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Kelsey Mercadante

ELED 533
Goal Update #1: Document and Reflection
My Documentation Includes:
1. ELED 570 Unit Plan Think, Think, Think Sheet
2. ELED 570 Unit Plan Stage 1
3. ELED 533 Phase 1
4. Prep Notes
1. ELED 570 Unit Plan Think, Think, Think Sheet
Focusing on Big Ideas to Frame Essential Questions
1.What is my content and SOL (write it out)?
Standard USI.5a
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by
a) Describing the religious and economic events and conditions that led to the
colonization of America.
b) Describing life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies,
with emphasis on how people interacted with their environment to produce
goods and services, including examples of specialization and
interdependence.
c) Describing colonial life in America from the perspectives of large landowners,
farmers, artisans, women, free African Americans, indentured servants, and
enslaved African Americans.
d) Identifying the political and economic relationships between the colonies and
Great Britain.
Bolded letters = what my unit will be on.
2. Answer one of the following questions:
So what if I never learned _____ (what’s the impact of not knowing your


unit)?

If my unit on ______ were a story, what would the moral of the story be?

Think
Think
Think
If students never learned of what led to the colonization of America, then they
would not understand the true purpose of how their country serves them. The
colonization of America strived to provide individual rights, economic freedom, and
religious freedom. It is important to understand the drive and the passion of the early

settlers who accepted this life challenging endeavor of escaping their countries, migrating
to a new world, and start everything from scratch. By understanding the drive and
dedication the colonists showed as they labored for freedoms, we could maintain the
good of the United States of America as we understand the formation of our nation.
If students did not learn why people migrated to America, then they would not
understand how their country was developed and how the certain regions helped the
American economy prosper. Different regions in America provided people and their
colonies with certain resources to help them be economically successful. It is important to
understand the passion and determination the colonists had so we can still possess that
drive of creating a successful economy.
If my unit on the reasons for colonizing America and the interactions of the
settlers with their environment were a story, the moral would be to not take your freedom
for granted. Freedom was so important to the colonists that they moved away from their
own country to experience freedom and make their own choices. It is important to
understand how much this meant for them so we can continue to keep that passion and
desire going and to appreciate the freedoms we have today.
Today, people choose to live in America for the same reasons: individual rights,
economic freedom and religious freedom. Knowing these rights and freedoms enables
every citizen to live a fulfilling life. Economic freedom and prosperity can be attained in
different regions of America. As in colonial America, today regions provide Americans
with various resources and occupations. This is important as one day students will be
pursuing careers. Having an understanding of the various regions (New England, MidAtlantic, and the South) and their attributes can help guide students into career choices.
3. If this is why it’s important to really understand your content, look at the Essential
Question starters on pg. 120 of the UbD text. Write a question for each facet of
understanding.
Explanation: What might have happened if the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern
colonies all had the same resources, geography, and climate?
Interpretation: What does the colonization of American reveal about Great Britain?
Application: How and when do we practice specialization and interdependence today?
Perspective: How would the life of a New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonist
be similar and different?
Empathy: What would it be like to walk in the shoes of a colonist migrating from
England to the New World?
Self-Knowledge: How are my ideas about economic and religious freedoms shaped by
my experiences?

