You are on page 1of 52

Aligne d for Suc c ess...

Re c omm end ations to Incre ase the


Effe ctiveness of the Fe d eral Historic Preserv ation Progra m

Preserv ation A ction | Preserv ation A ction Found ation


National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers
N ation al Trust for Historic Preserv ation | N ation al Trust C om munity
Inv estm ent C orp oration | Historic Ta x Cre dit C o alition
N ation al Allia nc e of Preserv ation C om missions
A m eric a n C ultural Resourc es Asso ciation | Allia nc e of N ation al
Herita g e Are as | US/IC O M OS | So ciety for Historic al Arch a e olo g y

Summ er 2011

Task Forc e Partners


A lli a n c e o f N a tio n a l H e rit a g e Ar e a s
A m e ri c a n C ultur a l R e so ur c e s Asso c i a tio n
Hist ori c T a x C r e d it C o a litio n
N a tio n a l A lli a n c e o f Pr e s e rv a tio n C o m missio ns
National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers
N a tio n a l Trust f or Hist ori c Pr e s e rv a tio n
N a tio n a l Trust C o m m u nity In v e st m e nt C orp or a tio n
Pr e s e rv a tio n A c tio n
Pr e s e rv a tio n A c tio n F o u n d a tio n
So c i e ty f or Hist ori c a l Ar c h a e olo g y
US N a tio n a l C o m mitt e e o f th e Int e rn a tio n a l C o u n c il o n M o n u m e nts a n d Sit e s

A sp e c i a l proj e c t o f th e Pr e s e rv a tio n A c tio n F o u n d a tio n w h os e missio n is t o:

F a c ilit a t e a n d pro m o t e u n d e rst a n d in g a b o ut th e f e d e r a l p oli c i e s a n d progr a ms th a t a ff e c t o ur n a tio n s hist ori c a n d c ultur a l r e so ur c e s.

En c o ur a g e inf orm e d a n d sc h ol a rly d isc o urs e a b o ut pr e s e rv a tio n p oli c y th a t


l a ys th e gro u n d w ork f or e ff e c tiv e a c tio n.

D e v e lo p e d u c a tio n a l pro gr a ms a n d r e so ur c e s th a t will insp ir e a n d inf orm a


n e w g e n e r a tio n o f pr e s e rv a tio n a d v o c a t e s.

FOUNDATION
401 F Str e e t N W, Suit e 331
W a shin g t o n, D C 20001
w w w . pr e s e rv a tio n a c tio n. org

Foreward
InMarchof2010,Preserva3onAc3onissuedacalltothosewhocareaboutAmericashistoricresourcestojoin
togethertoexaminethefederalhistoricpreserva3onprogram.Thestakescouldnothavebeenhigher,asonlyweeks
earliertheObamaAdministra3onhadcalledfordevasta3ngnearly40%cutsintheprogramsfunding.Thesecuts
wereul3matelyimplemented,withanotherroundofdoubledigitcutsnowproposedfor2012.
ThecutsbewilderedthosewhoknowAmericanpreserva3onanditsvastpoten3al.Amidstdiculteconomic3mes,
realestatedevelopersandstatehistoricpreserva3onocersalikehadbeenbusytryingtoturnloosetheexplosive
jobcrea3onpoten3alofhistoricrehabilita3on.Fromlocalpreserva3oncommissionstastona3onalheritagearea
managers,preserva3onistswerehardatworkonnotonlyhistoricdocumenta3onandeduca3onbutruralheritage
tourism,energymodelingforolderbuildingsandsmartgrowthamongotherthings.Inshort,Preserva3onwasand
issucceedingataddressingAmericasmostpressingissues.
Whythen,didpreserva3onsustainamongthedeepestbudgetcutsmetedouttoanydomes3cprogram?Thatwas
thecoreissueattheheartofthePreserva3onAc3oncall.AnsweringitwasthetasktakenupbytheFederalHistoric
Preserva3onProgramTaskForceformedbythedozensoforganiza3onsandindividualswhoresponded.
TheTaskForcehasnowcompleteditsdelibera3onsandwearepleasedtosubmitourreport:AlignedforSuccess.
..Recommenda3onstoIncreasetheEec3venessoftheFederalHistoricPreserva3onProgram.Init,weconclude
thatmisalignmentsintheadministra3vestructureofthefederalprogrampreventitbothfromadequatelysupport
ingthevitalworkofstate,local,tribalandprivatepreserva3onpartnersandfrombroadlyquan3fyinganddissemi
na3ngtheirsuccesses.Inshort,thestructurekeepspreserva3onslightunderabushel.
Ourreportbuildsontheearlierexcellentworkofanexpertpanelconvenedin2008byJohnL.NauIII,thenChairman
oftheAdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva3on,andP.LynnScarle^,formerDeputySecretaryoftheInterior.Their
recommenda3onsforimprovingthestructureofthefederalpreserva3onprogramunfortunatelyremainlargely
unimplemented.
Todaysreportisalsotheproductofextensivenewwork.Wethankallthemembersofthepublicwhoansweredour
survey,madedona3onsora^endedourlisteningsessions;thepartnerorganiza3onsandtheirstas,Dr.CarrollVan
Westandhisstudentsfortheirresearch,andespeciallythemembersoftheTaskForcethemselves.Inall,theTask
Forcesworkinvolvedoveronethousandpersonsasta3s3cthatbearstestamenttotheimportanceoftheseissues.
Onapersonalnote,ithasbeenapleasuretoserveascochairsofthiseort,whichwehopewillindeedbe^eralign
thefederalhistoricpreserva3onprogramforsuccess.
Sincerely,

AndrewPo^s
Chair

DavidMorgan
Chair

National Historic Preserv ation A ct of 1966, Se ction 1

TheCongressndsanddeclaresthat

(1)

thespiritanddirec3onoftheNa3onarefoundeduponandreectedinits
historicheritage;

(2)

thehistoricalandculturalfounda3onsoftheNa3onshouldbepreservedasaliving
partofourcommunitylifeanddevelopmentinordertogiveasenseoforienta3onto
theAmericanpeople;

(3)

historicproper3essignicanttotheNa3onsheritagearebeinglostorsubstan3ally
altered,ogeninadvertently,withincreasingfrequency;

(4)

thepreserva3onofthisirreplaceableheritageisinthepublicinterestsothatitsvital
legacyofcultural,educa3onal,aesthe3c,inspira3onal,economic,andenergybenets
willbemaintainedandenrichedforfuturegenera3onsofAmericans;

(5)

inthefaceofeverincreasingextensionsofurbancenters,highways,and
residen3al,commercial,andindustrialdevelopments,thepresent
governmentalandnongovernmentalhistoricpreserva3onprogramsandac3vi3es
areinadequatetoinsurefuturegenera3onsagenuineopportunitytoappreciate
andenjoytherichheritageofourNa3on;

(6)

theincreasedknowledgeofourhistoricresources,theestablishmentofbe^ermeans
ofiden3fyingandadministeringthem,andtheencouragementoftheirpreserva3on
willimprovetheplanningandexecu3onoffederalandfederallyassistedprojectsand
willassisteconomicgrowthanddevelopment;and

(7)

althoughthemajorburdensofhistoricpreserva3onhavebeenborneandmajoreorts
ini3atedbyprivateagenciesandindividuals,andbothshouldcon3nuetoplayavital
role,itisneverthelessnecessaryandappropriatefortheFederalGovernmentto
accelerateitshistoricpreserva3onprogramsandac3vi3es,togivemaximum
encouragementtoagenciesandindividualsundertakingpreserva3onbyprivatemeans,
andtoassistStateandlocalgovernmentsandtheNa3onalTrustforHistoric
Preserva3onintheUnitedStatestoexpandandacceleratetheirhistoricpreserva3on
programsandac3vi3es.

ii

Ta ble of C ontents
Na#onalHistoricPreserva#onActof1966,Sec#on1...ii
Acronyms...iv
Execu#veSummary...v
ChapterOne:Introduc1on

GenesisandScopeofthisReport...1

TheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActandthePreserva3onandHeritagePartnershipPrograms...4

SearchforaWorkableStructure...5

StudyMethodology...7

FiveKeyCriteriaforEec3veLeadership...8

ChapterTwo:ResearchFindings

Thecurrentadministra3vestructureofthefederalhistoricpreserva3onprogram...11

Thebreadthofthepreserva3onvisionsetforthinthe1966Act...17

Theintegra3onofpreserva3onpartnershipprogramswithinsideparkculturalresourcesmanagement...19

ChapterThree:Recommenda1ons

Vision...23

Na3onalParkServiceDeputyDirectorforHistoricPreserva3onandHeritage...24

DepartmentoftheInteriorSeniorPolicyOcerforHistoricPreserva3onandSpecial
AdvisorforHeritagetotheSecretary...25

AdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva3onFull3meChair...25

PresidentsCouncilonEnvironmentalQualitySeniorOcerforCulturalandHistoricResources...26

Appendices

AppendixA:TaskForceMembersandSta...27
AppendixB:SubjectMa^erExpertandStakeholderInterviewees...29
AppendixC:SubjectMa^erExpertandStakeholderIntervieweeQues3onnaire...31
AppendixD:DiscussionSessionGuide...32
AppendixE:SurveyQues3onnaire...33

iii

A CRO NYMS
AdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva3on

ACHP

Cer3edLocalGovernment

CLG

DepartmentofCommerce

Commerce

DepartmentofEnergy

DOE

DepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment

HUD

DepartmentoftheInterior

DOIorInterior

HistoricRehabilita3onTaxCreditProgram

HTC

Na3onalAcademyofPublicAdministra3on

NAPA

Na3onalCenterforPreserva3onTechnologyandTraining

NCPTT

Na3onalConferenceofStateHistoricPreserva3onOcers

NCSHPO

TheNa3onalEnvironmentalPolicyActof1969

NEPA

TheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActof1966

NHPAortheAct

Na3onalParkService

NPS

NPSTechnicalPreserva3onServices

TPS

Na3onalPreserva3onConference

NPC

Na3onalRegisterofHistoricPlaces

NRHP

Na3onalTrustforHistoricPreserva3on

NTHP

OceofManagementandBudget

OMB

PresidentsCouncilonEnvironmentalQuality

CEQ

SeniorPolicyOcer

SPO

StateHistoricPreserva3onOce

SHPO

TribalHistoricPreserva3onOce

THPO

iv

Exe cutive Summ ary


TheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActof1966(theActortheNHPA)establishedana3onalpreserva3onprogram
basedonafederalpartnershipwithStates,IndianTribes,Na3veHawaiians,localgovernments,nonprotorganiza3ons
andtheprivatesector.Thesepartnerscarryoutthebulkofpreserva3onintheUnitedStates.TheActtaskedthefederal
governmentwithencouragingtheirworkandensuringthatAmericasvitallegacyofnotjustthecultural,educa3onal,
aesthe3c[and]inspira3onalbutalsotheeconomicandenergybenetsofhistoricresourcesbemaintainedand
enrichedforfuturegenera3onsofAmericans.Congressdelegatedthesefederalresponsibili3estotheDepartmentofthe
Interior(InteriororDOI),whointurnassignedtheiradministra3ontotheNa3onalParkService(NPS).
Inthepast45yearstheAmericanhistoricpreserva3onandheritagepartnershaveremadethemselvesintothe
mul3facetedmovementenvisionedbytheActandprovedthepowerofpreserva3ontoserveasacatalystforjob
crea3on,communityrevitaliza3on,energyconserva3on,andenhancementofcommunityandna3onalpride.Butwhile
thepreserva3onpartnershavemadegreatstridesinrealizingtheidealsoftheAct,thefederalcomponentofthena3onal
preserva3onpartnershiphasnotkeptpace.Inordertocreateaneec3vepartnershipforunleashingthepoten3alof
thena3onsheritageresourcestocontributetomee3ngAmericasmostpressingna3onalgoalsandtofurtherrealizethe
intentoftheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActinthe21stcentury,thefederalhistoricpreserva3onprogrammustchange.

TheVision
TheTaskForceenvisionsanadministra3vestructureforthefederalHistoricPreserva3onandHeritagePartnership
Programs(PartnershipPrograms)thatpropelstheseprogramsintoaleadershiproleinjobcrea3on,energy
independence,be^erinterna3onalrela3onsthroughpublicdiplomacy,heritageconserva3onandtheforgingofecient
andeec3vepublicprivatepartnershipstoadvancethesegoals.
TheTaskForcedenesthePartnershipProgramsasthefederalpreserva3onac3vi3esthatrequiretheregular
involvementofnonfederalpar3cipantssuchasthosedenedinTitleIoftheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActand
carriedoutbyStates,Tribes,localgovernments,andtheNa3onalHeritageAreasmovement,andfederalagency
preserva3onprogramsrelatedtotheseac3vi3es.TheseprogramsincludetheNa3onalRegisterofHistoricPlaces,the
FederalRehabilita3onTaxCreditProgram,andfederalGrantsinAidprogramsamongothers.
Tobeeec3ve,leadershipofthesePartnershipProgramsshould:
-

Beaccountablefortheperformanceofthena3onalpreserva3onprogram
Enablecollabora3onacrossprogramcons3tuencies
Advocateforthena3onalpreserva3onprogram,par3cularlywithregardtofunding
Achieveinnova3onandexibility
Makehistoricpreserva3onvisibleatalllevels.

Eec3veleadershipofthePartnershipProgramswillresultingreaterleveragingofheritagerelatedprivateinvestment,
streamlinedregulatoryandgrantapplica3onreviewsthatremaintruetona3onalpreserva3onstandards,aneec3ve
voiceforthePreserva3onandHeritagePartnershipProgramswithintheDepartmentoftheInterior,andinthe
developmentofpreserva3onbasedpublicpolicyrelatedtocommunityandeconomicdevelopment,energyindependence
andenvironmentalsustainabilityacrossthefederalgovernment.
v

WhyIsChangeNeeded?
AstrongconsensushasemergedfromtheworkoftheFederalHistoricPreserva3onProgramTaskForceandrecent
studiesundertakenbytheNa3onalAcademyofPublicAdministra3onandthePreserveAmericaExpertPanelthatthe
currentfederalstructureforadministeringthePreserva3onandHeritagePartnershipPrograms(whattheNPShascalled
ExternalorCommunityAssistanceprograms)isnotadequatetorealizethepoten3alofheritageconserva3onto
advancena3onalgoalsinthe21stcentury.
Therecommenda3onsoftheTaskForcearebasedonthefollowingndings:

Thecurrentadministra3vestructureofthefederalhistoricpreserva3onprogramdoesnotprovideforthelevelsof
leadership,publicandprivatepartnership,advocacy,innova3on,andvisibilityrequiredtorealizethetransforma3ve
visionforhistoricpreserva3onsetforthinthe1966Act.

Thebreadthofthepreserva3onvisionsetforthinthe1966Actreachesintothena3onscommuni3esandpolicy
makingarenasrelatedtoeconomicdevelopmentandcommunityandenvironmentalsustainability,extending
farbeyondNa3onalParkboundaries.Itiscri3calthatthefederalgovernmentrealigntheadministra3onofthe
PartnershipProgramstoprovideleadershipcapableofachievingthevisionofthe1966Act,withtheexper3se,
exibilityandaccountabilityneededtoadvancethem.

Closerintegra3onofthePreserva3onandHeritagePartnershipProgramsintotheadministra3vestructureofinside
parkculturalresourcemanagementwillnotserveeithertheindividualparksorthePartnershipProgramswell.The
goalsandculturesofthesetwoareasofac3vityareverydierent.Placingbothoftheseresponsibili3esunderasingle
leaderputsparksandthePartnershipProgramsincompe33onwitheachotherforresources,anditputscuratorial
preserva3onconcernsaheadofeortstoharnessthena3onsheritageresourcesforthebroadarrayofpublicgoals
envisionedbythe1966Act.

Adiversesegmentofthepublicandthepreserva3oncommunitybelievesthattransferringthePartnershipProgramsto
anindependentfederalpreserva3onagencyoraseparatebureauwithintheDepartmentoftheInteriorwouldbethe
beststructuretoempowerpropertyownersandlocalagenciestouseheritagepreserva3ontocreatejobsandadvance
communitysustainability.However,theTaskForcebelievesthatinkeepingwiththecurrentscalimpera3vetodomore
withless,posi3vechangecanbeaccomplishedthroughtherealignmentofcurrentresources,withtheunderstandingthat
thepreserva3oncommunitywillrevisittheresultsofthesechangesintwoyearstodetermineiftheyhavebeeneec3ve.

