You are on page 1of 20

Online Reading Circles Role Sheet

Question Collector and Process Checker
Name _Alan Ledford_______________
Group Identification __Group B_____________

Book Chapter: ______1 and 2________
Date:___June 01, 2015___________________


• Question Collector and Process Checker- the student who assumes this role will be
responsible to collect a list of questions from the Reading Circle session to be included in the
final Reading Circle Portfolio of the group.

You will be responsible to collect a list of questions from the Reading Circle session to be
included in the final Reading Circle Portfolio of the group. Your job is to organize the
findings of the reading circle session for that week and compile it into a single report that
will be included in the final portfolio. Your final portfolio should have the following
Findings from the Keeper of the Talking Stick – You must include the discussion
questions that your group engaged in based on the required readings.
Findings from the Passage Master - You must include key passages and discussion
questions that your group engaged in based on the required readings. (The Keeper and
Passage Maker role can be combined *** Strongly recommended)
Findings from the Illustrator- You must attach the picture, sketch, cartoon, diagram, flow
chart or stick figure that the group used in the online reading circle session to capture the
meaning of the readings in a creative way.
Findings from Creative Connector – You must include the creative connections to other
important ideas and or personal or professional experiences of the members of the group
in your portfolio. . (Combine the Illustrator and the Creative Connector role *** Strongly
Findings from the Question Collector and Process Checker – You are to compile the
findings of the above four roles under the sub headings listed and prepare final report for
the group’s final portfolio.
You should plan to spend at least a total of an hour or an hour and half in each online
reading circle meeting talking about all 5 roles.

Possible discussion questions or topics or today.

What is motivation and learning as related to the psychology of the brain?


Does culture influence motivation in adult learning?


What are the characteristics of an adult learner?


What is multiple intelligence and emotional intelligence in adult learners?

Group Members: Reading Circle Roles
Understanding Motivation Characteristics & Skills of Motivating What Motivates Adults
Establishing Inclusion
Keeper of the Talking Stick


Passage Master




Creative Connector


Question Collector & Process Checker


Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn
Group B Chapter 1-2
• Keeper of the Talking Stick - the student who assumes this role will develop questions and
facilitate discussion based on the required readings.

Questions: By: Thomas Williamson

Can you describe the relationship between emotions and learning?
By: Tess Collins
Wlodkowski indicates that emotions are more important that "varied" when it comes to
intrinsic motivation.
Across cultures most adults are curious, want to have meaningful experiences,
want to understand things that are important to them. If something "makes sense"
to us based on our word view then we will be more motivated.
For example, I dont value sports (besides UK basketball) so I am not that
motivated to learn it. It isn’t apart of my life and values. BUT, I love flowers thus
I may be more motivated to go to a gardening class than a sporting event because
I value this more in my life.
The text also states that "emotions are critical to learning" because they help is
pay attention and also create a "mind-body state" that is conductive to learning
(p.19-21). AND of course if we like something and it makes us feel good we are
likely to remember it. Lesson plans +dopamine!!!!!!!!! Additionally , when the
feeling of stress is felt we release adrenaline and cortisol- a natural reaction for
alertness and responsiveness. As a result of this release enhances the memory of
the event that caused the feeling of stress. Moderate stress and positive emotions
= increased learning and memory.
Emotional states such as "flow" are also important.


How does practical intelligence relate to adult learning?
By: Kirsten Howard
Here goes with number 2 and practical intelligence related to adult learning.
Practical intelligence, according to the text is practice opposed to theory,
usefulness or doing as opposed to intellectual curiosity. Such as everyday actions
to work toward a purpose which is based on prior experience. In areas of expertise
adult learners show quick problem solving and superior memory. Adult learners

use common sense or think analytically, creatively and practically. They choose
when and how to apply abilities.
Adults want to know why they need to know something before they expel their
energy to learn it. They want to know how learning a particular thing will benefit
In my current job, I lead a very large group, around 500 active volunteers.
They do all sorts of things for the community and most are retired. They want
to do things that make an impact on the community and they want to
know how they are being impactful and why it is important that they are doing
what they are doing.
That's my job, to relate the how and the why. So this is the learning opportunity.
When they have this information, they are dedicated and tireless. They are
working for free so there is no paycheck or grade to motivate them. The
motivation is that they are using their practical intelligence to make a difference.
They are being useful and working toward a purpose. The value of a
volunteer hourly rate is $23.07. Wow! So their time is valuable and we recognize
the value of their time because it is their choice how they spend it.