4. Now choose. Which questions from the six facets of understanding do you believe are
most appropriate for framing your unit? (Typically, teachers identify 2-4 facets.) Write
the facets that you’ll be using.
1. Explanation: What might have happened if the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and
Southern colonies all had the same resources, geography, and climate?
2. Empathy: What would it be like to walk in the shoes of a colonist migrating from
England to the New World?
3. Perspective: How would the life of a New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern
colonist be similar and different?
5. Put yourself in the shoes of children in your class. Craft three or four child-like
answers you would expect the children to give for each of your questions. (Use more
paper if you need it.)
1. Explanation: What might have happened if the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and
Southern colonies all had the same resources, geography, and climate?
a. The colonies may have not interacted with each other since each colony
would have been the same. The colonies would not have traded goods and
services with each other.
b. The colonies would not have practiced interdependence. The colonies
would not have to depend on one another for resources, since they would
have had the same resources, land, and weather, as the other colonies.
c. The colonies would not have specialized in different areas of skill. They
would have all had the same jobs since they would have had the same
resources, land, and weather.
d. There would have been no variety or diversity. Every colony would have
been the same and it would have been boring.
2. Empathy: What would it be like to walk in the shoes of a colonist migrating from
England to the New World?
a. As a person from England, I may have been facing religious persecution.
(Students could relate this to a separatist, Puritans, or Quakers). I may
have not been able to freely practice what I believe in. I would have
wanted to move to a place where I was accepted and allowed to believe in
what I want to believe in. It would be so scary to move away from my
country and migrate to a New World where I have never been. It would be
scary to start from scratch once I arrived at the New World. But, as
someone facing religious persecution, I would have felt passionate about
moving. I would have had a drive to migrate to the New World so I can
practice my religion freely. It would feel great to practice your faith
without interference.
b. As a person from England, I may have been in a debtor prison. This would
have caused me to feel unhappy and miserable in England. I may have

wanted to migrate to the New World to experience economic freedom and
start a new life. I feel like I would have felt nervous to move to the New
World, but I would also feel determined and excited about being able to
practice economic freedom in the New World.
c. As a person from England, I may have had a desire to make money
(economic venture). I may have felt passionate about gaining a profit and
starting a new life in the New World. I could have migrated to Roanoke
Island. I also could have moved to Jamestown. (an economic venture by
the Virginia Company).
3. Perspective: How would the life of a New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern
colonist be similar and different?
a. If I were a New England colonist, I would have fished in the Boston
Harbor and I would have been a shipbuilder! The villages and churches
would have been the center of my life and I would have gone to town
meetings. I could have been a separatist. I would have had to face cold
winters- “brrrr!” I trade with the Mid-Atlantic and Southern colonies.
b. If I were a Mid-Atlantic colonist, I would have been a fisherman! I would
have enjoyed the climate that is not too cold, but not too hot. A lot of my
friends would have probably raised livestock or grow grains since we have
good farmland. We would have traded with the New England colony for
metal tools and the Southern colony for a lot of crops like tobacco, which
we did not have. I would have lived in a market town where all of my
neighbors and I would have had most likely practiced different religions.
c. If I were a Southern colonist, I would have most likely been a farmer since
the south has farmland where almost any crop can grow on! I could grow
tobacco, rice, indigo, and fluffy cotton. I would have seen many enslaved
African Americas who work on the plantations. I could own a huge
mansion/plantation home where I have indentured servants to make sure
chores get done. I would have traded with New England for metal tools,
and the Mid-Atlantic for grains, which my colony would not have had. I
would have hot and sticky (humid) summers!
d. All three of the colonies practiced interdependence and specialization in
certain areas. The Mid-Atlantic and Southern colonies both had rich soil
for farmland, but they depended on New England for metal tools and
equipment. All three colonies had capital resources of buildings and tools.
All of the colonies also shared part of the Appalachian Mountains. The
New England and the Mid-Atlantic colonies both had villages, while the
Southern colony had large plantations with mansions. In all three of the
colonies, they were able to practice religious and economic freedoms.
Each one of the colonies practices one type of religion. The New England
and the Southern colonies depended on Mid-Atlantic for grains.
6. Now step back and look for patterns or themes in those answers you crafted. If your
children give these answers to your essential questions, what are the understandings they

are demonstrating? For each EQ, use the sentence starter “If children can answer this
question, they understand that…” Including the word “that” helps you unpack the
understanding instead of writing a fact. Each Essential Question will have its own
Essential Understanding; there is a 1:1 correspondence between EQs and EUs.
1. What might have happened if the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern
colonies all had the same resources, geography, and climate? (Explanation)
a. If children can answer this question, they understand that different
resources, geography, and climate between regions result in specialization
and interdependence.
2. Empathy: What would it be like to walk in the shoes of a colonist migrating from
England to the New World?
a. If children can answer this question, they understand that the colonists
experienced a mixture of emotions when coming over to the New World,
but the passion the colonists possessed for religious and economic
freedom overcame everything, which led to the colonization of America.
3. Perspective: How would the life of a New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern
colonist be similar and different?
a. If children can answer this question, they understand that a person’s life is
affected by their environment and experiences.
2. ELED 570 Unit Plan Stage 1
Stage 1 – Identify Desired Results
Established Goals:
Standard USI.5a
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by
e) Describing the religious and economic events and conditions that led to the
colonization of America.
f) Describing life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies, with
emphasis on how people interacted with their environment to produce goods and
services, including examples of specialization and interdependence.
g) Describing colonial life in America from the perspectives of large landowners, farmers,
artisans, women, free African Americans, indentured servants, and enslaved African
Americans.
h) Identifying the political and economic relationships between the colonies and Great
Britain.
What essential questions will be considered?
4. What might have happened if the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies all
had the same resources, geography, and climate? (Explanation)

