Tourism Concepts & Tourism System

The history: Travel through the ages
Travel for Trade and Commerce Travel for Seeking Knowledge : for Religious Purpose Roman Empire and Pleasure Travel Renaissance and the Grand Tour Concept of Annual Holiday Travel in the Nineteenth Century Emergence of Railways Emergence of Organized Travel Luxury in Rail Travel Sea Transport Travel in the 20th Century: Change in Pattern of Society  Motorized Road Transport  Growth of Air Travel
          

 IN ANCIENT TIMES : people use to travel for

different reason to satisfy there curiosity like food, water , wars, religious, shelter, military purpose etc. decreased only rich people use to travel in late 18 and early 19 century, even their was development of railway network in Europe by the foundation of steam locomotion but this era was ended by the fast growing technical advances , efficiency replaced luxury , the first airline KLM was founded in 1919, followed by Imperical Airways ( later on known as BA ) and Pan American World Airways .But Second world war decline the development of tourism

 IN 18TH CENTURY : the growth of travellers

 IN THE EARLY 20s : this era was known for luxury,

 After 1945 tourism grown into one of the

largest industry of the world and with in these yrs. It has grown into biggest industries from then number of countries entirely depend on tourism , there economy depend on tourism and know when ever there is any negative impact on tourism they suffer a lot .It has been expected that tourism is major force in economy of the world and thus the positive activity of global importance or significance .

 OUR 20TH CENTURY : witnessed tremendous change in

tourism activity specially in second half ,the technical development also provided the boost for more development with the result tourism has become such a grooming and big industry . In future the most important innovation will be the development of space travel , a company Space Adventure Inc. still provides a wide range of space related travel programs and in future Cyber Tourism may become an alternative to physical travel .


Why we should promote tourism?
According to WTO, WTTC  By 2020 there will be 1.6 billion international arrivals worldwide.  And they will be spending about US$ 2,000 billion.  Annual growth in the arrival will be 4.3%.  Annual growth in receipt will be 6.7%  Between 1995 and 2005, 144 million jobs were created and 112 million of which most were in Asia Pacific region.  It is contributing to Indian economy a foreign exchange of USD 11000 Cr.  It is the largest employer of the world  It is among the top three foreign exchange earner for India.  By 2020 it will be contributing USD 42000 Cr. to Indian Economy  Presently there are about 5.3 million foreign and 526 million domestic tourists traveling in India.

 There is no single definition of tourism that is universally

accepted.  WTO , Madrid, Spain, is a specialized agency of the United Nations.  The World Tourism Organization defines tourism as “Activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.”

Branches of tourism
 Inbound international tourism: visits to a country by    

nonresidents of that country. Outbound international tourism: visits by the residents of a country to other countries. Domestic tourism: visits by residents within their own country. Internal tourism: domestic + inbound international Visits by residents and non-residents within a country. National tourism: domestic + outbound international Visits by the residents of a country within their own country and to other countries.

E.g.. Inbound-domestic-outbound

Tourism is a multi-dimensional, multi- faced activity we cannot say that it is related to anyone or anything , it has diverse social economic , cultural and ecological impact


AIEST definition
 AIEST stands for International Association of Scientific

Experts in Tourism.  Hunziker and Krapf, in 1942, defined tourism as "the totality of the relationship and phenomenon arising from the travel and stay of strangers, provided that the stay does not imply the establishment of a permanent residence and is not connected with a remunerative activities".  Above definition was then accepted by AIEST as below: Tourism is the sum of phenomena and relationships arising from travel and stay of non residents in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity.

Tourism course & Disciplines inputs to the tourism field
Econ omics


Sociology of Tourism

tio n

Econ omic s of To urism

an sp or ta


yc ho

log y

a Educ tion
ism Tour ion at Educ

Ga m


Tr an sp St orta ud ies tion
C Ma asin nag o em ent

T M our ot ism iva ti o n

d an t tel ran n Ho stau ratio t Re inis m Ad

t An

y log po o hr

lit y it a sp es Ho tudi S

t es p Gu shi st- on Ho lati Re
cy Poli

es I s su

ical Polit ce n Scie


Managemen t of Tourism Organizatio ns
Sports Tourism e cin and Medi

Tourism Studies

Geography of Tourism
New Dev Ventur e elop men t He En a rita vi nd ge ro M an nt nm ag e nt em e


y Kinesiolog

rism Tou


Ma rk To etin ur g ism of

Tour is and D m Plannin evelo g pme nt


of ry to rism s Hi ou T


pren eu


sc nd e La ap ign s De

Recreation Management

l Rura m ris Tou

sto Hi


En v ir o St nm ud en i es t al

re ctu ite ch Ar

Ma rke tin

Urb an Reg and i P la n o n a l ning

re cultu Agri

Parks and Recreation

Underlying themes
Economics geography history law

Political science


Tourism studies


Marketing Anthropology psychology


Business management




What is an Industry
 Well (1989) defines an industry as

“a number of firms that produce similar goods and services and therefore are in competition with one another”. For instance, the steel industry is defined by the steel products they produce.

