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Arabi Dialog

Arabi Dialog

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AL-JALEYS
Part II (Revised Edition 2008)
A Trxtheek |er Trarning Arahit Tangnagr & Cn|tnrr A Trxtheek |er Trarning Arahit Tangnagr & Cn|tnrr A Trxtheek |er Trarning Arahit Tangnagr & Cn|tnrr A Trxtheek |er Trarning Arahit Tangnagr & Cn|tnrr
)e )e )e )ehannre hannre hannre hannre §ivae §ivae §ivae §ivae
2


To Harry Barnes, Jr. who believes that



A ei||rrrnt |angnagr A ei||rrrnt |angnagr A ei||rrrnt |angnagr A ei||rrrnt |angnagr


is a ei||rrrnt is a ei||rrrnt is a ei||rrrnt is a ei||rrrnt


uisien e| |i|r. uisien e| |i|r. uisien e| |i|r. uisien e| |i|r.







~'- - Q'- ,-' ¸- ,Q-- = ,-=; ,_-'~ ¿,~ '- --' ¸- ,Q'-- ,-'

Please e-mail your comments to : mjiyad@mtholyoke.edu



3

CONTENTS

Introduction 2
Unit 1, In a Restaurant 6
Unit 2, A Telephone Call 27
Unit 3, Renting an Apartment 48
Unit 4, Chatting with a Jordanian Friend 68
Unit 5, Shopping in Damascus 91
Unit 6, Readings from the Arabic Press 115
Unit 7, Talking about One's Hobbies 141
Unit 8, Memories from Baghdad 165
Unit 9, The Colored Picture 189
Unit 10, The Marvel Detergent 215
4



Introduction

For decades teachers have been combining language and content through techniques such as
storytelling, games, role plays, and, more recently, integration of subject area. The introduction of
teaching language in order to achieve proficiency based outcomes has underscored the importance of
meaning and context in comprehension and production. The guidelines developed by ACTFL and the
Educational Testing Service (ETS) define what language users are able to do with the language at
various stages. In the last ten years, many professionals grasped the idea of using the proficiency
definition of what it means to know a language for purposes of organizing instruction. The proficiency
model defines language ability in terms of three criteria:

(1) functions: linguistic tasks performed such as asking for information, narrating past activities, or
expressing opinions.

(2) contexts/contents: the settings in which one uses language, e.g., informal settings,
transactional situations, formal settings, together with the topic or themes of conversation, such
as topics related to self and to immediate environment (family, shopping, transportation,
restaurant, etc., concrete topics of personal and general interest, and abstract topics.

(3) accuracy: the precision of the message in terms of fluency, grammar, vocabulary, pragmatic
competence, pronunciation, sociolinguistic competence (Buck, Byrnes, and Thompson 1989).
Meaning and contextualized practice form the foundation for an approach that seeks to develop
proficiency.

The recent focus on more meaningful, contextualized teaching has prompted some changes in the
traditional bottom-up mechanical /communicative format of textbook exercises. In his review of textbook
exercise formats, Waltz (1989) found that current textbooks are “contextualizing” mechanical or skill-
getting exercises in a wide variety of ways such as by:

(1) connecting exercise sentences with the same situation or theme;
(2) providing a context for the exercise in the form of information concerning people, activities or
description; and
(3) combining cultural aspects with language practice within the exercise.

Recent studies in foreign language teaching have pointed to the possible benefit of a “top-down” or
“whole language” approach to language instruction, through which students manipulate language to
communicate thoughts by using higher level skills before attending to discrete language structures with
the use of lower level skills. By means of activities such as negotiation of meaning and joint problem
solving with the teacher and classmates, students participate in amore complex task than the students
are capable of producing by themselves (Adir-Hauck 1992). Therefore, meaning and context take the
front seat in this performance before competence approach, which reflects how first-language learners
acquire language. Anderson (1984) proposes four criteria for judging a whole language approach to
language teaching. Language learning should:

(1) include meaningful, natural language
(2) include whole language, not language fragments
(3) be functional, and
(4) be learned in a meaningful context.

Basically, the above principles have been utilized in the development of "Al-Jaleys" textbook. In addition,
a culture-based textbook and its syllabus identify a possible sequence of contexts of communication,
grammatical structures, and cultural topics that could be integrated. The culture topics in Al-Jaleys appear
in three categories:

5

(1) those dealing with surface features of the Arabic culture with primary emphasis on behavior;

(2) those pertaining to daily life in the target culture-habits, patterns of living, etc.;

(3) those dealing with a more conceptual level, with attention to political, social, economical,
culture institutions and pattern, and with the challenges currently facing Arabs. The convergence of these
factors serves as a process through which students are able to acquire a set of behavior, body of
knowledge, a set of skills, and a cultural proficiency that facilitate learning about the Arabic culture and
their own cultures as well.

Finally, Al-Jaleys recommends an interactive teacher/student relationship that can be categorized as
"cognitive instruction." Through this approach, students process information in meaningful ways, take
responsibility for their own learning and become independent learners. As students and teacher work
together to understand and explore new contexts through "scaffolding" process, the teacher shows
learners how to use various strategies to solve language and culture tasks. In exploring longer segments,
students are guided through by means of various steps, ranging from identifying main ideas to express
opinions and writing compositions.

M. M. Jiyad
January 1997
Revised in 2008































6

Unit # 1 (1) ;-, --=;-'
lahie has hrrn stneving Arahit in ]rnrn |er a vrar. tr inuitre tæe e| his |rirnes
|er |nnth in a nræ|v eµrnre rrstanrant in ean`a. Onr e| thesr tæe |rirnes æas a
µain in thr nrtk!



.,=¸ ) _¸=¸=\\ ·( '=. -.`. ` _ .¸ . '_' ` .,¸ . = _` .
_¸=¸=\' · '=' =¸ ` ', `
.,== · . ¸ = . >. >' °_.` ¸ .' _· '.` = .\ '= _='=\' _¸,
_¸=¸=\' · '.=' ', ·=' . ! > '.= _¸\>', _¸¸,.> ´_'. ¸ ,¸ , ¸
.,== · .,= . ·,> .,× = °_. ¸>.' '_ = = = =
¸'== · .,== ', '.'. , !
.,== · '=.'¸ = , , == =\'¸ ¸'= × ' ,'= ¸ ¸
7

_¸=¸=\' · > = _¸\'= , _ .',` ¸\' ¸ = '_ .',=.' ·.
.,=¸ · ¸'= '. ==¦ -\ ,,¸· - =\' '_ = ` , '=· '_ = · =' = \ !
_¸=¸=\' · . '.` = '¸\` =» !
.,== · = .. = ¸ = \¸'= - °_¸='
_¸=¸=\' · . = , ', .×\¸ ·_. =\' '_ = ·.,= ='` ,
¸'== · = ·',` , = -\¸'= ·.= ·',` , ·¸'.=` =
.,== · ¸'.=` = · ! =\' · .= \¸' - =\' _\= _,¸
¸'== · '.=¦ ` = ¸ ', ¸ !
.,== · , ='¸ = '=' '_' ` , =' . ·¸ - =\' _\= _ \ _,¸
¸'== · , '.'= = ° ,¸ ,\'
_¸=¸=\' · . · .'.=' ', =¦ '¸\` =» ¸'= -` ,' '¸¸'. \ ¸ - ¸ _.'= ` _' _.. = _,\
.,=¸ · - ='= = ', '¸\` =» . . '.¸= . '.` = ` _ \=
¸'== · '· .'= ·¸¸»= = =\' - =. · '_ = ,'= '= = \ !
_¸=¸=\' · =\' - =.'· · . = '¸\` =» . ,'=
.,== · '_' ` _ ='= .' . '. ¸', .'= '.\ ¸ == !
¸'== · . ', = \'¸ =' , = ¸ ·´. ¸', ´.'= · . =, !
_¸=¸=\' · . '=' .= =¸ ) .'=\' ` ¸ ==` , ( . ¸` =» .'.=' ',
¸'== · =' '_' ` , =' '.' ·´_ .'¸ \ '= = , ,\' _ ,¸
_¸=¸=\' · '= = '= = ´_'= . ,¸,\' ` _ ` _=
¸'== · \` =\'¸ = - °
¸=\' _¸= · =¸ ` _ = ` , ='= \\', ´¸', = ¸' _ ,
8

¸'== · - = \ = , > .. = . '_ = =' ¸ _¸ ° ¸
_¸=¸=\' · - = \ = '=,' '. .. = = ¸ _¸., ¸¸ ¸ ¸ = ,¸ , ='=
¸'== · . _\ .'= '= = '='= - = \ =¸ '` ,= , ¸ ¸', = \\' _ ,
_¸=¸=\' · . '_' ` , = . '.'= = ° , ¸
¸'= = · \ .'= = _ '¸` , ¸,= . ¸ ¸'»
_¸=¸=\' · = '¸ =' .'.=' ', ..'¸ >'. '_' ` , = . '.'= · ° ¸
.,== · -` ,== = - =¸> ` , =' . = _ ¸ ¸¸ '= = ¸ , ¸ ·` ¸ = ¸ =' ¸. = ·' _=
¸'== · >. . , '_' ` ·.,¸ . ¸ ¸ ·` ¸ = ¸ =' !
.,=¸ · ×=¦ = ', . . = _= ¸, =' ·¸'= = !
¸'== · -»,»=\' . '.' · '_ = ., = .= ×\' ' _¸'»\' ,` \ > = '. = ¸ = '= = , '= . \ ¸. = .,== _
»\' ·.= = »,=` =\' _,='¸ =\'¸ _ -
.,=¸ · \, = _\= ¸'== ', · = \, = _\= · = ! . . .¦ _. · ¸=¦ '. !
¸'== · ` = ¸,` =\ \ '_×\¸ ·_='¸ _\=¸ _., = _\= · ·` ¸=.' ´.¸. ! '= .¸ =' _,= = ,
¸,>¸\' !
.,== · '=,' _ ='= , _\ .'=
_¸=¸=\' · ` , = . ·, > -` ,¸= = ¸' -` ,\» = · _ ='= ,\' °
.,== · -` ,\» = .'= ¸ ·
_¸=¸=\' · . ¸ - = \ = -` ,' °` , =
.,== · \ , > .. = ¸ = °´_ ¸'= ´_ ,
_¸=¸=\' · .=' = \. ` . »
.,== · = \ _\ .' , .'= ¸ · '= ¸'= '. !
9