5. What would it be like to walk in the shoes of a colonist migrating from England to the
New World? (Empathy)
6. How would the life of a New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonist be similar
and different? (Perspective)

What understandings are desired?
Students will understand that…
1. Different resources, geography, and climate between regions result in specialization and
interdependence.
2. The colonists experienced a mixture of emotions when coming over to the New World,
but the passion the colonists possessed for religious and economic freedom overcame
everything, which led to the colonization of America.
3. A person’s life is affected by their environment and experiences.

What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this unit?
Students will know…
a)
 Colonies in America were established for
religious and economic reasons.
o Great Britain established the colonies
in America to gain a profit.
o Migrating to a new world seemed a
hopeful choice for many of these
people, as it did for English leaders
who saw colonies as a way to solve
the problems of the growing numbers
of displaced and poor people.
England was looking at the settlement
of colonies as a way of fulfilling its
desire to sell more goods and
resources to other countries than it
bought. If colonies could send raw
materials, such as lumber, from the
abundance of natural resources
available in the colonies, then

Students will be able to…
 Define key terms from the unit.
 Describe the life of a New England, MidAtlantic, and Southern colonist and
explain how they are similar and
different.
 Explain the reasons for why colonization
in America occurred for each colony.
 Compare and contrast the New England,
Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies
(Aligned to EQ 3)
 Draw conclusions about what might have
happened if all three colonies had the
same resources, geography, and climate.
(Aligned to EQ 1)
 Predict what it would be like to walk in
the shoes of a colonist migrating from
England to the New World. (Aligned to
EQ 2)

England would not have to buy these
from other countries. At the same
time, colonies could be markets for
England’s manufactured goods.
England knew that establishing
colonies was an expensive and risky
business. The organization of
business ventures by merchants,
blessed by the crown, served both the
economic and political interests of the
country.
o Many colonists migrated to the New
World to escape religious persecution.
Key Terms:
Colony- a group of people living in an area that
is owned and controlled by a country far away.
Colonization- the act of setting up a colony away
from one’s place of origin or to take control of an
area.
Colonist- person you lives in a colony.
Religious Persecution- The Pilgrims, Puritans,
and Quakers were being mistreated in England
because they were religious separatists- They did
not agree with Church of England.
o The religious persecution that drove
settlers from Europe to the British
North American colonies sprang from
the conviction, held by Protestants
and Catholics alike, that uniformity of
religion must exist in any given
society. This conviction rested on the
belief that there was one true religion
and that it was the duty of the civil
authorities to impose it, forcibly if
necessary, in the interest of saving the
souls of all citizens. Nonconformists
could expect no mercy and might be
executed as heretics. The dominance
of the concept, denounced by Roger
Williams as "inforced uniformity of
religion," meant majority religious
groups who controlled political power
punished dissenters in their midst.
Economic venture- a project or trip with a goal of
making money.

