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Kelsey Mercadante

ELED 533
Formative Assessment Analysis, Instructional Plan, and Reflection
Assessment Analysis Overview: The analysis of results revealed that the
students completed the assessment in various ways.
Trouble Finding Perimeter and Area: One group had trouble finding
perimeter and area. These students either answered the questions
incorrectly by calculating the perimeter and area incorrectly, or they
did not fully answer the question. These students sometimes found the
correct area of the polygons in the assessment, which tells me they
know how to find the area of polygons by counting the square units.
However, this group did not find the perimeter, or they found the
perimeter incorrectly. These students seem to need help completely
answering each part of a question. They also need help with how
perimeter and area relate to each other, and how to use units when
providing the answer to the question. Students in this group were not
able to explain their thinking clearly, or some did not explain at all.
Students in this group had trouble relating perimeter and area to real
life tasks.
Adding for Area and trouble finding perimeter: Another group was
similar to the above group but seemed to understand more of the
material. These students added units to find the area of the polygons,
and they did so correctly throughout the entire assessment. However,
these students seemed to have trouble finding the perimeter of the
polygons. These students attempted to find the perimeter of each
problem, but they would count the objects in the square units, instead
of counting the edges/sides of the squares when finding the perimeter.
This caused them to find the incorrect perimeter each time they
answered a question. This group seems to understand the concept of
area, but needs more work with finding perimeter. This group had
trouble relating perimeter and area to each other. Most of the students
in this group seem to know how to relate perimeter and area to real life
tasks and they seem to understand how the measures can help us
work efficiently in real life. These students need to work on including
the units when they provide the answer to questions.
Semi-Abstract: This group seemed to understand how to find the
perimeter and area of rectangles by using formulas to determine the
measures. These students seem to not know how to use formulas to
find the perimeter of area of other polygons such as triangles and
trapezoids. Students in this group counted the individual units to find
the perimeter and area of the triangle and trapezoid on the second
page of the assessment. Students in this group showed me that they
understand how area and perimeter are related by illustrating
examples of how polygons with the same area can have different
perimeters. Students in this group know how to use the correct units
when provided answers for perimeter and area. They also showed their
understanding of how perimeter and area can be used to help us work
efficiently in our daily lives.

Abstract: This group of students calculated the problems very
abstractly by using formulas when answering each question. This
group seems to understand the concepts of perimeter and area
completely. These students provided correct answers for all of the
questions on the assessment. These students used formulas to find the
perimeter and area of the rectangles, triangles, and trapezoid/knew
how to decompose a trapezoid to find the area and perimeter by using
formulas. This group seems to have the knowledge of using different
formulas to find out different perimeter and areas of polygons. This
group knew how to provide correct units when answering questions for
perimeter and area. They also clearly provided detailed explanations
that showed me they understand how perimeter and area can help us
work efficiently in our daily lives. Lastly, this group showed that they
understand how perimeter and area relate to one another by providing
clear examples of how polygons with the same area can sometimes
have different perimeters.
Group 1 Pattern Group:
Trouble Finding Perimeter and Area (Students 7, 12, & 16)
 Distinguishing Characteristics: Students in this group seem to know
some concepts about perimeter and area including student 16 knowing
that you can use it to measure down and across units. Student 12
seems to know that perimeter and area can help us by measuring
things, but she does not seem to have an understanding of what
perimeter and area measures or how it can help us specifically. These
students are struggling with finding the perimeter and area of all
polygons. Students answered some questions correctly, but answered
the majority incorrectly, or chose not to answer some of the questions,
fully, or some not at all. Students in this group are struggling with
decomposing and composing shapes, since they did not attempt to
find the perimeter and area of the individual vegetable patches. All of
these students did not answer question #4 correctly, which was the
question that asked, “Do polygons with the same area sometimes have
different perimeters?” (They answered the question with, “no”). This
tells me that these students do not understand the relationship
between perimeter and area. Students in this group either did not put
a unit beside their answer, or they did so incorrectly. For example, 45
feet. Instead of 45 feet squared. I feel that these students need more
instruction with perimeter and area. Students in this group could
benefit from using physical models of standard units to find perimeter
and area of polygons. Students in this group should work with concrete
manpulatives and make comparisons between the area and perimeters
of polygons.
 Sample Responses:
o Some students left questions unanswered.
o These students provided no explanations in the first question.
o One student answered the first question with “1 X 1 = 1,” which
did not relate to the question at all.
o All students answered question #4 with “no.”