What are some special considerations that should be addressed for "older learners"?
By: Kirsten Howard

Connector Role Response #3

Here goes #3: Culture- Socioeconomic status, access and emotion.
Socioeconomic status: I can also relate to being a first generation
college student and growing up in Appalachia. My parents had high
school diplomas. My mother was a homemaker and my father was in
sales. It was important to them that their three children go to college.
However, they did not have the college experience to use to advise us or
help us prepare.
Access: I thought everyone was just like me and had the same
experiences as I did until I went to middle school. For the first time I felt
different in the classroom. My family was middle class but the schools
that I went to were comprised of primarily students at or below the
poverty level. As a result, most students struggled academically.

Emotion: I always did well in school but was called a nerd. I found out
from my peers that it was not cool to be smart. This was tough on the
smart kids as we had to downplay or “be quiet” about academic
achievement. Most of the time, I knew the answer to the questions in
class but did not feel comfortable speaking up or raising my hand. To say
this least, this was not an environment that prepared me to go to college.


Can intrinsic motivation be used to promote learning?

• Passage Master - the student who assumes this role will identify key passages and
guide discussion of them based on the required readings. (The Keeper and Passage
Maker role can be combined)
By: Kirsten Howard

Possible discussion questions or topics or today.

What is motivation and learning as related to the psychology of the brain?


Does culture influence motivation in adult learning?


What are the characteristics of an adult learner?


What is multiple intelligence and emotional intelligence in adult learners?

Other Possible Questions:

What was going through your mind while you read this chapter(s)?

How did you feel while reading this key passage?

Did today’s readings remind you of any real-life situations?

Can you think of another short story, movie, or book that has a connection with your

How do you feel these readings relate to your current role as an adult learner?

1. What is motivation and learning as related to the psychology of the brain?
Motivation is the cause of human behavior and why people think and behave as
they do. From a biological perspective, motivation is the process that “determines
how much energy and attention the brain and body assign to a given stimulus.”
Motivation binds emotion to action. It creates and guides purposeful behavior
involving many systems and structures with the brain and body.

Adults want to know “why” they need to know something before they take the
time to learn it and make the choice to learn it.
Motivation helps us accomplish goals. Understanding motivation or why people
learn the way they do is vitally important to helping them to learn. Learning is a
biological process that occurs in the brain.
2. Does culture influence motivation in adult learning?
Yes, culture influences our language, beliefs, values and behaviors which
significantly influence our motivation. The way we think and communicate
cannot be separated from our cultural experiences developed with our families
and peers during childhood and adolescence. Adults bring their personal
experiences to the classroom. We are the history of our lives and motivation is
part of our learning which is part of our cultural experience. Motivation is key to
maximize learning opportunities and achieve goals. Motivation = learning.
Most learning and development occurs in the brain through the process of
strengthening and weakening synaptic connections. The neurons are the basic
functional cells that appear to control learning. The neurons encode, store and
retrieve information as well as influence all aspects of human behavior.
3. What are the characteristics of an adult learner?
Nearly 40 percent of all college students today are adults 25 years or older.
Prorams respond to the needs of adult learners around industry, business and
college. Projected more than 50 percent of all adults between 25 and 55 will be
involved in some form of education by 2010.
In 2002, 29% of all 25 to 29 year olds had completed four or more years of
40% of adult undergraduates, 2.5 million people have annual incomes less than
70% of current jobs require some form of post-secondary education.
Underrepresented groups and low-income adults are underserved students,
lacking accessibility and support financially as well as academic to be successful
in college. This is a big issue for educators. Economic status is linked to lack of
education beyond high school and underrepresentation is higher education.
Adult learners are diverse in race, class, gender ethnicity, sexual orientation,
religion, disability, and age.
Adult learners can be divided into 3 groups. 1) Younger adults age 18-24 who
usually live on campus and are enrolled full-time 2) Working age 25-64 or
working adults 3) Older adults 65 and older.
Today, 73% of all learners are non-traditional.
Women, 25 and older are the majority of adult learners.
Balance work, family and school.
Minorities are 12%
Post-secondary education is the desire for intellectual activities such as reading,
reflecting and problem solving. Learning sustains brain cell growth and higher