Recommenda1ons
Deepbudgetcutsexactedin2011andproposedagainfor2012havecreatedbothanimpera3veandanopportunityto
revitalizethePartnershipProgramssothatCongress,theAdministra3onandtheAmericanpeopleunambiguouslysee
themasrealizingthepromiseoftheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActandmee3ngtheurgentneedsofthe21stcentury.
Todothis,theFederalHistoricPreserva3onProgramTaskForcepositsthatthefederalcomponentofthePartnership
ProgramcurrentlyadministeredbytheNPSmustberealignedandstrengthenedtocreateastructurefullyalignedwith
theprovisionsoftheActandoffurtheringtheeconomicdevelopment,energyandresourceconserva3onandcommunity
strengtheningpoten3alofhistoricresources.TheTaskForcesrecommenda3onsare:

1. Makehistoricpreserva1onvisibleandaccountablebyrealigningresponsibili1esforPreserva1onandHeritage
PartnershipProgramswithintheNa1onalParkServiceunderaDeputyDirectorforHistoricPreserva1onand
HeritagewhoreportstotheDirectoroftheNa1onalParkService.TheTaskForcendingsindicatethatthe
PartnershipProgramswillnotthriveinNPSunlesstheygainamoreelevatedandindependentposi3onwithintheNPS
hierarchy.Thisisnotanissuethatindividualleadershipcanovercomeinthelongterm,butoneofstructuralnecessity
toins3tu3onalizeandelevatehistoricpreserva3onwithinthefederalgovernmentsothattruena3onalleadership
againbecomesfeasible.TheTaskForceenvisionsasingleDeputyDirectorwhoreportsdirectlytotheDirectorofthe
Na3onalParkService.ThesoleresponsibilityofthisDeputyDirectorwouldbeoverseeingthevariousPartnership
ProgramsdescribedinTitleIofthe1966ActandadministeredwithTribes,States,andlocali3es,aswellasNa3onal
vi

HeritageAreas.Thisapproachwillprovideleadershipthatisaccountablesolelyfortheadvancementoftheoutward
focusedpreserva3onPartnershipPrograms.

Further,toinsuresuccess,theDeputyDirectorforHistoricPreserva3onandHeritageneedsexpandedstaexper3se
intheareasofeconomicdevelopment,energyeciencyandenvironmentalsustainabilitytocomplementexis3ng
resourceprotec3onexper3se.Together,theseac3onswillfacilitatemoreecientandeec3veadministra3onof
localdesigna3onac3vi3es,taxcreditinvestmentprojects,andNa3onalHeritageAreaadministra3on.TheTaskForce
believesthatthesechangescanbeaccomplishedatminimalexpenseandwiththeexis3ngnumberofpersonnel
throughthereassignmentandreorienta3onofexis3ngposi3ons.
2. DesignateaSeniorPolicyOcerforHistoricPreserva1onandHeritageintheDepartmentoftheInteriortoserve
asaSpecialAdvisorforHeritagetotheSecretaryoftheInterior.TheTaskForcestronglybelievesthatitis3mefor
theDepartmentoftheInteriortotakeastrongleadershiproleinhistoricpreserva3on.Asstewardofthefederal
preserva3onprogram,andastheAgencydesignedbyCongresstoberesponsibleformuchoftheNa3onalHistoric
Preserva3onAct,Interiorneedstobecomeatrueleaderandadvocateforhistoricpreserva3onacrosstheagencyand
throughouttheadministra3on.

TheSeniorPolicyOcerforHistoricPreserva3onandHeritageintheDepartmentoftheInteriorandSpecialAdvisor
forHeritagetotheSecretaryoftheInteriorwilloverseetheimplementa3onoftheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onAct
throughouttheDepartmentoftheInteriorsbureausandoces,asrequiredunderExecu3veOrder13287(Preserve
America).ThisocerwilladvisetheSecretaryoftheInterioronallma^ersrelatedtoheritagepreserva3on,including
preserva3onsabilitytocontributetodepartmental,na3onalandinterna3onalgoalsandensurethatheritage
partnershipprogramshaveaplaceindepartmentalprioritysesngandresourcealloca3on.Theinforma3ongathered
bythisocerwillalsoallowtheSecretarytointroducepreserva3onbasedstrategiestosolvingna3onalissuesinto
thedelibera3onsoftheDomes3cPolicyCouncil.Designa3onofthisocerwillprovidetheagencywidecultural
resourcecoordina3onini3allysoughtbythe1966Act.
3. MaketheAdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva1onChairmanafull1meposi1on.TheTaskForcehasiden3ed
aneedtostrengthenleadershipandincreasevisibilityforhistoricpreserva3onandheritageatthefederallevel:a
full3meACHPChairmanappointedbythePresidentwillhelpaccomplishthis.ItwillallowtheCounciltofulll
itsCongressionallymandatedresponsibili3estoadvisethePresidentandCongressonma^ersrela3ngtohistoric
preserva3onandimprovecoordina3onofpreserva3onac3vi3esofFederal,State,andlocalagenciesandprivate
ins3tu3onsandindividuals,whilealsocarryingoutitscri3calresponsibili3esforadministeringtheSec3on106review
process.

Afull3meACHPchairwouldbeinabe^erposi3ontoworkcloselywiththeleadershipofthePartnershipPrograms
tofacilitatemoreinteragencycoopera3onintheiradministra3on,andwiththeSecretaryoftheInteriortoprovide
leadershipandadvocacyforhistoricpreserva3onwithintheAdministra3on.Thefull3mechairwillalsoini3atea
processtoiden3fyopportuni3esforgreatereciencyinhowpreserva3onresponsibili3esareallocatedandcarried
outbetweentheACHPandtheNPS.Furthermore,afull3mechairpersonwillbebe^erposi3onedtoengagein
governmenttogovernmentconsulta3onwithtribes;interna3onalagenciesandorganiza3ons;andwithotherkey
Execu3veOceini3a3ves,panelsandcouncils.Designa3onofafull3meChairshouldbepursuedini3allyasan
administra3veac3onbythePresident,evaluated,andifsuccessful,beestablishedstatutorilyatalaterdate.
4. Designateaseniorstaposi1onforhistoricandculturalresourcesonthePresidentsCouncilonEnvironmental
Quality(CEQ).TheNa3onalEnvironmentalPolicyActof1969(NEPA),whichCEQhelpstoimplement,promotes
ana3onalpolicydesignedamongotherthingstopreserveimportanthistoric,cultural,andnaturalaspectsofour
na3onalheritage.ThefactthatNEPAhasalwaysincludedculturalandhistoricresourceshasogenbeenoverlooked.
NaturalresourceprogramshavehadanExecu3veOcechampionintheCEQbuttheagencywithcomparable
responsibili3esforthepreserva3onprogram(theACHP)isnotcurrentlyrepresentedintheExecu3veOce.Havinga
voiceforhistoricpreserva3onandculturalresourcesatCEQwillensurethathistoricpreserva3onandtherolesitplays
inenergysavings,sustainability,andenvironmentalqualityarepartofCouncildelibera3onsasintendedbyNEPA.

vii

The Fe d eral Reha bilitation Tax Cre dit Progra m,


m ana g e d by the National Park Servic e, which in 2010
cre ate d more than 41,000 jobs and levera g e d over
$3.4 billion in priv ate investm ent should b e toute d as
a mod el progra m during these challenging e c onomic
tim es. It not only fa cilitates the restoration of historic
buildings, but it spurs a d ditional c onstruction and
investm ent. Picture d is the Enterprise Mill in Augusta,
GA, which has been adaptively reused for office space,
housing, and the Interpretive C enter for the Augusta
C anal Herita g e Are a.

Th e T a sk F or c e e n visio ns a n a d ministr a tiv e stru c tur e


f or th e N a tio n a l Pr e s e rv a tio n P a rtn e rshi p Pro gr a ms
th a t pro p e ls th e s e pro gr a ms int o a l e a d e rshi p rol e
in h e rit a g e c o ns e rv a tio n, jo b c r e a tio n, e n e rg y
in d e p e n d e n c e , p u b li c d i p lo m a c y a n d th e f orgin g o f
efficient and effective public-private partnerships to
a d v a n c e th e s e g o a ls.

Cha pter One: Introduction


GenesisandScopeofthisReport
TheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActof1966isthefundamentalcharteroffederalhistoricpreserva3onpolicy.It
ispremisedonanexplicitchoicebyCongressthattheoutrightownershipofkeyna3onallandmarksbytheU.S.
Governmentshouldnotbethechiefendoffederalpreserva3onpolicy,asithadbeenbeforetheAct.Instead,
CongresslaiddownanewmandateintheActthattheaimofthefederalgovernmentshouldbetoencouragethe
privatepreserva3onofalluseableelementsoftheNa3onshistoricbuiltenvironment,aswellastoprovidefor
thestewardshipoffederallyownedassets.Toeectuatethisshig,Congressestablishedanewprogramoffederal
policiesandnancialincen3vesdesignedtocontributetothepreserva3onofnonfederallyownedprehistoricand
historicresourcesandgivemaximumencouragementtoorganiza3onsandindividualsundertakingpreserva3onby
privatemeans.
Thisna3onalhistoricpreserva3onprogram,Congresssaid,wastobeimplementedthroughpartnershipswith
States,Indiantribes,Na3veHawaiians,localgovernments,nonprotorganiza3onsliketheNa3onalTrustforHistoric
Preserva3onand,ofcourse,theprivatesector.Administra3onofthefederalcomponentofthesepartnershipswas
assignedbyCongresstotheDepartmentoftheInteriorandbyInteriortotheNa3onalParkService.And,while
culturalandeduca3onalaimsweretobeimportantpartsofthisprogram,theActsremakingoffederalhistoric
preserva3oncon3nuedwithaninnova3vedeclara3onthatAmericasvitalpublicinterestinhistoricpreserva3onlies
inmaintainingandenrichingnotonlytheaesthe3candinspira3onalbutalsotheeconomic,andenergybenets
ofhistoricresources.
Today,theAmericanhistoricpreserva3onmovementhasbeenremadeintheimageofthemul3facetedapproach
championedbytheAct.Themovementconcernsitselfwithpreserva3oncragbutalsojobcrea3on,historic
documenta3onandenergymodeling,educa3onandsmartgrowth,alike.Fromhistoricpreserva3onnonprotsto
localpreserva3oncommissions,preserva3onstasandprofessionalsembracethespectrumofskillsetsnecessary
tomeetthisinterdisciplinarymandate.Afewsta3s3cshighlightthecomplexityanddiversityofpreserva3oneorts
achievedin2010acrosstheU.S.byStatesandlocalgovernments,nonprotsandprivatebuildingowners:1
1.2010HistoricPreserva3onFundReport,h^p://www.preserva3onac3on.org/Reports/2010HPFReport.pdf(accessedMay12,2011).

PrivatesectorownersofhistoricbuildingsusedtheFederalHistoricRehabilita3onTaxCreditProgram
togenerateover$3.42billionofprivateinvestment,whilecrea3ngmorethan41,000es3matedjobs
and5,514lowandmoderateincomehousingunits.
StateHistoricPreserva3onOcesreviewed242,000Federalundertakings,comparedto106,900in
2009,providing112,000Na3onalRegistereligibilityopinions.TribalHistoricPreserva3onOces
reviewed34,600undertakingsandmade7,150eligibilityopinions.
49newcommuni3esbecameCer3edLocalGovernments,bringingthecumula3vetotalto1,763CLGs
throughoutthena3on.
TheincidenceofLEEDpla3numandgoldratedhistoricrehabilita3onshascon3nuedtogrowasdid
interestinintroducingalterna3veenergystrategiestohistoricbuildings.
Over87millionpeoplevisitedNa3onalHeritageAreas,whereinnova3veapproachestopartnering
haveresultedina5:1ra3oofprivatetofederaldollarinvestmentwhilestrengtheninglocalecnomies
andenhancinglocalprideofplace.2

SotoohasAmericachanged.WhentheActwaspassed,itwaswidelybelievedthatcommuni3eshadtochoose
betweenpreserva3onandeconomicdevelopment.Olderandhistoricbusinessdistrictsatthecoreofalmostevery
Americancitywereexperiencingjoblossandlargescaledepopula3on.Olderandhistoricresiden3alneighborhoods
werebecominghomestostubbornconcentra3onsofpoverty,evenwhilehistoricpreserva3onwastradi3onally
equatedwithaconcernforonlyahandfulofstatelyhomes.In1966,theimpactofbuildingsonenergyuseandthe
environmentwaslesswellunderstood.Focuswasogenonnewconstruc3onandmoderntechnologieswithhistoric
buildingsnega3velyviewedasoutdatedenergyhogs.
Todaymanyrejecttheoldpreserva3onversusdevelopmentparadigm.Theyunderstandthatcitycentersandolder
neighborhoodshaveuniquea^ributesthatlendthemselvestotheneweconomy,includingwalkablestreets,well
developedinfrastructure,publictransit,denseemploymentcenters,andrichsocialandculturalameni3es.Ledby
nonprots,localgovernmentsandprivatedevelopers,preserva3onbasedeconomicdevelopmentstrategieshave
revitalizedneighborhoodsanddowntownsacrossAmericaandprovidedthousandsofjobsna3onwide.Privately
ownedhistoricbuildingshavebeenwidelyadap3velyreusedforaordablehousing,whileheritagetourismhas
providedaddeds3mulustocommuni3es,par3cularlyinruralareas.Moreover,theseareasofheritageareimportant
centersofregionaliden3ty;theirdis3nc3vefeelfostersacivicPrideofPlace,whichogenactsasacatalystfor
change.Communi3esarehungryfordataandstrategiesonhowtoleveragetheirownhistoricassetsasaposi3ve
componentofdevelopment.
Theadventofthe21stcentury,anditsfocusonenergyconserva3onhassparkedanewparadigmofsustainable
growthandprogresscenteredontheconserva3onandrecyclingofexis3ngbuildingresources.Ratherthan
demolishingbillionsofsquarefeetofourcurrentbuildingstockandsendingtheresul3ngwastetolandlls,muchof
thatspacecanbeadap3velyreusedtherebyconservingnotonlymaterials,buttheirembodiedenergy.Meanwhile,
acombina3onofnewtechnologiesandtradi3onaldesignstrategieshasestablishedthattheoldestbuildingscan
performatthemostdemandingstandardsofenergyeciency.Furtherresearch,development,productinnova3on
andtheestablishmentofbestprac3cesandra3ngsystemsforretrosnghistoricbuildingsareconsequentlyin
increasingdemand.
Inshort,theaccomplishmentsofthepreserva3onmovementinthefortyplusyearssincetheActwasadoptedhave
beenremarkable,whilethepoten3alforfutureaccomplishmentsisresoundinglystrong.Moreover,thecorevalues
ofAmericasirreplaceableheritageiden3edintheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActculturalinspira3onand
economics,energyandeduca3onreectalmostperfectlythecoreconcernsofAmericaatthemoment.Such

2.2009ataGlance,h^p://www.na3onalheritageareas.com/docs/ANHAAtaGlance.pdf(accessedMay12,2011).

promisetwinnedwithsuchrelevancepromptedmanytoexpectnewheightsofachievementforthepartnership
programsasweapproachthe50thanniversaryofthe1966Act.
Andyet,in2010and2011CongressandtheWhiteHouseunambiguouslysignaledthatthecaseforthishasnotbeen
adequatelymade.Federalfundingforthena3onalhistoricpreserva3onprogramwasnotonlyreducedasmightbe
expectedina3meofbudgetdecits,butreducedinamannervastlyoutofpropor3ontothecutsdecreedforother
areasofdomes3cspending.Nonewini3a3vesateitherthecongressionalortheagencylevelwereproposed.The
prospectsfor2012remainequallydicult:
FundingforSaveAmericasTreasuresbrickandmortarrestora3onini3a3vesandPreserveAmerica
heritagetourismprogramswaseliminatedin2011,andithasbeentargetedforelimina3onagainin
2012.
FundingforNa3onalHeritageAreashasbeentargetedfora50%decrease.
Despiteenormousgrowthinresponsibili3es,thefundingforStateHistoricPreserva3onOces,when
adjustedforina3on,hasnotchangedsince1983.SHPOswouldbenetgreatlyfromthestreamlining
offederal/stateprocedures.
WithgrowthinthenumberofCLGs,theaveragegrantamountsawardedtosupportlocalpreserva3on
ini3a3vesaretenpercentlessthantheywerein1995and65percentlessthanin1986.
TheHistoricPreserva3onFund,establishedin1976tobethededicatedsourceoffundingforthe
federalhistoricpreserva3onprogram(generatedvialeaserevenuesfromtheOuterCon3nentalShelf),
authorizedat$150millionperyear,hasrarelyseenanappropria3ongreaterthan50%.
Whatcouldaccountforthisdisconnect?Atthesame3methatoureconomy,jobloss,foreignwars,energy
dependenceandotherissuesremainpressing,thecurrenteraiswitnesstoasignicantfocusonreducingfederal
spendingandwringingmorevalueoutofeverydollarspentonfederalprograms.Itisclearthateveryfederal
programmustwidelydemonstrateitsvitality,relevanceandabilitytocontributetoaddressingthemostpressing
issuesoftheday.Withthehistoricpreserva3onprogram,thismeansprovingeverydaythattheprogramdoes
indeedmaintainandenrichinacosteec3veandvitalwaythecultural,educa3onal,aesthe3c,inspira3onal,
economic,andenergybenetsofAmericashistoricresources.
Baseduponyearsofstudyanddiscussionandnumerousearlierblueribbonreports,manysuspectedthatifthe
poten3alofpreserva3onprogramswasnotbeingfullyrealizedorperceived,thatthisfailingmightbeaconsequence
ofstructuralissuesandmisalignmentsintheformalorganiza3onofthefederaladministra3onoftheprograms
themselves.Whilehistoricpreserva3onacrossAmericahasevolvedintothemul3facetedapproachpromotedby
theAct,thefunc3onandorganiza3onofthefederalcomponenthasnotseemedtokeeppace.Inrecentyears,it
hassueredfromseverebudgetcuts,keymanagementpostsbeinglegunlledformonthsoryears,theshigingof
staandresourcestootherprograms,alackofcoordina3onwithotherdepartmentsandagenerallackofposi3ve
visibility.A^en3ontotheeconomicandenvironmentalbenetsofhistoricresources,althoughpassionatelypursued
bypreserva3onistsatotherlevels,haslaggedatthefederallevel.
Forexample,assuggestedabove,astheneedforenergyeciencyhasbecomeevengreaterandconcernsofenergy
independencestronger,thechallengesandopportuni3esfacingAmericashistoricandolderbuildingstockarealso
greaterthanever.Congresssdecreethatthepreserva3onprogramsbemanagedtoensurethevitallegacyof...
energybenetsembodiedinhistoricresourceloomsevenlarger.Preserva3onpartnershavebeenlookingtothe
NPStojointheminaddressingtherolethatthereuseofolderandhistoricbuildingsplaysinenergyandenvironment
policy,inchampioningtheretrosngofhistoricbuildingstomeetna3onalbuildingperformanceobjec3ves,andto
provideleadershipinaddressingresearchanddevelopmentneeds.
3

