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Personal Evaluation

Theory
Traits

Information Processing

Theoretical
Basis

Information Processing
According to the standard information-processing model for
mental development, the mind’s machinery includes attention
mechanisms for bringing information in, working memory for
actively manipulating information, and long-term memory for
passively holding information so that it can be used in the
future.

This theory addresses how as children grow, their brains
likewise mature, leading to advances in their ability to
process and respond to the information they received
through their senses.
The theory emphasizes a continuous pattern of
development, in contrast with Cognitive Developmental
theorists such as Jean Piaget that thought development
occurred in stages at a time.

Consists of 3 main components:
1. Sensory memory
2. Working memory
a. Both sensory and working memory allow people to manage
limited amounts of incoming information during the initial
processing.
3. Long-term memory
a. Long-term memory serves as a permanent repository of
knowledge.
Cognitive
Metacognition
 Awareness and understanding of one’s own thought
process.
Process and Product Orientation
 Processing involves gathering and representing
information, or encoding; holding information or
retention and retrieving the information when needed.

Provide your personal evaluation and experience for each category.
Pros/Cons Explain what works and what does not. Include how this theory
looks in school setting.


Developmental psychologists who adopt the informationprocessing perspective account for mental development in terms
of maturational changes in basic components of a child’s mind.
The theory is based on the idea that humans process the
information they receive, rather than merely responding to
stimuli.
This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is
responsible for analyzing information from the environment.

4 Ways that we process information
1. Attending
2. Encoding
3. Storing
4. Retrieving
Sensory Memory
Short Term Memory
Long term
Metacognition

Theorists

Anderson
John William Atkinson
 American Psychologist
 Human Motivation
 Achievement Motivation Theory
 Behavior
 Content Analysis of Imaginative Thought
Jerome Bruner
 Constructivist Theorist
 Three Modes of Representation
1. Enactive
2. Iconic
3. Symbolic
 Education facilitate a child's thinking
 Schools hold children back because teachers "present"
material
 Child: complex information at any age
 Spiral Curriculum
 Discovery Learning
 Scaffolding
Ausubel
Robert Gagne
 Experimental psychologist
 Learning and instruction
 Influenced by the IP view of learning and memory
 Research on identification of internal and external
conditions of learning
 Different variables influence the learning of different
types of tasks. He identified 5 domains of learning:
1. Information
2. Intellectual skills
3. Cognitive strategies

4. Motor skills
5. Attitudes

1.
1.
2.
3.
4.

View of
Knowledge





1.
2.
3.


1.
2.
Learning

Taba,
Gordon
Fergus LM Craik & Lockhart
 Cognitive Psychologist
 Levels of Processing
Memory
 Shallow Processing
Structural
Phonemic
Graphemic
Orthographic
 Deep or Semantic Processing
Fixed body of knowledge to acquire,
Stimulated from outside,
Prior knowledge influences how information is processed

Theory does not support student choice.

Teacher facilitates what is to be "discovered"

Teacher presents the knowledge and the student process, puts ○
this knowledge to use.

Aligns with perennialist/essentialist view of curriculum

Knowledge is presented through various methods
Graphic organizer
Guided notes
Manipulatives
Prior knowledge influence: reaching about long term memory to
pull out reliable information.
New information to long term
Teachers engage students through previous learned information
to build more. Much easier to take something that the student
already knows, to build on top of it.
New info is piggybacked onto old info already stored
Acquisition of facts, skills, concepts, and strategies
Occurs through the effective application of strategies


Should be included in all lessons.
Students should be viewed as active processors. Learning comes

How does this look in school setting?

Direct instruction is needed for basic facts and information
4 lesson models
concept attainment
concept development
inducted
integrated




Takes a lot of time to prepare lessons
Use graphic organizers
Students must know and comprehend the facts in order to
make a generalization and apply the information in a different
formation.
Making connections to information.
Goal: Get information into long term memory.



Teaching

through the five senses.
You present the student with a problem and they will get a
response. In between that, that’s where the learning took place.
Expectation can override the reality.

Transmission,

Guide students toward more “accurate” and complete
knowledge

● Teacher should present problem, question, or stimulus to allow
process of information
● Students critically think
1. Problem Solvers

Concept attainment, presenting a problem and let students work with
the information.
Problem solving

Higher levels of cognitive learning
Role of
Teacher

Role of
Peers


Role of
student



3-5 Big
ideas in
theory
concerning
teaching
and

Teach and model effective strategies
Correct misconceptions
 Support motivation
 Know your students
 Correct misconceptions
 Look for error patterns
Not necessary but can influence information processing
Not much of a factor
Distractions and good discussion, think-pair share. Can be a
positive.



Encourage attention and rehearsal.
Only present a few things at a time.
Chunk material.

Active processor of information ,
Strategy user
Organizer and reorganizer of information
Remember
Students are like computers.
Receive information through the five senses
Connect to past knowledge, categorize and store it. Be able to
access it again.




An active processor of information.
Strategy user.
Organizer and re-organize.
Remembers, recalls.

List several Big Ideas that inform your instructional planning
you have developed based on this theory.
 Human as a computer
 Cognitive process
 Nature versus nurture
 Quantitative versus qualitative

Explain Big Ideas and how you applied them.
Strengths
 Memory stores are limited in sensory and working memory
 Prior knowledge facilitates encoding and retrieval processes
 Automaticity
 Learners become more efficient and process at a deeper level.

learning
that you
will apply
in your
professional
practice.
Assessment
Type
Personal
Application
(Provide 3
or more
examples)
Web links
for articles

Explain the type of assessment that is most appropriate for each
theoretical view of learning
How do/could you apply this theory for teaching learning?
 Teach concept formation or development.
 Apply different ways to provide information.
 Activate and retrieve prior knowledge.
 Provide activities for students to be active and engaged.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_processing_theory
http://www.education.com/reference/article/informationprocessing-theory/
http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/infoproc.html