cognitive functioning in older adults. Adults value learning and are motivated to
Traditional age college students develop more complex thinking skills and learn
more when exposed to diverse perspectives through interaction with students
different from themselves.
4. What is multiple intelligences and emotional intelligence in adult learners.
Multiple intelligence - the ability to solve problems in a way that is valued by
one’s culture or community. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences – p. 39 in textbook.
There are at least eight possible/capable intelligences. There are different
strengths or intelligences. Some adults learn best doing hands-on exercises, others
learn best when asked to manipulate symbols or logical mathematic intelligences.
Adults possess many different profiles of intelligences to complete tasks. Tools
and techniques are part of one’s intelligence.
Practical intelligence – practice opposed to theory, usefulness or doing as opposed
to intellectual curiosity. Everyday actions – work toward a purpose which is based
on prior experience. In areas of expertise show quick problem solving and
superior memory. Common sense or think analytically, creatively and practically.
Choose when and how to apply abilities.
Tactic knowledge – knowledge that reflects the practical ability to learn from
experience and to apply knowledge in the pursuit of personally valued goals.
Emotional intelligence – 1995 Daniel Goleman – to be successful in life one must
use the 5 domains of emotional intelligence. These are: knowing one’s emotions,
managing one’s emotions, motivating oneself, recognizing emotions in others and
handling relationships.
In adulthood, intellectual capacity of genetic expression, experience and
knowledge that displays continued growth and highest potential in culturally
relevant, real-life situations.
Memory – the initial processing and storing of information that occurs within
approximately 5 to 30 seconds become more problematic as adults.
Example – remembering several new names just after being introduced. As people
get older, they have more problems transferring (encoding) information into longterm memory. But storage of encoding memories is fairly constant as people age.
Older adults process information more slowly, especially when complex. Adults
tend not to learn information they do not see as relevant.
Adults learn new information when it is integrated with their prior knowledge –
remember info and use info into old age.
Adults as learners:
Present new information in ways that are meaningful and relevant
Include aids such as mnemonics, advance organizers and checklist to help older
adults organize and relate new material to prior knowledge
Present at a pace that permits mastery in order to strengthen long-term memory
Present one idea at a time
Summarize frequently

Encourage taking notes
Facilitate new information to relevant issues and problems

• Illustrator - the student who assumes this role will be responsible to capture the meaning of a
reading or set of readings in a creative way
By: Vickie Young
• Creative Connector - the student who assumes this role will be responsible to make creative
connections to other important ideas and or personal or professional experiences of the
members of the group
By: Tess Collins

Group B: Chapters 1 and 2. Wlodkoswki (2008)
ROLE: Creative Connector:
Below are some professional and personal connections I made
with Chapters 1 & 2
1. COUNSELING: The first connection I made with this reading
is working with my profession of counseling and the treatment
module of Motivational Interviewing. Motivational interviewing
is a theoretical orientation that consist of basically practicing
therapy in in a way to “enhance someone’s motivation” and
this leads to change and improved wellness.
I found this largely connected to Wlodkowski’s Chapter 1. One
the very first page Wlodkowski states “no motivation to learn,
no learning”. Same goes for no motivation to change, no
change. Wlodkowski also states “Rather than trying to figure
out what to “do to” learners, we should “work with” them to
elicit their intrinsic motivation” (p. 21). Miller and Rollnick
coined MI and indicate there is a “spirit” to MI that includes a
partnership and encouraged collaboration with counselor and
client as well as eliciting motivation. MI is used a lot with drug
and alcohol counseling. One of the most difficult fields,
because you also are dealing with a physiological dependence,
but also because most research shows individuals will not
begin recovery unless they are motivated and ready. Losing