OnJune16,2009,theEPA,HUDandUSDOTjoinedtogethertoformtheInteragencyPartnershipforSustainable
Communi3es.ThePartnershipsLivabilityPrinciplesreadlikeapreserva3onprimer.Itcallsforcoordina3ng
federalpolicytoincreasecommunityrevitaliza3onandtheeciencyofpublicworksinvestmentsandsafeguard
rurallandscapes,andtoenhancetheuniquecharacteris3csofallcommuni3esbyinves3nginhealthy,safe,and
walkableneighborhoods.Expandingloca3onandenergyecienthousingandreorien3nginfrastructureand
transporta3onpriori3esareothergoals.Historicpreserva3onshouldbeatthesetableswithInterior/NPSasa
contributortofederalinteragencysustainabilitypolicymaking,butascurrentlyorganizedNPSPartnershipProgram
managersarenotposi3onedtopar3cipateonaninteragencybasisandtheNPSisnotequippedwithenough
subjectma^erexper3se.
Preserva3oncreatesjobs,andspursdowntownrevitaliza3on,heritagetourismandsustainableruraldevelopment.
Whileconstruc3onmaterialsarepurchasedfromacrossthecountryoracrosstheocean,thelaborispurchasedfrom
acrossthestreetandasaresult,rehabilita3onisapotentjobcrea3onstrategy.Giventhispoten3al,andpar3cularly
duringthis3meofeconomicneed,itiscri3calthatthefederalpreserva3onprogramliveuptoCongresssdecree
thattheprogramsbemanagedtoensurethevitallegacyof...economicbenetsembodiedinhistoricbuildings.
Tomany,thismeansafederalprogramthatwouldataminimumserveasarepositoryforexper3seonpreserva3on
basedeconomicstrategies,andspurthedevelopmentofgenerallyacceptedmetricsforrehabilita3on,historic
preserva3onandheritagetourismthatcanbeusedtomeasureandanalyzethedirectandindirecteconomicand
environmentalimpactsofpreserva3on.
Whilethesedomes3cissuesloomlarge,itshouldnotbeforgo^enthattheframersoftheActalsounderstood
therolethathistoricpreserva3oncouldplayininterna3onalrela3ons.TheActspecicallydirectsthatthehistoric
preserva3onprogramshouldprovideleadershipinthepreserva3onoftheprehistoricandhistoricresourcesofthe
interna3onalcommunityofna3ons.Althoughitisnotcurrently,historicpreserva3oncouldbeakeycomponentin
Americaspublicdiplomacyeorts.Forexample,encouraging,assis3ng,andsuppor3ngeachcountrysiden3ca3on,
protec3onandenhancementofitshistoricresourcesisanexcellentuseofAmericansogpower.Valuinglocal
heritageresourcesisatangiblewaytoshowrespectforthosecultures.
Theforegoingdiscussionisnotmeanttoprovideadetailedworkplanoracomprehensivesetofpolicyprescrip3ons.
Rather,itismeanttoprovideconcreteexamplesofthedierencebetweenexpecta3onandoutcomeandto
illustratehowprofoundaretheunrealizedopportuni3esathand.
ItwasagainstthisbackdropthatPreserva3onAc3onestablishedtheFederalHistoricPreserva3onProgramTask
ForceinMarch,2010.TheTaskForceiscomposedofindividualsandelevenpartnerorganiza3onswhosharethe
commongoalsof:

1)

2)

3)
4)

Studyingandrepor3ngonthecurrentandpaststructuresofthefederalcomponentofthe

PartnershipPrograms;
Producingrecommenda3onsforcrea3nganadequateandeec3vefederalpreserva3onprogram
managementstructure;
Conduc3ngagrassrootsadvocacycampaigntoenacttheserecommenda3ons;and
A^ainingastructurethatenablesthefederalPreserva3onandHeritageProgramstosucceedin
realizingthegoalsoftheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onAct.

TheNa1onalHistoricPreserva1onActandthePreserva1onand
HeritagePartnershipPrograms
Congressassignedfederalleadershipformostna3onalhistoricpreserva3onresponsibili3escreatedbythe1966
ActtotheDepartmentoftheInterior.MostofthisresponsibilitywasinturndelegatedbyInteriortotheNa3onal
ParkService.Later,someNPSresponsibili3esweretransferredtoanewlyindependentfederalagency,theAdvisory
CouncilonHistoricPreserva3on.
4

TheTaskForcesmandateextendedonlytothesubsetofthehistoricpreserva3onprogramsadministeredbythe
NPSthatrequiretheregularinvolvementofnonfederalpar3cipantsinthecrea3onofapublic/privatepartnership
tofurtherhistoricandheritagepreserva3onattheState,localandTriballevels.Theseincludetheac3vi3es
denedinTitleIoftheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActandcarriedoutbyStates,Tribes,localgovernments,
andtheNa3onalHeritageAreasmovement,andfederalagencypreserva3onprogramsrelatedtotheseac3vi3es.
Corefunc3onsincludedaretheNa3onalRegisterofHistoricPlaces;theNa3onalHistoricLandmarkProgram,the
FederalRehabilita3onTaxCreditProgram;administra3veandoversightfunc3onsoffederalGrantsinAidprograms;
federalagencypreserva3onprograms;theSaveAmericasTreasures,PreserveAmericaandNa3onalHeritageArea
programs;theCer3edLocalGovernmentprogramandothersimilarprograms.
TheseprogramshavegenerallybeenreferredtobytheNPSastheExternalPrograms.ManyTaskForcemembers
feltthattheuseofthetermExternalProgramsfurthersthepercep3onthattheseprogramsareextrinsictothe
coreNPSmission.TheNPSitselfhasmorerecentlyusedthetermCommunityAssistancePrograms.TheTask
ForceprefersthetermPreserva3onandHeritagePartnershipPrograms.Thatterm,orPartnershipProgramsfor
short,isusedinthisreport.

SearchforaWorkableStructure
ThemanagementstructureofthePartnershipProgramswithinNPShasbeenreorganizedmany3mesover
thepast45years,yettensionhaspersistedbetweentheselfdenedcoremissionoftheNPStomanageand
interpretfederallyownedresourcesontheonehandandtheaimsofthePartnershipProgramsontheother.
Thisnearlyperpetualstateofdiscomforthasresultedinaprolongedsearchformoreeec3ve,sympathe3cand
dynamicmanagementstructures.Overtheyears,manydrama3corganiza3onalchangeshavebeenproposedvia
congressionallegisla3on,commissionedstudies,orbypreserva3onorganiza3onssuchastheNa3onalConference
ofStateHistoricPreserva3onOcers(NCSHPO)andtheNa3onalTrustforHistoricPreserva3on(NTHP).Thecurrent
structureowesitschiefcharacteris3cstoareorganiza3oneectuatedintheearly1980s.Asthatstructurehas
outliveditsusefulness,thelastveyearshaveseenaseriesofproposalsforreorganiza3onandreform.Toour
knowledge,noneofthesemodernproposalshasreceivedac3veconsidera3onbytheNPSorDOI.
Fromtheverybeginning,asCongressdragedtheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onAct,abureaucra3ctugofwar
occurredbetweentheNa3onalParkService,taskedwithhistoricpreserva3ondu3esforfederallyownedsitessince
itsfounda3onin1916,andtheDepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment(HUD),whichcouldplayavitalrole
inhistoricpreserva3onwithitsbroaderfocusonqualityoflifeandthebuiltenvironment.TheNa3onalParkService
wonoutandthehistoricpreserva3onandheritagePartnershipProgramshavebeenhousedthereeversincewith
theexcep3onofabriefperiodinthelate1970swhentheyweremovedtoanindependentbureauelsewherein
theDOI.Despiteitslongstandingresponsibilityforhistoricpreserva3on,inthemindsofboththepublicandmost
NPSsta,thecoremissionoftheNPSremainstheprotec3onandadministra3onoftheparks,na3onalmonuments,
na3onalsitesandba^leeldswhichtheNPSdirectlyoverseesand,morespecically,thosewhichcontainmore
naturalversusculturalresources.

Asaresult,aseveraldecadelongba^leforafunc3onalandideologicalhomeforthePartnershipPrograms,
includingseveralreorganiza3onsandabriefs3ntintheHeritageConserva3onandRecrea3onService(ashortlived
bureauwithintheDOI),hasledtotheirposi3ontodayundertheAssociateDirectorforCulturalResources,who
managesbothinternalandexternalhistoricpreserva3onandheritageprogramsfortheNPSandreportstothe
DeputyDirectorofOpera3ons.Thehistoricpreserva3onandheritageprogrammanagersaresevenorganiza3onal
levelsbelowtheSecretaryoftheInterior;whiletheAssociateDirectorisvelevelsfromtheSecretaryandtwolevels
fromtheNPSDirector.
Meanwhile,bothNPShistoricpreserva3onprogramleadersandinterestedpar3esoutsideoftheNPShave
advocatednumerous3mesoverthepastfourdecadesfordrama3cchangestothemanagementoftheexternal
5

programs(andfrequentlytheinternalhistoricparksandprogramsaswell).Abrief3melinedisplaysthemany
eortstorealigntheprogramsinordertoallowthemtobe^erachievethegoalsoftheNHPA:3

197374:ErnestConnallyproposedanewagency,anAdministra3onofCulturalAairs,thatwouldincorporate
theOceofArchaeologyandHistoricPreserva3on(OAHP),NPShistoricalparks,theSmithsonianIns3tu3on,the
Na3onalEndowmentsfortheHumani3esandArts,theNa3onalArchives,andtheperformingartsadministra3on.
AseparatebureauwithinDOIwouldbeformedasaninterimstep.Whenthisproposalwasrejected,Connally
suggestedacompromiseHistoricSitesandMonumentsServicewithintheoceoftheAssistantSecretaryofthe
Interior.
197677:TheNa3onalConferenceofStateHistoricPreserva3onOcersproposedthecrea3onofa Bureau
ofHistoricPreserva3onwithintheDepartmentoftheInterior.Oneyearlater,theNa3onalTrustforHistoric
Preserva3onrecommendedthatthehistoricpreserva3onfunc3onsbemovedtoeitheranindependenten3tywithin
DOI,orperhapsevenpreferablytoamoresympathe3cagency.
197780:Representa3veJohnF.SeiberlingofOhiointroducedabillthatwouldmovethePartnershipProgramsout
ofNPSandDOItothenewlyindependentACHP.Twoyearslater,Rep.Seiberlingintroducedasecondbill,thisone
proposinganindependentHistoricPreserva3onAgency.AlthoughseveralimportantamendmentstotheNHPA
proposedbyRep.Seiberlingwerepassedin1980,hiseortstomovetheprogramstotheACHPwereovertakenby
thefounda3onoftheHeritageConserva3onandRecrea3onServicebureauwithinDOIin1978.
19781981:UndertheCarteradministra3on,theHeritageConserva3onandRecrea3onService(HCRS)wasfounded
in1978asanewbureauwithintheDOI.TheSecretaryoftheInteriormovedthePartnershipProgramsoutofthe
NPSandintotheHCRSwheretheywerepartneredwithformerBureauofOutdoorRecrea3onprograms.HCRSwas
disbandedin1981undertheReaganadministra3onandthePartnershipProgramsweremergedbackintotheNPS.
198688:NCSHPOagainadvocatedforanindependentagency.SenatorWycheFowlerintroducedlegisla3onto
establishaHistoricPreserva3onAgencyin1988.4
1994:TheNPSAdvisoryBoardmaderecommenda3onstoimproveallaspectsofprogramadministra3on,butmost
ofthesewerenotimplemented.

2003:PresidentGeorgeW.BushsignedExecu3veOrder13287of2003(PreserveAmerica)withthegoalof
strengtheningpreserva3oneortsacrossthefederalgovernmentandtheUnitedStates.Subsequently,FirstLady
LauraBushandtheACHPconvenedaPreserveAmericasummitinNewOrleanstoevaluatetheprogramandto
suggestimprovementstothefederalpreserva3onprograminprepara3onforthe50thAnniversaryoftheNHPA.
200607:TheNa3onalParkServiceAdvisoryBoardissuedaseriesofrecommenda3onsforimprovingthe
administra3onoftheFederalHistoricRehabilita3onTaxCreditProgram(keyaspectsofwhichmayremain
unrealized).5Meanwhile,theNPScommissionedtheNa3onalAcademyofPublicAdministra3on(NAPA)toconduct
anindependentreview,resul3ngintheDecember,2007publica3onofBacktotheFuture:aReviewofthe
Na3onalHistoricPreserva3onProgram.TheNAPApanelrecommendedimprovementstobuildcapacity,enhance
performanceandstrenthenna3onalleadership.6

3.AlldrawnfromBarryMackintosh,TheNa#onalHistoricPreserva#onActandTheNa#onalParkService:AHistory(Washington,D.C.:History
Division,Na3onalParkService,DepartmentoftheInterior,1986),h^p://pawst.com/post/199244mackintoshbarrythena3onalhistoric
preserva3onactandthena3onalparkserviceahistoryna3onalparkservice1986(accessedMarch30,2011).
4.SenatorWycheFowler,Jr.,S.2912(100thCongress),September1988.
5.Na3onalParkServiceAdvisoryBoard,FederalHistoricRehabilita#onTaxCreditProgram:Recommenda#onsforMakingaGoodProgram
BeKer,September2006.
6.Na3onalAcademyofPublicAdministra3on,BacktotheFuture:aReviewoftheNa#onalHistoricPreserva#onProgram(December,2007),
p.iii.

200810:Followingfurtherdeclineintheprogramsfunding,visibilityandadministra3on,anExpertPanelwas
formedbytheACHPandDeputySecretaryoftheInteriorin2008toagainstudytheorganiza3onandmake
sugges3onsforimprovement.TheExpertPanelsreport,containingsevenrecommenda3onsforchange,wasissued
inFebruary,2009.Meanwhile,theNPSonceagaincommissionedNAPAtoreviewthestateofculturalresources
programswithintheNPS.7NAPAs2008and2009reportsconcludedthattherewasdrama3cneedforimprovement,
andspecicallyrecommendedthatmanagementofParksinternalculturalresourcesprogramsbeseparatedfrom
themanagementoftheexternalPartnershipPrograms.And,nally,in2010,theNa3onalParksSecondCentury
Commissionissuedseveralrecommenda3onsforimprovingNPSculturalresourcesmanagementandPartnership
Programscapabili3es.8
201011:Preserva3onAc3onandthePreserva3onAc3onFounda3onconvenetheFederalHistoricPreserva3on
ProgramTaskForceandenlistna3onalpreserva3onorganiza3onpartnerstostudytheprogramsfromagrass
rootsperspec3ve,makerecommenda3onsforposi3vechange,andtolobbyforimplementa3onofthose
recommenda3ons.TheTaskForcesgoalistomovequicklytoimpactthe2013budgetcycleinearly2012.Research
andoutreachbeganinAugust2010;recommenda3onsweredragedinFebruary,2011,andthereportisnow
wri^en.Lobbyingforanimprovedfederalhistoricpreserva3onandheritageprogramwillbegininJune,2011.

StudyMethodology
TheFederalHistoricPreserva3onProgramTaskForceundertookfourdis3nctresearchini3a3vestodocumentthe
historyandtrajectoryofthePartnershipProgramsaswellastosolicitopinionsandassessorganiza3onalop3onsto
improvetheeec3venessandeciencyofthefederalprogramasawhole.Theseincludedproducingthreewhite
papers,conveningseveraldiscussionsessionswithpartnerorganiza3onsandcons3tuents,conduc3nggyve
subjectma^erexpertandstakeholderinterviewsand,nally,administeringanonlinesurveycompletedby811
individuals.Themethodologyoftheseeortsisdescribedbelow.Thendingsareexcerptedandincorporatedin
chaptersoneandtwoofthisreport.9

WhitePapers
TheTaskForcecommissionedthreewhitepaperstoberesearchedandwri^enonthefollowingtopics:

PaperOne:Denestheconceptoffederalexternalpreserva3onprogramsandintroducesthevisionofthose
involvedintheHistoricPreserva3onActof1966forhowtheexternalprogramswouldworkandhowthey
wouldbeorganized.

