Online Reading Circles Role Sheet
Passage Master
Name _______Kirsten Laine Howard_________
Group Identification __Group B_____________

Book Chapter: ______1 and 2________


Your job is to identify key passages and guide discussion of them based on the required
readings. Your job is to develop a list or set of questions that your group might want to discuss
about the required readings in the text and facilitate discussion. Usually the best discussion
questions come from your own thoughts, feelings and concerns as you read which you can list
below during or after your reading. This means you need to organize the required readings into
different applicable themes that are easily digestible and can be absorbed by online reading circle
members. There are no right or wrong ways of facilitating questions based on your readings.
The Keeper of the Talking Stick and Passage Maker’s role can be combined***Strongly
recommended for small groups.
You are also responsible for deciding the order in which the discussions will be presented and
keeping track of your time. You should plan to spend at least a total of an hour or an hour
and half in each online reading circle meeting talking about all 5 roles.
Possible discussion questions or topics or today.

What is motivation and learning as related to the psychology of the brain?


Does culture influence motivation in adult learning?


What are the characteristics of an adult learner?


What is multiple intelligence and emotional intelligence in adult learners?

Other Possible Questions:

What was going through your mind while you read this chapter(s)?

How did you feel while reading this key passage?

Did today’s readings remind you of any real-life situations?

Can you think of another short story, movie, or book that has a connection with your reading?

How do you feel these readings relate to your current role as an adult learner?


1. What is motivation and learning as related to the psychology of the brain?
Motivation is the cause of human behavior and why people think and behave as they do.
From a biological perspective, motivation is the process that “determines how much
energy and attention the brain and body assign to a given stimulus.” Motivation binds
emotion to action. It creates and guides purposeful behavior involving many systems and
structures with the brain and body.
Adults want to know “why” they need to know something before they take the time to
learn it and make the choice to learn it.
Motivation helps us accomplish goals. Understanding motivation or why people learn the
way they do is vitally important to helping them to learn. Learning is a biological process
that occurs in the brain.
2. Does culture influence motivation in adult learning?
Yes, culture influences our language, beliefs, values and behaviors which significantly
influence our motivation. The way we think and communicate cannot be separated from
our cultural experiences developed with our families and peers during childhood and
adolescence. Adults bring their personal experiences to the classroom. We are the history
of our lives and motivation is part of our learning which is part of our cultural experience.
Motivation is key to maximize learning opportunities and achieve goals. Motivation =
Most learning and development occurs in the brain through the process of strengthening
and weakening synaptic connections. The neurons are the basic functional cells that
appear to control learning. The neurons encode, store and retrieve information as well as
influence all aspects of human behavior.
3. What are the characteristics of an adult learner?
Nearly 40 percent of all college students today are adults 25 years or older. Prorams
respond to the needs of adult learners around industry, business and college. Projected
more than 50 percent of all adults between 25 and 55 will be involved in some form of
education by 2010.
In 2002, 29% of all 25 to 29 year olds had completed four or more years of college.
40% of adult undergraduates, 2.5 million people have annual incomes less than $25,000.
70% of current jobs require some form of post-secondary education.
Underrepresented groups and low-income adults are underserved students, lacking
accessibility and support financially as well as academic to be successful in college. This
is a big issue for educators. Economic status is linked to lack of education beyond high
school and underrepresentation is higher education.
Adult learners are diverse in race, class, gender ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion,
disability, and age.
Adult learners can be divided into 3 groups. 1) Younger adults age 18-24 who usually live
on campus and are enrolled full-time 2) Working age 25-64 or working adults 3) Older
adults 65 and older.
Today, 73% of all learners are non-traditional.
Women, 25 and older are the majority of adult learners.
Balance work, family and school.


Minorities are 12%
Post-secondary education is the desire for intellectual activities such as reading, reflecting
and problem solving. Learning sustains brain cell growth and higher cognitive
functioning in older adults. Adults value learning and are motivated to learn.
Traditional age college students develop more complex thinking skills and learn more
when exposed to diverse perspectives through interaction with students different from
4. What is multiple intelligences and emotional intelligence in adult learners.
Multiple intelligence - the ability to solve problems in a way that is valued by one’s
culture or community. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences – p. 39 in textbook. There are at
least eight possible/capable intelligences. There are different strengths or intelligences.
Some adults learn best doing hands-on exercises, others learn best when asked to
manipulate symbols or logical mathematic intelligences. Adults possess many different
profiles of intelligences to complete tasks. Tools and techniques are part of one’s
Practical intelligence – practice opposed to theory, usefulness or doing as opposed to
intellectual curiosity. Everyday actions – work toward a purpose which is based on prior
experience. In areas of expertise show quick problem solving and superior memory.
Common sense or think analytically, creatively and practically. Choose when and how to
apply abilities.
Tactic knowledge – knowledge that reflects the practical ability to learn from experience
and to apply knowledge in the pursuit of personally valued goals.
Emotional intelligence – 1995 Daniel Goleman – to be successful in life one must use the
5 domains of emotional intelligence. These are: knowing one’s emotions, managing one’s
emotions, motivating oneself, recognizing emotions in others and handling relationships.
In adulthood, intellectual capacity of genetic expression, experience and knowledge that
displays continued growth and highest potential in culturally relevant, real-life situations.
Memory – the initial processing and storing of information that occurs within
approximately 5 to 30 seconds become more problematic as adults.
Example – remembering several new names just after being introduced. As people get
older, they have more problems transferring (encoding) information into long-term
memory. But storage of encoding memories is fairly constant as people age. Older adults
process information more slowly, especially when complex. Adults tend not to learn
information they do not see as relevant.
Adults learn new information when it is integrated with their prior knowledge –
remember info and use info into old age.
Adults as learners:
Present new information in ways that are meaningful and relevant
Include aids such as mnemonics, advance organizers and checklist to help older adults
organize and relate new material to prior knowledge
Present at a pace that permits mastery in order to strengthen long-term memory
Present one idea at a time
Summarize frequently


Encourage taking notes
Facilitate new information to relevant issues and problems