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IELTS and Cambridge Exam Definitions


Coherence refers to the macro level of the speech or text, or to the
organization of the speech or text as a whole. Language is
coherent when ideas in spoken or written text fit together clearly
and smoothly, and so make sense to the listener or reader.
Cohesion refers to the micro level of the speech or text—how
words are linked together to form sentences and how sentences are
joined together by means of logical grammar or lexis, e.g.
conjunctions (firstly, secondly), lexical sets, and referring words
(it, them, this).
cohesive devices Cohesive devices assist in making the conceptual and referential
relationships between and within sentences clear. Examples of
cohesive devices are conjunctions (however, although, etc.),
sequencing words (then, next, after that, etc.), and referencing
words (pronouns such as he, him, etc.) In the sentences ‘The girl
left the room. This surprised her friend’, ‘This’ is a pronoun
linking back to the whole of the previous sentence, and ‘her’ is a
possessive adjective linking back to ‘the girl’.
An expression not used in formal writing or speech. Slang, jargon,
and idioms are examples of colloquialisms. (Vietnamese: thông
tục. A colloquial word — từ thông tục.)
Discourse is one of the four systems of language, the others being
vocabulary, grammar and phonology. Discourse has various
definitions but one way of thinking about it is as any piece of
extended language, written or spoken, that has unity and meaning
and purpose. One possible way of understanding 'extended' is as
language that is more than one sentence in length.
Discourse markers are words and phrases used in speaking and
writing to 'signpost' discourse. Discourse markers do this by
showing turns, joining ideas together, showing attitude, and
generally controlling communication. Some people regard
discourse markers as a feature of spoken language only.


Words like 'actually', 'so', 'OK', 'right?' and 'anyway' all function as
discourse markers as they help the speaker to manage the
conversation and mark when it changes.
Fluency is a combination of: speed of speech, length of answer
and pausing correctly.
An expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the
meanings of the words that make it up; e.g., the last straw, fine art,
red-letter day, show someone the door. (Vietnamese: thành ngữ)