jobs and relationships may not be enough. Sometimes though
there are other factors that motivate someone. For example,
often times, one may have minor problems with their
addiction. Maybe they missed work once or twice, feel
hungover, argue with their partner, but things haven’t got
really bad. Usually, and this is a generalization, there isn’t
enough to want to change yet. I LOVE that the author quoted
Freud! “One cannot explain things to unfriendly people” (p. 7).
As sometimes in counseling, one will not change if they are not
motivated. This is not addressing individuals who may have a
chronic mental health diagnosis, then motivation may be more
of a brain chemical issue. This is addressing people who may
be unhappy with an aspect of their life or engaged in unhealthy
behaviors but are having difficulty finding their motivation and
empower themselves to make changes.
2. MULTICLUTRAL: In the counseling filed “multicultural
awareness” is very important working with clients. Knowing
what one’s world view and their cultural background can really
help a clinician assess and best work with an individual. We
also reference “schemas.” You see this a lot referenced in
almost every counseling orientation, especially Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy. Our schemas affect our thoughts and
feelings. We believe we are “bad” based on various events in
childhood, we feel bad, we act bad…that is an over
simplification. This is very connected to the discussion
regarding neuroscience and building off experiences.
Wlodowski states, “involving all learners requires us to be
aware of how they make sense of their world and how they
interpret their learning environment.” If I interpret the world as
scary based on a traumatic experience then I will feel anxious
and act scared or even feel depressed. If I have always
experienced males as authority figures in my culture then what
is it like for me having a woman instructor or counselor? The
reaction to learning and the counseling relationship would be
very different.
For example: Derald Wing Sue and David Sue write in,
Counseling the Culturally Diverse, about “Ethnocentric
Monoculturism.” They write it consists of 5 elements and
awareness of these elements is required in order to

“deconstruct” a system that has been created based in EuroAmerican beliefs and values. The five elements include, 1.
Belief in superiority, 2. Belief in inferiority i.e. speaking with an
accent or “uncivilized” 3. Power to impose standards 4.
Manifestations in Institutions- policies 5. The invisible veilunconscious awareness of bias- yes, we all have it.
Sue & Sue (2008) continue throughout their text discussing
cultural context of various racial and ethnic group, further
explaining considerations how different reactions and feelings
based on one’s culture. For example, they way different
cultures conceptualize time. Euro-American culture is very
forward thinking as Native American Culture is very present
time thinking.
made this connection personally as first generation college
educated woman from rural Appalachia. Not until adulthood
did I realize how my culture and limited access affected my
learning. Not that I am dumb, but for a long time being “from
the mountains” was being dumb. Appalachians weren’t good
enough. I grew up in a coal town. You were in medicine, a
teacher, or something related to coal mining. You got “out”
when you go “educated” then you were “better.” My culture
affected my worldview. I also didn’t have access to certain
things so sometimes it was difficult for me to build of previous
experiences and make meaning. My parents went to work and
came home, there wasn’t much time or money for much
“cultural endeavors” or travel. It affected how I learned. I was
highly stressed and always felt “less than” in most of my
classes. My feelings were negative about learning. I also chose
to attend graduate school in a city with a very different culture
that only new one thing about mine… bad portrayal of reality
shows and my thick mountain accent. Not Southern, Mountain.
People would make fun of my accent back to me, it didn’t help
me learn! I didn’t feel inclusive, I didn’t feel respected. I am
quiet when I feel dumb. This is my personal connection to
culture and learning.
4. Aging and emotional intelligence: This was the connection
of currently being an adult learner. I wanted to address

