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Mitosis - way a cell divides.

At the end you have TWO new cells, with the


same amount of chromosomes as the original.

36 chromosomes in each cell

23 pairs from mom, 23 from dad

Mitosis

1. Interphase- normal life


a. Chromosomes appear
b. Chromosomes double
2. Prophase
a. Nucleus disappears
b. Spindle fibers hold chromosomes in place, attached to cell
c. Centromere holds numerous chromosomes together
d. Centrioles hold spindle fibers in place
3. Metaphase
a. Chromosomes line up in the middle
4. Anaphase
a. Chromosome splits and goes to ends
5. Telophase
a. Cell membrane grows down middle
b. Nucleus returns
6. Cytokinesis
a. Cell finally splits and you have two new cells
Asexual Reproduction

• One parent
• Offspring are identical to the parent
• Ex:
○ Mitosis
 Two new cells
• Algae, bacteria
○ Budding
 Growth that forms new organism
• Yeast, sponges
○ Regeneration
 Grow back missing parts
• Starfish
○ Cloning?

Sexual Reproduction

• Two parents
○ Sperm and egg cells
• Offspring are combination of both parents

Meiosis

• the way sex cells are produced


• sperm cells are produced in the testes
• egg cells are produced in the ovaries

oocytes- go through meiosis to become egg cells

spermatocytes- go through meiosis to become sperm cells


46 chromosomes

Egg + sperm = zygote

23 23
+ 46
Then, zygote, which for now only has one cell, does mitosis to get two cells,
then again to get four cells, then eight, sixteen, until the growing thing now
has many cells.