills 0 Logical operations of thinking in investigations. Integrated Process Skills 0 Embodied in experimenting which includes hypothesizing. . quantifying. classifying. inferring. comparing. predicting and communicating. 0 0 0 Basic Process Skills 0 0 Basic (Science Process Skills) Integrated (Manipulative Skills) Observing. They are either.

Basic Process Skills Science Process Skills (SPS) .

smell. Example: Describing a pencil as yellow . taste and hearing. touch. We observe objects or events through our five senses: sight.1. classify or perform the other process skills without being a good observer. One cannot compare. OBSERVING most basic and fundamental of the process skills.

etc. burning. decaying. smell. 0 Change – it could be the result of crushing. cutting. and sound. size.The Process of observing can be: 0 Qualitative – this is identifying and naming the properties of an object such as its shape. 0 Quantitative – This kind of observation involves measurement. texture. . pounding. color.

Through comparison. .2. we are able to identify relationships among objects and phenomena observed. COMPARING Comparing is using observable properties in discovering similarities of and differences between objects and phenomena.

.3. CLASSIFYING There is an overwhelming number of things around us – nonliving and living things. Example: Placing all rocks having certain grain size or hardness into one group. differences and interrelationships and by grouping them accordingly to suit some purpose. Order can be attained by observing similarities.

. inferring is explaining or interpreting an observation.4. INFERRING While observing is getting information by using one or more senses. Example: Saying that the person who used a pencil made a lot of mistakes because the eraser was well worn.

Extrapolation . Interpolation – is predicting new data based on and within a trend/ pattern of previously observed data. .5. It is simply a guess. PREDICTING Predicting is the process of using past observations or data along with other kinds of scientific knowledge to forecast event or predicting new data outside or beyond the range of previously observed data. A statement not based on observation is not a prediction.

6. This involves: 1. measuring 3. Using numbers 2. QUANTIFYING Quantifying is making and manipulating quantitative observations. using time and space Example: Using a meter stick to measure the length of a table in centimeters. .

diagrams. such as orally. in writing or with graphs. tables of data or photographs is a way of communicating. . Example: Describing the change in height of a plant over time in writing or through a graph.7. COMMUNICATING Expressing ideas in many forms.

Integrated Process Skills Manipulative Skills .

MANIPULATIVE SKILLS These skills involve using equipment and materials properly and accurately. preparing setups for investigation. and handling specimen carefully. .