Interpret ideas and events from different
historical perspectives of colonists and
Great Britain to draw a conclusion about
their viewpoints.
Identify and interpret primary and
secondary source documents to increase
understanding of events and life in
United States history.
Analyze maps to explain relationships
among landforms, water features,
climatic characteristics, and historical
events in Colonial America.

o Roanoke Island and Jamestown were
both economic ventures. Only
Jamestown survived, the other was
lost (Lost Colony).
Debtor- person who owes (money, time, a favor)
o In England people were sent to prison
because they owed the King money.
The King decided to send the debtors
to Georgia so they could grow cash
crops for him.
Roanoke Island (Lost Colony)- was established
as an economic venture. It was a lost colony
because when a ship of supplies from England
came to Roanoke Island, no one from the
settlement was to be seen. Still today, historians
do not know what the cause of the disappearance
of the colonists was, and that’s why it is called
the Lost Colony.
Jamestown Settlement- the first permanent
English settlement in North America (1607), was
an economic venture by the Virginia Company of
London. In Jamestown, they grew tobacco.
Tobacco was a cash crop for them and it allowed
them to make money.
Virginia Company of London- a joint-stock
company, which sold shares. All who purchased
shares at a cost shared in the success or failure of
the venture. The Virginia Company was formed
both to make a profit to its shareholders and to
establish an English colony in the New World.
Stockholders of the Virginia Company of London
financed the settlement of Jamestown.
Plymouth Colony-settled by separatists from the
Church of England who wanted to avoid
religious persecution. Pilgrims came over in the
Mayflower and landed here in 1620. Plymouth
Colony was in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
o Separatists- a group of people who
are different from the majority of the
society they live in.
o Journey over- the Mayflower- The
Pilgrims sailed on this small ship with
more than 100 other people, with all
of their belongings, and possibly
some farm animals for 66 days. The
ocean was full of dangers. Ships

could be attacked and taken by
pirates. Many ships in the 1600s were
damaged or shipwrecked by storms.
Passengers sometimes fell overboard
and drowned or got sick and died.
Pirates didn’t attack Mayflower, but it
was damaged by a bad storm. The
storm cracked one of the massive
wooden beams supporting the frame
of the ship. The ship continued since
the passengers brought along a great
iron screw, which helped raise the
beam back so the ship could continue.
In another storm, a young passenger
was swept off the deck of the ship and
into the ocean. He was saved because
he grabbed onto one of the ship’s
ropes and was pulled back onto the
deck. Many were seasick, only one
person died. But once they got to
Cape Cod, the Pilgrims lived on the
ship a few months. Many people
began to get sick from the cold and
the wet in December. About half the
people on the Mayflower died that
first winter from sicknesses and colds.
The passengers on the Mayflower all
had to live in the dark, cold cargo
decks below the crew’s quarters.
Massachusetts Bay Colony- settled by Puritans to
avoid religious persecution.
o Puritans- Religious separatists who
want to make their towns into models
of pure Christian living.
Pennsylvania- settled by the Quakers, who
wanted freedom to practice their faith without
interference.
o Quakers- a religious group that has
strong beliefs in peace and treating all
people equally. The Quakers started
the colony of Pennsylvania.
o William Penn was an example of a
Quaker who faced religious
persecution in England, and came to
America (founder of Pennsylvania)
for religious freedom. Expelled from

Oxford University in England in 1662
for refusing to conform to the
Anglican Church, Penn joined the
Quakers. He was locked up in the
Tower of London four times for
stating his beliefs in public and in
print. After his father died in 1670,
Penn inherited the family estates and
began to frequent the court of King
Charles II, campaigning for religious
freedom.
Georgia- settled by people who had been in
debtors’ prisons in England. They hoped to
experience economic freedom and start a new
life in the New World. England’s prison
population decreased and thousands of
individuals could be given a new chance at life.
With these goals, Georgia was created. Each
debtor received 50 acres of land to farm.
Silkworms were transported from Europe with
the hopes of developing a silk industry. This
failed because the mulberry trees in Georgia
were the wrong type of silk.
Economy- system for producing goods and
services.
Economic Freedom- the right to acquire, use,
transfer and dispose of private property without
unreasonable governmental interference; the
right to seek employment wherever one pleases;
to change employment at will; and to engage in
any lawful economic activity.
Religious Freedom- The right to freely practice
any religion or no religion without governmental
control.
b)
 The geographical features of the settlements
shaped life in the colonies.
 Economic specialization and interdependence
existed among the colonies in the production
of goods and services.
 There were 13 colonies by the 1750s that
were divided into three regions based on their
geography.
 Each region’s economy was determined by
their geography.