PaperTwo:Establisheswhatissueshavebeeniden3edinregardtotheorganiza3onofthefederalhistoric
preserva3onfunc3oninthepastandintroducessolu3onsthathavebeenproposedforimprovingtheprograms
organiza3on.

PaperThree:Presentsquan3ta3veanalysisregardingthestangandresourcesdevotedtoexternalpreserva3on
programsoverthedenedperiodbothinabsolutetermsandincomparisontotheoverallfundingandstangof
theNa3onalParkService.

ThesepaperswereundertakenbyProfessorCarrollVanWestandhisdoctoralstudentsinPublicHistoryatMiddle
TennesseeStateUniversityinsummer2010.
7.Na3onalAcademyofPublicAdministra3on,SavingOurHistory:AReviewofNa#onalParkCulturalResourcePrograms(October,2008);
andTowardsMoreMeaningfulPerformanceMeasuresForHistoricPreserva#on(January,2009)
8.Na3onalParksSecondCenturyCommission,AdvancingtheNa#onalParkIdea(2010),p.44.Specicrecommenda3onsincludedenhanced
fundingandfulluseofNPSsporwolioofcommunityassistanceprograms;reachingbeyondparkboundariestodelivertechnicalandnancial
aidforlocallyimportantnatural,cultural,andhistoriclandscapes;anddevelopingamul3yearstrategiceorttopreparetheParkServices
heritagepreserva3onandculturalprogramstomeetthechallengesofthenewcentury.
9.TaskForcewhitepapers,interviewandsurveyndingsareavailableintheiren3retyonlineath^p://www.preserva3onac3on.org/taskforce.
htm.

OutreachandDiscussionSessions
Outreachanddiscussionsessionswereheldathistoricpreserva3onandheritageprofessionalmee3ngsinSalem,
Massachuse^s;Philadelphia,Pennsylvania;andAus3n,Texas.Thegoalofthesesessionswastoassesspreserva3on
andheritageprofessionalsopinionsaboutimprovingthecurrentorganiza3onalstructureofthePartnership
ProgramswithinNPSandtherela3vemeritsofpossiblenewstructures.Inpar3cular,discussionsessionsevaluated
interestin:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Crea3nganewagencydevotedsolelytohistoricpreserva3on
MergingthePartnershipProgramswiththeAdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva3on
Crea3nganewbureauwithintheDepartmentoftheInterior
Makingleadershipimprovementsbutleavingthecurrentstructurethesame

SubjectMaTerExpertandStakeholderInterviews
TheTaskForceinterviewedsubjectma^erexpertsandstakeholderswithadiversearrayofexperiencesinhistoric
preserva3on,culturalresourcesandheritage,inpersonorviatelephoneinorderto:
1) Learnabouttheirexperiences,bothposi3veandnega3ve,withthepreserva3onandheritagePartnership(aka
external)ProgramswithinNPS
2) Gatherfeedbackonotherpossibleorganiza3onalstructures
3) Assessopinionsonthekeycriterianecessarytoanadequatefederalpreserva3onprogram
4) Solicitideasforhowtoenacttherecommenda3onsoftheTaskForce
5) Providequalita3veinputtoassistinthecrea3onoftheTaskForcesquan3ta3vesurvey
AlistofindividualsinterviewedcanbefoundinAppendixBandacopyoftheInterviewQues3onnaireinAppendixC.

Quan1ta1veSurvey
TheFederalHistoricPreserva3onProgramTaskForcecreatedasurveytogatherquan3ta3vedataregardingthe
astudesofpreserva3onandheritageprofessionalandinterestedpar3esacrosstheU.S.aboutthefederalprogram
anditspossiblereorganiza3on.Thesurveyconsistedof15ques3onsaddressing:
1) informa3onaboutsurveyrespondents
2) thecriteriausedbytheTaskForcetoevaluatetheeec3venessofthecurrentprogramandpossiblealterna3ve
organiza3onalstructures
3) thecurrentprogramandalterna3veorganiza3onalstructures
4) Rankingthevariousalterna3veorganiza3onalstructures
5) Andimplementa3onofthetaskforcerecommenda3ons
Acopyofthesurveyques3onnaireisincludedinAppendixE.TheTaskForcesurveywasconductedonlineat
surveymonkey.combetweenMonday,November29andFriday,December17,2010.Invita3onstopar3cipatewere
distributedviatheTaskForcesmemberorganiza3onsandthePreserva3onAc3onandPreserva3onDirectory
websites.1,282respondentspar3cipatedinthesurvey.63%(811)ofthesepar3cipantscompletedQues3ons212,
themainbodyofthesurvey.These811responseswereanalyzedandreportedintheSurveyFindingsavailable
onlineatwww.preserva3onac3on.org.

FiveKeyCriteriaforEec1veLeadership
AsignicantaspectoftheTaskForcesendeavorhasbeentogainanunderstandingofthecharacteris3csofan
eec3vefederalpreserva3onprograminrela3ontotheobjec3vesoutlinedintheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onAct
8

of1966.Withthisunderstanding,theTaskForcewasabletonotonlyproduceabaselineimageofhowthecurrent
programisperformingbutalsotoevaluateproposalsforreorganiza3on.LookingforwardtoenactmentoftheTask
Forcesrecommenda3onsforstructuralrealignment,thesecriteriawillbeusedtojudgetheeec3venessofthe
reorganizedprograminthefutureincomparisontoitseec3venesstoday.
EmployingcriteriadevelopedbythePreserveAmericaExpertPanelasastar3ngpoint,10theTaskForcepositsthat
eec3veprogramleadershipisleadershipthatpossessesthestanding,authorityandwherewithalto:
1. Be accountable for the performance of the federal component of the Partnership Programs as well as for the
eec3venessoftheen3resystemofPartnershipPrograms(asimplementedbyallpartnersincludingtribes,states,
localgovernmentsandci3zens).
2. Enablecollabora3onandpartnershipwithotherfederalagencies,withstateandlocalgovernments,Indiantribes
andna3veorganiza3ons,andwithorganiza3onsandindividualsundertakingpreserva3onbyprivatemeans.
3. Advocatesuccessfullyforthena3onalhistoricpreserva3onprogramacrossthefederalgovernment,par3cularly
advocacythatsustainsandincreasesinvestmentinhistoricpreserva3onandfundingforna3onal,State,local,and
Tribalpartnershipprograms.
4. Achieveinnova3onandexibilitywhilesesngna3onalstandardsthatremaintruetothepurposesoftheNa3onal
HistoricPreserva3onActof1966.
5. Makehistoricpreserva3onandthePreserva3onandHeritagePartnershipProgramsvisibletothepublicandatall
levelsofgovernment,includingwithintheprogramshomeagencyandacrossthefederalgovernment.

Subjectma^erexperts,stakeholdersandsurveypar3cipantsagreedthatthesearereasonablyaccuratemeasures
ofaneec3vefederalpreserva3onprogram.71%ofsurveyrespondentsfeltthatthecharacteris3csdescribedan
eec3veprogramwellorverywell.18%wereneutral(ordidntknow),whileonly11%believedthatthevekey
characteris3csdescribedaneec3veprogrambadlyorverybadly.Manyrespondentsandintervieweesstressed
thattheghtraitregardingvisibilitywasthemostsignicantindicatorofasuccessfulprogramandperhapsought
tobelistedrst.Mostcri3cismleveledatthevetraitsevokedskep3cismregardingtheabilityoffederalprogram
managerstobeaccountablefortheperformanceandeec3venessofnonfederalpar3cipantsintheprograms.
Otherswhocommentedonthevekeycriteriaques3onedthelegalityoffederalprogrammanagementsadvocacy
forfundingfortheprograms.
Giventhestrongmajoritysupportofthevekeycharacteris3cs,theTaskForceadvocatestheiradop3onas
measuresofthefunc3onalityofthefederalcomponentofthePartnershipPrograms.
10.ThePreserveAmericaExpertPanelskeycriteriawere1)Enhancingcoordina3on,2)Nurturingpartnershipsandlocalpreserva3oneorts,
3)Raisingpublicawarenessofhistoricandculturalpreserva3on,4)Genera3nganda^rac3ngfundingforprogramimplementa3on,5)Enhanc
ingprogrameciencies,6)ImproveLeadership,and7)achieveoutcomes.Recommenda3onstoImprovetheStructureoftheFederalHistoric
Preserva3onProgram(February,2009).

Few question the NPSs role in preserving historic buildings


in our National Parks, which are owne d by the Fe d eral
G overnm ent - such as in V alle y Forg e, PA, picture d
a bove. But re c ognizing our governm ent c an not
purchase every asset, our national historic preserv ation
progra m was d elib erately d esigne d to do more.

St e w a rdshi p o f p a rk c ultur a l r e so ur c e s
involves direct fiduciary responsibility for,
a n d m a n a g e m e nt o f, stru c tur e s, sit e s, a n d
o b j e c ts u n d e r NPS c ust o d y a n d c o ntrol. In
c o ntr a st, th e n a tio n a l hist ori c pr e s e rv a tio n
pro gr a m in v olv e s m a kin g gr a nts, c r e a tin g
in c e ntiv e s, a n d issuin g r e g ul a tio ns d e sig n e d
t o mitig a t e a d v e rs e c o ns e q u e n c e s t o
hist ori c r e so ur c e s th a t a r e u n d e r th e c o ntrol
o f o th e rs. Th e p oli c i e s a n d skills r e q uir e d
f or th e f orm e r a r e v e ry d iff e r e nt th a n th e
p oli c i e s a n d skills r e q uir e d f or th e l a tt e r.
S a vin g O ur Hist ory: A R e vi e w o f N a tio n a l P a rk C ultur a l
R e so ur c e Pro gr a ms, N A P A , 2008

Cha pter Two: Rese arch Findings


AstrongconsensushasemergedfromtheworkoftheFederalHistoricPreserva3onProgramTaskForceandrecent
studiesundertakenbytheNa3onalAcademyofPublicAdministra3on(NAPA)andthePreserveAmericaExpert
PanelthatthecurrentfederalstructureforadministeringthePreserva3onandHeritagePartnershipProgramsisnot
adequatelyalignedtorealizethefullpoten3alofheritageconserva3ontoadvancena3onalgoalsinthe21stcentury.
Initsresearch,theTaskForcehasiden3edthreeprimaryndings,regarding1)thecurrentadministra3vestructure
ofthefederalhistoricpreserva3onprogram,2)therealiza3onofthegoalsoftheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onAct,
and3)theintegra3onofexternalandinternalculturalresourcesmanagement.Thesendings,describedin
detailbelow,haveguidedtheTaskForcerecommenda3onsforimprovingthefederalpreserva3onprogram,which
willbepresentedinChapter3ofthisreport.
1. Thecurrentadministra1vestructureofthefederalhistoricpreserva1onprogramdoesnotprovideforthe
levelsofleadership,publicandprivatepartnership,advocacy,innova1on,andvisibilityrequiredtorealizethe
transforma1vevisionforhistoricpreserva1onsetforthintheNa1onalHistoricPreserva1onActof1966.
Federalhistoricpreserva3onprogramsaregenerallyledbyoneoftwofederalorganiza3onalen33esthatworkwith
StateandTribalHistoricPreserva3onOcersandtheotherPartners:theNPSandtheAdvisoryCouncilonHistoric
Preserva3on,bothofwhichhaveimportantrolestoplayinthefederal,State,local,Tribalandprivatepartnerships
envisionedbytheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onAct.TheTaskForcesresearchconcentratedprimarilyonthe
structureofthePartnershipProgramswithintheNa3onalParkService.However,3mewasalsospentlookingat
otherpoten3alorcurrentpar3cipantsinthefederalpreserva3onac3vi3es(ACHP,DOI,CEQ,forexample)toiden3fy
possibleenhancementstotheirorganiza3onalstructurestotheextentithadbearingontheperformanceofthe
PartnershipPrograms.
11

NPSandtheHistoricPreserva1onandHeritagePartnershipPrograms
WithintheNPS,theAssociateDirectorforCulturalResourcesmanagesbothinternalandexternalhistoric
preserva3onandheritageprograms.S/hereportstotheDeputyDirectorofOpera3ons,whointurnreportsto
theDirector.TheactualmanagersofthePartnershipProgramsthemselveseachreporttooneofthreeAssistant
AssociateDirectorsandarelocatedsevenfullorganiza3onallevelsbelowtheSecretaryoftheInterior,whilethe
AssociateDirectorisvelevelsbelowtheSecretary.
Initssurveyofpreserva3onandheritageprofessionalsandinterestedpar3es,theTaskForceaskedrespondentsto
assesshowwellthecurrentstructureofthefederalcomponentofthePartnershipPrograms(ExternalProgramsin
survey)meetsthevekeycharacteris3csofeec3veleadershipdescribedbelow:
Howwelldoestheexis1ngstructureoftheExternalProgramsmeetthefollowingleadership
objec1ves?
AnswerOp1ons

verypoorlyor
poorly

Neutral

verywellor
well

41%

38%

22%

53%

30%

17%

59%

29%

12%

52%

36%

12%

57%

28%

14%

Isaccountableforperformanceofna3onal
preserva3onprogram
Enablescollabora3onacrossallpreserva3on
cons3tuencies
Advocatesforthena3onalpreserva3on
program,par3cularlyinregardtofunding
Achievesinnova3onandexibility
Makeshistoricpreserva3onvisibleatalllevels

Poorlyandverypoorlydominatedopinionforallvekeycharacteris3csofeec3vemanagment,although
neutralra3ngswerequitehighaswell(inpartduetothefactthatneutralservedastheresponsechoicefordont
know).Respondentsfelt,inpar3cular,thatthecurrentstructuredoesnotlenditselftoadvoca3ngforthena3onal
preserva3onprogramnordoesitmakehistoricpreserva3onvisibleatalllevels.Theseopinionswereborneoutas
wellintheTaskForcessubjectma^erandstakeholderinterviews.
Asthehistoryoftheprogramsindicates,issuesstemfromthemisalignmentofthePartnershipProgramswithinthe
Na3onalParkServiceandthelargeren3tyoftheDepartmentoftheInterior.Veryfewintervieweesorrespondents
believedthattheNPSandtheDepartmentoftheInteriorwereanaturaltforhistoricpreserva3onprogramsbuilt
aroundState,local,Tribalandprivatepartnerships.Infact,thestewardshipandinterpreta3onofevenfederally
ownedhistoricresourcesunderthecontroloftheNPShasbeenanissue.TheOrganicActof1916established
theNa3onalParkServicetoconservethesceneryandthenaturalandhistoricobjectsandthewildlifetherein,
whiletheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActmandatesthatpropertyowningagenciesadministerfederallyowned,
administeredorcontrolledprehistoricandhistoricresourcesinaspiritofstewardshipfortheinspira3onandbenet
ofpresentandfuturegenera3ons.Evenso,manybelievethattheNPSsgreatestareasofinteresthavebeen
theaquisi3onandprotec3onofparklandsandenvironmentalresources,notthestewardshipofitsownhistoric
buildings,letalonethemanagementoffederalpreserva3onpolicy,grantsorthepreserva3onofprivatelyowned
resources.
TheNa3onalAcademyofPublicAdministra3ons2008reporten3tledSavingOurHistoryaddressedissueswith
themanagementoffederallyownedhistoricresourcesforwhichtheNPSisresponsible.Itfoundthatwhilethe
numberofculturalresourcesforwhichtheNPSisresponsiblehasincreased,fundingandpersonnelresourceshave
decreased.Thisisinstarkcontrasttonaturalresourceprograms.Accordingtothereport:

12

...ina3onadjustedfundingforparkculturalresourceprogramsdecreasedby0.2percent
peryearfromFY1995to2008,whileoverthesameperiodina3onadjustedfundingfor
naturalresourceprogramsincreasedbyanannualaverageof4.2percent.Whilethere
wasrealgrowthinfundingforparkculturalresourceprogramsFY19952002...[F]unding
fornaturalresourceprogramstodayisdoublethatforparkculturalresourceprograms,
notwithstandingthefactthattwothirdsofthe391na3onalparkswerecreatedbecause
oftheirhistoricandculturalsignicance.11
StanglevelsforculturalresourceversusnaturalresourceprogramswithintheNPSmirrorthenancialpicture
paintedaboveoverthepastdecadeandahalf,withCulturalResourcesstashrinking27%whileNaturalResources
expanded31%.12

STAFFINGLEVELSFORSELECTEDNPSPROGRAMS
FY19952007
FiscalYear

ParkManagement

CulturalResources

NaturalResources

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
ChangeinFTE
19952007
PercentChangeinFTE
19952007

15,548
14,997
15,289
15,638
15,919
15,417
15,737
15,865
15,740
15,419
15,534
14,997
14,595
15,161
387

1,079
1,023
1,035
1,088
1,107
991
1,044
1,043
1,030
958
932
912
859
785
294

1,072
1,045
1,060
1,133
1,164
1,147
1,262
1,397
1,459
1,405
1,426
1,394
1,387
1,407
+335

2.5%

27.2%

+31.2%

ThefactthatthePartnershipProgramsareserviceprogramsdevotedtoculturalresourceswithinalargerland
managementbureauandagency,respec3vely,hasaveryrealimpactonfunding,advocacyforandvisibilityofthe
programs.ItisbothdicultforthegeneralpublictounderstandwhytheNPSisinvolvedwiththeseprogramsand
secondnatureforParksmanagementtofavornaturalresourceswithintheNPS.13Furthermore,thehighestleader

11.NAPA2008,ibid.xi.
12.ibid.p.95.
13.Thisistrueevenwhenthefundingul3matelycomesfromadierentsource,asislargelythecaseforkeypor3onsofthePartnershipPro
gramswhicharegenerallyfundedviatheHistoricPreserva3onFund,notthroughtaxdollarsortheNPSregularopera3ngbudget.Thisiseven
moreofaproblemfortheNa3onalHeritageAreasandthePreserveAmericaprograms,whicharenotfundedviatheHPFanddirectlycompete
withParksresourcesforresources.