How about tourism industry?
 Many businesses and other types of tourism organizations offer

complementary rather than competing products and services. An airline, hotel, restaurant, travel agency, and attraction do not compete with each other. They complement each other and combine to offer visitors a satisfying vacation or business trip.
 The input and output can not be clearly identified.  Besides there is no single industry code for tourism under the

North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
 Macroeconomists point out that the recognition of tourism as an

industry can lead to double counting because standard industry classifications fully account for all elements of the economy without finding it necessary or appropriate to recognize tourism.

Tourism industry
 Unlike other industries that are defined by the

products and services they produce (the supply side), the tourism industry is defined from a demand side perspective. A tourism industry supplies products and services to tourists.  The Tourism Industry is defined as individuals, businesses & organizations that are working to provide product & services (including information) to tourists. They include those that work in transportation, lodging, entertainment and food & beverage.

The Tourism Industry
 Tourism is based on difference  Leisure activities presuppose their opposite, namely the 

 

 

existence of regulated and organized work. For tourists the visited places are “free” of work, services are supplied which free the consumer from the daily burdens. The strict time constraints imposed by working relationship are released; tourists live within a different time frame. Tourism places are places, where tourism attractions are assumed to be unique, different from the everyday environment. Tourists have to travel to the place of consumption Tourists are not able to test the product in advance; Information is the only means, which can close this gap.

Characteristics (2)
 The service - the tourism product is consumed at the time it is

produced. The product is based on social interaction between the supplier and the consumer, where the quality of the product is mainly defined by this interaction. Consumer part of production.  Tourism is labor intensive, which will increase the costs of tourism services on the long term, at least compared to the other areas of our economy.  Tourism is very sensitive to changes in private household incomes (no primary need). It is in direct competition to other products in the household income basket such as books, newspapers, entertainment, but also electronic products.

Characteristics (3)
 Tourism is an umbrella industry - containing a set of interrelated

businesses, involving travel companies, accommodation facilities, catering enterprises, tour operators, travel agents, providers of recreation and leisure facilities  Tourism is an important vehicle for regional and national development planning and strategies - also in industrialized countries (see also the respective programs of the European Commission). This is due to its job creation potential and the rather low entrance barriers compared to other industries. Tourism activities can be designed in such a way, that it respects environmental, social and cultural constraints.

And: international - domestic inbound - outbound
Yes Tourism Visitor With overnight

Traveler Outside usual environment Yes No

For less than 12 consecutive month Yes Purpose of trip other than an activity remunerated from within the place visited No






Same-day Visitor

 Tourist  Excursionist

A visitor is defined as 'any person traveling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than twelve months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited'.

Tourist and Excursionist
 Tourist: temporary visitor staying at least 24 hours

in the country visited and the purpose of whose journey can be classified under one of the following headings. a).leisure (creation, holiday, health, study, religion, and sports) b).business, family, mission, meeting. hours in the country visited (including travelers on cruises). Also called Day Tourist or Day Excursionist.

 Excursionist: temporary visitor staying less than 24

Classification of Travelers
(1) Tourists in international technical definitions. (2) Excursionists in international technical definitions. (3) Travelers whose trips are shorter than those that qualify for travel and tourism; e.g., under 50 miles (80 km) from home. (4) Students traveling between home and school only -- other travel of students is within scope of travel and tourism. (5) All persons moving to a new place of residence including all one-way travelers, such as emigrants, immigrants, refugees, domestic migrants, and nomads.

Relationship among tourism, tourism industry, and tourist
Tourism - economic dimension


Supply side ---- tourism industry Demand side ---- tourists

 General system theory was defined by a

biologist, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, as: A set of elements standing in interrelation among themselves and with the environments.

 Tourism system consists of several

interrelated parts working together to achieve common purposes.

The reasons for using a systems approach for study of tourism
 To emphasize the interdependency in

tourism; the tourism system is like a spider’s web – touch one part are felt throughout the system. For a student beginning to study tourism, it is important to get “the bigger picture” right away. The tourism system model framework provides a more comprehensive view of tourism: it captures “the big picture”.

The reasons for using a systems approach
 The second reason is because of the open system

nature of tourism. Tourism system is dynamic and constantly changing. New concepts are always arriving in tourism, such as ecotourism, TSA.  The third reason is the complexity and variety in all aspect of tourism. For example, there are thousands of specialized tours and packages available for travelers today.

The Tourism System Model
Part I: Destination: Planning, developing, and controlling tourism  Link 1: The tourism product Part II: Marketing: Strategy, planning, promotion, and distribution  Link 2: The promotion of travel Part III: Demand: The factors influencing the market  Link 3: The travel purchase Part IV: Travel: The characteristics of travel  Link 4: The shape of travel

Travel and tourism systems
 Tourism process developed by Chau (1977).

He described the tourist as the demand, the travel industry as the supply, and attractions as the tourist product and summarized the interrelate process as the subject, means, and objective of tourism.  Gunn in his book, tourism planning (1979), referred to a “tourism fundamental system” involving five components: tourist, transportation, attractions, services-facilities, and information-direction.  Leiper(1979) involved five basic elements in his system: tourists, generating regions, transit routes, destination regions, and a tourist industry operating within physical, cultural, social, economic, political, and technological environments.

The end!

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