relevance and experience as important to adult learning as
noted in our text.
I believe in most cases the older we become the more we know
ourselves and improve the ability to process our feelings and
why we feel a certain way. As noted, this is related to our
neuronal networks as well. In counseling, we believe
emotional intelligence is key for being able to gain coping skills
and empowerment. If I am not aware of my feelings and why
they were triggered then it is difficult for me to find the best
way to cope. If I can’t express my feeling then how can one
find a way to manage that feeling?
I also believe more life experience has made be a better learner. I can
make things relevant, at 18-20 my work experience consisted of the
pool in my small town. I had the content but little to help me apply it
and help me make meaning to it. Thus, I probably forgot most of it. I
would say my ability to learn increased after I had work experience
increased. As indicated in Ch. 2, usefulness and purpose are important

• Question Collector and Process Checker- the student who assumes this role will be
responsible to collect a list of questions from the Reading Circle session to be included in the
final Reading Circle Portfolio of the group.
By: Alan Ledford
Text Book Notes by: Thomas Williamson

Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn
Wes’s Notes from the Textbook
Chapter 1

Motivation is affected by culture – the deeply learned mux of
language, beliefs, values, and behaviors that pervade every
aspect of our lives (p. 2).
Being motivated = being purposeful (p. 3).
We use attention, concentration, imagination, passion, and other
processes to pursue goals, such as learning a particular subject
or completing a degree (p. 3).

Why motivation is important
 Motivated persons surpass the less-motivated person in
performance and outcome (p.4).
 If there is not motivation to learn, there is no learning (p.5).

There is a direct relationship between motivation and learning as
the age of the student increases - the older the student, then
the more motivation is needed for learning (p.5).
Adults that perceive courses as supporting their intrinsic
motivation will earn higher grades (p.6).
Motivation mediates learning and is a consequence of learning
Motivated learners in a learning process – things go more
smoothly, communication flows, anxiety decreases, and
creativity & learning are more apparent (p.6).
Some degree of motivation is needed for learning but so are
personal skill and quality of instruction (p.6).
Instructors use effort as an indicator of motivation (p.7).
Levels of effort vary culturally (p.7).

A Neuroscientific Understanding of Motivation and Learning
 An overview of the brain
o Neuron – basic function cells that control learning (p.10)
o Neurons encode, store, and retrieve information &
influence all aspects of human behavior (p.10).
o Neurotransmitters (released in the synaptic junction) –
dopamine & epinephrine (p.11).
o New information means new connections (synapses)
between neurons (p.11).
o Learn something new – build networks of neurons (p.11).
o Smaller unit of knowledge -> smaller network of neurons
o Small neuronal networks work/combine together for larger
information or to develop concepts (p.11).
o Learning – long-lasting change in existing neuronal
o Adults learn – build or modify networks that have been
created through previous learning experience (prior
knowledge) and this is a physical change in the brain
o In order to learn, you must grow new dendrites for new
neuronal connections, which requires time and repetition of
information exposure (studying) (p.12).
o Brain Structures
 Frontal lobe – sustain attention, make plan, solve
problems, form judgments (p.14).
 Parietal Lobe – process sensory functions, realize our
spatial placement in the world, process signals from
skin & muscle movement (p.14).

Temporal Lobe – hearing & speech, connects visual
areas to language areas, let’s us see what we hear or
read (p.14).
 Occipital Lobe – allows us to see, involved in the
process of attaching emotions to memories and
dreams (p.14).
Limbic System
 Amygdala – reactionary part of the brain, keeps us
alert and responds to danger (p.15).
 Thalamus – relays station for sensory information
 Hypothalamus – regulates hormones, involved with
autonomic nervous systems & affects appetite, sleep,
sexuality and emotions (p.16).
 Hippocampus – formation of long-term explicit
memories (does not store them) does help integrate
new memories with existing memories (p.16).
 Cingulate gyrus – encircles other parts of the limbic
system, mediates communication to cerebral cortex
(p. 16).
 Septum – facilitates the release and binding of
dopamine (p.16).
Neuronal networks – in this book, discussed in relation to
brain functioning (p.17).
Neural networks – in this book, discussed in relation to
central nervous system (p. 17).