One student answered question #5 with “figure out how much of
something you need.” This answer did not specifically or clearly
tell me anything about perimeter and area; therefore, it shows
me that they do not fully understand how perimeter and area
specifically can help us work efficiently in our everyday lives.
Number of students: 3
New Questions: If the assessment were more concrete, would the
students have done better? Would these students have done better if
manipulatives were provided? Why did these students not answer
some questions? If the questions were broken up into simpler steps,
would the students have attempted to answer each question?
o


Group 2 Pattern Group:
Adding for Area & Trouble Finding Perimeter (Students 5, 8, 9, 10, & 15)
 Distinguishing Characteristics: Students in this group can correctly find
the area of polygons by counting and adding up the square units.
Students in this group explained how they counted the individual
square units when finding the area and they did not use formulas when
finding the perimeter and area of any of the polygons. Students in this
group had difficulty finding the perimeter of the polygons. When
finding the perimeter of the vegetable gardens, students in this group
counted the vegetables around the outside of the patch, instead of
counting the edges around the outside of the patch. Students in this
group also had trouble relating perimeter and area, since they
answered question #4 incorrectly by saying “no.” Most students in this
group related perimeter and area to real world tasks. Students in this
group wrote “feet” for the unit when answering the questions, but they
did not write, “feet squared” next to the area answer.
 Sample Responses:
o One student answered the first question with, “To find the
perimeter of each garden, I would add up all of the squares
going around each vegetable section. I would find the perimeter
of the whole garden by adding all of the squares going around
the garden.”  this student counted the objects/squares to find
the perimeter instead of adding up the edges to fin the correct
perimeter.
o Question 1: Perimeter: Tomatoes: 10 ft. Onions: 8 ft. Carrots: 12
ft. Peppers: 8 ft.  incorrect perimeters because they counted
objects around garden, and not the edges around the outside to
find perimeter.
o Question 2: Area = 12 1/2 feet  didn’t write feet squared
o Question 4: “no”
o Question 5: “Measuring, cooking/baking, gardening”
o Question 5: “I can use perimeter and area to make a quilt.”
 Number of students: 5
 New Questions: If the first question did not have objects/vegetables in
each of the squares, then would the students still have counted each
square/object to find the perimeter? Why did the students not count
the edge around the rectangular patches? Why did some of the

students choose to not draw a picture to help them with question #4?
Would drawing a picture help these students find the answer to
question #4? Did these students forget to write feet or feet squares, or
did they not know that area answers are squared?
Group 3 Pattern Group
Semi-Abstract (Students 2, 3, 4, 6, & 11)
 Distinguishing Characteristics: Students in this group can correctly find
the area and perimeter of rectangles by using the appropriate formulas
(l X w for area and (2l + 2w) for perimeter). Students in this group use
formulas to find the perimeter and area of rectangles, but not other
polygons. In question 1, students used the formulas correctly to find
the perimeter and area of the vegetable patches, but for questions 2
and 3, students counted the square units when finding the perimeter
and area. This tells me that the students know the formulas for
rectangles, but not for other figures such as a triangle and a trapezoid.
Students in this group answered question #4 correctly. They answered
by saying “yes” and they each provided an illustration that showed
how polygons with the same area can have different perimeters. This
shows me that these students understand the relationship between
perimeter and area. These students also provided clear examples of
how perimeter and area can be used in our daily lives to help us. When
students wrote the answer to each of the problems, they provided the
correct unit. For example, for each area problem they wrote feet
squared.
 Sample Responses:
o Question 1: “I would add the widths and the lengths of each
vegetable garden for perimeter, and I would multiply the length
and width to get the area of the garden.” (l X w)
o Question 1: “I checked my answers by doing l X W for area and l
+ l + w +w for perimeter.”
o Question 2 & 3: Students’ work showed that they counted the
units to find the perimeter and area of the polygons.
o Question 4: “Yes, because both of the shaped I drew below have
the same area of 8, but have different perimeters of 12 and 18.”
o Question 5: “It can help us know how much paint we need to use
to cover out walls at home for area or how much fencing we
need for our dogs at home.”
o Students wrote, “feet squared” when providing answers for area.
o Students wrote “feet” when providing answers for perimeter.
 Number of students: 5
 New Questions: Do these students only know the perimeter and area
formulas for rectangles? Since these students know the perimeter and
area formulas for rectangles, could they come up with or find out the
formulas for other shapes? Did these students already know that
polygons with the same area can sometimes have different perimeters,
or did they have to draw it out to see?
Group 4 Pattern Group