13

andpresumedadvocateforhistoricpreserva3onwithintheDepartmentoftheInterioristheAssociateDirectorfor
CulturalResourcesintheNPS,aposi3onfardownontheorganiza3oncharttaskedwithmanagingbothinternal
parksculturalresourcesandexternalhistoricpreserva3onandheritageprograms.S/heisnotinaposi3ontogain
thea^en3onoftheAgencySecretary,thecoopera3onofotheragencies,orevennecessarilytheDirectorofNPS.
Intervieweesstressedagainandagainthatthisisama^erofstructuraldeciencynotoneoflackofgoodwillor
managementcapabilityonthepartofthecurrentorpastNPSAssociateDirectorsforCulturalResources.14
NPSscramblestogetparksconsidered.Thisiswhattheyusetheirchipsfor,not
necessarilyforhistoricpreserva#on.Itsnotthat[theAssociateDirectorofCultural
Resources]doesnttalkto[theDeputyAssistantSecretaryforFish,WildlifeandParks,
DOI];itsthatshesnotathiselbowwhenhesmakingdealsanddraXingpolicy.
Organiza#onally,thatsthewayitis.Interview
Fromastructuralperspec3ve,theNa3onalParkServicesstrongbrandiden3tyandcloseassocia3onwithscenic
naturalparks,makesitsadministra3onofcommunitybasedhistoricpreserva3onprogramsthatmuchmore
challengingbothinternallyandexternally:
Thereisano#ceabledierenceintheNPSexternalandinternalprogramsinterms
oflocalpercep#onandthedeliveryofservicesbyNPS.Fromthelocalperspec#ve,the
generalpublicdoesntassociateNPSwithnonparkhistoricpreserva#onac#vi#esand
asksques#onslikeWhydoesNPShavetoapprovethingsat[the]locallevel?Theres
alackofcleariden#tyfortheexternalprograms.Thepublicmightknowsomeofthe
individualprograms,buthasnoideahowtheoverallprogramworksorisstructured.
Interview
DedicatedNPSprofessionalsadministertheprogramswellunderdicultcircumstances,yethowmuchmore
ecientandeec3vecouldtheprogramsbeiftheywerebe^erposi3onedtosucceed?
RegardingtheplacementofthePartnershipProgramswithintheDepartmentoftheInterior,mostsubjectma^er
expertandstakeholderintervieweesexpressedtheopinionthat,althoughitwasntapar3cularlygoodt,there
wasnoclearandfavorablealterna3veagency.HousingandUrbanDevelopmentandCommerceweremen3oned
frequentlyasalterna3vesbutgenerallydismissedasviableop3ons.TaskForceresearchpar3cipantsbelievethat
theadvantagesofremainingwithintheDOIarethatitprovidesameasureofprotec3onandconsistency(versus
beinganindependentagency);andthatithasalonghistorywiththehistoricpreserva3onprogramsandalargeand
experiencedsupportstaalreadyinplace.
TheprimarydisadvantageoftheDepartmentoftheInteriorscurrentmanagementstructureisthatnoonewithin
theSecretarysoceservesasanadvocateforhistoricpreserva3onbothwithinNPS,wherethePartnership
Programsarehoused,andacrossthemanybureausoftheagency,manyofwhomarethecaretakersofnumerous
historicresources.Asnotedearlier,theNPSAssociateDirectorforCulturalResourcesisveorganiza3onallevels
belowtheSecretaryoftheInterior.Anorganiza3onalstructurethatbothcreatesfocuswithintheSecretaryofthe
InteriorsoceandraisesthestandingofthePartnershipProgramswithinNPS,couldcreateaposi3vescenario
forsubstan3vechangeinregardtostrengthenedleadershipanditsa^endantgoalsofincreasedvisibility;funding;
interagency,state,localandorganiza3onalcollabora3onandcoopera3on;innova3on;andaccountability.Inone
intervieweeswords,suchastructurewouldenableitsleaderstoghtfortheprogramsintheirdomainandbe
realadvocatesforwhattheyreinchargeof.
Increasedcollabora3onandcoopera3onatalllevelsisdesperatelyneeded.Surveyrespondents,intervieweesand
discussionsessionpar3cipantsnotedthemanywaysinwhichcollabora3onmightbeimprovedandpreserva3on
couldleadorbecomeinvolvedinimportantinteragencyini3a3ves.Throughyearsofdiminishedfunding,NPS
PartnershipProgramstaburieddeepwithintheParkServicehavebeenaordedli^leopportunityforinter
agencycoopera3onorini3a3ve.Surveyrespondentsnotedthattheydonotseetheexternalreachoftheprograms
tootheragencies,sta3ngPreserva3onshouldbepartofotheragenciesaswell,suchashousing,andeconomic
development.
14.Subjectma^erexpert,stakeholderintervieweeanddiscussionsessiona^endeecommentsareparaphrasedanditalicizedthroughoutthe
report.Directquota3ons,generallygatheredintheonlinesurvey,appearinquota3onmarks.

14

ThecurrentstructurepreventsPartnershipProgramstafromeec3velyposi3oningtheprogramstoaddressthese
vitalcrossagencyandmul3partnerneeds.Forexample,withanorganiza3onalstructureincorpora3nghistoric
preserva3onleadershipatahigherlevelwithintheNPSandDOI,theGreenHistoricPreserva3onIni3a3vedesigned
tobeamul3agencyini3a3vetoexaminetheintersec3onofenergyeciencypolicyandhistoricpreserva3on
couldhavebeenconvenedbytheNa3onalParkServiceratherthantheEnvironmentalProtec3onAgencyasitwas.
Preserva3onleadershipwithintheOceoftheSecretaryoftheInterior,representa3ononthePresidentsCouncil
onEnvironmentalQualityandafull3meACHPChairwhocoulddevotemoreeorttoexpandinginteragency
coopera3onwouldeec3velyopenchannelsofcommunica3onthatNPSPartnershipProgramstahavenotbeen
abletoimplementalone.
Whenaskedtorankotherpossibleorganiza3onalop3onsontheirindividualmerit(regardlessofthecurrent
economicclimate)intheTaskForcesurvey,historicpreserva3onandheritageprofessionalsandadvocates
overwhelminglyrankedindependentagencythemostpreferableorganiza3onalop3ontoachieveafunc3onal
federalpreserva3onprogram.AseparatebureauwithinDOIwasthesecondmostpopularorganiza3onalop3on,
whilecrea3ngahigherleveldivisionwithinNPSrankedthird:

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Organiza1onalOp1on
IndependentAgency
SeparateBureauwithinDOI
HigherlevelDivisionwithinNPS
ElevatePreserva3onLeadership
Full3meACHPChairman
ConsolidateintoACHP
NoChange

Ra1ng
Avg.
3.07
3.11
3.39
4.01
4.12
4.37
5.93

Note:alowerra3ngaveragecorrespondswithahigherpreferenceranking.
Thesamegroup,whenaskedtotakethecurrenteconomicandpoli3calclimateintoaccount,rankedtheop3onsas
follows:

Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Organiza1onalOp1on
HigherlevelDivisionwithinNPS
SeparateBureauwithinDOI
EleavatePreserva3onLeadership
Full3meACHPChairman
IndependentAgency
ConsolidateintoACHP
NoChange

Ra1ng
Avg.
2.91
3.36
3.69
3.92
4.25
4.30
5.57

AHigherlevelDivisionwithinNPSwasstronglypreferredtotheotherop3ons,withSeparateBureauwithinDOI
andElevatePreserva3onLeadershiprankedrela3velycloselyinsecondandthirdplace.IndependentAgency
fallstoghplaceoutofseven.YetNoChangewass3llthestronglyleastpreferredop3on.Itshouldbepointed
outthatdespitethestrongfeelingsexpressingapreferenceforchange,theTaskForceheardoverandoveragain
initsresearchaboutthemanydedicatedprofessionalswithinNPSandDOIandtheir3relesseortsundervery
15

challengingnancialandins3tu3onalconstraintsonthebehalfofhistoricpreserva3onandheritageinAmerica.
Inotherwords,thiswasclearlynotaproblemofpersonali3esorindividuals,buttrulyaproblemofstructural
alignment.

TheAdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva1on
TheAdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva3onwasaddressedintheTaskForcesresearchundertheauspicesof
Eleva3ngPreserva3onLeadership.TheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActdesignatesmanyrolesfortheACHP:
[T]heACHPservesastheprimaryfederalpolicyadvisortothePresidentandCongress;recommends
administra3veandlegisla3veimprovementsforprotec3ngourna3onsheritage;advocatesfull
considera3onofhistoricvaluesinfederaldecisionmaking;andreviewsfederalprogramsand
policiestopromoteeec3veness,coordina3on,andconsistencywithna3onalpreserva3on
policies.15
However,theprimaryac3vi3esofACHPstainvolveencouragingotherfederalagenciestoactasresponsible
stewardswhentheirac3onsaectourna3onshistoricresources.
TheACHPsregulatoryresponsibili3eshavegenerallyovershadoweditsroleasprimaryfederalpolicyadvisorand
advocateforadministra3veandlegisla3veimprovementsforhistoricpreserva3on.Theseresponsibili3esspecically
belongtothepresiden3allyappointedpart3meChairpersonandthe22statutorilydesignatedcouncilmembers
whomeetquarterlytoconductcouncilbusiness.AlthoughtheACHPsmissionisbroadintermsofpolicyguidance
andthepromo3onofhistoricpreserva3onandheritageintheU.S.,thegeneralpercep3onofwhattheACHP
accomplishesisverynarrow:i.e.,themedia3onofSec3on106disputes.ThePreserveAmericaExpertPanelaswell
asmanyofthosewhopar3cipatedinthevariousresearchini3a3vesoftheTaskForcefeltthatstrengtheningthe
leadershipoftheACHPwouldservetostrengthenhistoricpreserva3onandheritagewithintheNPSandDOI,across
thefederalgovernmentandconsequentlytheUnitedStates:

Afull#meACHPchairmanwouldbegreatifnominatedbythepresidentandapproved
bytheSenatebecauseitwouldelevateitandgivemoreimporttofederalagenciesand
whattheydo.Itcouldresonatewithalotmorepeopleabouttheimportanceofhistoric
preserva#on.Interview
Althoughsomeresearchpar3cipantsfearedthepossiblepoli3ciza3onoftheroleoftheACHPChairperson,there
wasgeneralconsensusthatafull3meChairpersonappointedwiththeadviceandconsentoftheSenatewould
presentamuchstrongerplawormforpolicyandlegisla3veac3onalongwithmuchhighervisibilityforthefederal
historicpreserva3onandheritageprograms.Itwasalsonotedthattheappointmentofafull3meChaircouldbe
accomplishedviaashorttermappointmentwithintheExecu3veOceandneednotrequiretheamendmentof
NHPAinthenearterm,althoughiftheposi3onisasuccess,suchanamendmentwouldul3matelybesought.

PresidentsCouncilonEnvironmentalQuality(CEQ)
ThePresidentsCouncilonEnvironmentalQualitywasestablishedwithintheExecu3veOceaspartoftheNa3onal
EnvironmentalPolicyActof1969(NEPA).ItsroleistocoordinateFederalenvironmentaleortsinthedevelopment
ofenvironmentalpoliciesandini3a3ves.NEPA,whichCEQhelpstoimplement,promotesana3onalpolicydesigned
topreserveimportanthistoric,cultural,andnaturalaspectsofourna3onalheritage.Unfortunately,NEPAs
inclusionofculturalandhistoricresourceshasogenbeenoverlooked.Giventheimportanceofhistoricpreserva3on
bothtoissuesofenvironmentalandcommunitysustainability,thepreserva3oncommunityfeelsthatitshouldplaya
signicantrolewithinCEQ.
15.h^p://www.achp.gov/aboutachp.html,accessedApril7,2011.Thecomposi3onandresponsibili3esoftheACHParedescribedinNHPA
sec3ons20115.

16

Fromtheirposi3ondeepwithinNPS,thePartnershipProgramsarenotinaposi3ontoplayameaningfulrole
intheimplementa3onofNEPA.ThePreserveAmericaExpertPanelandthoseTaskForceresearchpar3cipants
whounderstoodthepossibili3esofhavingavoiceontheCEQbelievedthatitwouldnotonlyraiseawarenessfor
historicpreserva3on,butwouldallowhistoricpreserva3ontomakeanimportantcontribu3ontosustainability
andenvironmentalqualityacrosstheUnitedStates,agoalsharedbytheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onAct,NEPA,
preserva3onistsandcommuni3eslargeandsmall.
2. Thebreadthofthepreserva1onvisionsetforthinthe1966Actreachesintothena1onscommuni1esand
policymakingarenasrelatedtoeconomicdevelopmentandcommunityandenvironmentalsustainability,
extendingfarbeyondNa1onalParkboundaries.Itiscri1calthatthefederalgovernmentrealignthe
administra1onofthePartnershipProgramstoprovideleadershipcapableofachievingthevisionofthe1966
Act,withtheexper1se,exibilityandaccountabilityneededtoadvancethem.
Asthe50thanniversaryoftheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActof1966approaches,thepreserva3onandheritage
communityndsitselfdeeplyimmersedinfurtheringtwocri3calcomponentsoftheAct:theeconomicandenergy
benetsofhistoricresources.Inordertoassistthena3onalmovement,thePartnershipProgramswithintheNPS
mustgaindeepknowledgeandcompetencyintheseareas.Thiswillallowthefederalprogramtocomplementthe
workofprivateorganiza3onssuchastheNa3onalTrustforHistoricPreserva3onwhichhavedevelopedprograms
(theverysuccessfulNa3onalMainStreetprogram,forexample)andpolicyandeduca3onini3a3ves(suchas
educa3ngthepublicabouttheembodiedenergyinextantbuildingsandbuildingmaterials)tofurtherthegoalsof
theNHPAandmaintainhistoricresourcesforthefuture.
ItisnecessaryfortheNPStofurtherdevelopcompetencyinthesearenasandserveasatruefederalpartnerto
States,Tribesandlocalcommuni3esinorderforhistoricpreserva3ontoplayapowerfulroleacrossthena3on,
par3cularlyviacollabora3onwithfederalagenciesthatmakeeconomicandenergyconserva3oncentraltenetsof
theirpolicyandac3ons.
Theeconomyistheworstproblemwehaverightnow.Itsdevasta#ngtomethat
preserva#onisntconsideredtobeaneconomicdevelopmenttool.NPCSession
Thereneedstobeanincreasedfocusonmakingstrongerconnec#onsbetween
sustainabilityandpreserva#onandtoraisetheproleofhistoricpreserva#onasan
economicdevelopmentandsustainabilitytool.Interview
TheTaskForceheardinforumagerforumthatthemovementasawholehaslongrecognizedthekeyrolesthat
historicproper3es,communi3esandlandscapescanplayineconomicrevitaliza3on.TheNPS,withitsexper3sein
parks(andinwildernessparks,inpar3cular)hasneglectedurbanareasandhasnotfullydevelopedtheCer3ed
LocalGovernmentprogram.Combinedwithalackofvisibilityfortheprograms,themovementsuersata3me
whenhistoricpreserva3onshouldbeatthecenterofurbaneconomicrevitaliza3onpolicy.
Historicpreserva3oninitscurrentform,ontheonehand,stressesurbanandeconomicrenewalandrevitaliza3on.
Heritageconserva3onandtheNa3onalHeritageAreaprogram,ontheotherhand,stresstheintegra3onofnatural
resources,heritagesites,folkwaysandthedevelopmentofheritagetourism,allareasthatalsohavebeendicult
tofullydevelopwithintheNPS.Oneintervieweenotedthatheritageareasseethemselvesaspartnerstotheparks,
butthatsomeNPSstaperceivetheheritageareasasinterlopersthatstealfundsfromtheparks.Ratherthan
discouraginggrowthandhinderingthesuccessofheritageareas,be^erleadershipalignmentwithintheNPSwould
createastrongerbaseofopera3onsfortheselocalandogenruraleconomicandpreserva3onengines.
TheNPSslackofsubjectma^erexper3seinheritagebasedeconomicstrategieshasimpactedtheadministra3onof
thePartnershipProgramsinmanyways.Oneofthemostdrama3chasbeeninitsabilitytosupporttheprograms
intheannualappropria3onsprocess.AstheOceofManagementandBudgethasdemandedmetricstogauge
thesuccessofallfederalprograms,thosewithouttheabilitytoprovetheireconomicworthhavebeenpar3cularly
17