A Neuroscientific Perspective of Motivation
 We want to learn - learning is our means for survival by knowing
what to fear and what to desire (p.17).
 Humans are compelled to pay attention to things that matter to
us (p.17).
 We filter our environment to determine what matters most to us
and our emotions are part of this process (p.18).
 Things that matter are defined by our cultural perspectives
(language, values, norms, & perceptual frameworks) (p.18).
 Emotions add importance to our thoughts and experiences
 Dopamine – connected with pleasure & elation (p.18).
 Norepinephrine – induces state of arousal(p.18).
 Mood & motivation can change moment to moment (p.18).
 Intrinsic motivation is entailed whenever people behave for the
satisfaction inherent in the behavior itself (we do it because we
like it) (p.19).

Human nature to be curious, active, make meaning from
experiences, and effective at what we value and these can cause
intrinsic motivation that facilitates a mind-body state conducive
to learning (p.19).
Intrinsic motivation is likely strongly tied to emotion (p.19).
Intrinsic motivation & flow – important to receive feedback
(derived from a need for survival (p.19).
Feedback about one’s learning & behavior significantly
contribute to one’s self-control and is vital to intrinsic motivation
and improving learning (p.20).

The Intersection of Cultural Relevance, Intrinsic Motivation, and
Neuroscientific Understanding
 Emotions influence task engagement (p.20).
 Task response (frustration, joy, determination) may differ across
cultures due to differences in cultural definitions of novelty,
hazard, opportunity, and gratification and in their definitions of
appropriate responses (p. 20-21).
 Through relationships and teaching strategies, we access
learners’ prior knowledge, as expressed through their cultural
perspectives, in order to build bridges between what adult
learners already know and their new learning (using existing
neuronal networks to form new ones) (p.21).
 View adults as unique & active – emphasize communication &
respect – > create greater energy for learning (p.21).
Emotion, Memory, and Intrinsic Motivation
 Emotions are critical to learning (p.21).
 Emotions affect what we remember (p.21)
 The more powerful a feeling /emotion then the more lasting the
memory will be (p.21).
 Long-term memory (durable neuronal networks) are strongly
affected by emotions (p. 21).
 Long-term memory – dynamic! Reassembles feeling &
information from our past into our present understanding (p.21).
 Stress hormones, adrenaline & cortisol, heighten alertness, &
enhance memory for an experience (p.21-22).
 Adrenaline & Cortisol – helps create a system of sounds, images,
and locations represented by neural networks that are activated
and reintegrated among various structures in the brain (p.22).
 Memory recall – requires neurons from multiple locations in the
brain to fire (p.22).

Moderate stress &positive emotions (satisfaction, joy, feeling
creative) help retain what we are learning and to reassemble
what has been learned (p.22).
Dopamine (released during moderate challenge & excitement)
can help to facilitate learning with a well-planned lesson (p.22).
Flow – feeling totally involved or immersed in a task (in the zone)
people have feelings of joy, happiness, creativity & capability
Flow is a positive state for intrinsic motivation and people are
fully absorbed, emotionally positive, and very focused (p.23).

Underserved and Diverse Adult Learners in Postsecondary Education
 Underrepresented economic backgrounds and ethnic or racial
groups can offer ideas, language, examples, and frames of
reference that can help a majority of groups examine ways in
which they may unknowingly use dominant beliefs and values
that inhibit the welfare of other (p.26).
 When adult learners are exposed, in their courses, to diverse
perspectives through interaction with students different from
themselves, they develop more complex thinking skills and learn
more (view the topics through someone else’s eyes) (p.27).
Instruction as a Path to Improving Educational Success among All
 Enhance the motivation of all learners through instructors,
teaching and learning environments (p.28).
 Improvements in instructions can contribute to increased student
persistence and success (p.28).
 Include more active learning, greater relevance of subject matter
to students’ lives, and higher levels of student engagement
 Utilize an inclusive learning environment, use the language of
the learners and their communities, and assess learner
competence through performance outcomes (p.28).
 Use best practices for adult learners for instructional design and
teaching (p.28).
Chapter 2
Characteristics of Adult Learners
 3 age groups of adult: Younger adults (18-24); working-age
adults (25-64); older adults (>65) (p.32).
 Nontraditional learners have one or more of these
characteristics: delayed enrollment into postsecondary