Key Terms:
Region- an area that shares common
characteristics. Regions can be physical regions;
land formations and climate; human traits that
make up a region such as language, religion, or
political boundaries.
Natural Resources- something found in nature
that people can use. It cannot be made by man.
Capital Resources- goods produced and used to
make other goods and services. Machines, tools,
and buildings that are used to produce goods and
services.
Human Resources- people working to produce
goods and provide services.
Climate- weather in an area over a long period of
time.
Geography- study of earth and how people use it.
Specialization-Focusing on one or a few
products.
Interdependence- Two or more people depending
on each other for goods and services.
New England Colony
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode
Island, Connecticut
Resources:
o Natural resources: timber, fish,
deep harbors
o Human resources: skilled
craftsmen, shopkeepers,
shipbuilders
o Capital resources: tools, buildings
Geography: Appalachian Mountains,
Boston harbor, hilly terrain, rocky soil,
jagged coastline
Climate: Moderate summers, cold winters
Specialization: Fishing, shipbuilding,
naval supplies, metal tools and equipment
Examples of Interdependence: The New
England colonies depended on the
Southern colonies for crops such as
tobacco, rice, cotton, and indigo, and for
forest products such as lumber, tar, and
pitch. They depended on the Mid-Atlantic
colonies for livestock and grains.

Social/Political
o Villages and churches were
centers of life.
o Religious reformers- a person
devoted to bringing about change;
and separatists
o Civic life: town meetingstownspeople gathered and men
with property voted on laws.
Mid-Atlantic Colony
New York, New Jersey, Delaware,
Pennsylvania
Resources:
o Natural resources: rich farmlands,
rivers
o Human resources: unskilled and
skilled workers, fishermen
o Capital resources: tools, buildings
Geography: Appalachian Mountains,
coastal lowlands, harbors, and bays
Climate: Mild winters and moderate
climate, wide and deep rivers
Specialization: Livestock, grains, fish
Examples of Interdependence: The MidAtlantic colonies traded with the
Southern and New England colonies to
get the products they did not produce.
The Mid-Atlantic colonies depended on
the Southern colonies for tobacco, rice,
cotton, indigo, and forest products. They
traded with the New England colonies for
metal tools and equipment.
Social/Political
o Villages and cities, varied and
diverse lifestyles, diverse
religions
o Civic life: market towns- places
for trade in the Mid-Atlantic
colonies
Southern Colony
Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina,
South Carolina, Georgia
Resources:
o Natural resources: fertile

farmlands, rivers, harbors
o Human resources: farmersworked the land and relied on
family members for labor;
enslaved African Americansslavery was accepted in the
Southern colonies because it
provided inexpensive labor.
o Capital resources: tools, buildings
Geography: Appalachian Mountains,
Piedmont, Atlantic Coastal Plain, good
harbors and rivers
Climate: Humid climate with mild
winters and hot summers
Specialization: Tobacco, rice, cotton,
indigo, forest products (lumber, tar, pitch)
o Indigo- an important cash crop in
the south that makes a blue dye
clothing
Examples of Interdependence: The
Southern colonies depended on the New
England colonies for manufactured
goods, including metal tools and
equipment. They depended on the MidAtlantic colonies for grains and other
agricultural products not plentiful in the
South.
Social/Political
o Plantations (slavery), mansions,
indentured servants, fewer cities,
fewer schools, Church of
England- the established church in
England
o Plantation- a large farm where
cash crops are grown.
o In the Southern Colonies, large
landowners owned plantations
that had slaves and indentured
servants working on the. They
were educated in some cases, and
had a rich social culture. The
crops produced on plantations
were sent to other English
colonies and to England.
o Indentured servants- the servant

would be supplied room and
board while working in the
master's fields. Upon completion
of the contract, the servant would
receive "freedom dues," a prearranged termination bonus. This
might include land, money, a gun,
clothes or food. On the surface it
seemed like a terrific way for the
luckless English poor to make
their way to prosperity in a new
land. Beneath the surface, this was
not often the case.
o Civic life: counties- large
territorial divisions of a state.