Abstract (Students 1, 13, & 14)
 Distinguishing Characteristics: Students in this group correctly used
formulas to answer all of the polygons in the assessment. These
students have a strong understanding of perimeter and area and how
you can use formulas to find the exact perimeter and area of each
polygon. Students used l X w to find the area of the rectangles and 2l X
2w to find the perimeter of the rectangles. On the second page of the
assessment, students used the Pythagorean theorem to find the
perimeter of the triangle, and they used ½b X h to find the area of the
triangle. To find the perimeter and area of the trapezoid, the students
in this group decomposed the trapezoid to make a triangle and a
rectangle. The students used the Pythagorean theorem to find the
exact length of the 3rd side of the triangle, which is the slanted side of
the trapezoid. The students then added that calculated side to the
other sides of the trapezoid. To find the area of the trapezoid, the
students also decomposed the shape. The students found the area of
the rectangle by calculating l X w and then they added that to the area
of the triangle, which was found by calculating ½b X h. Students in this
group calculated exact answers of the perimeter and area by using
complex formulas and decomposing shapes. Students in this group
also answered question #4 correctly by saying, “yes” to the question
and illustrating a clear example to show their understanding that
polygons with the same area can sometimes have different perimeters.
Lastly, the students in this group correctly wrote the units by the
answers throughout the assessment. Example: for the area they put,
45 feet squared. Students in this group are abstract thinkers and use
formulas to find the exact perimeter and area of shapes.
 Sample Responses:
o Question 1: A= 3 X 4 = 12, A = 2 X 5 = 10, etc.
o Question 1: P = 2(3 + 4) 2(7) = 14, etc.
o For Questions 2 and 3 students used Pythagorean theorem, l x
w, and area of a triangle  ½ b x h:
 Question 2: a2 + b2 = c2  7.07= c  P= 17.07
 Question 3: A= (3x4) + ½ (3x3)  A= 16.5
 Question 3: P= 3+4+7+4.24 = 18.24
o Question 4: “Yes, 2 shapes where A= 9, and P= 12, and 20.”
Students drew out examples that illustrated their understanding
clearly.
o Question 5: “Everything from putting in flooring to calculating
how much fertilizer you need for your yard uses perimeter and
area. Knowing how to efficiently calculate this saves time and
money over guessing.”
 Number of students: 3
 New Questions: How do these students know the formulas of other
polygons besides rectangles? Do these students know the formulas of
any other polygons, besides rectangles and triangles? Do these
students know how to find volume?
Instructional Plan

Before Phase
 As a class we will go over the concepts of perimeter and area. I will
have posters on the wall: a poster with perimeter written on it, a poster
with area written on it, a poster with real life applications for perimeter
and area on it, and a poster with perimeter and area relationships
written on it. Students will be instructed to split up and start at a
certain poster. Each student will have a different colored marker. Tell
students we are going to do a graffiti walk. Tell students to write
whatever comes to their mind as they go to each poster. For example:
for the perimeter poster, tell students to write what it is, how they
would find it, or what units they would use. For the real life application
poster, tell students to write ways they can use perimeter and area
during real life tasks, etc. Students will begin at a certain poster, and
you will ring a bell when it is time for students to rotate to a new
poster. When students have rotated to each poster, have the students
stop, and share the words/ sentences, on the poster where they are
located. Students will share the class responses. Once students have
shared the response on the poster, go over any holes, or any concepts
that need to be reviewed more in detail. Ask students if they have any
particular questions about the concepts listed on each of the poster
after talking about each. Answer student questions and clarify any
confusion. Tell students to go back to their seats. Have students work
in pairs to find the perimeter and area of two polygons on the doc cam:
a rectangle on the doc cam and a triangle. After students complete the
review problem in pairs, go over them as a class. Clarify any questions
or confusing concepts. The graffiti activity and the reviewing of finding
the perimeter and area of the shapes is a whole class
discussion/activity to get students thinking about the concepts and the
tasks they will be asked to do next.
 Tell students they are going to complete an activity that involves
finding the perimeter and area of certain polygons in certain groups.
During Phase –Let go!
~Note: While students are working in their different groups at the
different tables, I will walk around and observe students. I will assist
students, and be open to any student questions. I will have a
student-monitoring chart with me while I observe students to make
note of any specific tasks I want students to share.
 Students will be split up into 4 groups where they all work on the same
task of finding perimeter and area of polygons; however, each group
will be working with different types of polygons and finding the
perimeter and area in different ways, according to their ability/
readiness level. Students will also have the option of using certain
materials when finding the perimeter and area of the polygons if they
need the support, depending on their readiness.
 The 4 groups will be “The Trouble Finding Perimeter and Area,” (tigers)
“Adding for finding Area/Trouble Finding Perimeter, (lions)” “SemiAbstract, (panthers)” and “Abstract (leopards)” group.