education, part-time attendance, financial independence, fulltime job, dependents other than spouse, being a single parent, &
having a nonstandard high school diploma (p.32-33).
Focus of the book – working-age adults, nontraditional students &
older adults (p.33).
Many college students are 25 and older or are younger with
characteristics of working-age adults such as full-time jobs and
dependents (p.34).
Common goals adult learners – want to use knowledge and skills
to enhance careers or professional opportunities (p.34).
Older Adults – learning adds purpose to life, improves health,
related to better physical vitality and cognitive function, &
essential to a satisfying later life (p.34).
Older Adults – continued learning sustains brain-cell growth &
higher cognitive functioning, value learning for is own sake,
choose what they want to learn, find learning to be intrinsically
motivating (p.34).

Specific Effects of Aging
 Among people over 85, there are only 46 men for every 100
women (p.35).
 See an increase of non-Hispanic whites in older adults – 87% of
those aged 85 and older (p.35).
Central Nervous System, Vision, Hearing
 Variables that reduce the risk of intellectual decline in older age –
absence of chronic diseases, favorable living environment, active
lifestyle, partner with high cognitive functioning, satisfaction with
one’s life, & continued involvement with learning (p.36).
 Brains in adults in 70’s & 80’s – continue to produce neurons for
cognition (p.36).
 Physical exercise, stimulating environments, & continued
learning appear to increase brain cell growth (p.36).
 Reaction time is slower in older adults. Allow older adults to
control the pace of educational experiences and try to
accommodate any decrease in reaction time (p.37).
 Older adults Vision – might need eyeglasses and brighter lights.
Might have difficulty rapidly processing visual information and
might need more time (p.37).
 Older adults Hearing – some have hearing problems (25% of
adults >65). May develop “translation” problem and rapid
speech might be harder to decipher. More challenging to discern
very soft sounds and high-pitched sounds. Attention should be
given to the acoustics of an environment (p.38).

Intellectual Functioning
 Standardized intelligence tests are academically orientated and
fail to detect an adult’s capacity to solve real-life problems
 Intelligence cannot be conceptualized apart from context in
which people live (p.38).
 Capacity for 8 intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical,
musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal,
& naturalist (p.38-39).
 People have a profile of intelligences that combine to complete
different tasks – tools and techniques are part of one’s
intelligence and its use (p.38).
 Practical Intelligence
o Practice as opposed to theory, direct usefulness as
opposed to intellectual curiosity, . . . and commonplace,
everyday action or thought with immediate, visible
consequences . . . it seeks to do, to move, to achieve
something outside of itself, and works towards that
purpose (p.40).
o What we call expertise, often based on prior experience,
and will have a quick and superior memory response and
ease for problem solving (p.40).
o Sometimes we call it common sense
o Being successfully intelligent (practical intelligence)
involves thinking analytically, creatively, and practically
and choosing effectively how and when to use these
abilities (p.40).
o Tacit knowledge (part of practical intelligence) – knowledge
that reflects the practical ability to learn from experience
and to apply that knowledge in the pursuit of personally
valued goals (p.40).
 Five domains of emotional intelligence – knowing one’s emotions,
managing one’s emotions, motivating oneself, recognizing
emotions in others, and handling relationship (p.41).
 Memory (focus on older adults)
o Working memory – the initial processing and storing of
information (happens within 5-30 seconds) (p.41).
o Becomes more problematic as adults age – doesn’t works
as well (p.41).
o Long-term memory – capacity to retain information for
minutes or years and the older we are the harder it is to
transfer (encode) information into long-term memory

