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Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2

Online Reading Circle Role Sheet
Question Collector and Process Checker
Name ____Kirsten Laine Howard___________
Group Identification _____B_______

Book Chapter: ________3________


You will be responsible to collect a list of questions from the Reading Circle session to be
included in the final Reading Circle Portfolio of the group. Your job is to organize the findings of
the reading circle session for that week and compile it into a single report that will be included in
the final portfolio. Your final portfolio should have the following subtopics:
Findings from the Keeper of the Talking Stick – You must include the discussion questions
that your group engaged in based on the required readings.
Findings from the Passage Master - You must include key passages and discussion questions
that your group engaged in based on the required readings. (The Keeper and Passage Maker role
can be combined *** Strongly recommended)
Findings from the Illustrator- You must attach the picture, sketch, cartoon, diagram, flow chart
or stick figure that the group used in the online reading circle session to capture the meaning of
the readings in a creative way.
Findings from Creative Connector – You must include the creative connections to other
important ideas and or personal or professional experiences of the members of the group in your
portfolio. (Combine the Illustrator and the Creative Connector role *** Strongly recommended).
Findings from the Question Collector and Process Checker – You are to compile the findings
of the above four roles under the sub headings listed and prepare final report for the group’s final
You should plan to spend at least a total of an hour or an hour and half in each online
reading circle meeting talking about all 5 roles.


Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2
Group Members: Reading Circle Roles
This module discusses the core characteristics: expertise, empathy, enthusiasm, clarity, and
cultural responsiveness that are necessary for a person to be a motivating instructor.
Keeper of the Talking Stick

Tess Collins

Passage Master

Vickie Young


Alan – Neal Ledford

Creative Connector

Thomas “Wes” Williamson

Question Collector and Process Checker

Kirsten “Lainey” Howard


Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2
Roles and Discussion Board Postings
Chapter 3: Characteristics and Skills of a Motivating Instructor
Keeper of the Talking Stick – the student who assumes this role will develop questions and
facilitate discussion based on the required readings.
Questions by: Tess Collins
1. Explain how expertise is, “more than knowing a lot.”
Discussion By: Kirsten Lainey Howard
Expertise or the area of knowledge or competence is part of practical intelligence or something
that can be learned. Anyone who instructs adults can follow these three parts which are 1) we
know something that is beneficial to adults, 2) we know it well and 3) we are prepared to relay
the information through the instructional process (pp. 50-55).
Discussion By: Tess Collins
I always feel like I truly know something is I can explain it to others and give examples. Our
text touched on giving examples of the material we are teaching as well.
Discussion By: Kirsten Lainey Howard
Tess makes an excellent point about knowing something well and giving examples as part of the
instructional process. The text also points out that to be a good instructor of adult learners
we should ask ourselves these questions (pp. 52-53):
1. Am I familiar with the performance criteria for each characteristic in order to
assess and learn the behaviors that are prerequisite to enhance learner motivation?
2. How well do I know our subject matter?
3. Do I really understand what I am going to teach? Can I explain it to myself in
my own words?
4. Can I give more than one good example of what I am teaching? A story, a joke,
a fact a piece of research, an analogy – there are many types of examples. The
main thing is to have more than one. This demonstrates the depth and breadth of
your understanding and increases your ability to reach learners for whom a single
example would not have enough explanatory power.
5. Can I personally demonstrate the skill (if you are teaching a skill)? Being able
to do so gives you real credibility, in your own eyes and in the eyes of others. If
you are not able to demonstrate the skill, or if this is inappropriate, are there
models, films, or videotapes that can do the job?

Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2
6. Do I know the limits and consequences of what I am teaching?
7. Do I know how to bridge what I am teaching to the world of the learners –
their prior knowledge, experience, interests, and concerns?
8. Do I know what I don’t know? Where are the boundaries of my own
knowledge and skill? How far am I from the cutting edge of my discipline?
2. How is instructor empathy connected to motivating the student? How does it help? How can
an instructor display empathy?
Discussion By: Vickie Young
Students come to class with various expectations based on what they think the class will
be like and what they have heard about the class and the instructor. Their reasons for
learning are usually center around a need to accomplish or know about a subject or a
desire to improve their life in some way. Instructors must try to understand the reasons
adults want to learn and anticipate some of the barriers they may have to learning.
A motivated learner will be more successful, but motivation is not always easy because
the instructor has to be dynamic and open to all the things that can cause a student to
become bored and uninterested in the material. Feelings are very powerful motivators so
it is important for instructors to pay attention to their class and the reaction of the students
to the material presented.
- Instructors should be aware of why their students want to learn
- Keep the content, assignments and activities relevant to the course, interesting,
stimulating and enjoyable
- Help empower the student by creating activities that help them to demonstrate
competency in the concept
- Learning and demonstrating competence builds confidence
Discussion By: Tess Collins
I likes the author's emphasis on listening and the relationship when discussing empathy.
"Listen for understanding"- helps see learner's perspective. What are they learning and
how they are learning through their own world view helps learners feel respected and safe
Empathy is a "dynamic process" - helps create and nurture the relationship (p.68).

Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2
I think about how my learning experience was very different when I felt connected to the
Discussion By: Kirsten Howard
According to the text, empathy or the power of understanding and compassion has three
pillars. The instructor of adults knows that we have a realistic understanding of the
learners goals, perspectives and expectations of what is being learned, we have adapted
our instruction to the learners’ levels of experience and skill development, we continually
consider the learners’ perspectives and feelings (pp. 56-68).
Discussion By: Neal Ledford
A good instructor must be having empathy toward his/her students not just teach them
new material but care about their success. An instructor that doesn’t care is easily
identified by his students and never has a chance to motivate them.
An instructor can show empathy through direct conversation with the student, getting to
know them and finding out what their dreams and aspirations are.
Discussion By: Thomas Williamson
I think preparation is so key! There are so many facts that I include in my lectures, but I do not
use them every day. I have to take time to review my lectures before I go to class. One of the
biggest challenges for me and memory is formulas for calculations. I have to review them and refamiliarize myself with them before class, so that I don't look as though I don't know what I am
talking about.

I agree with the example approach, and I actually tend to relate back to everyday examples when
I can. With some of the laboratory tests that I teach, I will make a comparison to baking a cake.
My favorite part is a centrifuge and a mixing bowl!

I think that some measure of empathy is essential. The authors really made empathy connect with
the learners' needs. There was a considerable focus on the goals, perspectives and expectations of
the learners. If you don't connect the material you are trying to teach the learners to facets of the
learners' hopes from the instruction, then their motivation will wane and they will not learn the
desired content.


Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2
I have been to several professional continuing education sessions and the session did not come
close to matching the session description. Also, I have learned that this is a bit of a habit with
some speakers, which has led me to keep a list of the ones that I never want to hear on my phone.

I fully agree that an audience will tend to share and take part in the emotion that is shared from
the teacher or focus person. I think that a great everyday example of this is when we watch a
movie or a TV show and we get involved with the characters in the movie or show. If you watch
a horror movie and are really getting into the movie, you will get a little scared and even jump in
your seat a little too when the scary thing jumps out at you. On the other end of the spectrum,
movies can tell a story so well that leads audience members to tear. Personally, I am not prone to
get teary-eyed at a movie, but "Marley and Me" really got me.
I do think that teacher can set the emotional tone for a lecture and generate an emotional
response from the learners.
3. Wlodkowski states, “Numerous studies have demonstrated that when we focus on other
people, we embody their emotions” (p.71).
a.) Relate the above statement to instruction.
b.) Did you ever have an enthusiastic teacher or the opposite? How did this make a difference in
your learning?
4. Looking ahead, how may “Power” affect the learning process? (Critical Consciousness, p.9293).
Additional Resources
By: Tess Collins
I thought this additional resource for module 2 gave a very clear and brief summary of the
Passage Master – the student who assumes this role includes key passages and discussion
questions that engage the group based on the required readings.
Questions and Observations By: Vickie Young
Possible discussion questions or topics:

What steps would you take to learn about your student's needs (pp. 45-50)?

Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2
What steps would you take to create a motivational plan for you class? Why
would you create a plan (pp. 58-71)?
How would you help adult learners see the value of a core course such as
geography or philosophy if it does not directly relate to their
interests or field of study (pp. 47-50?

What is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement (pp. 56-57)?

Should your motivation plan change for each phase of learning? How should it
change (pp. 58-71)?
Additional observations:
Our office started calling students who dropped our online courses this summer and I
discovered that the most common reason was a lack of time or money. The majority of
the reasons students gave for dropping directly related to having their needs met. Very
few said they had a problem with the course or material though some did say they could
not come to campus for proctored tests.
I thought about the information I read in the chapter and realized that I was seeing the
concept unfold with our online students who are usually adult learners. We have a few
dual enrolled students who complete summer courses but most of our summer students
are adult learners.
Wlodkowski is correct. Instructors can try to motivate students, but learning is hard for
students who have basic needs they struggle to meet.

Discussion By: Tess Collins
I think that creating a motivational plan include addressing "motivational variables" such
as a learner's needs, feelings, worldview, learners' current skills, learners' goals, etc. Our
text gives some examples such as interviews, reviews, and simple conversation to gather
information on the above (p. 60).
The 5 pillars are important when creating any plan because having these is key to
motivating learners. Considering these pillars when developing a course and delievering
material can help adult learner's teaching/instructing is MORE than just giving them
material and grading. It includes human experience and engaging. Using a variety of
methods for clarity and checking on how clear the material is can be helpful for students
to learn and help guide instructors on what their students need.
Discussion By: Kirsten Howard

Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2
Paulo Freire’s (1970) conception of critical consciousness is helpful as a guide when creating
effective learning environments. The integrity of all learners is effectively supported and where
learning seems likely to contribute to the common good of society – to inform as well as to
transform us. Instructors with critical consciousness have the following qualities: power
awareness, critical literacy, de-socialization, and self-education (p. 93).
Discussion By: Thomas Williamson
I think for those core courses, you need to make a connection to the content in those courses,
with examples, that connect back to the goals of the learners. Of course, you would have to first
determine the goals of the learners.
If someone were an economics major, a big connection that geography can make to economics is
the kinds of industries and exports that a given country may have or the products that a state is
known for producing. Last year, I took a vacation in Oregon, and I did not realize that they have
a robust logging industry and that state law requires the mills to plant a new tree for each one
that is cut down.
I hate to overly simplify the difference between positive and negative reinforcement, but I think
of dog training. If you give a dog a reward (positive) for doing something you want it to do, then
it is more likely to respond with more of the desired behavior. If you pop a dog on the nose and
tell it "bad dog" (negative), then I think it’s really just behavior avoidance and the dog would be
less likely to engage in activity. With positive rewards being given, the dog is encouraged to
repeat the behavior and is likely willing to learn more, new behaviors.
Illustrator – the student who assumes this role will be responsible to capture the meaning of a
reading or set of readings in a creative way.
Image By: Neal Leadford
Visualization for Chapter 3


Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2
Creative Connector – the student who assumes this role will be responsible to capture the
meaning of a reading or set of readings in a creative way.
Discussion By: Thomas Williamson
Some connections I found between this reading and other people, places, events, authors are
based on our discussions, more connection are:

Expertise: More than knowing a lot (suggested reading p. 50-55)
Max McMann has become the most popular local chef and his restaurant is only able to
seat guests with a reservation, and he has become renowned for his ability to make
“adventurous” beef dishes. The local community college is offering a non-credit, 10
meeting cooking course titled, “My First Flavorful Vegan Dishes”, and Max has been
asked to lead a cooking demonstration for one of the courses. Although Max is a
classically trained chef, it has been a while since he has prepared a vegan dish. He
browsed through his personal recipes and found a recipe for quinoa that can serve as a
main course, and decided to try it out at home to be sure he could still make it. He also
decided to review some information on quinoa and decided to relate it back to cooking
rice, because it is also a grain and needs to be cooked under pressure and has a neutral
taste. He also wants to be able to discuss some of the nutritional properties of quinoa,
such as the fact that it’s a complete protein and can nutritionally replace meat. A few
hours before the class Max checks to make sure he is ready to teach the course. His check
included having recipe cards for the class, the correct ingredients (and enough for
everyone), memorized the recipe, recalls the information about quinoa, and his practice
batch at home tasted great! He is ready to share this culinary experience with the class!!


Empathy: Connecting to the student and displaying empathy (suggested reading p. 56-68)
Dr. Better is an internal medicine physician that has noticed his previous attempts to
encourage obese patients to lose weight have been unsuccessful. They weigh about the
same at each physical. He decided to reflect about how he has traditionally handled his
conversation with his patients . . . tell them they are overweight, exercise more, eat fewer
calories. Dr. Better is beginning to think this approach may be the problem and decided to
start taking a different approach with his patients. He has decided that he will start to ask
his patients open ended questions, offer constructive feedback, and maintain eye contact
with them during this part of their physical. Questions he intends to start asking:
a Do you think you are overweight?
b Can describe what food you tend to eat? How often? How much at one meal?
c What are some lower calorie foods that you enjoy?
d How often do you exercise?
e What are your three favorite exercises?
f Are you interested in improving your health through weight loss? Improved
diet? Increased exercise?
Dr. Better hopes that this will help him ‘connect’ with his patients a little more, to
understand his patients’ health goals, understand their challenges, and help them learn
strategies to improve their health.


Enthusiastic Teacher and their impact (suggested reading: p. 68-77)

Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2


Have you ever wondered what the schoolteacher was doing in the classroom?
She doesn’t sound very enthusiastic and Peppermint Patty doesn’t seem to be learning the
lesson and Charlie Brown seems to be a bit distracted as well. It doesn’t seem that they
are learning much form this lesson. It sounds like the teacher is speaking in a very dry,
even, monotone manner. Given that the teacher is not responding to the students, I’d say
she is not moving around the classroom very much and is probably just reading from her
Power and the learning process (suggested reading p. 93-94)
There are a variety of ways to classify learners, age, gender, social status, etc., which can
have a profound impact on the amount of power that a teacher is perceived to have over a
group of learners. Imagine a narcotics officer in full uniform at the local all girls
elementary school talking to 5th graders about the illegality of drugs, what terrible things
drugs can do to your body, and the punishments such as jail time for being caught with
drugs. It would be a safe assumption to think that these learners would take the lecture to
heart, but maybe out of fear from the authoritative position of the officer. If this same
officer presents the same lecture to a group of male felons that are incarcerated, would
this lecture have the same impact? Probably not.


Adult Learner Chapter 3: Group B, Module 2

Wlodkowski, R.J. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn: A comprehensive guide for

teaching all adults. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Skrabut, S. (2015). What makes a motivating instructor? Tubarks: The musings of Stan Skrabut.