Each group will work on the activity at a certain table in the room, so
that they are grouped together and provided with the same shapes,
and materials.
The Trouble Finding Perimeter and Area – Tigers
o This group will be working on simple area and perimeter
problems where the questions are broken down into simple
steps, so the students can understand what the question is
asking/ what they need to do, so they can answer the question
completely, to their fullest potential. This group will be provided
with 3 different sized rectangles. Students will be instructed to
find the perimeter and area of each rectangle by using the
square inch tile manipulatives provided at the table. Students
will then be asked to use the square tiles and see how many
shapes they can make with 4 square tiles. Students will be asked
to describe the area and the perimeter of these shapes. What’s
the relationship? Students will be given a scenario where a
person describes how they used perimeter and area to help
them make a patchwork quilt. A picture will be provided for a
visual support. Students will have to write down how perimeter
and area helped that person make their quilt. Students will be
asked if there are any other similar tasks where perimeter and
area can help us word efficiently in our daily lives. This group will
be provided with a checklist to aid them as they complete their
activity. The checklist will have items such as “make sure to
include the units when writing your answers for perimeter and
area (inch for perimeter and square inches for area). The
checklist will also say, “I showed my work” “I answered each
individual question.” The checklist will allow students to make
sure they completed the task fully.
Adding for Finding Area/Trouble Finding Perimeter – Lions
o This group will be working on finding the perimeter and area of
different polygons on graph paper. This group will be asked more
questions on perimeter, since they need more practice with
perimeter. Instead of putting objects in the unit squares, they
will be blank, so it will not confuse the students. Students will be
given 2 polygons: a rectangle, and a triangle Students will be
given a checklist to help them remember that perimeter
measures the distance around the shape. Students will be
reminded on the checklist about the hint that perimeter gives
them “perimeter”  rim is in the word perimeter! This will
remind students to not count the squares, but to pay attention
to the rim of the shape, which will point them in the right
direction of counting the edges of the square units. Since the
graph paper will be centimeter graph paper, I will provide this
group of students with a centimeter ruler to check their work.
The centimeter ruler can measure the perimeter of the
polygons, and will also guide students to finding perimeter
correctly, and not counting the square units around the outside
of the shape. The checklist will remind students to provide the
appropriate units when they write their answers. Students will

also be asked on a piece of graph paper to see how many
shapes they can draw with 4 square units. The students will be
asked to describe the relationship of these shapes. What’s the
relationship? Students will see how these shapes have the same
area but different perimeters. Lastly, students will be asked what
occupations use perimeter and area?
Semi-Abstract – Panthers
o This group will be working on finding the perimeter and area of
polygons on a sheet of paper where they will have to measure
the sides using a centimeter ruler. Students will be asked to find
the area and perimeter of a rectangle, a triangle, and a
trapezoid. Since these students know how to use l X w to find
the area of the rectangle, prompt students’ thinking of how/if
they can come up with a formula to find the area of a triangle
that is half the size of the rectangle they just worked with. Then
prompt them to try to think about how they can use their
knowledge of a rectangle and a triangle to find the area of a
trapezoid. These questions will be typed out on the piece of
paper to get students thinking more abstractly about other
shapes, other than rectangles. Students will then be asked to try
to come up with 2 polygons that have the same area, but
different perimeters, other than rectangles. (Since students just
provided rectangle examples I want them to explore other types
of polygons they can compare). Students can draw these 2
shapes on the provided graph paper. Then, students will be
asked to describe a time they used perimeter and area in a real
life situation.
Abstract – Leopards
o This group will be working on finding the perimeter and area of a
variety of different polygons on a sheet of graph paper. These
students will be instructed to find the perimeter and area of a
parallelogram, a pentagon, and a hexagon. Students will be
prompted to think about formulas of these shapes to challenge
them. Students will then be asked to try to come up with 2
polygons that have the same area, but different perimeters,
other than rectangles. (Since students just provided rectangle
examples I want them to explore other types of polygons they
can compare). Students can draw these 2 shapes on the
provided graph paper. Then, students will be asked to describe a
time they used perimeter and area in a real life situation.