_¸=¸=\' · '= . '_' ` , = . '. ° , ¸=
.,== · = ¸ = . . > . , .,, ',' °` _,
_¸=¸=\' · . .. = ', = . '. .,, ',' '='¸ ` _, ` ¸=
.,== · .,, . ',' .= = = ¸\ ·` _, !
_¸=¸=\' · '¸ ='= ! .'.=' ', ..'¸ · >'. _' ` , = . '.'= ° ¸
.,=¸ · = = '× = = _\ .'= '` ,¸ = \ =¸ -
_¸=¸=\' · . ` _' ¸ _¸ . -=\` =\' '_ = ° ¸` =»
.,=¸ · - = \ = ¸ ¸ = ,¸ , ='= = ¸¸ ¸ _¸.,
_¸=¸=\' · . '_' ` , = . '.'= = ° , ¸
.,=¸ · '= . · ' _. -»,·. ` ¸ × · '_ = ·· .¸', ·¸,, '= = \ !
_¸=¸=\' · '¸ ='= . ¸ = \= ° ¸ =' '.,= ` ,
.,=¸ · .'= ` ,. '.\ - \¸ '=` = =¸
_¸=¸=\' · '¸ ='= !
.,=¸ · =\', ¸` == . '_' ` _ ×=` , ¸ = .',\ - ='` =\' ´. =¸= '... = ° .\' -. \'
_¸=¸=\' · > ¸ ._ = ¸ . '_ = ¸·', '¸ ='= ` _¸×, = ¸ - ='= .\
) =\' ¸'==, _¸=¸=\' ` ,=., , '=.,, .',\ ` .'·.=.' .` .=. (
(The waiter goes to bring the orders while they talk)
¸'== · =\' '.= ·¸ · ¸× · _\= = '= = ` , = '. =\', ·¸¸ ` =\' - = '= ¸'. - =,¸` =\' ·
.,== · ´_,= = '.= .,.\ ¸>.' - =. =\'¸ '=` = ¸'. ·
¸'== · =` = ,` = .. = -\ × · . ='¸
.,== · = _= '= = =\' ·. \ × - °
10

¸'== · ) '¸ ='= ( >.. , . _ .',` ¸\' _¸¸ !
.,=¸ · ' '= × ¸'== ', . ! _=¸ , =' . = = !
¸'== · '=' '_ = , ===\' '.= ` _¦ · _·'¸\' _· = _ = =\' , ='= .,. -
.,=¸ · × .¸=. , ,` =\' '.,\ -,\¦ ,
.,== · . ` , ='=¸ ´,,¸ > ..' '=` =¸ _¸ ¸ ¸'. .,=¸ ', · !
¸'== · ·¸= , .,=¸ > = =\' ¸ ` · .` , =\' .
.,=¸ · > .\` = = ·` _'. ', _» _.¸= !
) =\' _\¦ _¸=¸=\' ` .¸=, -\¸' (
_¸=¸=\' · ¸'».¸` ,\' ` ¸,= =¸ · ¸,,\'¸ .,, .\' ¸= '.= '¸\` =» .
.,=¸ · = . ` , ¸= . '.¸= . ·=' ', - ·'.` =\' , ! × .` = = _· ', !
.,==¸ ¸'== · = .` = = _· !


Questions about the Text . _ .\! ¿ = -\.=l
1 > ¸,· '. ¸', .'= , \ = '_ = °¸ ._ = ¸
2 ¸>.' '_ = _¸=¸=\' ¸'· '.'= °
3 ,¸ ,\' ` _= = _'> '.'= °
4 \ ×=` = -` ,' '_ = .` . =. ¸ - ° '¸ ='= ¸'= =
5 . _'> ¸ ._ = ` _', \ = =\' = ° '¸¸,= = ` , =
6 \= , '_' ¸,· .,=¸ ¸ =· '.'= ° · ¸,,\' ,
7 \¸,. .\ >' ¸ = - ° = .', = _· '=` = =¸
11

8 ` , = . ¸ = [ . = °` _¸= =\' = =` =\' _,` ,

True or False? Please rewrite the false statements in their correct forms.

1 , == =\' _· ¸ >' '.· .,=¸ ` _' _¸=¸=\' ¸ >.. '=
2 ` _= , =\' '_ = _¸\'= , _.',` ¸\' ¸'==.'¸ ,'=
3 =\' '_ = - ,,¸· -\¸'= .,=¸ , \ = ='` ,
4 '= .,== ` , =' =\' _\= ', .. -\¸' =\' =\. _,¸
5 '= = _'> '= = '='= . ,¸ ,\' ` _ '` ,=
6 \ = ` ,== = '='= . ¸'= = , -= .\ =¸ ' ¸ ¸',= \\', _ ,

Functional Expression ª·-'~-' ~','-·-'
=' ', ! Let us go
'¸ ='= All right
·'¸\' _· _ In fact
. '= '=' . ¸ = ! Under your command!
× · _\= ¸ · ¸ By the way
', = _\= = \ ! Slow down!
',` =\ \ ` = ¸ ´.¸. ! Patience has limits!
× .` = = _· , ! To your health!
¸= ¸ ', '.=¦ ! Calm down, man!
.,== ', '.'. , ! There we go, Sa'id!
, '.'= ° ,¸ ,\' = What is the matter with you today?
12

=,.\'¸ =' , = ¸ ! May Allah have mercy on your parents!
. - ='= = ', '¸\` =» Come on, guys.
-»,·. ` ¸ × ·' _.= . Let me think for a minute!
. . . . ' _ · ¸=¦ '. ! Don't forget we are brothers!
¸,> ¸\' ,= .¸ =' _,= = ! That is fine! (formal)
_='¸ _\=¸ _., = _\= You got a deal.
_.¸=.\` = = ·` _'. ', _»> ! You guys embarrassed me!
>'=¦ . ! '¸ , =' . = _= = ! Be quiet! May Allah be content with you!
. . ` , ¸= . '.¸= = ·'.` =\' , - ! Let us drink to friendship!
×\' '.= '_ = ., =. _¸'»\' ,` I am tired of this empty talk.
=\', ¸` == . _' ` _ ×'=` , ¸ = .',\ ° Will you rush the orders°
> ..' . ` , ='=¸ ´,,¸ ¸ _¸ '=` = ¸ ¸'. You are generous and have a good taste.

Vocabulary List =!._ì=\! -=.!¡

. _= ..` .= I spoke with
.¸= . I invited
= .,\ I order, ask for, demand
` . ».=' I think (not as I believe)
. .,= you forgot
¸` = = you rush, hurry up
> . . . ` ¸ you remember
.= , _ \ he creates
13

'.'. , we began
. . _` . = we have lunch
. ` .,¸ we want, would like, desire
_¸\'=, they (m) ask
_¸. taste
= ` = . - ¸ = = place, shop, store/s
- ='= = group
= ´. =¸ appointment
´_ ·'¸ reality
.', \ = - \ = ´, order, request, demand/s
· ¸,, beer
. .,, wine
. = ´, grapes
_ ¸ ¸ leaves
= ´,'= food
´_` = = chick pea
´_¸., ¸ olives
` _ = lettuce
´= = = fish
´_= = dish
- = \ = salad
\ ´_ , yogurt
- =¸> zucchini
. -\¸` , Tabbuuli
14

´_ .'¸ splendid, magnificent
` _¸= = grilled, toasted
'= = ` _= stuffed
´_ ¸'= fresh
` _ ,,' white
` ¸ ==' red
, ¸ - ='¸= frankly
'¸ ='= sarcastically
.. = '= when (conjunction)
> \. = as well, also, too
'=,' also, too, as well
Grammar --';--'

1. Contrary to ¸'´ and her sisters, which take a nominative subject and an accusative
predicate, ´ ¸' and her sisters take an accusative subject and a nominative predicate if
that predicate is a noun or a predicate adjective.

This grammatical rule is exemplified in the following sentences:

.´-,- ·' .´`' ´ ¸' becomes .´-,- ·' ´ .´`'

.´- -,- = ª -,-´ ·='' ´ ¸' becomes .´- -,- = ´ª -,-´ ·=''

Notice the change of the subject marker from nominative to accusative.

2. When ´ ¸' and her sisters are followed by personal pronouns, the accusative forms
of these pronouns are suffixed to them. The following chart summarizes these forms for
both singular and plural pronouns.
15


¸-´ ·-' '-' / '-´ ·-' ´ ¸=- ¸ ·-'
»´ ·´´ ·-' »´ ·--' =´·-' --'
=´ ·-' --' ´ ¸´ ·´´ ·-' ´ ¸´ ·--'
»´ +´ ·-' »´ » ´ ª´ ·-' ,»
´ ¸´ +´ ·-' ´ ¸´ » '+´ ·-' ¸»

´ ¸` which means “because” is a sister of ´ ¸' and thus behaves the same way.