vulnerabletobudgetcuts.ThishasbeenthecasefortheSaveAmericasTreasuresprogram,theonlyfederalhistoric
bricksandmortargrantprogramintheUnitedStates;PreserveAmerica,aprogramdesignedtopromotehistoric
preserva3onthroughheritagetourism,educa3onandhistoricpreserva3onplanning;andtheNa3onalHeritageArea
program,allofwhichhavecomeundera^ackduringthebudge3ngprocess.AsbecameclearintheTaskForces
publicmee3ngsandsubjectma^erandstakeholderinterviews,alackofeconomicandotherdatahasplayeda
majorroleinmarkingprogramstodefund:
WehavemetwithOMBandknowwhattheyarelookingfor:weneedmoremetricsand
evidencethattheseprogramsareeec#veineduca#ngthepublic.[We]willbealtering
theapplica#onandrepor#ngprocesstobuildinthemeasurementtoolsthatweneed.
OMBunderstandsthatwedonthavetheinforma#onnowbutwehavemadeapledgeto
makesurewewillgoingforward.Interview
TheTaskForcebelievesthatanimprovedadministra3vestructurewithsignicantexper3seineconomics,data
gatheringandanalysiswouldbe^erposi3onthePartnershipProgramsforsuccessinthesediculteconomic3mes
andenabletheprograms,whicharepublic/privatepartnerships,tobe^erleveragethefederaldollarsthattheydo
receivetospurprivateinvestment.
Economicandquan3ta3veexper3sewouldhelpPartnershipProgramadministratorsmakeastrongercaseforthe
preserva3onoftheseprogramswhenconfrontedwithinternalargumentsthattheheritageprogramsareoutside
NPSscoremission,asoccurredinTheNa#onalParkServiceFY2011BudgetJus#ca#onsra3onalefordefunding
(orcusngthefundinginhalf,inthecaseoftheHeritageAreas)oftheSaveAmericasTreasures,PreserveAmerica
andHeritageAreaprograms:Thisproposedreduc3onwouldallowtheParkServicetofocusonthosepark
ac#vi#esthatmostcloselyalignwithitscoremission.16Recognizingthatitmighttakemanymoreyearsforhistoric
preserva3ontobeacceptedasnearertothecoremissionoftheNPS,thePartnershipProgramsneedquan3ta3ve
andeconomicdatanowtocombatthosewhobelievethattheirbenetstocommuni3esandtoAmericaasawhole
areunquan3ableandthusnotworthyoffurthersupport.
ThefederalHistoricRehabilita3onTaxCreditprogram(HTC),administeredbyNPS,implicateseachoftheseissues.
Todate,consistentwiththebroadmandateoftheAct,theHTCprogramhasindirectlycontributedtothefederal
governmentsinuenceondevelopment,urbanrevitaliza3onandaordablehousingallwhileachievingthe
correla3vegoalofstewardingourna3onsheritage.Nonetheless,TaskForceresearchalsodemonstratedthatthe
HTCProgramwouldbegreatlyenhancedbythedevelopmentofexper3sewithintheNPSinthedualarenasofreal
estateeconomicsandsustainability.Realestateeconomicshavealwaysplayedacentralroleinredevelopment,and,
assuch,havebeenakeyfactorandcauseforconcerninNPSadministra3onoftheHistoricTaxCreditprogramfrom
the3meofitsorigin.Sustainabilityissueshavecometoplayamuchmoresignicantroleinrecentyears.
Subjectma^erexpertsandsurveyrespondentsfeltthattheNa3onalParkServicehaslargelynotaddressedthese
demandsoftheNHPA,preferringacuratorialapproachthathashadadverseresultsforhistoricstructureswhose
developerswereeitherdeniedfundingduetorela3velyminorpreserva3onissuesorchosenottopar3cipateatall
duetothecomplexityandunpredictabilityoftheprocess:17Asonediscussionsessiona^endeeexpressedit,We
needtobalancethevoiceofthehistorianwiththevoiceoftheCFO.Further,theprogramwouldbenetgreatly
fromstreamliningandsimplifyingtheprocess,whichwouldbenetbothStateHistoricPreserva3onOcesand
developers.
[NPSis]goodatprotec#nglandmarks,butthatsnotwhatthetaxcreditisabout,which
iskeepingoldbuildingsinservice.Theprogramitselfoughttobe30#meswhatitis.
Interview
Asanenduserofanhistorictaxcredit,ifweknewhowmuch#meandhowcomplexthe
programwaswewouldnothaveoptedtousethehistorictaxcredits.Itstoocomplicated
tomakeiteasyforrealestatedevelopers.Alotofgoodcouldcomeiftheprogramwas
useable.NPCSession
16.Emphasisadded.TheHeritageAreajus3ca3onalsomen3onsthatcusngfundingwouldcomplywiththeFY2010Congressionaldirec
3veforHeritageAreastoworktowardsbecomingselfsucient.Na3onalParkServiceFY2011BudgetJus3ca3ons,NR&P51.
17.SeealsotheNa3onalParkSystemAdvisoryBoardReportFederalHistoricRehabilita3onTaxCreditProgram:Recommenda3onsforMak
ingaGoodProgramBe^er,September2006.

18

Lackofleadershiphasalsobeenanissue.ThepostofbranchchiefadministeringtheHTCprogramwaslegvacant
forthreeyears.Evennowthatithasrecentlybeenlled,ques3onsremainaboutaccessofNPSandInterior
leveldecisionmakers.Allofthisisoccurringatthesame3methatHTCadministra3onneedsupda3ngtomeet
thechallengesofthe21stcentury.TheHTCisogenpairedwiththeNewMarketsTaxCredit,runbytheTreasury
DepartmentsCDFIFund,whichhasbeennamedasoneofthegovernmentstopinnovators.Thedynamism
withwhichthatprogramisadministered,itsvigorousoutreachandconstantmanagementinnova3onsposea
counterpointtothesta3c,isolatedadministra3onoftheHTC.Issuesincludetheneedforeec3veinterface
betweentheHTCprogramandcomplementaryfederalhousing,energyandtransporta3ongoals,andforimproved
datacollec3on,metricsandonlineinterface.
ThePartnershipProgramsalsowouldbenetfromarmergroundinginenergyindependence,environmental
sustainabilityandtherolethathistoricpreserva3oncanplayinthesearenas.Alackofunderstandingofand
knowledgeaboutsustainabilityissuesonthepartofNPSwereogenmen3onedasama^erofgraveconcerntousers
oftheHistoricRehabilita3onTaxCreditprogram:
Mymainconcerniswiththehistorictaxcreditprogramandtechnicalservicesprogram
notbeinguptodateoncurrentchallengessuchassolarenergy,energyissues....
therefore,wedonthaveastrongpreserva#onvoicewiththeappropriateskillsand
exper#seaddressingtheseissues.Interview
Sincethisinterviewtookplace,theSecretaryoftheInteriorhasupdatedtheStandardsforRehabilita#onwithnew
IllustratedGuidelinesonSustainabilityforRehabilita#ngHistoricBuildings,therstsetofocialguidelinesonhow
tomakechangestoimproveenergyeciencyandpreservethecharacterofhistoricbuildings.AstheNPSnotes,
thenewguidelinesreplacematerialnotupdatedsince1992,indica3ngthedicultythattheNPShasencountered
instayingcurrent,letaloneinaddressingenergyissues.Moreover,whilethenewGuidelinesarearststep,more
isneeded.Forexample,therehavebeencallsforareleaseofbestprac3cesorrecomendedtreatmentsusableby
ownersofmillionsofhistoricbuildingsseekingtomeetneweciencystandardscalledforbytheDOE.Thereshould
beawaytomeasurabely3especicstrategiestothesestandards,factoringinclimatezoneandbuildingtype.Todo
this,theNPSshouldbeac3velyseekingacollabora3onwiththeDOEandtheEPA.
Thepreserva3oncommunityenvisionsafutureinwhichtheNPSisabletofullypar3cipateininteragencyini3a3ves
andtodevelopeduca3onalandotherprogramsofitsowntoprotecthistoricresourcesfromtheonslaughtof
buildersadvoca3ngnewgreenerbuildingatanycostand,inpar3cular,historicwindowreplacementinthename
ofincreasedenergyeciency.Inthearenaofwindowreplacement,anen3reindustryhasdevelopedtoreplace
oldwindowswheninmanycasestheoriginalwindowswouldbemoreenergyecienttorestore.Ifthefederal
preserva3onprogramwasorganizedmoreeec3vely,thewidespreaddestruc3onofhistoricwindowsmighthave
beenavertedandmightyetbeslowed.Inaddi3on,theeconomicbenetsofrestora3on,preserva3onandhistoric
resourcescouldbelinkedtobothwindowrestora3onandpreserva3oningeneral,togiveonlyoneexampleofthe
manycontribu3onsthathistoricpreserva3oncanmaketothisissue.
AstrongervoiceonthepartoftheACHPandapresenceontheCEQwouldalsoassisttheNPSinincreasinginter
agencyinterac3onintheadministra3onofthePartnershipPrograms,anddevelopingandpursuingeconomic
revitaliza3onandsustainabilityrelatedgoalsinprogramadministra3on.
3. Closerintegra1onofthePreserva1onandHeritagePartnershipProgramsintotheadministra1vestructure
ofparksbasedculturalresourcemanagementwillnotserveeithertheindividualparksorthePartnership
Programswell.Thegoalsandculturesofthesetwoareasofac1vityareverydierent.Placingbothofthese
responsibili1esunderasingleleaderputsparksandthePartnershipProgramsincompe11onwitheachother
forresources,anditputscuratorialpreserva1onconcernsaheadofeortstoharnessthena1onsheritage
resourcesforthebroadarrayofpublicgoalsenvisionedbythe1966Act.

19

In2008,theNa3onalAcademyofPublicAdministra3onrecommendedthateithertheAssociateDirectoratefor
CulturalResourcesbecomeahighperformingorganiza3onorthatitbereorganizedinordertobe^ermanagethe
historicparksandculturalresourcesunderitscare,no3ngthat:
Stewardshipofparkculturalresourcesinvolvesdirectduciaryresponsibilityfor,and
managementof,structures,sites,andobjectsunderNPScustodyandcontrol.Incontrast,
thena3onalhistoricpreserva3onprograminvolvesmakinggrants,crea3ngincen3ves,
andissuingregula3onsdesignedtomi3gateadverseconsequencestohistoricresources
thatareunderthecontrolofothers.Thepoliciesandskillsrequiredfortheformerare
verydierentthanthepoliciesandskillsrequiredforthela^er.18
TheTaskForcesndingssupportasimilarconclusion:thecomanagementoftheparksbasedculturalresourcesand
theexternalPartnershipProgramsul3matelybenetsneitheren3ty.
SincetheirplacementintheNPSin1966,thePartnershipProgramshavefrequentlysueredfromtheirperceived
compe33onwithparksandparksbasedculturalresources.Forthepast25plusyears,theexternalprograms
havebeenmanagedalongsidetheparksinternal(i.e.federallyowned)culturalresourceprograms.Thehistoric
preserva3onandheritagecommunitygenerallybelievesthatthishasnotbenetedthePartnershipProgramsdueto
theprioritythatparksresourcestakeinthe3me,focusandadvocacyofNPSculturalresourcesleadership:
Basedonmyexperienceandallthosethingsthathavebeentried,fromabureaucra#c
pointofviewthecoremissionoftheNPSwillalwaysbeoverwhelming.Theexternal
programswillalwaysbemuchlowerinprioritythantheparks.NPCSession
IthinkitwouldbeselfevidentthatofthethreemissionsforCulturalResourcesinthe
NPS,theparkcenteredprogramsreceivethemajorityofa^en3on(andIthinkthatis
probablyvalidgiventheneedsandpriori3esoftheparks.)Thereforeitmightmakesense
tohaveDirectorofExternalprogramswhoreportsdirectlytotheParkServicedirector
withouthavingtocompetewiththeinternalparkissuesatthreelevelsbeforereaching
administra3on.Survey
AsalludedtointheNAPA2008reportandechoedinTaskForcesurveycomments,aprimarydetrimentofthe
internal/externalprogramalignmentisastructuralinabilityonthepartofNPSleadershiptofullydevelopandpursue
thepar3cularskillsneededbythePartnershipPrograms.Ratherthanspendingmuchofhisorher3melooking
insidetoParksandmasteringthebureaucracyandpoli3csofinternalparksadministra3on,aDeputyDirectorfor
HistoricPreserva3onandHeritagecouldfocus3meandresourcesonunderstandingtheneedsoftheStates,Tribes
andlocalcommuni3esandorganiza3onsservedbythegrantprograms;furtheringtheeconomicdevelopmentand
sustainablepoten3alofhistoricresourcesasdemandedbytheNHPA;andvisi3ngnonfederalsitesofsignicancein
ordertoraisethevisibilityoftheprograms.Inshort,theoutwardfocusedandmul3disciplinarynatureofhistoric
preserva3onwillbemuchbe^erservedbyaleaderandmanagementteamdevotedsolelytorealizingitspoten3al:
Manypeoplehavearguedthatthewayhistoricpreserva3onisnestledintheNPS
doesntmakeawholelotofsenseconsideringthebroaderscopeofpreserva3onissues
inthecountry.Surely,theremustbeabe^erorganiza3onalstructurethatexpressesthe
mul3disciplinaryqualityofpreserva3on.Survey
[I]thasbeenmyexperiencethatculturalresourceswithinNPSparksaredominated
byInternalProgramsandSuperintendentsoftheparks.Thecurrentstructuredoesnot
18.NAPA2008,Op.cit.,p.55.Thereportcon3nues:ThePanelurgesNPStoweightheoveralladvantages,disadvantages,andtradeos
involvedincrea3ngaseparateAssociateDirectorforParkCulturalResources.InthePanelsview,thereisastrongargumentfortheequal
organiza3onalstatusofparkculturalresourceswithnaturalresources.

20

operateinawaythatisconstruc3velycollabora3veevenwithintheParkServiceitself,to
sayli^leofthevisibilityandcollabora3veengagementofotherfederalagencies.Survey
Throughoutitsresearch,theTaskForcewasurgedbyresearchpar3cipantstoencourageclosecoopera3onbetween
parksculturalresourcesandthePartnershipPrograms,especiallyinordertoprotectstandardsthatneedtobe
heldincommonbetweenthetwo.Certainly,theTaskForcestronglyadvocatescloseandsustainedcommunica3on
betweeninsideparkandhistoricpreserva3onPartnershipPrograms.Nonetheless,ourndings,similartoNAPAs,
suggestthataseparateorganiza3onalstructurewouldimprovetheeciencyandeec3venessofboththe
PartnershipProgramsandculturalresourceswithintheNa3onalParkService.

21

Th e r e is n o sh ort a g e o f o p p ortu nity r e g a rd in g


hist ori c b uil d in gs. V a c a nt, d e t e rior a tin g
or u n d e rutiliz e d b uil d in gs e ith e r o n th e
N a tio n a l R e gist e r o f Hist ori c Pl a c e s or in
N a tio n a l R e gist e r Hist ori c Distri c ts, su c h a s
th e V a nity B a llro o m in D e troit, Mi c hig a n a r e
in n e e d o f r e h a b ilit a tio n. Stro n g l e a d e rshi p
in th e a d ministr a tio n o f o ur f e d e r a l hist ori c
pr e s e rv a tio n pro gr a m c a n h e l p l e v e r a g e
e xistin g pro gr a ms a s w e ll a s priv a t e
in v e st m e nt t o r e turn th e s e b uil d in gs t o s e rvi c e .

...external programs are not a good fit


with m a n a g e m e nt o f p a rk u nits. Th e issu e s,
st a k e h ol d e rs, c li e nts, r e l a tio nshi ps with lo c a l
g o v e rn m e nts a n d c o nstitu e n c i e s a r e v e ry
d iff e r e nt.
Int e rvi e w

Cha pter Thre e: Re c omm end ations

Thedeepbudgetcutsexactedin2011andproposedagainfor2012havecreatedbothanimpera3veandan
opportunitytorevitalizethePartnershipProgramssotheyareunambiguouslyseenasrealizingthepromiseofthe
Na3onalHistoricPreserva3onActandmee3ngtheurgentneedsofthetwentyrstcentury.Todothis,theFederal
HistoricPreserva3onProgramTaskForcepositsthatthefederalcomponentoftheprogramcurrentlyadministered
bytheNPSmustberealignedandstrengthenedtocreateastructurefullysuppor3veoftheprovisionsoftheActand
offurtheringtheeconomicdevelopment,energyandresourceconserva3onandcommunitystrengtheningpoten3al
ofhistoricresources.

