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Primitive.

Definit¸ie: Fie f, F : D ⊆ R → R dou˘a funct¸ii, atunci F este o primitiv˘a a lui f dac˘a ¸si
numai dac˘a F 0 (x) = f (x), ∀x ∈ D. Mult¸imea primitivelor funct¸iei f se scrie:
Z
f (x) dx = F (x) + C
1.

Z

xr dx =

1 r+1
x
+ C, pentru orice r ∈ R \ {−1}.
r+1

Consecint¸e:

r = 0,
r = 1,
r = 2,
1
r= ,
2
1
r=− ,
2

Z

1 dx = x + C

x2
x dx =
+C
2
Z
x3
2
x dx =
+C
3
Z

2 3
2√ 3
x dx = x 2 + C =
x + C, x ≥ 0
3
3
Z

1
√ dx = 2 x + C
x
Z

Pentru r = −1 avem:
Z
1
2.
dx = ln |x| + C, x ∈ R∗ .
x
Z
1 x
a + C.
3.
ax dx =
ln a
Z
ex dx = ex + C.

4.

Z
Z

sin x dx = − cos x + C.
cos x dx = sin x + C.

1
dx = tg x + C, x ∈ R \ {kπ + π2 |k ∈ Z}.
2x
cos
Z
1
dx = −ctg x + C, x ∈ R \ {kπ|k ∈ Z}.
sin2 x
Z

1

1 1 x dx = arctg + C. 2 +a a a .

.

Z .

x − a.

1 1 .

.

+ C. x2 − a2 2a . x ∈ R \ {±a}. dx = ln 6.

x + a .

Z x2 2 . dx = arcsin + C. 2 Z 0 f (x) dx = ln |f (x)| + C. Z √ 1 √ 7. x2 + a2 Z √ x √ 11. a]. dx = ln(x + x2 + a2 ) + C x2 + a2 Z √ 1 √ dx = ln |x + x2 − a2 | + C. x ∈ (−a. ctg x dx = ln | sin x| + C. Z 1 f (x) · f 0 (x) dx = f (x)2 + C. x ∈ R \ [−a. r 6= −1 . tg x dx = − ln | cos x| + C. x ∈ R \ {kπ|k ∈ Z}. a a2 − x2 Z 9. Z 13. a). f 0 (x) dx = f (x) + C. 5. r+1 Z √ x √ dx = x2 + a2 + C 10. Z f (x) 1 f 0 (x) · f (x)r dx = f (x)r+1 + C. x ∈ R \ {kπ + π2 |k ∈ Z}. x2 − a2 Z 1 x √ 8. dx = − a2 − x2 + C a2 − x2 Z 12.