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UPDATE ON

SINGAPORE STANDARD

SS 578 : 2012
USE AND MAINTENANCE OF
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

CHANGES TO THE STANDARD:

SS CP 55 : 1991
Code of Practice for
Use and Maintenance of Portable Fire Extinguishers
Replaced by:

SS 578 : 2012
Code of Practice for
Use and Maintenance of Portable Fire Extinguishers

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION

CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES

IN SS CP 55, DIFFERENT TYPES OF FIRES


WERE CLASSIFIED INTO CLASSES A, B, C & D.

CLASS A Ordinary combustible materials


CLASS B Flammable liquids and flammable gases
CLASS C Live electrical equipment
CLASS D Combustible metals

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION

CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES

SS 578 DEFINES CLASSES OF FIRES


ACCORDING TO THE MATERIAL
UNDERGOING COMBUSTION.

ELECTRICITY ITSELF DOES NOT BURN.


HENCE THE STANDARD DOES NOT DEFINE
A PARTICULAR CLASS OF FIRE
INVOLVING AN ELECTRICAL RISK.
A NEW CLASS F FIRE IS INTRODUCED
FOR FIRES INVOLVING COOKING MEDIA
IN KITCHEN APPLIANCES.

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION

CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES

SS CP 55

SS 578

Class A Ordinary combustible


materials

Class A Ordinary combustible


materials

Class B Flammable liquids &


gases

Class B Flammable liquids

Class C Live electrical


equipment
Class D Combustible metals

Class C Flammable gases


Class D Combustible metals
Class F Cooking media

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCY HAZARDS

CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCY HAZARDS:


REMAINS THE SAME AS IN CP 55 EXCEPT THAT THE
AMOUNT OF CLASS B FLAMMABLES PRESENT IN THE
AREA IS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT.
LOW HAZARD normal Class A combustibles present e.g.
offices, classrooms, etc. with Class B flammables < 5 litres
MEDIUM HAZARD showrooms, car parks, light industry, etc.
with Class B flammables >5 litres < 20 litres.
HIGH HAZARD exhibition areas, wood-working, warehouses
etc. with Class B flammables > 20 litres.

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCY
HAZARDS

SS CP 55
Low Hazard amount of
combustibles & flammable
liquids present small
fires expected.
Medium Hazard fires of
moderate size expected

High Hazard fires of


severe magnitude
expected

SS 578
Classification remains the
same, but the amount of
flammable liquids present
in the room or area is
quantified.
Low Hazard < 5 litres
Medium Hazard >5 <20
litres
High Hazard > 20 litres

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


SELECTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS CP 55

SS 578

Selection by anticipated class of fire


Choice of extinguishing medium,
water, foam, CO2, dry powder,
halon 1301 & 1211

Selection by anticipated class of fire


Choice of extinguishing medium
water, foam, CO2, dry powder,
wet chemical & clean agent

Class A fires:
water types
multi-purpose dry powder types
halon types
foam types

Class A fires:
water types
multi-purpose dry powder types
clean agent types
foam types

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION

SELECTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS CP 55
Class B fires:
powder types
halon types
CO2
mechanical foam (AFFF)

SS 578
Class B fires:
powder types
clean agent type
CO2
mechanical foam (AFFF)

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION

SELECTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS CP 55
Class C fires:
(Live electrical equipment)
halon types
CO2
powder types

SS 578
Class C fires:
(Flammable gases)
clean agent types
CO2
powder types
Fires in live electrical equipment:
clean agent, CO2, powder types
(must be marked as suitable for
use on live electrical equipment)

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION

SELECTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS CP 55

SS 578

Class D fires:
types approved for use on
specific combustible metal
hazards

Class D fires:
types approved for use on
specific combustible metal
hazards

Cooking media fires:


powder types
halon types

Class F fires: (cooking media)


Class F rated extinguishers

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


DISTRIBUTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS CP 55
CLASS A FIRE
Table 1 gives minimum sizes for
use on the various classification
of occupancy hazards ranging
in rating from 3A to 55A
Low hazard: 1A covered 40 m2
Medium hazard: 1A 20 m2
High hazard: 1A 15 m2

SS 578
CLASS A FIRE
Table 1 removed
Low hazard: min 13A
Medium hazard: min 21A
High hazard: min 34A
A unit of A can cover 15 m2
regardless of hazard classification
Max travel distance 15 m for all
occupancy hazard classification

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


DISTRIBUTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS CP 55
CLASS B FIRE
(Fires in flammable liquids of nonappreciable depth)
Class B fires (low hazard) min
extinguisher size 8B with max
travel distance of 3 m

SS 578
CLASS B FIRE
(Fires in flammable liquids of nonappreciable depth)
Class B fires (low hazard) min
extinguisher size 21B with max
travel distance of 5 m

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


DISTRIBUTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS CP 55

CLASS B FIRES IN FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS OF NON-APPRECIABLE DEPTH

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


DISTRIBUTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS 578

CLASS B FIRES IN FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS OF NON-APPRECIABLE DEPTH

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


DISTRIBUTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS CP 55

CLASS B FIRES IN FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS OF APPRECIABLE DEPTH

CLASS B RATED EXTINGUISHERS TO BE PROVIDED:


34B for surface area not exceeding 0.5 sq.m
70B for surface area not exceeding 1 sq.m
Travel distance from hazard to nearest extinguisher < 7m.

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


DISTRIBUTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS 578

CLASS B FIRES IN FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS OF APPRECIABLE DEPTH

TO DETERMINE MINIMUM PROVISION OF EXTINGUISHERS:


BASED ON SURFACE AREA OF CONTAINERS
a) EACH ROOM OR ENCLOSURE TO BE CONSIDERED SEPERATELY
b) FIRE RISKS MORE THAN 20M APART CONSIDER SEPERATELY
c)

FIRE RISKS WITHIN 20m OF ANOTHER FIRE RISK ASSESSED AS


UNDIVIDED GROUP (i.e. containers less than 2m apart) OR DIVIDED
GROUPS (i.e. containers more than 2m but less than 20m apart)

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


DISTRIBUTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS 578

CLASS B FIRES IN FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS OF APPRECIABLE DEPTH

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


DISTRIBUTION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS 578

CLASS F - FIRES INVOLVING FATS AND COOKING OILS

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION


INSTALLATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SS CP 55
Extinguishers to be
installed
such that the carrying
handle is not more
than 1.5 metres
above the floor

SS 578
Gross weight < 4 kg
installed such that carrying
handle is not more than 1.2 m
above the floor

Gross weight > 4 kg


installed such that carrying
handle is not more than 1 m
above the floor

MOUNTING HEIGHT OF EXTINGUISHERS:

Max. 1.2m
for gross
wt.< 4 kg

Max. 1m
for gross
wt. > 4 kg

FLOOR LEVEL

MAIN CHANGES MADE IN THE REVISION

SS 578

EXTINGUISHERS MANUFACTURED
TO MEET SS EN 3 STANDARD:

CYLINDER: RED COLOUR


SHOULD HAVE A COLOUR BAND TO
IDENTIFY THE EXTINGUISHING
MEDIUM CONTAINED IN THE
EXTINGUISHER

WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR MAINTENANCE?


SS 578
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
This manual or phamplet
to give brief instructions
on use and maintenance.
Each new extinguisher
shall be provided with a
manual.

THANK YOU