TheTaskForcermlybelievesthatsignicantimprovementsinthesecri3calareascanbeachievedatli^lecost
throughtherealloca3onofexis3ngresources.TheTaskForcesgoalisnottocri3cizeNPSforitsprioradministra3on
oftheprogramsunderitscare,butrathertoprovidethededicatedpreserva3onandheritageprofessionalsatNPS
anewplawormbe^eradaptedtoaccomplishthena3onallyimportantgoalsdeclaredbythe1966Actandmore
relevanttodaythanever.
TheTaskForceenvisionsanadministra1vestructureforthePreserva1onandHeritagePartnershipProgramsthat
propelstheseprogramsintoaleadershiproleinheritageconserva1on,jobcrea1on,energyindependence,and
theforgingofecientandeec1vepublicprivatepartnershipstoadvancethesegoals.
Abroadconsensusexistswithinthepreserva3oncommunitythattransferringthePartnershipProgramstoa
separatefederalpreserva3onagencyoraseparatebureauwithintheDepartmentoftheInteriorwouldbethebest
structuretoempowerpropertyownersandlocalagenciestouseheritagepreserva3ontocreatejobsandadvance
communitysustainability,developheritagetourism,andinspireci3zenswithaprideofplaceandsenseofhistory.
However,theTaskForceandpreserva3oncommunityasawholealsobelievethatinkeepingwiththecurrent
impera3vetodomorewithless,benetswillderivefromlessdrama3cchangesthatcanbeaccomplishedwiththe
realignmentofcurrentresources.Therefore,theTaskForceproposesfouressen3allybudgetneutralimprovements
thatworkwithinexis3ngagenciesandcouncils.
Ourmemberorganiza3onsandcons3tuentsareinagreementabouttheneedforthesechangesandwillwork
togethertoseethattheyareenacted.Op3mally,theindividualstaskedwiththeposi3onsdescribedbelowwill
23

meetonamonthlybasistocoordinateworkmoreecientlyandeec3velyacrossthefederalgovernmentand
raiseawarenessofthecontribu3onsthatheritagepreserva3onbringstothelifeofthisna3on.Thepreserva3on
communitywillrevisittheresultsofthesechangestwoyearsagerimplementa3ontodetermineiftheyhavebeen
eec3ve.

TheTaskForcesrecommenda1onsare:
1. Makehistoricpreserva1onvisibleandaccountablebyrealigningresponsibili1esforthePreserva1on
andHeritagePartnershipProgramswithintheNa1onalParkServiceunderaDeputyDirectorforHistoric
Preserva1onandHeritagewhoreportstotheDirectoroftheNa1onalParkService.
TheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActprovidesthatitshallbethepolicyoftheFederalGovernment...toprovide
leadershipinthepreserva3onoftheprehistoricandhistoricresourcesoftheUnitedStatesandoftheinterna3onal
communityofna3onsandintheadministra3onofthena3onalpreserva3onprograminpartnershipwithStates,
Indiantribes,Na3veHawaiians,andlocalgovernments.
TheTaskForcendingsindicatethatthePreserva3onPartnershipProgramswillnotthriveintheNPSunlessthey
gainamoreelevatedandindependentposi3onwithintheParkshierarchy.Thisisnotanissuethatindividual
leadershipcanovercomeinthelongterm,butoneofstructuralnecessitytoins3tu3onalizeandelevatehistoric
preserva3onwithinthefederalgovernmentsothattruena3onalleadershipagainbecomesfeasible.TheTask
ForceenvisionsasingleDeputyDirectorwhoreportsdirectlytotheDirectoroftheNa3onalParkService.Thesole
responsibilityofthisDeputyDirectorwouldbeoverseeingthevariousPartnershipProgramsdescribedinTitleIof
the1966ActandadministeredwithTribes,States,andlocali3es,aswellasNa3onalHeritageAreas.
TheTaskForceenvisionsaDeputyDirectorwhowill:
-

EngagewithStates,Tribes,localcommuni3es,andnongovernmentorganiza3onstofullyrealizethegoalsofthe
1966NHPA
Ini3ateandpar3cipateininteragencyprojectsreec3ngthemul3disciplinarynatureofhistoricpreserva3onand
heritage
Focusonurban,suburban,smalltownandruralsustainabilityandrevitaliza3onneedsandtheheritagetourism
poten3alofhistoricresources
Developacultureofinnova3onwithinNPSresponsivetotheeconomicneedsandpoten3alofhistoricresources
Provideleadershiponinterna3onalpreserva3onma^ers
Engagehistoricpreserva3oninthena3onalquestforenergyindependence
WorkcloselywithParksCulturalResourcestoensureconsistentstandardsandadherencetothevisionand
principlesoftheNHPA
AdvocateandbeaccountableforthePartnershipPrograms
Raisethevisibilityofhistoricpreserva3onandheritageintheUnitedStatesandtheworld

AdirectorsolelyresponsibleforPartnershipProgramswillprovideleadershipthatisaccountablesolelyforthe
advancementoftheoutwardfocusedpreserva3onpartnership/assistanceprograms.Further,toinsuresuccess,
thisdepartmentwillneedexpandedstaexper3seintheareasofeconomicdevelopment,energyeciencyand
environmentalsustainabilitytocomplementexis3ngresourceprotec3onexper3se.Thiscanbeaccomplishedin
abudgetneutralmannerbyreassigningsomeexis3ngstaposi3ons.Together,theseac3onswillfacilitatemore
ecientandeec3veadministra3onoflocaldesigna3onac3vi3es,taxcreditinvestmentprojects,andHeritageArea
administra3on.
TheestablishmentofsuchaDeputyDirectorposi3oncanbeaccomplishedinvariouswaysthatdonotrequire
addi3onalfull3meequivalentemployees.Forexample,parksbasedresponsibili3escouldbeconsolidatedunder
anotherexis3ngDeputyDirector.Or,insideparkculturalresourcemanagementresponsibili3escouldbeassigned
24

toeitheranewAssociateDirectorforParksCulturalResources,ifthiscanbedoneinabudgetneutralmanner,
ortotheAssociateDirectorsofParkPlanning,Facili3esandLandsandofPartnershipsandVisitorExperience.
Thentheexis3ngAssociateDirectorforCulturalResourcescouldbeelevatedtoaDeputyDirectorposi3on,with
theresponsibilityforthePartnershipPrograms.Eitherofthesewouldservetointegrateinsideparkcultural
resourceprotec3onwithotherinsideparkmanagementac3vi3esandcouldbecarriedoutinawaythatresponds
toinsideparksculturalresourceprogramissuesiden3edintheNAPA2008SavingOurHistoryreportbutnot
yetaddressed.Thereorganiza3onshouldachievegreaterecienciesatcurrentstalevelsinlightofthecurrent
challengingeconomicclimate.Further,theTaskForcestressestheneedforcon3nuedclosecoordina3onbetween
thePartnershipProgramsandinternalparkshistoricandculturalresourcesinordertomaintaintheintegrityofthe
SecretaryoftheInteriorsStandardsforRehabilita3on.
2. DesignateaSeniorPolicyOcerforHistoricPreserva1onandHeritageintheDepartmentoftheInteriorto
serveasaSpecialAdvisorforHeritagetotheSecretaryoftheInterior.
TheTaskForcestronglybelievesthatitis3mefortheDepartmentoftheInteriortotakeastrongleadershiprolein
historicpreserva3on.Asstewardofthefederalpreserva3onprogram,andastheAgencydesignedbyCongresstobe
responsibleformuchoftheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onAct,theDOIneedstobecomeatrueleaderandadvocate
forhistoricpreserva3onacrosstheagencyandthroughouttheAdministra3on.
TheTaskForcehasiden3edaneedforadedicatedhistoricpreserva3onandheritageocialwithintheoceofthe
SecretaryoftheInterior.IntheirroleasSeniorPolicyOceforHistoricPreserva3onandSpecialAdvisorforHeritage
totheSecretary,thispersonwilloverseetheimplementa3onoftheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActthroughout
theDepartmentoftheInteriorsbureausandoces,asrequiredunderExecu3veOrder13287(PreserveAmerica).
ThisocerwilladvisetheSecretaryoftheInterioronallma^ersrelatedtoheritagepreserva3on,including
preserva3onsabilitytocontributetodepartmentalandna3onalgoalsandensurethatthePartnershipPrograms
haveaplaceindepartmentalprioritysesngandresourcealloca3on.Theinforma3ongatheredbythisocerwould
alsoallowtheSecretarytoconsiderpreserva3oninformedstrategieswhenaddressingna3onalissuesandtobring
thisknowledgetothedelibera3onsofotherexecu3veen33essuchastheDomes3cPolicyCouncil.
Designa3onofthisocerwillprovideculturalresourcecoordina3onacrossthebureausoftheDOIasini3allysought
bythe1966Act.Thecurrentstructurea^emptstoaccomplishapieceofthisbycombiningPartnershipPrograms
withparksbasedculturalresourcemanagementwithintheNPS,buttheTaskForcebelievesthatthePartnership
Programsneedtohaveiden3tyandresourcealloca3onseparatefrominsideparkfunc3ons,asdescribedabove.
ASPO/SpecialAdvisortotheSecretarywouldaccomplishcoordina3onbetweenstewardshipofInteriormanaged
resourcesandthePartnershipProgramswhileatthesame3memaximizingtheeec3venessoftheseseparate
programs.
3. MaketheAdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva1onChairmanafull1meposi1on.
TheTaskForcehasiden3edaneedtostrengthenleadershipandincreasevisibilityforhistoricpreserva3onand
heritageatthefederallevel.TheTaskForcebelievesthatafull3meACHPChairmanappointedbythePresident
willhelpaccomplishthis.ItwillallowtheCounciltofulllitsCongressionallymandatedresponsibili3estoadvise
thePresidentandCongressonma^ersrela3ngtohistoricpreserva3onandimprovecoordina3onofpreserva3on
ac3vi3esofFederal,State,andlocalagenciesandprivateins3tu3onsandindividuals,whilealsocarryingoutits
cri3calresponsibili3esforadministeringtheSec3on106reviewprocess.Furthermore,afull3mechairpersonwill
bebe^erposi3onedtoengageingovernmenttogovernmentconsulta3onwithIndiantribes;interna3onalagencies
andorganiza3ons;andwithotherkeyExecu3veOceini3a3ves,panelsandcouncils.
Afull3meACHPChairpersonwillworkcloselywiththeDeputyDirectorforHistoricPreserva3onandHeritageto
facilitateinteragencycollabora3onandpolicycoordina3onintheadministra3onofthePartnershipPrograms.The

25

full3meChairwouldalsobebe^erposi3onedtoworkwiththeSecretaryoftheInteriortoprovideleadershipand
advocacyforhistoricpreserva3onwithintheAdministra3onandacrossagencies.Inordertoaccomplishthegoalsof
theNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onActinabudgetsensi3vemanner,theTaskForcerecommendsthatthefull3me
chairini3ateaprocesstoiden3fyopportuni3esforgreatereciencyinthealloca3onandexecu3onofpreserva3on
responsibili3esbetweentheACHPandtheNPS.
IntheTaskForcesresearch,severalopportuni3esforcostsavingandredundancyelimina3onwereiden3ed
betweentheACHPandNPS.Forexample,theadministra3onofthePreserveAmericaprogramcouldbeundertaken
bytheNPSviatheCer3edLocalGovernmentprogram,whereastheFederalPreserva3onIns3tutecouldbelocated
withintheACHPinkeepingwiththeACHPsdailyinterac3onswithFederalPreserva3onOcers.Afull3mechair
willbeabletoaddressissuessuchasthesewhichthepart3menatureoftheposi3onun3lnowhasrarelypermi^ed.
TheTaskForcerecommendsthatconsidera3onbegiventoini3allypursuingafull3meACHPchairmanshipthrough
anadministra3veac3onbythePresidentunderSec3on5317ofTitle5oftheUSCodeauthorizingthePresidentto
createExecu3veLevelIVandVposi3onswhenheconsidersthatac3onnecessarytoreectchangesinorganiza3on,
managementresponsibili3es,orworkloadintheExecu3veAgency.Thisapproachwouldallowtheappointmentof
afull3meChairmanintheimmediatefutureandwithoutamendmenttotheNHPA.
Ageranevalua3onperiod,thefull3mechairifsuccessful,couldthenbeestablishedstatutorilyinalegisla3ve
amendmenttotheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onAct.Theamendmentwouldbesimpleandofalargelytechnical
nature:itwouldestablishtheposi3onasfull3meandpermanent,subjecttoappointmentbythePresidentand
conrma3onbytheSenate,andsetthecompensa3onontheExecu3veLevelScale.Obtainingthenecessary
appropria3onswouldbetheobliga3onoftheACHPthroughthenormalappropria3onprocess.Theamendment
couldbeintroducedasstandalonelegisla3on,withthelikelihoodthatcongressionalac3onwouldcomeaspartofa
largerlegisla3vepackage.

4. Designateaseniorstaposi1onforculturalandhistoricresourcesonthePresidentsCouncilon
EnvironmentalQuality.
TheNa3onalEnvironmentalPolicyActof1969(NEPA),whichthePresidentsCouncilonEnvironmentalQuality(CEQ)
helpstoimplement,promotesana3onalpolicydesignedtoprotectboththenaturalenvironmentandtopreserve
importanthistoric,cultural,andnaturalaspectsofourna3onalheritage.ThefactthatNEPAhasalwaysincluded
culturalandhistoricresourceshasogenbeenoverlooked.NaturalresourceprogramshavehadanExecu3veOce
championintheCEQbuttheagencywithcomparableresponsibili3esforthepreserva3onprogram(theACHP)isnot
currentlyrepresentedintheExecu3veOce.Havingavoiceforhistoricpreserva3onontheCEQwouldensurethat
historicpreserva3onandtherolesitplaysinenergysavings,sustainability,andculturalresourcepreserva3onare
partofCouncildelibera3onsasintendedbyNEPA.
AseniorocerforculturalandhistoricresourcesatCEQwouldgainavoicefortheseareasofconcernwithinthe
Execu3veOceofthePresident.Thisocerwouldalsocorrectthelackofcoordina3onbetweennatural,cultural
andhistoricresourcespresentsincethegroundbreakingenvironmentalandhistoricpreserva3onlegisla3onofthe
late1960s.Theposi3oncouldbeaccomplishedatminimalcostandwithoutlegisla3onastheCEQChairpersonmay
employsuchocersandemployeesasmaybenecessarytocarryout[theCouncils]func3onsunderthisAct.

W e h a v e n o d o u b t th a t o n th e fro nt lin e s th e r e a r e t a l e nt e d pro f e ssio n a ls. But, lik e


a p l a nt, th e s e in d ivi d u a ls n e e d th e ro o ts t o su p p ort th e b ur e a u c r a ti c stru c tur e .
- NP C Disc ussio n S e ssio n

26

APPENDIXA:

TaskForceMembersandSta
COCHAIRS
DavidMorgan
BoardMember,Preserva3onAc3on;FormerKentuckyStateHistoricPreserva3onOcerand
ViceChair,PreserveAmericaExpertPanel
AndrewPo^s
BoardMember,HistoricTaxCreditCoali3on,Preserva3onAc3on,US/ICOMOSandPartner,NixonPeabodyLLP
PROJECTSTAFF
ErikM.Hein
President,Preserva3onAc3on
CamilleSmiley
ProgramManager,Preserva3onAc3on
JenniferSpreitzer
TaskForceProjectManager,Preserva3onAc3onFounda3on
MEMBERS
PeterBenton
BoardMember,Preserva3onAc3onandPrincipal,HeritageStrategies
AlanDowner
BoardMember,Preserva3onAc3onandTribalHistoricPreserva3onOcer,NavajoNa3on
PaulW.Edmondson
VicePresidentandGeneralCounsel,Na3onalTrustforHistoricPreserva3on
BrianGoeken(resignedasofMay6,2011)
PastChair,Na3onalAllianceofPreserva3onCommissionsandDeputyCommissioner,HistoricPreserva3onDivision,Dept.of
ZoningandLandUsePlanning,CityofChicago
ElizabethHebron
GovernmentRela3onsDirector,Na3onalConferenceofStateHistoricPreserva3onOcers
AimeeJorjani
BoardMember,Preserva3onAc3on
JohnLeithTetrault
President,Na3onalTrustCommunityInvestmentCorpora3on,andPresident,HistoricTaxCreditCoali3on

27

NellieLongsworth
FoundingPresident,Preserva3onAc3onandConsultant,SocietyforHistoricalArchaeology
WilliamMacRos3e
BoardMember,HistoricTaxCreditCoali3on,andPrincipal,MacRos3eHistoricAdvisors
ThomasMoriarty
BoardMember,Preserva3onAc3onFounda3on;Founder,MainStreetProgram,Na3onalTrustforHistoricPreserva3onand
Principal,TheEisenGroup
EllenMoyer
FormerMayorofAnnapolis,MarylandandMember,PreserveAmericaExpertPanel
Lore^aNeumann
President,TakomaTheatreConservancyandFormerBoardMember,Preserva3onAc3on
RuthPierpont
Chair,Na3onalConferenceofStateHistoricPreserva3onOcersandDeputyNYState
HistoricPreserva3onOcer
AllenSachse
BoardMember,AllianceofNa3onalHeritageAreasandExecu3veDirector,DelawareandLehighNa3onalHeritageCorridor
NancySchamu
Execu3veDirector,Na3onalConferenceofStateHistoricPreserva3onOcers
KatherineSlick
FormerNewMexicoStateHistoricPreserva3onOcerandFormerExecu3veDirectorUS/ICOMOS
A.RoySmith
BoardMember,Preserva3onAc3onandTreasurer,Preserva3onAc3onFounda3on
LolaSpradley
BoardMember,Preserva3onAc3on
WillTippens
Chairman,Preserva3onAc3onandVicePresident,RelatedMidwest
JeanneWard
VicePresidentforGovernmentRela3ons,AmericanCulturalResourcesAssocia3onand
President,AppliedArchaeologyandHistoryAssociates
ShanonSheaPeterson
President,Preserva3onAc3onFounda3on;ViceChairPreserva3onAc3on;HistoricPreserva3onOcer,SanAntonioand
BoardMember,Na3onalAllianceofPreserva3onCommissions
CarrollVanWest
BoardMember,Preserva3onAc3onFounda3onandDirector,CenterforHistoricPreserva3onat
MiddleTennesseeStateUniversity
BradfordJ.White
Ci3zenMember,AdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva3onandPrincipal,BradWhite&Associates

WewouldalsoliketoacknowledgetheeortsofstaofboththeAdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva#onandtheNa#onalPark
ServicewhoaKendedmanyofourmee#ngsandprovidedvaluableinsightandobserva#ons.