After Phase
 Students will be instructed to finish up their work. Then, come together
as a class and direct students to discuss with their group what they
learned today. Have each group come up with a list of things they
learned. Encourage them to come up with any new definition
clarifications, helpful hints, new polygons, and new strategies they
learned/used, new polygon comparisons, or new real life applications
that their group came up with. Have each group come up to the doc
cam and share their complied list of everything new that they learned


today as a group. Tell each group one particular piece of work that they
are going to share with their classmates based on what you think is
appropriate and educational for that group to share with the rest of the
class. When picking the order of groups to share, pick them by
following the mathematical learning progressions. Have the Tigers
share first, then the Lions, then the Panthers, and then the Leopards.
This will allow the students to share and see information that
corresponds appropriately with the learning progressions. (Concrete
Abstract) & (Physical unitsUse of formulas).
As groups share, ask and prompt them with questions that will allow
them to think mathematically as well as make connections in math.
Ask the class to ask the groups any questions they may have after
each group speaks. The teacher will ask different students how they
got their answers or why they chose that particular strategy if they
share a strategy they used (manipuatives or a formula). Students will
explain their thought process when they worked in their task. The
teacher will notice mathematical thinking and connect students’ work
between the groups by pointing out similarities and differences to what
was learned or to their work, specifically. This will allow students to see
different strategies and methods for finding perimeter and area of
different polygons. This sharing of new learned concepts and sharing of
mathematical thinking as students explain particular pieces of work
will leave students with an understanding of perimeter and area.
End the discussion by asking students if they have any questions.
Close the lesson by telling students to turn to a partner and tell them
one thing they did today that enhanced their learning so they can think
metacognitively and self-assess.

Reflection
1. Explain what this assignment revealed to you about assessment and
learning and how it will influence your future classroom practices.
 This assignment has revealed to me how important it is to assess the
knowledge of the students in your classroom. By assessing students,
you will gain knowledge of each individual student in your classroom.
You will know what your students know and don’t know, what they are
confused about, and what misconceptions they may have. By
assessing students in your classroom, you can see the ability levels of
your students. You can then group students according to their
ability/readiness levels. By grouping students, you can then
differentiate future lessons and activities accordingly to support the
needs, or challenge your students. By knowing your students’ abilities
by assessing, you can provide your students with their needs and
support their learning so they can learn to their fullest potential. In my
future classrooms, I will be sure to assess my students periodically so I
can see students’ progress in their learning and support them in any
way they need. It is also important to know that pattern groups can
change, since some students may progress more quickly than others.
Even though this assignment required a lot of time and effort, I have
realized the benefits of identifying student’s abilities and grouping

them into appropriate groups for future lesson differentiation. I will
definitely be using this in my future!
2. Explain how this assignment helped you work toward your S.M.A.R.T. goal.
a. This assignment helped me work toward my smart goal because
this assessment was the formative assessment in my math unit I
created. Since my goal is: By the end of the six weeks, I will
create a unit plan on a mathematics SOL using backward design
while also coming up with ways to connect mathematical
concepts of Number Operations, Algebraic Thinking, Geometry,
Measurement, Data Analysis, and Probability, this assignment
helped me work toward my smart goal because it was used in
my unit that I created using backward design. I created this
assessment before I created my scope and sequence, which
follows the progression of backward design. My assessment also
helped me work toward my smart goal because it allowed
students to connect math concepts. Perimeter and area is
measurement, but students also had to compute and work with
operations when finding the perimeter and area by adding or
multiplying. My assessment also connected measurement with
geometry, since students measured different shapes.
3. Look back at your Appetizer assignment – Reflecting On Our Practices.
How does your experience with this assignment and your plans for future
classroom practices reflect your beliefs expressed in your Appetizer
reflection?
 In my appetizer reflection, I explained how the learning experiences
that students engage in should be meaningful to them in some way. I
made the assessment meaningful to students by providing a scenario
where they are finding perimeter and area of their school garden to
help out their principal. By making the context of the problem familiar
to them, they see the problem as meaningful, because they know
Principal Kelly, which would motivate them to find the perimeter and
area of the school garden. In my appetizer reflection, I also stated how
important it is to provide lessons that relate concepts to the real world.
This assessment connected perimeter and area to real life applications,
such as finding the perimeter and area of a garden. Students also had
to think of other ways that perimeter and area can help us work
efficiently in our daily lives.