Verb Conjugation J'·-V' ~-,~-

1. The following verbs are in the present tense and conjugated to the plural pronouns.
»´ » ´ ¸´ » ´ ¸´ ·--' »´ ·--' ´ ¸=-

¸,¸´ ·´- ·- , ¸¸´ ·´- ·- ·, ¸¸´ ·´-·- ·- ¸,¸´ ·´- ·- ·- ´ ¸´ ·´- ·- ·- ¸´ ·´- ·-
- ·' ·= ¸,-´ ·'= , ¸-´ ·'= , ¸-´ ·'= ·- ¸,-'= ·- ´ -´ ·'= ·-
¸ ·´ ·· ¸,¸ ·´ ·-´ ´ , ¸¸ ·´ ·-´ ´ , ¸¸ ·´ ·-´ ·- ¸,¸ ·´ ·-´ ·- ´ ¸ ·´ ·-´ ·-

2. The following verbs are in the past tense and conjugated to the singular pronouns.

~-' ~-' '-' ;» ¸»

_- ·- -,- ·- -,- ·- ´ -,- ·- _- ·- - - ·-
- -'- - '- - ´ -'- - -'- - -'- - '-
- ´ -''- .'- - ·''- .'- -''- -''

3. The following verbs are in the imperative and conjugated to the second person
pronouns.

16

~-' ~-' ; --'
- ¸-' ¸- ¸-' ',- ¸-' - ¸ -
.'- .'-' ¸''-' ',''-'

Drill # 1 J;V' Q-,---'
Use the words and phrases in the Vocabulary List in good sentences:


Drill # 2 ¸-'--' Q-,---'
Please choose the correct options:
1 . -,', .'· : ¸`' _'= ´- -' '-' _'= .
Walid is sorry because he is:
a. coming late
b. bothering someone
c. leaving earlier than he had planned

2 . ´ -,-´ ·='' .'- : _-- ) ¸,' -´´ ·- ( ´ -'' º -',
The subject pronoun which marks the verb between parentheses is identical with the
personal pronoun in option:
' . - »´ » . - ´ ¸´ » . »´ ·--'

3 . ' ´ - =' - -´ ·'=' ¸ = ,'' ¸ », .
The proper response for a statement like this one is:
' . - ¸ -'= . - -'=¸ . ´ » ·'=' ´ -'

4 . · ' ¸` = -´ -'' = -'' - -´ -'' _'= ´ ¸, = -'' ¸'- .
Your Arab host family is inviting you for dinner. They ask you for your preferences and
they realize that you:
a. prefer fried fish
17

b. prefer grilled fish
c. really do not like fish at all

5 . · ' ¸` = ........... -'- -'' ¸· _¸'´ ·='' .
Of the given options, certainly ...... is the best to fill in the blank.
' . - -,-´ ·-'' . - ¸ -´ ·''' . - ¸,-''

6 . -´ -'' ¸ - . » ´ ·´ ·- ¸' ¸ º -'- ·'´ ·=''- . =
Only one of the following options cannot be the reason for you to ask that your order be
rushed.
' . =´ ·-` - ´_ -'= . = -- = - ´- =, - . = -- = ´_'-´ -

7 . ' ´ .´ = ¸ ', '-» !
An Arab would use this expression when she/he is:
a. ignoring somebody
b. fed up with somebody
c. trying to convince somebody

8 . » ¸'´ . ................ ................ ... º
Which option has the correct voweling to fit in this context?

' . - ´-,¸ ·= ´ ª´ ··´ ¸ - ·- . - '-,¸ ·= ´ ª ··´ ¸ - ·- . '-,¸ ·= ´ ª´ ··´ ¸ - ·-

9 . ª ·' ,'= ´ -,¸´ ·- ) ª -,¸ ·· ( ='´ ·-´ -'' ¸ - !
You ordered a table close to the window, but your friend wanted exactly the opposite.
So, you change your request. Which word do you need to use for the one between
parentheses?
' . - - -,- = . - - -,· - . ª ·,¸ -

18

Which of the following verbs can you use for imperative case? 10 .
' . - ´ -,- ·- . ' '= × . - . ¸´ ·´- ·-

11 . ' '- ¸'- -'- - ¸-' ¸' ´ - = !
You are thirsty. You order (a glass of ) cold water. Then you change your mind. Which
option would you choose?
' . - '¸,- = . - '='= - . '´ - -

12 . ¸-´ ·'= ·- ¸' ¸ ,-=´ ·- . » ........... º », ,''
The best choice to fill in the blank is in:
' . - -,- ·- . - » ='- ·= . = - ¸

13 . - '', ´ » =¸ , ´ -' =, !
Arabs would use this expression to say “thank you.” It can also be used to mean:

a. please b. forget it c. only God knows
14 . = - ª ··'-´ -'' ¸'´ ´ - ¸- ·- '-, !
You are suggesting a toast to:
a. friendship
b. a happy marriage
c. a successful new career

, ´. - -, ´ ¸,-,¸ . ......... 15 . ' '+,· ª ·= ·' - ´ . - ··
Certainly you would not have option .... to be another ingredient in your salad.
' . - ´ ¸ = . - ´.'-´ ·-¸´ - . ´¸', =

16 . ´ª ·,¸ - ´ ª´ ·- -- = , » ·=- ¸· '-'´' .
The pronoun which is suffixed to the noun in this sentence is:
a. an object pronoun
19

b. a subject pronoun
c. a possessive pronoun

17 . ´ .´ ·´ ´ - ¸=' .......... » ·= -'' .
You know the owners of the restaurant. Which option do you need to use to complete
your statement?
' . - ¸ -'-¸ . -' -'= - . .'´ -´ =

18 . ' ¸-= - ª ·-,· - ´ ¸ ·´ ·· !
You said this sentence to your Arab friend and she/he was very impressed. However, I
need to know if you meant to say:
a. let me talk for a minute!
b. let me rest for a minute!
c. let me think for a minute!

19 . ,'' ¸'´ ., ·''' -- - ´ -· ) '-,¸- ·- .(
Though you need to rearrange the words in this sentence, one of the following options
can substitute for the word between parentheses.
' . - ¸'', = . - ,¸'¸- --'- . ª ·-,- =

20 · '- ¸'- -'- '-' -'» ) -'=¸ !(
You are learning the synonym for the word between parentheses and you want to use it
in this sentence. Can you remind me which one do you mean?
' . - = '- ·· ¸ - . - = ·- '- . ´_ -'¸

A waiter will have a fit if you go to a restaurant and order .... 21 .
' . - '´ ,-= - '='= - . - '´ ,,- - '´ - - . '´ ,'- - '¸', =

22 . º '-, - ´ -,-´ ·='' »´ ·´ ¸ -=' . »
The object pronoun which is suffixed to the verb corresponds to the personal pronoun
in:
20

' . - --' . - »´ » . »´ ·--'

23 . = _=¸ , =' = !
A mother was talking to her daughter when she said this sentence. She meant to say:
a. Everything is in God's hand.
b. God willing, you will be fine.
c. May God be content with you.

. .............. 24 . ' ' ¸' ´ - = - ¸ ¸,- = -
You certainly do not like to drink a glass of .......... juice.
' . - .'--¸´ - . ¸ - ¸,-, . - ·- =

25 . »´ ·´ -´ = - ¸· !
Is the proper response to:
a. a toast
b. an insult
c. a greeting

Drill # 3 ~-'--' Q-,---'
a.. Give the correct forms of the words between parentheses.
1 ) . ´ ¸' ¹ ´ ¸´ » ( -¸´ , ` »´ ·´,' = ¸' -`´ , ¸' ¸ .
2 ) . ' ´ ¸ ¹ --' ( ·- `, ¸ - ='' ¸,'´'- '- ¸,·¸ = .
3 . - ·''· ) ´ ¸' ¹ ¸» ( -· ,'' ´ .´ ·´ '+ '»'- ´ ¸ ·´-´ ·- .
4 . ´ -¸· ·- . » ) ´ ¸' ¹ ,» ( º, -'- - ´ .´ ·´ -,-´ ·-'' ´ - ¸- ,
5 . ´ - --=' ` ) ´ ¸' ¹ ´ ¸´ ·--' ( -,- ='' » ·= -'' ¸· ´ ¸´ ·-'´' .
6 . ª ·-,- ='' ¸· ) ' ´ ¸ ¹ '-' ( · - - '- ´ - ) ´ ¸' ¹ »´ ·--' ( ¸´ --´ ·-'' ´ -'=-' .

b. Give the antonyms of the underlined words then translate these sentences.
.¸ ¸= -'' ´ -'=-' »´ +´ ·-' ´ -,- ·- .1
21

. '´ - ·=ª ·',- ·` ¸- -,- = - ·-'´ .2
º '-¸'- »'·´ ·='' ¸'´ ·´'- ¸' ¸, -=´ ·- . » .3
º '¸ »'= ´ .´`' ¸,´ , ¸' .-· `,,= '-· , '-¸=--' .4


C. Rearrange the following groups of words to make correct sentences.
1 . », ,'' ª´ ,-= - -,·- ¸· ´ ¸' ´ ¸´ ·=' ª -,´ ='- -' ·=
2 . = '-,-- ´ - - ·-=' ` -'- ··'' ´ ¸' - ¸ - -,·- ¸ -=' _'
3 . ' '´ - - -´ ·'=' ¸' '- -- = '´ ,,- - _'' ´ -»- ·- » ·= -'' ´ - =
4 . ='- ª','´ ·='' ´ ¸' ,», •,¸´ ·='' -,·- ´ - =´ , ` _'= .'· .
5 . » ·= -'' . » ¸€' .-· ¸· -'´' '-» ¸,---· ·- =´ ·-' .
6 . » ·= -'' _'' ¸ ¸ , '´ - ·= ´-,- ·' ¸= - ¸- »-' ´ ª´ ·-` -- ·'' ¸-'=',

Drill # 4 ¿-' ,-' Q-,---'
Please choose the correct options and explain WHY:
1 ) . = · - ´ • ='' ( '-´ » ´- ¸'--´ - ª -- ='' ´ ¸' · .
Your friend was commending the service in a restaurant you both went to. You agreed
and expressed your opinion in two sentences including the one above. Then you
substituted one of the following options for the phrase between brackets and your friend
was really impressed. Which was the correct choice?
' . - =´ ··¸=' ` . - = · - ´ • -´ ·-' . = · - ´ - ' ·-='

2 . .´ =´ ¸'' ´ ¸' ´ - - ·-=' ` . ..............
Someone looked sick. Your friend said that that man was sick. You disagreed. You
wanted to say your sentence in perfect Arabic. You chose the adjective in option ... .
' . '-,¸ - - . - ´•,¸ - . ,•,¸ -

3 . ' ´ª ·','´ ·=' ) ´- -,· - ( - -'' ¸ = . ·= .
22

You went to a restaurant and were seated at a table close to the entrance. You told the
story to your friends but you made a mistake. So, which adjective did you meant to use?
' . - ´- -,- = . - ´ª -,¸ ·· . ´ª ·,¸ -

4 . - ='', .´`',ª ·= ·'´ -'' ´ ¸` » ·= -'' '-» ´ - =' ª - ª,· ´- ¸'--´ - .
I like this restaurant because:
a. the salad and food are excellent
b. of its location and excellent prices
c. the salad, food and service are excellent

5 . -´ - ,¸,- ´ - ='- ´•,- - ,» ,¸'- .
The underlying message is:
a. a protest
b. sarcasm
c. a compliment

6 . ,- ¸- ·- .,´ ·''' .,= -¸,-'',-,-´ ·-'' ¸ . · - ´ ¸, = '-» ,.,- !
This is unbelievable! You are surprised! Maybe you are angry. The following pronouns
can refer to a subject. What is the correct one for this sentence?