28

APPENDIXB:

SubjectMaTerExpertandStakeholderInterviewees
BrendaBarre^,DirectorofRecrea#onandConserva#on,Pennsylvania
JanineBowechop,TribalHistoricPreserva#onOcer,MakahTribe,andExecu#veDirector,MakahCulturalandResearchCenter
PegBreen,President,NewYorkLandmarksConservancy
AllysonBrookes,StateHistoricPreserva#onOcer,Washington
AugustR.Carlino,President,SteelIndustryHeritageCorp.andRiversofSteelNa#onalHeritageArea;BoardMember,Allianceof
Na#onalHeritageAreas
Pra^Cassity,Director,CommunityDesignCenter,UniversityofGeorgia
LindaDishman,Execu#veDirector,LosAngelesConservancy
WayneDonaldson,Chairman,AdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva#on;StateHistoricPreserva#onOcer,California
AlanDowner,TribalHistoricPreserva#onOcer,NavajoNa#onandBoardMember,Preserva#onAc#on
JohnFowler,Execu#veDirector,AdvisoryCouncilonHistoricPreserva#on
AnnieC.Harris,Execu#veDirector,EssexNa#onalHeritageAreaandBoardMember,AllianceofNa#onalHeritageAreas
AlferdteenB.Harrison,PhD,Director,MargaretWalkerAlexanderResearchIns#tute,JacksonStateUniversity
EricHerwelder,Execu#veDirector,FortAdamsTrust;formerExecu#veDirector,Na#onalConferenceof
StateHistoricPreserva#onOcers
AudieHuber,IntergovernmentalAairsManager,DNR,ConfederatedTribesoftheUma#llaIndianReserva#on
RussellV.Keune,FAIA,Long#mehistoricpreserva#onleaderattheNa#onalParkService,theNa#onalTrustforHistoricPreser
va#onandtheUnitedStatesCommiKee,Interna#onalCouncilofMonumentsandSites(US/ICOMOS)
JohnLeithTetrault,President,Na#onalTrustCommunityInvestmentCorpora#on;President,FederalHistoricTaxCreditCoali#on
DavidLindsay,ManagerofGovernmentAairs,SocietyforAmericanArcheology
J.RodneyLi^le,StateHistoricPreserva#onOcerandDirector,DivisionofHistoricalandCulturalPrograms,Maryland
NellieLongsworth,GovernmentAairsConsultant;FoundingPresident,Preserva#onAc#on
BruceMacDougal,Execu#veDirector,SanAntonioConserva#onSociety;BoardMember,Preserva#onAc#on
WilliamMacRos3e,Principal,MacRos#e&Associates;BoardMember,HistoricTaxCreditCoali#on
BobbieGreeneMcCarthy,Director,SaveAmericasTreasures,Na#onalTrustforHistoricPreserva#on
MartyM.McCune,Chair,Na#onalAllianceofPreserva#onCommissions;Principal,SkylarkConsul#ng,LLC
ElizabethMerri^,DeputyGeneralCounsel,Na#onalTrustforHistoricPreserva#on
VincentL.Michael,PhD.JohnH.BryanChairinHistoricPreserva#on,TheSchooloftheArtIns#tuteofChicago
HughMiller,FormerChiefHistoricalArchitect,Na#onalParkService

29

MarkMitchell,TribalHistoricPreserva#onOcer,TesuquePueblo
DavidW.Morgan,FormerStateHistoricPreserva#onOcer,Kentucky;ViceChairman,PreserveAmericaExpertPanel;CoChair
FederalHistoricPreserva#onProgramTaskForce
EllenMoyer,FormerMayorofAnnapolis,Maryland
WilliamMurtagh,FirstKeeper,Na#onalRegisterofHistoricPlaces,Na#onalParkService
JosephK.Oppermann,Architect
TheresaPasqual,Execu#veDirector,HistoricPreserva#onOce,PuebloofAcoma;SiteDirector,AcomaSkyCity,Na#onalTrust
forHistoricPreserva#on
SuziPengilly,DeputyStateHistoricPreserva#onOcer,Idaho
RuthPierpont,President,Na#onalCommiKeeofStateHistoricPreserva#onOcers;DeputyStateHistoric
Preserva#onOcer,NewYork
ConstanceRamirez,Director,FederalPreserva#onIns#tute,Na#onalParkService
JerryRogers,FormerAssociateDirectorofCulturalResources,Na#onalParkService
DonovanRypkema,Principal,PlaceEconomics
P.LynnScarle^,FormerDeputySecretaryandChiefOpera#ngOcer,U.S.DepartmentoftheInterior
NancySchamu,Execu#veDirector,Na#onalConferenceofStateHistoricPreserva#onOcers
CarolShull,Chief,HeritageEduca#onServices,Na#onalParkService;FormerKeeper,Na#onalRegisterHistoricPlaces,
Na#onalParkService
TimothySlavin,StateHistoricPreserva#onOcer,Delaware
KatherineSlick,FormerExecu#veDirector,US/ICOMOS;FormerStateHistoricPreserva#onOcer,NewMexico
JonC.Smith,AssistantAssociateDirector,HeritagePreserva#onAssistancePrograms,Na#onalParkService
DeTeelPa^ersonTiller,FormerDeputyAssociateDirectorforCulturalResources,Na#onalParkService
RonTipton,SeniorVicePresidentforPolicy,Na#onalParksConserva#onAssocia#on
StephanieToothman,PhD.,AssociateDirectorforCulturalResources,Na#onalParkService
AlicestyneTurley,PhD.,Director,UndergroundRailroadResearchIns#tute,UniversityofLouisville
JamesA.Turner,Owner,TurnerRestora#on;BoardMember,Preserva#onAc#on;Advisor,Na#onalTrustforHistoricPreserva#on
JayD.Vogt,StateHistoricPreserva#onOcer,SouthDakota;immediatepastPresident,Na#onalConferenceof
StateHistoricPreserva#onOcers
EmilyWadhams,FormerVicePresidentofPublicPolicy,Na#onalTrustforHistoricPreserva#on
ShanonSheaPeterson,HistoricPreserva#onOcer,SanAntonio;President,Preserva#onAc#onFounda#on;
ViceChair,Preserva#onAc#on
DouglasP.Wheeler,Partner,HoganandHartson;Chair,PreserveAmericaExpertPanel
BradfordJ.White,Ci#zenMember,AdvisoryCouncilforHistoricPreserva#on;Principal,BradWhite&Associates

30

APPENDIXC:

SubjectMaTerExpertandStakeholderInterviewQues1onnaire
1.

HowhaveyoubeeninvolvedwithorexposedtotheNa3onalParkServicessocalledExternalProgramsfor
historicpreserva3on?

2.

WhatdoesNPSdowellwithinyourareaofexper3se?

3.

WhatdoesNPSnotdowellorcoulddobe^erwithinyourareaofexper3se?

4.

Regardingleadershipandpolicydevelopmentinhistoricpreserva3on,who,ifanyone,currentlyprovidesthis?

5.

Whatisyourperspec3veonthecurrentstructureoftheExternalProgramswithintheNPS?Withinthe
DepartmentoftheInterior?

5.1.

6.

Severalop3onsforreorganizingorimprovingtheNa3onalHistoricPreserva3onfunc3onhavebeenproposedin
thepast.Wewouldliketohearyourassessmentofthese:

1)

2)
3)
4)

5)

7.

Whatdoyouthinkwouldbetheidealorganiza3onfortheseprograms?

8.

Whatdoyouthink,giventhecurrentclimate,wouldbearealis3cwaytoorganizeorimprovetheseprograms
andtheirmanagement?

9.

Inyouropinion,whattraitsarenecessaryforanimprovedFederalHistoricPreserva3onProgram?Some
sugges3onsinclude:

1)

2)
3)
4)
5)

Doyouagreewiththese?Arethereothercharacteris3csthatyouwouldadd?

10.

[Ifapplicable]:Withinyourorganiza3onorcons3tuency,howdowegoaboutwinningconsensus
regardingtheTaskForcesFinalReportandRecommenda3ons?Whatshouldwebeawareof?

11.

Doyouhaveanysugges3onsforhowtogeneratepoli3calsupportfortheTaskForces
recommenda3ons?

12.

Isthereanythingyouwouldliketoadd?

Ifyouhaveexperiencewithpaststructures,pleasetellusmoreaboutthese

Createanindependentagencyforallfederalpreserva3onac3vi3es(separatefromthe
DepartmentofInterior)
Consolidateallfederalpreserva3onprogramsintoAdvisoryCouncilforHistoricPreserva1on(ACHP)
CreateafreestandingbureauwithinInteriorDepartmentforfederalpreserva3onprograms
Keeporganiza1onalstructurethesamebutcreatestrongerleadershipstructureforfederal
preserva3onprograms:forex.,Full3meACHPChairman;AssociateDirectorforCulturalResources
withintheCouncilonEnvironmentalQuality;AssociateDirectorforHistoricPreserva3onwithinNPS;
OversightOcewithinDOI
Nochange:keepthestructureasis

Supportsinteragency,tribal,state,localandnongovernmentalorganiza3onengagementand
coordina3on
Sustainsandincreasesfundingforadequateresourcemanagement
Encouragesinnova3onandexibility
Increasesaccountability
Dynamicleadershipandprogramvisibility

31

APPENDIXD:

DiscussionSessionGuide
Purpose:Seekpar#cipantsthoughtsonstrategiesforenhancingtheeec#venessoftheFederalHistoric
Preserva#onProgramsorganiza#onalandleadershipstructure
Introduc1ontotheDiscussionSession

introduc3onsandbriefhistoryoftheissue/problems
currentTaskForce:role,assump3ons,ac3vi3es,3meframe
ques3ons?

Topic#1:ProposalsforImprovingtheFunc1onalityoftheFederalHistoricPreserva1onPrograms
Leadership/Organiza1onalStructure
Op3onsbeingconsideredtoenhanceeec3veness:

IndependentAgency:Createanindependentagencyforallfederalpreserva3onac3vi3es(separate

fromtheDepartmentoftheInterior)

ConsolidateintoACHP:Consolidateallfederalpreserva3onprogramsintoAdvisoryCouncilfor

HistoricPreserva3on(ACHP)

FreestandingBureauwithinInterior:CreateanewbureauwithintheDepartmentoftheInterior

forfederalpreserva3onprogramsseparatefromtheNa3onalParkService(NPS)

SameStructurewithLeadershipAdjustments:Keeporganiza3onalstructurethesamebutcreate

strongerleadershipstructureforfederalpreserva3onprograms:forex.,Full3meACHPChairman;

AssociateDirectorforCulturalResourceswithintheCouncilonEnvironmentalQuality;Oversight

OcewithinDOI;AssociateDirectorforHistoricPreserva3onwithinNPS
Keyques(ons:Whatareyourthoughtsonthestrengths,weaknessesandfeasibilityoftheseop#ons?Are
thereotherop#onsorvaria#onsonthesethetaskforceshouldconsider?

Topic#2:Iden1ca1onofKeySellingPoints
Keyques(on:Whatarethemostcompellingargumentsforchangethatshouldbeconsideredindevelop
ingandseekingsupportforourproposalsforchange?

Topic#3:OtherIssues/Possibili1es
Keyques(on:Whatotherissues/possibili#esshouldtheTaskForceconsiderasitseeksconsensusand
movesintotheimplementa#onphaseoftheeort?

32

APPENDIXE:

SurveyQues1onnaire

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

PhotoCredits,inorderofappearance:
AtlasTheatre,ahistoricrehabilita3ontaxcreditprojectinWashington,DC,photographcourtesyofNCSHPO.
6thStreetHistoricDistrict,Aus3n,TX,photographbyPreserva3onAc3on.
Thefamous(oneifbyland,twoifbysea)OldNorthChurchinBoston,MA.byBenFranske,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsAt
tribu3onShareAlike3.0Unported,2.5Generic,2.0Genericand1.0Genericlicense,obtainedviatheWikimediaCommons,afreely
licensedmedialerepository.(RecipientofaSaveAmericasTreasuresGrant.)
AmazingmasonryandjacalstructureatMoonHouseinUtah,byMa^Peeples,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsA^ribu3onShare
Alike2.0Genericlicense,obtainedviatheWikimediaCommons,afreelylicensedmedialerepository.(RecipientofaSave
AmericasTreasuresGrant.)
MaldenTowers,ahistoricrehabilita3ontaxcreditprojectinCookCounty,IL,apublicdomainphotographobtainedviaWikimedia
Commons,afreelylicensedmedialerepository.
DiscussionSession,Aus3n,TX,October,2010,photographbyPreserva3onAc3on.
MoravianPo^eryandTileWorksbuilding,byHenryMercer,inDoylestown,Pennsylvania,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsA^ri
bu3onShareAlike2.5Genericlicense,obtainedviaWikimediaCommons,afreelylicensedmedialerepository.(RecipientofaSave
AmericasTreasuresGrant.)
AstreetinAnnapolis,Maryland,byDanSmith,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsA^ribu3onShareAlike2.5Genericlicense,ob
tainedviaWikimediaCommons,afreelylicensedmedialerepository.(Na3onalRegisterHistoricDistrict.)
EbenezerBap3stChurchinAtlanta,whereMar3nLutherKingJr.preached,byErinMcDaniel,usedundertheCrea3veCommons
A^ribu3on3.0Unportedlicense,obtainedviatheWikimediaCommons,afreelylicensedmedialecompany.(RecipientofaSave
AmericasTreasuresGrant.)
EnterpriseMill,byStacieWells,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsA^ribu3onShareAlikeLicense2.0;obtainedviatheWikimedia
Commons,afreelylicensedmedialerepository.(AHistoricRehabilita3onTaxCreditproject.)
AreplicaofacabinatValleyForgeinwhichsoldiersofGeorgeWashingtonsarmywouldhavestayedduringthewinterof17771778,
byDanSmith,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsA^ribu3onShareAlike2.5Genericlicense,obtainedviatheWikimediaCommons,
afreelylicensedmedialecompany.
TheRailwayExchangeAddi3onandRailwayExchangeNewBuilding,locatedat1715ChampaStreetand90917thStreetinDenver,
Colorado,byJereyBeall,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsA^ribu3onShareAlike3.0Unportedlicense,obtainedviathe
WikimediaCommons,afreelylicensedmedialecompany.
LookingdownFilbertStreetinNorthBeach,SanFrancisco,byDanielSchwen,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsA^ribu3onShare
Alike2.5Genericlicense,obtainedviatheWikimediaCommons,afreelylicensedmedialecompany.
AstreetinAnnapolis,Maryland,byDanSmith,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsA^ribu3onShareAlike2.5Genericlicense,
obtainedviaWikimediaCommons,afreelylicensedmedialerepository.(Na3onalRegisterHistoricDistrict.)
RobertsFarm,DelawareWaterGapNa3onalRecra3onArea,photocourtesyofPreserva3onNewJersey
VanityBallroom,DetroitMI,byAndrewJameson,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsA^ribu3onShareAlike3.0Unportedlicense,
obtainedviatheWikimediaCommons,afreelylicensedmedialecompany.
AudobonBuilding,NewOrleans,LA,photographcourtesyofNa3onalTrustCommunityInvestmentCorpora3on.(AHistoric
Rehabilita3onTaxCreditproject.)
Delano,Na3onalandSagamohotelfrontsonCollinsAve.MiamiBeach,usedundertheCrea3veCommonsA^ribu3onShareAlike
2.5Generic,2.0Genericand1.0Genericlicense,obtainedviaWikimediaCommons,afreelylicensedmedialecompany.

41

Th e T a sk F or c e h e l d a s e ri e s o f List e nin g S e ssio ns in Phil a d e l p hi a , P A ,


A ustin, TX a n d S a l e m , M A . Ph o t os c o urt e sy o f Pr e s e rv a tio n A c tio n.