References
Colonial america: William Penn was born. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.americaslibrary.gov
Colonization. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.vocabulary.com
Debtors in Georgia. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org
History and social science standard of learning: Curriculum framework. (2008).
Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov
Indentured servants. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org
Life at Jamestown. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.historyisfun.org
Mayflower and the Mayflower Compact. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.plimoth.org
Religion and the founding of the American republic: America as a religious refuge: The
seventeenth century, part 1. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov

Talbot. (2013, November 9). Early colonies vocab. Retrieved from http://mrtalbot.com
Todorov, K. (n.d.). Glossary of social studies terms and vocabulary. Retrieved from
http://www.aaps.k12.mi.us
United States. National Park Service. (2015, May 24). The Virginia company of London.
Retrieved May 28, 2015 from http://www.nps.gov
U.S. history to 1865. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.solpass.org

3. ELED 533 Unit Plan Phase 1
ELED 533 UNIT PLANNING PROJECT FORMAT
JMU Elementary Education Program
A. TITLE/TYPE OF UNIT
 Perimeter and Area/Measurement Unit
B. UNIT STANDARDS - VA SOLs and/or CCSS
Grade Level 3 VA SOLs:
Mathematics
Standard 3:10 – Strand: Measurement
The student will
a) measure the distance around a polygon in order to determine
perimeter; and
b) count the number of square units needed to cover a given surface in
order to determine area.
English
Oral Language
Standard 3.1
The student will use effective communication skills in group activities
b) Ask and respond to questions from teachers and other group
members
c) Explain what has been learned.
d) Use language appropriate context.
e) Increase listening and speaking vocabularies.
Reading
Standard 3.4
The student will expand vocabulary when reading.
e) Discuss meanings of words and develop vocabulary by listening and
reading text
f) Use vocabulary from other content areas.
Standard 3.5

The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of fictional text
b) Make connections between previous experiences and reading
selections
f) Ask and answer questions about what is read.
h) Identify the problem and the solution.
Process/Practice Standards: (Common Core Standards)
Grade 3 - Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and
relate area to multiplication and to addition.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.5
Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand
concepts of area measurement.
o CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.5.A
 A square with side length 1 unit, called "a unit square," is
said to have "one square unit" of area, and can be used to
measure area.
o CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.5.B
 A plane figure, which can be covered without gaps or
overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n
square units.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.6
Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m,
square in, square ft, and improvised units).
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.7
Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.
o CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.7.A
 Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side
lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as
would be found by multiplying the side lengths.
o CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.7.B
 Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with
whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real
world and mathematical problems, and represent wholenumber products as rectangular areas in mathematical
reasoning.
o CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.7.C
 Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a
rectangle with whole-number side lengths a and b + c is
the sum of a × b and a × c. Use area models to represent
the distributive property in mathematical reasoning.
o CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.C.7.D
 Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear
figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping
rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping
parts, applying this technique to solve real world
problems.
Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.D.8
Solve real world and mathematical problems involving

perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given
the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting
rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with
the same area and different perimeters.
Virginia SOL Process Standard for Math Unit
 Mathematical Problem Solving
Students will apply mathematical concepts and skills and the
relationships among them to solve problem situations of varying
complexities. Students also will recognize and create problems from
real-life data and situations within and outside mathematics and then
apply appropriate strategies to find acceptable solutions. To
accomplish this goal, students will need to develop a repertoire of skills
and strategies for solving a variety of problem types. A major goal of
the mathematics program is to help students become competent
mathematical problem solvers.

Mathematical Communication
Students will use the language of mathematics, including specialized
vocabulary and symbols, to express mathematical ideas precisely.
Representing, discussing, reading, writing, and listening to
mathematics will help students to clarify their thinking and deepen
their understanding of the mathematics being studied.

Mathematical Connections
Students will relate concepts and procedures from different topics in
mathematics to one another and see mathematics as an integrated
field of study. Through the application of content and process skills,
students will make connections between different areas of
mathematics and between mathematics and other disciplines,
especially science. Science and mathematics teachers and curriculum
writers are encouraged to develop mathematics and science curricula
that reinforce each other.