' . - »´ ·--' . - ´ ¸´ ·--' . -' '

7 . = - -´ ·'= ·- ¸' ´ ¸ ´-´ , », ,'' ¸ .
The implied subject pronoun in this sentence is:
' . - --' . - '-' . ´ ¸= ·-

8 . ¸-'ª ·',' '-' -'· ............. » ·= -'' '-» .
Your Arab host family will be disappointed if you use one of these nouns in a sentence
like this. They might even correct you. Can you figure out which word you should avoid.
' . - .'=¸ . - -'=-' . .'´ -´ =

23

9 . ) - - ¸-· ( ´ ¸' »'·´ ·='' ´_ -'¸ .
The first word in this sentence implies that you:
a. are certain b. have some doubt c. really do not know

10 . =´ ·- . » , - ¸' ¸ ............... º.'-´ ·-¸´ - ¸,- = = ·'
I am pretty sure you know that you cannot use one of these verbs in a sentence like
this. Which one? By the way, all these verbs are in the subjunctive case.
' . - ¸¸ ·--' . ¸ -=´ ' - ¸-'

11 . -- = ,» ·= - ¸· »´ ·-'´' . » º´ª ·,¸ - ´ ª´ ·-
This sentence is talking about a restaurant that has been recommended for its fast
service. Who ate there?
a. we b. you c. they

12 . -'· ¸-´ ·-' ¸,¸´ ·´-- ·- . » -'='' » ·= - ¸· =´ ·-' · º ª
One of the following personal pronouns can correspond to the subject and object
pronouns implied in this sentence.
' . - --' . - ´ ¸´ ·--' . --'

!» ·= -'' '-» ¸· '- - ='- = ¸ = '-''- .13
You can substitute the underlined word with the one in option:
' . - '- -, - . - '- ·- ='- . -' '- ·-'=

14 . ¸ ·--' ¸ - ´ -, ........... ª + ´'·, '´ ¸´ ¸, '-= ·', '='= - .
This was the first time you went grocery shopping, and you are telling us about your
adventure! Could you please finish your sentence!
' . - ¸ ¸= -'' . - » ·= -'' . ¸,´ -''

15 . ¸' ´ ¸ -- ·- . » ............. º ¸ =' '-, -
One of the following verbs cannot be used in this context?
24

' . - .´ ·´'- . - ¸´ ·´- ·- . ¸´ ·´-- ·-

16 . = - »´ ·´´ ·-, ´ ¸`» ·= -'' '-» _'' .......... ´¸'--´ - .
Arabic grammar accepts this sentence if you choose option:
' . - ´ ª´ ·'´' . - ª ·'´' . ´ ª ·'´'

17 . ´ ¸' ............. » ·= -'' '-» ¸· ............ '´ - ·= .
Arabic grammar will only allow you to use the pair of words in:
' . »'·´ ·='' ‚ - ´-,- ·' . ´ »'·´ ·='' ‚ - '-,- ·' . »'·´ ·='' ‚ ,-,- ·'

18 . = -- -´ , . » ·´- =, - '- ´ -'-'´ ·=''- . = ·´ ·- ¸' ´ ¸ !
This sentence implies that:
a. you are in a self-serve cafeteria
b. there is a waiter attending to your order
c. there is a waitress attending to your order

19 . ·-´ ·- ƒ ¸ ,- -'' _'=´ -'' _'= ´ ¸'- -'' _'=´ -'' ¸- =, ¸ ´ . - .
This man is telling his Arab friend that his wife prefers:
a. grilled fish
b. fried chicken
c. chicken to fish

20 . -,-´ ·='' _ - ´- =, - ¸-- = ............ . ´•,¸ - .
One of the following options makes sense. Which?
' . - ´ ª´ ·-` . - ¸-´ ·-` . '+´ ·-`

21 . ¸'= -''_¸'- ¸· ´ª ·` -'='' . » ........... º
An accident on the Airport Boulevard has been reported in the news. Your friend has
just come back and she saw it. You are asking her if it was:
25

' . - ´- -¸'- . - ´- ¸,= ·= . ´ª´ ,,- -

22 . _ .',` ¸\' ¸ > = =\' , ='= '_ = , =
You will not embarrass yourself if you avoid using the verb in option:
' . - ´ .'- , . - ',''- . ¸,''- ,

23 '=` =\' '_ = ¸ = _ × .¸` , ¸,= = , \=' '_' ¸ ¸'» °
This person is asking whether she/he can order:
a. grape juice
b. limon juice
c. orange juice

24 . .-· ´ -'´' .............. ª ·',´ - ·-, '- - = .
Your Arab friend suggests that both of you go to Filfilah Restaurant in Cairo to eat
Himmis & Tabbuuli. You liked the idea. You ate there a year ago. How would you say
that in Arabic?
' . - ,», , . - ,_,--' . , ª ·- -

25 . ,_ -'- ´ ¸' ¸-- = ¸, ·' .
You certainly can impress your Arab friend by using option ..... as a synonym for the
expression above.
' . ·-=' - = · - ´ - ' . - = · - ´ • -´ ·-' . =´ ··¸=' `

26

Reading Exercise --',--' Q-,--

Read the following words, phrases and sentences into your tape recorder, then listen to
them. Give the tape to your teacher to check your performance:

. .,= . '.'. , ` .,¸ . . . _` .= . . > ` ¸
× = ., '=¦ _¸\'= , ' '. = . ` ¸ × · ¸` = =
× = , ' ,'= ¸ ¸ . = _ ¸ ¸ ¸ , \ ¸ ·` ¸ = ` ¸ =' ´_ ¸'= ´_ ,
. '= '=' . = ¸ '= = ,¸ ,\' ` _ .¸` , ` ¸,= = ¸ ¸'»
` _='= = ´_'= . . ' .,, '= ` ¸ = -` ,\» = ` _ ='= ,

' = ,¸ ,\' _'= = , \=' '_' ` ,
= .,. \ ¸>.' '.= ·¸ - ='¸ = , '` .
'= = '='= . _\ .'= - = \ =¸ '` ,=
. . .'= =\' _\= ` _\» =\' = =` =\' ` , =
¸ = . ,\' ` .,¸ ° -` ,¸= = ',' -` ,\» = _ ='=
',` ¸\' ,'= =\' '_ = '= .'. _¸\'= , ` _ . - =. =\'¸
¸>.' .= , _ ,,' '.,, . , ¸= . '_' ` , = . ¸ = °
\\' '_ = .· ¸\' '.= _· ' ¸, = .¸` ,\' ¸,= = ` , ¸'»
'. =\', ·¸¸= = ` , == =\' '.= '=` =\' - =,¸` =\' - = · ¸'.
'= = ' ` _ - = \ =¸ ` _¸= = ´= = = ,¸ ,\ ¸ ¸ = ,¸ ¸ _¸., ¸
27

Unit # 2 (2) ;-, --=;-'

ehaaei ta|ks en thr µhenr æith ehari|. his Tihvan |rirne in Triµe|i. Thrv agrrr te
ge te a hirtheav µartv |er enr e| ehaae`s |rirnes that rurning.



·,¸= · _.'= ¸\'= !
'= _. · \ × . , '_ = ·', = . °` ,
·,¸= · ·,¸ = '.'
_.'= · '=' ` _='
·,¸= · '=' = , ` '= · _. = .\' '_ = . ,¸ °
_.'= · · ', ¸ - ='= _\'¸ = ¸
28

·,¸= · ° '.` , = .= . ¸ =
_.'= · , = .\', ` ¸` ==' .\ ¸ '= > , '¸ '. !
·,¸= · ¸` = ¸ ', =' · = !
= _.' · ¸',¸ '=' ,¸ , ¸'..' · . , =.' _ > _. '¸,.
·,¸= · ,', =\' ` ¸ = _· ..' !
_.'= · ` _' ¸ ,', = ! '` ¸'= ` _» =\' _'> = '` .
·,¸= · - ,'. , · .= _»,. = ', ·,` =\'
_.'= · _,\¦ ', ! > ·'_ .¦ , ', = .= , ` ¸ =\' ` _¸× , = · ¸ ¸ °
·,¸= · =,\ = _', . > ¸ ` _¸× , = ¸ ._ = ` ,'¸` , '= _\= !
_.'= · . = '.'= '= ° .'= =\' '.= ¸ =
·,¸= · ='.` = \» = -
_.'= · ,= ' · '. = = '¸ = .. = '= '. !
·,¸= · .`,= ` ., = ¸= ` ,¸ ,\' . =' '=' _.'· .
_.'= · \ ,'· ¸ = °` - · ¸=' ¸ = . °` -
·,¸= · ` . » .=' . ` -` ==¦ ) ,,=¸ ( ·¸ '×,¸=' _· _ ¸ . '.
_.'= · °¸ - = ='= -` ,' _·¸ · _ ¸ . '.'=
·,¸= · - = .. ,\' _ ¸ . '.,¸¸\· - = ='= _·
_.'= · . _. = ° _` ¸ =
·,¸= · '= , _` ¸ = . . = , _. ¸ -
_.'= · .` = ¸= ¸ = °´_` ¸¸
·,¸= · , ` _` ¸¸ . , = . ·,` =\' - ,', . _· -` = = .
29