o With age, more difficulty retrieving memories (p.41).
o Process information more slowly, especially complex
information (p.41).
o Less inclined to consider material that is irrelevant or
confusing (p.42).
o Information that is learned well (new material is integrated
with prior knowledge) older adults will remember and use
the knowledge into old age (p.42).
o Most problems with initial learning and subsequent recall
with fast-paced, complex, or unusual topics (p. 42).
o Practical suggestions for helping older adults with
memorization (p.42)
 Present new information in ways that are meaningful
and relevant
 Include aids such as mnemonics, advance organizers,
and checklists (relate new info to prior knowledge)
 Present at a pace that permits mastery (and
strengthen log-term memory)
 Minimize competing demands – present one idea at a
 Summarize frequently to facilitate organization and
 Encourage taking notes
 Facilitate application of new information ASAP
 Decision to participate is triggered by a specific life-event
(p. 43).
 Most commonly adult learners indicate a need to learn
something new for career transition or advancement (p.43)
 Triggers for participation can vary culturally
 Unequal access to wealth and power impact participation –
primary explanation for adults’ lower educational
expectations (no $$ = demotivated)(p.43)
 Adult learners motivations are more vulnerable than
younger learners (p.43).

Cultural Diversity and a Macro-cultural Perspective
 Diversity of individual brains is infinite – derived from perception
of the world/environment (p.43).
 Cultural diversity usually focuses on – age, gender, race,
ethnicity, and income relative to access and to success in higher
education (p.44).

Need to focus on more than one aspect of diversity, since a
person may have a variety of identifies that are part of their
personal history – total person (p.44).
Create a pluralistic approach to teaching that can elicit the
intrinsic motivation of learners – don’t hone in on one
population/demographic (p.45).
Micro-cultural approaches to teaching offer effective
complementary models for teaching adults (p.45).
Culturally responsive teaching is characterized by: respect for
diversity; engagement of the motivation of all learners; creation
of a safe, inclusive and respectful learning environment; teaching
practices that cross disciplines and cultures; integration of
culturally responsive practices into all subject areas; and the
promotion of justice and equity in society (p.45).

Location of Responsibility for Learning
 Too much emphasis is on the use of extrinsic rewards such as
grades, eligibility, and money – these are not always intrinsic
motivators (p.45).
 Instructors that use an intrinsic and macro-cultural approach to
motivation consider the learners’ perspective to be
fundamental (p.46).
 A system of external incentives may diminish motivation (p. 46).
 Most favorable conditions for learning vary among peoples –
learning is an act of making meaning from experience and
everyone has had different experiences (p.46).
 Involving all learners requires an awareness of how learners
interpret their learning environment (p.46).
Two critical Assumptions for Helping Adults Want to Learn
 First assumption
o If something has to be learned, it can be learned in a
motivating manner (p.46).
o Our brains are good at disregarding (filtering out) irrelevant
information from the world around us (p. 47).
o Our brains select without our consciousness what to pay
attention to and what to ignore (p.47).
o Before adults can learn anything - someone or something
needs to gain our attention (p.47).
o Also must sustain attention – it must be worth the
instructional effort and the material must be of worth –
there needs to be a valid reason to know it (p.47).
 Second Assumption

o Every instructional plan also needs to be a motivational
plan (p.47).
o Variables that interfere and complicate learning – people’s
needs, emotions, impulses, attitudes, expectations,
irrationalities, beliefs, and values (p. 47).
o The above are also motivation variable (p.47).
o Instructional design format is easy to select, but it can be a
challenge to motivational theories with the above variable
and offer methods & principles to deal with them (p.47).
o Integrate methods & principles with instruction into a
cohesive framework (p.47).
o Teachers often rely on intuition and make decisions while
teaching to respond to motivational needs (reactive rather
than proactive) (p.47).
 Teachers assign blame to learners for not being
motivated (p.47).

There is very little guidance to ensure consistent
application for motivation and especially with diverse adult
learners (0.47).