Mathematical Representations
Students
will
represent
and
describe
mathematical
ideas,
generalizations, and relationships with a variety of methods. Students
will understand that representations of mathematical ideas are an
essential part of learning, doing, and communicating mathematics.
Students
should
move
easily
among
different
representations graphical,
numerical,
algebraic,
verbal,
and
physical and recognize that representation is both a process and a
product.

C. UNIT LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Understand – what are the broad
generalizations/concepts the students
should begin to develop?

Know – what are the tools,
vocabulary, symbols, etc. the
students will gain through this
lesson?

Do – what are t
behaviors/proc
able to do thro

U1: Students will understand that
operations of multiplication and addition
can be used to determine the
measurement of a polygon.
U2: Students will understand that
perimeter and area can be used as
measuring tools to help us work
efficiently in our daily lives.
U3: Students will understand that shapes
with the same area can sometimes have
different perimeters.

K1: Vocabulary:
What students will measure:
Polygon- A closed geometric
figure with at least three straightline segments that do not cross.
(Kid-friendly definition)
(All of the edges are segments,
every vertex is the endpoint of
two sides, and no two sides cross
each other. Polygons are
classified according to the
number of sides they have, which
equals the number or vertices.)
Perimeter- measures the
distance around a polygon.
Measured in units.
Area- The number of iterations of
a two-dimensional unit needed to
cover a surface.
K2: Students will measure
perimeter and area using:
Units- A quantity used as a
standard of measurement. Used
for perimeter. (cm, m, in, ft)
Square units- The unit of
measure for area. (Square cm,
square m, square in, square ft,
and improvised units)
Area model- A model for math
problems where the length and
width are configured using
multiplication to figure out the
size of an area.
Additive area- Finding areas of
straight-lined figures by
decomposing them into nonoverlapping rectangles and
adding the areas of the nonoverlapping parts.
K3: Tools: graph paper, tiles
K4: Symbols: the symbol for
square units.

4. Prep Notes
5. Chapter 16: Building Measurement Concepts & Measurement Content
Learning Progressions
6.

D1: Students w
representation
variety of mate
tiles)
D2: Students w
a variety of po
measures of th
perimeter of ea
D3: Students w
count the num
needed to cove
determine the
D4: Students w
problems that
perimeter.
D5: Students w
operations of m
addition.

Quotes
“Measurement involves a comparison of an
attribute of an item or situation with a unit that has
the same attribute” ( Van de Walle, p. 312).

Notes
On my pre-assessment in class, I agreed with the
fact that measurement involves comparison.
When you measure something, you compare an
attribute of an item that has the same attribute.
Attributes are used in geometry and
measurement. In geometry, you classify shapes
by attributes.
“Estimation of measures and the development of Estimation is used in a variety of math strands.
benchmarks for frequently used units of measure You can estimate the amount of almost anything.
help students increase their familiarity with units, You can estimate when adding, subtracting,
preventing errors, and aiding in the meaningful use dividing, and multiplying. You can estimate when
of measurement” (Van de Walle, p. 312).
measuring while cooking and you can estimate
the time it will take to drive somewhere.
“Measurement is one of the most useful math
From gigabytes that measure amounts of
content strands because it is an important
information, to font size on computers, to miles
component in everything from occupational tasks per gallon, to recipes for a meal, people are
to life skills for the mathematically literate citizen” surrounded daily with measurement concepts that
(Van de Walle, p. 312).
apply to a variety of real-world contexts and
applications. People use measurement in realworld contexts that also connect to other math
concepts. For example, if you measure a brick to
see if will fit in a slot when you build a house,
you are measuring a rectangular prism, which
relates to geometry.
“Understanding the role of the decimal point as
Students need to know the role of the decimal
indicating the units position is a powerful concept point in order to understand metric conversions.
for making metric conversions” (Van de Walle, p. As students grasp the structure of decimal
319).
notation, develop the metric system with all seven
paces: three prefixes for smaller units (deci, centi,
milli) and three for larger units (deka, hector,
kilo). Its important to remember to avoid
mechanical rules such as “to change centimeters
to meters, move the decimal point two places to
the left.”
“The use of a benchmark to make an estimate
It is important for students to know fractional
promotes multiplicative reasoning. The width of
parts of units when measuring. Students can use
the building is about one-fourth of the length of a fractional units to be more precise when
football field –perhaps 25 yards” (Van de Walle, p. measuring. This is a great way to connect
319)
fractions and measurement. Benchmarks are also
helpful while teaching and working with variety
of math strands. Benchmarks help with
estimating and they also promote multiplicative
reasoning. Students who have practiced using
benchmarks in class are better estimators.
“The pattern between surface area and volume is When students learn about perimeter and area it is

similar to the one found between area and
perimeter. Namely, prisms that are more cube-like
have less surface area than prisms with the same
volume that are long and narrow” (Van de Walle,
p. 332).