_.'= · ¸ = .\ · , . -` = = . °´_ ×'=` = '.= ¸ = °
·,¸= · '=` =\'¸ , ¸ =\' .. = ´_ .'= '.= _,=\
_.'= · '='¸ = ` - .'. » .=¦ · = \ . , .'= = = '= .. = - »,» =\' _· ! °` .'= ..' ¸ =
·,¸= · ' =', ` , =· !
_.'= · '= = = ¸ ._ = ` ,¸=' '.= . _.', = _· ` - !
·,¸= · ¸ ¸ ` _' » = ,¸'·.' .=` =\' '.= _· ¸¸, _ =
_.'= · ` _ ' · ¸'= . ¸ = _¸.'»\' ` . = '.= '×,¸=' _·
·,¸= · »\' -` ,\ .'=\' - = ,'` ¸\' ,',=' '_ = ¸= -` ,¸
_.'= · ` .` , . . = '.= '= =¸ ` _» = = ¸¸» '` .
·,¸= · · ` _ = .'=` = '. .' ·_»,. = ', ¸ >. . ` _\ ,
_.'= · '=, = '=' '.' \¸ · = \. · ¸ '=' _.. = _, ´_'¸ .
·,¸= · = '_ = ` , . , · .'= ` _'¸` ¸\'¸ \ .'=\' _,¸ -
_.'= · ° , ¸'·' ` ¸, = ¸' ` , ¸'·'
·,¸= · . ', = \» =\' ·¸ ¸'= ¸ > _\= =\' '.= - .'=
_.'= · = ` _¸× . = .'= -\» -,\ °
·,¸= · '= ,¸ '=.' ` _ .'· .
_.'= · . ¸ = '= . °´, ='.` = _¸¸=` = ` _' ` . »
·,¸= · = ', '= \ .'=\' '_ = ..' - ·¸ . _¸ \ = ´¸,¸ = ·, = ..'
_.'= · . '_ ' ` , = . _. = , =. °
·,¸= · . =' .\' - ='` =\' - » = _· _» .\ . =¸ · . =
_.'= · ¸'=..' _· '¸ ='= ` _¸>'= =
30

·,¸= · \\' _\¦ .'»
(Sharif and Shaadi arrive at Wasim’s house and meet other people)
·,¸= · × \ ,` . · ' '_' _\ '¸= ==¦ '×,¸=' '_ = _.'= _»,. = ,
_,==\' · '=' ` =¸ ', . · ` ·` ¸ = '. !
,,=¸ · > =. = ·,¸ = _. ¸ ,=' '¸,.
_.'= · ¸ .,= = ¸ .`,= ` .,= !
,,=¸ · '¸'¸ · = ¸¸=` = \ '¸> = = . '_ ' ¸= .' ¸` = = ., , _· =
_.'= · > \ '¸> = = = ¸
,,=¸ · . _. = °·,¸= _\= .·` ¸ =
_.'= · _.'. -.,. = _· _'> '= .. = '=` = '.· ¸ '= = '., = · '= .
¸.'= · ° _ ¸=\'¸ ·¸,,\' _,'
,,=¸ · >'= ' ¸ .'= ', . ! '=, = = ` . \'¸\' =` =
¸.'= · ,\' '= = ,¸ ' '. =¸ ´¸ '= ´¸ !
·,¸= · . >'= ' ! · ·'. .'= = · =' = = = !
_.'= · »\' _= '= -` ,= °
·,¸= · '= = ` .,¸` , ¸.'= '¸ .` = ,,=¸ ` .\'¸¸ · = ´_` ,. '` .
¸.'= · , - \» = ¸ ,'=¦ ` , ¸ _ ='= ¸. = ¸ ¸'= = ` !
·,¸= · > ·'= = _» - = ', ¸.' ! . = \ ` , =. ` .= , '=,· ¸',\
(Wasim’s sister, Fatin, approaches Shaadi and talks to him)
_ .'· · ' ·_ .'· '.' ,,=¸ .=
_.'= · . _.'= '.' ·'.·` ¸ =
_ .'· · \ = . _,' '= >\' . =\', ,` ¸ ` ,, -
31

_.'= · '.' = ¸ ` _, \` ¸ '. '>,¸=' _· . ' ` = '¸ _ '_ = _, \ · '= ,¸ _,= . \> _'= = , _= -` ,,¸ =\'
_ .'· · .¦ \ = . '_ =\' .= ¸ ` ,, - '=' '_ = = \
_.'= · '= , - = ='=\' _· ` ¸ =.' ` _= ,\'¸ ., ,\' _· ',` =
_ .'· · \ > . . ..' =\' ` , ` ,, ¸ - '.` , = !
_.'= · = · '¸> = \ '_ = '. = = »
_ .'· · =' .'= '_¦ = =. , ==' \,'¸ _
_.'= · _¸ .= . , ..' = '=' _ \,'¸ .,. = _\ -
.'· _ · .' ·.= .= = = _,' = - ,. °
_.'= · =` , ·,¸= _'> '=' _· _'> '= .. = ',, . °'>,¸
_ .'· · '¸ . = _. = = °'>,¸=' _\¦ ` _
_.'= · ,', . _· =' .'= '_¦ · ¸, =\' '.= - !
_ .'· · ` ¸ ¸'= . '¸ - ,.'. '. '¸ . '_' ¸, · = _ !
_.'= · , =' _., !
(Fatin moves on to talk with other guests. Sharif goes back to talk with Shaadi)
·,¸= · ,,=¸ .=' ·_ .'· ·.=
_.'= · . , _= ¸'= =\' - = .'¸ . ! -,¸== = °
·,¸= · = _= ·- =` ¸ ¸ .` = · .` , ` _, = ',\¸ ,¸ . .
_.'= · =' » · ¸, ', !
·,¸= · =' .' = » · ¸, . , , . ¸` =\' . !
_.'= · · '_ = .'=` =\' ,', _\¦ = = !

32

Questions about the text _ .\! ¸¡> -\.=l
Answer the following questions.
1 .\', _.'= ¸ = = '.'=\ ° , =
2 > ·, , ` _¸> =\' ` ¸ ·,` =\' _· °
3 _'> '_ = ` .`,= ` .,= . \ = ,\' ,¸ °
4 ` _` ¸¸. , = '_ = . _· ,', - ·,` =\' °
5 > ·, , ` _'¸` ¸\' ` ,. \'=\' _· , =\' ¸ .'= ` _, ° ·
6 = '.'= \ , '_' ¸.'= '_ = ,,=¸ ,\ '= > ° .
7 .'> ¸ = = _.'· . = ,¸= - °
8 . º-,¸- „'= ¸-'- -´ ¸ ·- „--

Functional Expression ª ·-' ~-' ~','-·-'

º´ -'= --' . » Are you serious?
=´ ·- ·· ,, ´ -' ! May God bless you with good luck!
-' = = - ·· ! May God expose you!
-' = ·= - = ! May God protect you!
´…'¸ -=' ¸-- = ¸, ·' . I have no objection.
= -=´ ·' ¸ - '-» ! This is very kind of you!
´ .´ = ¸ ', -' - = ! Fear God, man!
ª·'= - „-† ! Stop this nonsense!
-'-´ -'' -'- „'' = - ·· ¸ - ! From your mouth to the gate of heaven!
(May God hear your prayers!)
' =', ` , =· ! I swear by God!
, _., =' ! With God permission!
33

' '.= = ¸ ¸ ._ = ` , ! This is the strangest thing!
´-,· - , -`,- ´ -,= ! Happy Birthday!
-'-´ -'' ´ ¸ = peak of youth
= ¸'=--' ¸· '¸ »'= ´ ¸,´'- . I should be ready and waiting for you.
´ -· - '-,· later
¸,-'-'' ´ - - '-» ! This is against law!
¸' ´ -´ - ` ........ It is necessary that ……. (verb)

Vocabulary List =!._ì=\! -=.!¡
¸´ - ·† to grow up, get bigger
_´ ¸ = ·- to graduate
‡ - ·· to expose, uncover, scandalize
. -´ ·-' to contact
´ --´ ·· I got up, stood up
¸- ·-' ·- we meet
¸ˆ= , he speaks, talks
´ » - , to be completed, finished
´ » - ··´ ' I introduce
´ ¸´ ·-' I feel, sense
-' ',= - You (pm) allow ...!
' '= > . ! You be quiet, shut up!
¸´ ·†- ·- You remember!
´ª ·'- = party
´¸ ¸ = Arak (local 90% alcohol drink)
- = ´¸ alcohol
´ » = paternal uncle
34

- ´ ¸- boy
´ª ·' -'= family
´»'-' Imam, religious leader
´_ -'= mosque
´¸,-'· law
=´ - ´_ - ·- society
´ª ·= -'¸ tie, bond
´¸- ·= weather, climate
´ , = weather, climate
´» ·''= world
´¸'`' ruins, historical sites
´ª - -- » engineering
´…'¸ -=' objection
´ ¸' - ·· tribal
´_ -'- common, popular
´.,-- - acceptable
´ -'= serious
´ - - contrary to, against
´¸ , - ·-´ - pious, religious
´ª = , ¸ ·-´ - married
= - ´ª -,= engaged
´ª · -'¸ gorgeous, magnificent, splendid
· - ´.,- reasonable
-´ - ´_ - enjoyable



35


Grammar - -';--'
1. Comparative and superlative forms of Arabic adjectives are the same except that the
comparative form is placed between the two nouns you are comparing, and is always
followed by the preposition ¸ -

ª´ ·-´ ·-'' ¸ - ´ ¸ -†' ´ -, -'' . The house is bigger than the apartment.
The superlative form precedes the noun it describes.
ª ·-,- -'' ¸· , -, - ´ ¸ -†' '-» . This is the biggest house in town.
You must have noticed that the adjective ´ ¸ -·†' is used in both sentences.
2. You can make comparative and superlative forms by dropping the long medial vowel
and prefixing ' to the adjective.
´¸,- ·† becomes ´ ¸ -†'
´¸,· - becomes ´ ¸ ··-'

If the second and third radical consonants are identical, you need to use Shadda (the
double letter diacritic) as in:
´-,- = becomes ´ - ='
-,- ·' ´ becomes ´- ·''
If the medial long vowel is ' , this Alif moves to the end and takes the shape of Alif
Maqsura ‰ as in:
,.'= becomes „'='
, .'= becomes „'='

By the way, ,.'= means “high” and ,.'= means “expensive.”
Comparative and superlative forms of Arabic adjectives do not distinguish number or
gender. In other words, they are gender and number blind!


36

Verb Conjugation J'·-V' ~-,~ ·-

1. The following verbs are in the past tense and conjugated to the singular pronouns:
'-' ~-' ~-' ;» ¸»
¸´ - ·† ´ -¸´ - ·† -¸´ - ·† -¸´ - ·† ¸´ - ·† - ¸´ - ·†
_´ ¸ = ·- - =´ ¸ = ·- _´ ¸ = ·- ´ -=´ ¸ = ·- -=´ ¸ = ·- -=´ ¸ = ·-
‡ - ·· ´ -= - ·· -= - ·· -= - ·· ‡ - ·· - = - ··
- -´ - ·· »´ - ·· ´ --´ - ·· --´ - ·· --´ - ·· »´ - ··

2. The following verbs are in the present tense and conjugated to the plural pronouns:
Q= ·- ; ·--' Q ·--' ; » Q »
' ·- ¸,- ·-' ·- ¸,- ·-' ·- ¸,- ·-' , ¸,- ·-' , „- ·-'' ¸- ·-
„ ·ˆ = ¸ ·ˆ= ·- ¸,ˆ= ·- ¸,ˆ= ·- ¸,ˆ= , ¸,ˆ= ,
¸ · - ´ ¸´ ·- ·- ¸,¸´ ·- ·- ¸¸´ ·- ·- ¸,¸´ ·- , ¸¸´ ·- ,
·' -´ ·- ·- ¸,' -´ ·- , ¸·' -´ ·- , . -´ ·-' ´ . -´ ·- ·- ¸,' -´ ·- ·- ¸

3. The following verbs are in the imperative form and conjugated to the second person
pronouns:

~-' ~-' Q ·--' ; ·--'
¸·-´ ·ˆ-' ',-´ ·ˆ-' - ·ˆ - -´ ·ˆ-' ¸-´ ·ˆ-'
.'· ·- .'· ·- ¸''· ·- ¸,''· ·- ',''· ·-

Drill #1 J;V' Q-,---'

Use the words and phrases in the Vocabulary List in good sentences:

37

Drill #2 ¸-'--' Q-,---'
Please choose the correct options:
1 . ´_ -'¸ .·†`' ´ ¸' ¸-·· - - !
The sentence implies that you want to ........ a friend.
a. visit
b. invite
c. convince

2 . ) ´ª´ ,'-'·'' ´ª= ·-'´ ¸'' ( ·''» ·''·'' ¸·´ª´ - ·+´ - ¸- ¸ .
The emphasis in this sentence is put on:
a. the family ties
b. the Arab World
c. the Arab family

¸' ¸' ',= --' .............. »= ·- ¸-,- - ! 3 .
You want to introduce your friend, Najm to the rest of your friends. Which verb is correct
in this context?
' . - ¸´ ·†- ·-' . - ¸- ·-' ·- . » - ··´ '

4 . · - ¸'¸ '-» ´.,- .
You were pleased with the idea your friend had come up with but you need to replace
the adjective with one of the following. Which?
' . - ´-,¸ ·= . - ´¸,= = . ´ ¸- =- -

5 . , ª ='- .- ··»,´ ·-'' ¸ - ´ --´ ·· .
The sentence says that:
a. I slept for an hour.
b. I will sleep within an hour.
c. I got up from sleep an hour ago.

6 . ´ ª´ ·-` ¸- ='' ´ - ¸- , ` '»,=' ............ . ..........
38

You are talking about a Muslim family with which you spent a weekend. You wanted to
say something about your friend’s brother. Please, choose the proper adjective.
' . - ´-,= - . - ´¸'--´ - . ´¸ ,--´ -

7 . -' ª'- ='' -· , -¸·- ' '- -,- -- '-' -´ · .
We contacted our friend to find out:
a. the time of the party
b. if there was a party after all
c. who was coming to the party

8 . ¸- ·- »´ ·--´ ·† .'--¸´ -'' ¸,- = ¸,- .
The implied subject in this sentence corresponds to the personal pronoun in option .... .

' . - »´ » . - ´ ¸´ ·--' . »´ ·--'

9 . ) ´ ¸-´ ·='' ( »,,'' ´-¸'- .
The synonym of the word which is between parentheses is in:
' . - ´ ¸,-'-'' . Š' - ´ …'¸ -= . ='' ´ ,

10 . ª - = --- ´-´ -=´ - '-´ ·-,- - _´ , ¸ ·- .
This sentence says that our friend, Mohammed, has married:
a. my cousin
b. his cousin
c. our cousin

11 . - ·´ ·-''- ´ ¸´ ·-' ´ -'¸ '- .
A friend says a sentence like this to you. Therefore, she/he needs to:
a. eat b. rest c. drink

12 . ´ -'-·- ......... '¸ ·'' ¸· , ª-,- - ¸ .
39

You want to say that Baghdad is the biggest city in Iraq. Which option you need to
choose?
- . - ´ - ¸ -†' . ´ ¸ -†' ' . ´-¸,- ·†

13 . --'† . » ................... ............... '´ - ·= .

Arabic grammar rules do accept only option:
' . ='' -´ - ´ª'- - ª · - . ='' -´ - ª'- - ´ª · - . ='' , ª · --´ - ª'-

14 . ´ ¸' .......... -`,-'' -,= . ...........
The Arabic grammar rules allow the pair of words in option ... to be used in this context.
' . ª'- = ‚ - ´ª´ ,'-'= . ª'- = ‚ - ª´ ,'-'= . ´ª'- = ‚ , ª´ ,'-'=

15 . ¸,-'-'' ´ - - ´. - = ª -', -'' ¸ = ´ »`ˆ'' .
You would use this sentence to
a. warn someone
b. thank someone
c. encourage someone

ª ··'= - ! 16 . '¸,=' »´ +' ´ -'´ ·· : „- ·†
You can tell that when I said this sentence to my Arab friends I was:
a. sad b. upset c. happy

17 . ¸' ´ - =´ ·- . » ) ¸ˆ= ·- ( '-,- º ¸ ·='
You want to use the synonym of the verb that is between parentheses. Which one
would you choose?
' . - -´ ·'·= ·- . - .´ ·†'- . .,- ·-

18 . º ª · -'='' » ··= - ¸· =´ ·-' -'· ¸-´ ·-' ¸,¸´·†- ·- ·- . »
40

The pronouns which are used as a subject and an object for the verbs of this complex
sentence correspond to the pair in:
' . '-' ‚ - --' . --' ‚ - --' . --' ‚ '-'

19 . = -=´ ·' „'= '¸ˆ´ - !
This sentence means:
a. Thank you for your help
b. Thank you for your kindness.
c. Thank you for all the information

20 ) . = · - ´ • ='' ( - ='' ´ ¸' · '-´ » ´- ¸'--´ -ª - .
The phrase between parentheses means:
a. You are right.
b. Nobody is right.
c. I know I am right

21 . ........... ............ ¸ ·'' _ --=´ -'' ¸· ´.,-- - Š' ¸- ¸-`- .
You want to state a fact that can only be found in Arab and Islamic societies. Option ...
should be your choice.
' . -'-´ -'' ´ _', ¸ - . - -'· --`' ´ _', ¸ . -¸'·`' ´ _', ¸

22 . ª' -'·''•,¸ ·= ¸ = ´ »´ ·- , _',´ ¸'' ´ ¸' ´ - --=' .
We are talking about:

a. arranged marriage
b. marriage among relatives
c. marriage among teenagers

23 . ´ .'·´ -'' ............ ,='' - - - ·- .
You want to say that coughing (as a result of cold) is common because of the weather.
Which of the following adjectives is suitable in this context?
41

' . - ´_ -'¸ . ´.,-- - - . ´_ -'-

24 . =' ¸ - ´ ¸ -†' ¸-=' = - .
The sentence says that:
a. your sister is older than mine
b. my sister is older than yours
c. the two are the same age

25 ) . ´ , ='' ( -'' '-» ¸· -· ,'' ´ .´ ·† ´ ¸'= - ·' .
You need to use the synonym of the word that is between parentheses. Which one
would you choose?
' . - ´ », ,'' . - ´ ¸-´ ·='' . ´ - ¸ »'´ ·=''

Drill # 3 ~-'--' Q-,---'
a. Vowel the underlined words:
._ -'='' ¸ - -,¸· ¸-,- - -,- ´ ¸' .'· .1
.'+ - =¸-` ª-,==- -¸,-ˆ'' ª·-=' --'† .2
.ª'-'·''•,¸= ¸ = ´ »- , ¸-¸·'' »''·'' ¸· _',´ ¸'' ´ ¸' .3
.-¸'- ,='' ´ ¸' ´ ¸´ ·-' ´ -' ¸ '- .4
!ª·'= - „-† ·¸'´ ·-'' »'-Š' .'· .5

b. Provide the correct forms for the group of words between parentheses:
1 . =' ª','='' ‹-» '-¸- ) ´ ¸` ¹ ¸» ( ='´ -´ ·-'' ¸ - ´ª -,¸· .
2 . -'· -' ´ -' ¸-'· - ) ´ ¸` ¹ »» ( , ',-'† '-,' - ¸ »'-'' ¸,¸,¸ .
3 . ·','' ¸· _ · ) ´ ¸' ¹ '-' ( ´ - --=' ` ) ´ ¸' ¹ ´ ¸´ ´ » ( Œ •= „'= .
4 . ´ ª' ',''· ) : ´ ¸' ¹ ´ ¸=- ( , ª ='- .` = -'-'´ ·='' ´ ¸ -=´ ·- - .

c. Give the antonyms of the underlined words, then translate the sentences:
42

._¸'´ ·-'' '-» ¸· , -, - ´ ¸·-' '-´ ·-, - .1
!¸- =,¸ -`,- -,= ´ -,-- .2
.-'--`' ´ ¸ =--- ´ ¸=-, -·,'' ´ .´ ·† '-·- ·ˆ - .3
. -,- ='' ¸='¸ -·' ',' ·- ·· .4

d. Give the synonyms of the underlined words, then translate the sentences:
. -, -'' ¸· ¸,' ´ ‹ -'', ´ ¸' ´ -' ,'' .'· .1
º -,´ -'' .` = -'-· - ¸· ´ , ='' ´ ¸,ˆ , -,† .2
.¸,¸'- ¸· ¸-' -'= .-'·' ¸' ´ -= , .3
.´ ª´ ·-´ = - - ·-´ -= ·- „´ -= „----´ -'' ¸· ¸=' ¸- - .4
e. Rearrange the following groups of words to make good sentences:

1 . ' _ -'='' .´ =´ ¸'' _- »'-' ´ --»'- ´ »´ ·' ·ˆ- , ¸ ,--´ -'
2 . ´ -´ -` - ¸ »'-'' = -' -'= ¸' _- ¸,¸ ·-
3 . ´ -· ,'' ¸'† '´ -= ª -,--'' '·--´ - ¸'`€' ¸· - ¸',¸
4 . ´ --- -'-´ -'' ´ª -,== - ¸-,- - ' »'´ ,' ´--´ - ª - =