“The connectedness of mathematical ideas can
hardly be better illustrated than with the
connections of all of these formulas to the single
concept of base times height” (Van de Walle, p.
334).

“Geometric measurement connects the two most
critical domains of early mathematics, geometry
and number, with each providing conceptual
support to the other. Measurement is central to
mathematics, to other areas of mathematics (e.g.,
laying a sensory and conceptual foundation for
arithmetic with fractions), to other subject matter
domains, especially science, and to activities in
everyday life” (p. 2 –Learning Progressions).
“Area relates to operations of multiplication and
addition” (p. 5 –Learning Progressions).

important for them to know the relationship
between them. When students begin to learn
about surface area and volume in the upper
grades, students can connect the new
material/relationship to the old
material/relationship involving perimeter and
area. Students can see how the relationships are
similar and it will allow them to also connect
previous knowledge to new experiences.
A conceptual approach to the development of
formulas helps students understand they are
meaningful and efficient ways to measure
different attributes of the objects around us. After
developing formulas in conceptual ways, students
can derive formulas from what they already
know. The single concept of base times height
will allow students to find the area of any shape
or object.
Geometric measurement connects to geometry
and number. Measurement lays a foundation for
arithmetic with fractions. I feel that measurement
relates to many concepts other than math too,
such as science experiments.

You can use multiplication or addition to find out
the area of a polygon. This relates to my ELED
533 unit on perimeter and area. Students will see
this connection throughout the unit.

Notes on Connections between Mathematical Concepts:
 Clocks and angles
 Multiples and Money
 Counting and Money
 Fractions and Money
 Place-value and Money
You can connect Geometry to Measurement

Students can measure shapes and objects

Reflection
This document demonstrates my progress toward meeting my goal because it
shows the steps I have taken to create two unit plans by using backward design. I
amusing backward design to create a fifth grade social studies unit and I am using
backward design to create a third grade math unit. The “Think, Think, Think Sheet” is a
document that has helped me create the significance to my social studies unit. It helped
me craft my big ideas and my essential questions. I also created my essential
understandings in this document by answering my essential questions for my unit.
The ELED 570 unit plan stage 1 demonstrates the second step I took to create my
social studies unit, using backward design. I identified the SOL standard, essential
questions, and essential understandings. I then researched and compiled all of the
essential knowledge that students would need to know in the unit. Lastly, I identified the
essential skills that students will need to be able to do throughout this unit. This
document follows backward design because I am identifying the results, before I am
creating the scope and sequence of tasks that the students complete.
The ELED 533 unit plan phase 1 demonstrates backward design for creating a third
grade math unit on perimeter and area. I identified the SOLs, common core standards,
unwrapped the standards, and then created learning objectives, which follows the
structure of backwards design. My math unit is a math connections unit that links at least
two math concepts. In this unit, students will understand that operations of multiplication
and addition can be used to determine the measurement of a polygon. This unit also links
geometry with measurements, since students will have to measure different polygons.
I collect prep notes from ELED 533 as a way to take note of any math connections I
see while reading. The compilation of prep notes is a way of documenting any math
connections between concepts that I see. This will help me towards my goal of coming up
with ways to connect math concepts.
I have learned that my overall goal needs to be a graduate level goal. I have also
realized that my documentation toward my goal needs to reflect my progress toward
mastery. By creating a goal where I wanted to achieve backward design, while also
coming up with ways to connect math concepts, I feel that I can document my progress to
reach mastery. I originally just had a goal of creating a unit plan using backward design,
but in order to challenge myself and go a little further, I decided to also include ways to
make mathematical connections.