Drill # 4 ¿-' ,-' Q-,---'
Please choose the correct options and explain WHY:
1 . '- .'· ,ˆ'' '-´ - = ´ ¸-, : ª´ ,-,·´ -'' ¸· ¸,' . ..........
Our Kuwaiti friend was talking about tourism in Saudi Arabia. Which option is
acceptable to the Arabic grammar rules?
' . - ´ª =', - . - ª =', - . , ª =', -

2 . „-† ª ··'= - !
You would use this expression when someone is saying or doing something wrong.
Which of the following imperative verbs can send the same message.
' . ' - ¸-´ ·ˆ - . - ¸- »-' . ·- ¸¸´ ·†-
43

3 . =´ -'' =´ - ´ ¸- ¸ ·'' ´ _ -- - ´_ - . ................
Only one of the following adjectives can be used to describe the Arab society. Which?
' . - ´ ¸'-'= . - ´ ¸' - ·· . ´ ¸=',-

4 . ´¸ ¸ = ·´-,- ·- ·´- ¸,-
These words can be related to the concept in option:
' . - = - ´¸ . =´ - - ´_ -- . ´ª - -- »

5 . -'' ´ª-,- - - ¸'¸ ·'' ¸· - ¸ ............. -'-· - ¸ - .
You wanted to say that Basrah is older than Baghdad (both cities in Iraq). Option ...... is
the correct alternative.
' . - ´ª -,-· . - ´ª - --´ - . ´ » -·'

6 . ¸ - ¸'·`' ´ _', .............. 'ˆ,¸-' ¸·¸,-'-'' .
Only one word can be used to fill in the blank. Which?
' . - ´ ¸' -· . - ´ - - . -´ - ´_ -

7 . =' ´ ¸' ´ - -- ......... _',´ ¸'' . ..................
The Arabic grammar rules only allow the pair of words in option ... to be used to fill in
the blanks.
' . ª ·'- = • - ´ª´ -'= . ´ª ·'- = • - , ª´ -'= . ª ·'- = • ª´ -'=

-' -'· . » .............. º¸,-ˆ''_ -'='' 8 .
Which of the following words can be used to make the question correct?
' . »'-' - . - »'-' . ´ »'-'

9 . ´ª´ ,' -'·''´ª ·= ·-'´ ¸'' .............. ¸-¸·''»''·'' ¸· .
Which of the following adjectives can be used to fill in the blank?
44

' . · - - ´ª',- . - ´ª -,¸ ·· . ´ - ´ª´ -+

10 . = '., = _=' ¸'· ',,¸ '=' .¸ ¸ · _'> '_¦
My brother has said something strange, I do not know if he was .... .
' , '¸ ='= . '= .'= '` .'=

11 . -'-´ -'' -'- „'' = - ·· ¸ - !
You would use this expression if you were:
a. mad at someone’s comment
b. happy with someone’s comment
c. indifferent at someone’s comment

12 . -'-´ -'' ¸= ¸· --' !
You have just visited your physician and he told you something you wanted to share
with your friend. The physician meant to say that:

a. you have a winter cold
b. you have high temperature
c. you are at the peak of youth

¸€' .-· '-' -'-- . 13 . '-´ ·-' ´ ¸´ ·†--' `
The sentence says that:
a. I remember we met ....
b. I remember we didn’t meet ...
c. I don’t remember that we met ...

14 . ............... ,- ´--´ - ª · -'='' ª --´ - ¸· ´ª-´ ·= , -',- - .
Which of the following pronouns cannot be used in this context?
' . - '-' . - --' . ¸»

45

15 . --'† ´ ·-=' ´ ª ¸,-ˆ'' ´ - - = -,= ª -` '+ - =¸ .
The possessive pronouns expressed in this sentence are in option ... .
' . ,» ‚ - ¸» . ¸» ‚ - ,» . ¸» ‚ ¸»

.¸,¸'- ¸· ¸=', '+ ·- ·' -'= .-'·' ¸' ´ -= , .16
The subject corresponds to option .................
' . - ,» . - ¸» . '-'

17 . · ' ´ -'´ · ¸´ -' ¸-- = ¸,' ´ ª´ ·-' ¸= . .............
You mean to tell the policeman that you have no objection that he checks your college
I.D. Option .... would be proper for use in this situation.
' . - ´¸,-'· . - ´…'¸ -=' . ª ·= ·-'¸ ´

18 . , ª ·- -´--´ - -ƒ =´ ¸ = ·-,ª - -- +'' '+´ ·--,- - - - ¸ - .
This sentence implies that her friend:
a. has graduated
b. did not finish her school
c. will finish her studies in a year

19 . -´ ·-' -' », , '+ - ·' -'· ·- - ·' Ž'-´ -'' ¸·¸ .
The sentence implies that I have ........ my friends’ family yesterday morning.
a. met
b. contacted
c. been introduced to

20 . '+',´ª = , ¸-´ - ¸ - = ´ -- ·- ) ´ ¸- - .(
The word between parentheses can be replaced by the word in option .... .
' . - ´-' , . - ´--- . ´_,¸

21 . =´ ¸ = ·- · - ª · -'='' ¸ - ¸--,- - - , ª ·- - ·- ¸- .
46

Your friend was telling you about his girlfriend. He meant to say that:
a. he graduated after her
b. she graduated after him
c. they both graduated at the same time


22 . ) =\' » ` _ ( ·,` =\' ¸ > ` ¸'=
You want to impress your Arab friends by using the synonym of the word between
parentheses. Therefore, you would select option ... .
' . - ´ ,='' . - ´ -'-´ -'' . ´ - ¸ »'´ ·=''

23 . »'-•' ´ ¸'´ ·-'' .'· : =' '- -- = ¸, ·' =,'¸ „'= ´…'¸ - .
The sentence implies that the people :
a. accepted his opinion
b. disagreed with the Imam
c. wanted some time to think

24 . '- ........... ¸-,- - »´ +' » - ··' ¸' ¸' .
You were complaining about a bunch of noisy guys. Which of the following verbs can
be used to fill in the blank?
' . - ',¸´ ·†- - . - ',' -´ ·-' . ',= - -

25 . '´ª =,´ ¸'' -''· -,´ ·-' : ¸´ ¸ .'· ·- `' ¸· '- » -'-''_,-- .
What the wife meant to say was that:
a. they can visit you
b. you cannot visit them
c. you have a rather open invitation





47


Reading Exercise --',--' Q-,--

Read the following words, phrases and sentences into your tape recorder, then listen to
them. Give the tape to your teacher to check your performance:


´_ .'= ´_¸.'· ´_'¸ .=¦ ´_ ='= = \.
.\ . _` ¸ = . ¸ = .¦ _ = · _» >. . ¸
-` ,\ .'= -\» = '=` = ¸ .`,= ` ., = · ´_= . ´_'¸ .·¦ ` _\ , '= = ¸¸»
` _'¸ ¸ ,', =\' ` ¸ = - =,. »\' ` ¸'..' , ¸'·.' , ',` = = ..
·¸ ´_` , . .` = ¸` = ¸ . _¸ = \
- ·'= = _» > !
> = > _\= '¸ = = ¸ !
'= =' .\ ¸ .\', ` ¸` = , =
=' = .» · ¸ , _'¸ ¸ , ¸` =\' ..
,¸== = - .'¸ =' ` ¸ ,>' - _,. ',` = =
, \ .'=\' _,¸ = '_ = · .'= ` _'¸` ¸\' ` , . -
\ '=' _.. = _, ·' _\= ´_'¸ . ', ='¸ .
. = _».\ \» =\' .= , '. »,. = ., , _· -
` ,'=,' ¸'· · · '_ = .'=` =\' ,', _\¦ = = !
' -` ='= -` ,\.'=\' - = ,'` ¸\ = , ¸ =\' .. = '` .



48

Unit # 3 (3) ;-, --=;-'
Cathv is |eeking |er an aµartnrnt in a |eæ intenr srttien e| Caire that is net |ar
|ren AOC. ehr has rrae an ae in thr nræsµaµrr ane gers te thr rrnta| agrntv te
in¢nirr ahent thr aµartnrnt shr æen|e |ikr te rrnt.



_.'> · '=` =\' '_ = ¸ = > ¸,> ¸\' _ = , \ >.' '_' _ °
¸,>¸\' · ¸,> ¸\' '.' ·', = . » . ¦ ·_\` = '= \ _= !
_.'> · .`=¦ .'¸· · '¸> = > = = _= · .,¸ =\' _· , ` ¸'=,¸ \ ¸ .
¸,>¸\' · . .. = ·', = = '. » =\'¸ .¸,` ,\' '_ = ´. . _ . '.'= '= ° _,` ,
_.'> · ·' » = ¸` = - '., , ¸' '¸,= =
¸,>¸\' · ¸'= ¸' -.,. =\' _· .,. =\' _ ° -
_.'> · ' · ` = · '.'> = ¸ = ='=\' '_ = ',,¸ -
¸,>¸\' · . = - » = _. · - ,,¸ ¸ >'¸ =\' _¸` =\' '_ = ` _
_.'> · . ', > ° - = ='=\' '_ = ` .` =,
49

¸,>¸\' · ',` ¸ _\'¸ = _ _',\', ¸ - ='=
_.'> · = '.'= ·',` , °',,·
¸,>¸\' · = ',,· '¸ · = =¸ _'. , > _ ´,'` = =¸ ´¸,,
_.'> · ° · ¸'= =\' '_ =¸ _ ,'= ` _' _·
¸,>¸\' · =\' _· _,'` ¸\' _ ,'
_.'> · '= = ` . =¸, ¸ = ,\' _· ´. = ° - ,'.
¸,>¸\' · '= = ',,· _,\ · · =` \ ´,'` ¸ , ` . =¸, '_>\¸ ·´. =
_.'> · \ °´,'` ¸ , - ='¸ = ° - ,'.,\'
¸,>¸\' · =. \,» .\' .',=.' ¸'= = _· · .'= ` . ='=` ,¸ ·', -
_.'> · ,=' · '_ = _.'¸ '= ° '=,' ',,· '.'= · = \
¸,>¸\' · '¸ = ',,· - · \ =` = - _¸' =\' _\=
_.'> · ¸', ´.'= ',,· ¸ = °´_ ='=¸ ´.
¸,>¸\' · = . ',,·¸ · '=, ` = - =¸ ¸ ¸'= _'` ,
_.'> · . = '.'= ° '=,' = .
¸\' ¸,> · . = »=. = _· ´¸,= = ., , _. ¸ - . .'= ¸ -
_.'> · = ',> -·¸ ° -,·
¸,>¸\' · = -,· '¸ _'.· ´,'` = =¸ ´¸,= = _ ,= =¸
_.'> · ° ., ,\' '.= _,'
¸,>¸\' · _',\', ¸ - ='= ·'= . '_ = ` ¸.>'
_.'> · · ¸= ¸ = ´,,¸ _¸` =\' '_ = °
¸\' ¸,> · . = · ·', ¸ ¸,= = ¸ _¸= '_ = ´,,¸ '=.,= ='.` =¸
50

_.'> · ' '.'=¸ ° '=,
¸,>¸\' · ·` = ¸ = =¸ , ='= =\' '_ = ´. . = ¸ - ¸ .,¸ , ·¸ .'.¸
_.'> · . _· _',\' ` ¸` = , ¸ = ° _¸' =\' _»
¸,>¸\' · \' _· ¸ ¸¸'=` = ¸ _¸'= _· _',\' · ·¸ = · -»,» =
'> _. · > ·'= =\' ', - °_',\' · ·¸ = _\¦ ., ,\' '_ =
¸,>¸\' · , ¸= = '_ = ¸.>' . =,\ '_>\¸ ·¸=' . ·¸ - ='¸ = _ .'· .
_.'> · ° ',= = _ .'· . ` ¸= =
¸,>¸\' · , ., = = '.¦ '¸` = ` _ >=` , ·¸ - = _¸> . '_' = \. '_ = ¸·'
_.'> · = =\', _',\' '.,, ¸ - ='= -` ,' _· ¸ °
¸,>¸\' · = \' '_ .= '=', = - =.'` =\' - ='` = .'= = · ¸ ='=\' - ='` =\' _
_.'> · > _· ,',' ¸ .' '= _¸, °
¸,>¸\' · ,',' ¸ > _· ·', =. .' '= _¸,
_.'> · . =\' ¸ = -»= -. =' °
¸,>¸\' · > -. =' · ¸ ='»\' ¸ !
_.'> · '=' '.' ¸ . · = \
¸,>¸\' · _\= -»,. =¸ ´_',= ., ,\ \ ·¸ ¸'= -` ,' · ¸,= =
_.'> · ` _¸¸¸ = _¸»\ .\' ` _' ·¸'= . °_¸»\. -,· ¸ =
¸,>¸\' · \ '= >'.` = . \¸ · '. > . '_' ` _ >=` , '_ '= _\` = . _\= \ _¸»
_.'> · =` ¸ . _\= ¸¸=` =\' ` _¦ _¸\¸» , _.` \ -\ >=` = _¸»
¸,>¸\' · ` ,¸¸ ´_,= = '.= '= , ` _'.= , '= .· ¸\' _
_.'> · > ' ° .· ¸\' '_ = ', '= °´_¸,
51

¸,>¸\' · . ·. ¸ ¸ ¸¸, = - .` ·.' _\= ¸
_.'> · _,\¦ ', ! ¸ ¸¸, = -.`. !
¸,>¸\' · . = ', >= . . ·¸ = = .' ` . ».=' '= ¸ \ _,. = .
_.'> · ´_,= = '= . = \,= ¸ ` _ > _= = _. - , \'= _= '=,'
' \ ¸,>¸ · -\ >=` =\' _= '= \ ·¸ = ° = .'= ¸ \ _.¸>. '_
_.'> · '=' ¸ = · '>,¸=' _¸'= ',,· _,=' ¸ ·` ¸ = ¸` ¸' · .= '_>\¸ ·'.
¸,>¸\' · = = = _ =\' ! .,' '¸ . = _¸>, '_' ` .` , . ` _'=
_.'> · - ».'= _.\,= ¸ . = ` ¸ .>' _ !
¸,>¸\' · .' ` . » .'=' '. . ` - _= =\ \ ¸ · ·¸ \ . =\' ` _ > ´.` , = ¸
_.'> · > ¸, =\' _· ., ,\' ` ¸'=,¦ ', °
¸,>¸\' · ` ¸'=,,' 200 .¸. _ = ¸ 200 ' ¸.¸. _,='.\ \ _¸=
_.'> · '=' '=` ,` ,' ° =` ,'¸ ¸= '= °` _ =
¸,>¸\' · · ¸'=' . ='¸ \ ` ¸', =\' =
_.'> · »,» =\' ` .,¸ . - ` . ¸.` = '.' · ., ,\' ¸'=. .=' _· · .
' ¸,>¸\ · ¸ =·.' '_ = '=` ,` ¸ » = _· '. >'= . '_' '= >\ ¸ -
_.'> · .' _ = ·´_,= = = ,'¸ ` . » .'=' ' _ '=' '_' ` , = > ¸ ., , _· _
¸,>¸\' · \' ¸',\' - ='¸¸ _'=.', ` ¸¸= = > _'` ='= '¸,.
_.'> · ', = . >` =\' '_ = . _ =\' _· » _ ' '=' '_' ` , = > ¸ ., , _· _
¸,>¸\' · \ ´_ ='¸ '.= = . , ='= \¸ =
_.'> · . > ¸ ., , . '=' _¸=` = _'> '= .. = _\ 16 . = -
¸,>¸\' · 16 - . = ! > · ¸,= = .. !
52

_.'> · ..` =¸ = \ ¸ .· ¸\' = \. .' '.'¸ _.' ` . » = _\¦ ¸ - » = '_ = ¸ ». ¸ -
¸,>¸\' · . , ='= ¸` = » . '.'= ° =
_.'> · » = _· _ >` =\' ¸` = » . ¸ -
¸,>¸\' · '_.¦
_.'> · .' ` . » .=' ·.' '_ = ` - ¸ = - » =\' ¸ ='.= . '_' !
¸,>¸\' · .=' ´_,= = = ,'¸ ` _' ` . »
_.'> · · ¸ . , '= .. =¸ ., , ` ¸
¸,>¸\' · '_ = ´,,¸ · .,. =\' ¸ >'¸ = -
_.'> · ¸'=\' _· _.` ¸ ,= . = . ¸ = °_.` . =
¸,>¸\' · '¸ ='= ! · ¸',¸ _` ,, = . _. = » =\' ° -
_.'> · \,=¸ _ = ¸, =\' .= , ` _ =¸'= _.
¸,>¸\' · - ='` =\' .\' .\' - - , ='.` = °
_.'> · '` . = - , ='.` = _'=' _· =' !
>¸\' ¸, · ` =`` =\' _ = - !

Questions about the text _ .\! ¿= -\.=l

1 » . '.'= °_.'> ¸` =
2 » =\' _· _'> '.'= ° -
3 ° - ,'.,\' _· ´. == = ` . =¸, ¸ =
4 ¸ = - » =\ \ '¸ = - · °
53

5 '= .= ¸ \ _.'> ` _ >= . = ¸ = » =\' _· ° -
6 =,` ,' _¸` =\' _\¦ ` , ¸·' ' » =\' · ¸,=` =\' - ° ., ,\' ,'
7 > ·'= =\' ', °_',\' · ·¸ = _\¦ ., ,\' '_ = -
8 ¸ = =\', _',\' '., , _. = °
9 _¸»\. _\= ¸¸=` =\' ¸ = -\ >=` = °'>,¸=' _·
10 . '= .. = _.'> ` ¸'=` = _'> ',> ., , .> ¸ '=' °', \

Functional Expression ª·-'~-' ~','-·-'
.=' ´_,= = = ,'¸ ` _' ` . » I believe your opinion is correct.
· _ >` =\' '_ = ., = . » =\' _ _ I am tired of living in apartments.
· ¸'=' . ='¸ By Allah, I do not know.
\ ` ¸', =\' = The choice is yours.
= = = _ =\' ! You are right!
.· ¸\' = \. ..` = since then
_.' ` . = \ until now
,= . = ¸'=\' _· _.` ¸ You will tell me at once.
. ¸ = °_.` . = You promise me ?
\ ´_ ='¸ '.= = This is up to you.
'¸ . = _¸>, '_' ` .` , . ` _'=.,' ! One has to be careful!
»,» =\' ` .,¸ . · .` . ¸.` = '.' · - If you want the truth, I am hesitant.
'=' . ·¸ - ='¸ =, ·¸ ! Frankly, I do not know!
= \. '_ = ¸·' ` _ >=` , Probably it is less than that.
54

¸ =·.' '_ = '=` ,` ¸ Probably it is better ……..
=\ \ _='. . ` - .' ` . » .=' ·¸ I believe there is no need to fear.
_'=.', ` ¸¸= =\' feeling secure
¸ - =' ¸',\' peace of mind

Vocabulary List =!._ì=\! -=.!¡

'--, he/it begins
´ - --· , he/it depends on
´ ¸´ - , he/it passes by
´ - ='-´ , he/it helps, assists
¸-- ·- you (m)/she walks
´ - · ·- you (m)/she promises
´ ¸ ·-=´ ·- you (m)/she tells, informs
´ .´ -= ·- you (m)/she gets, obtains
´ - -·' I mean
´ . - ·--' I transfer, move
´ -'¸ ·· I read
´ -† ¸ ·- I left
´ -- · ·- I got tired
´¸`=' advertisement
´- ='- owner, friend, fellow
´.,- ¸ fellow, classmate, friend
´-'´ , - doorman
´¸'= gas
´•'´ - ·= cook, oven
´ª =ƒ `` refrigerator
´ª´ ·- - apartment
55

´-, - house
´.- = carrying
´¸'=,' rent
´ª -'¸ = guarding
´_', - fence
¸´ - ´ª ·· balcony
´- ·, - stop
‘'- bus
´ª' ˆ-´ - problem
´-, = fear
´¸†¸ - center
´ª ·-=- - area
´ª ·-,- = garden, yard
´ ¸¸,¸ - necessary
´- - ¸ ·-´ - hesitant
´ . ··' less than
’ -'» quiet
´ »'» important
´- , = good
´- -'= frightened, scared
- -'= usually
_¸'= outside
. ='- inside

Grammar .=!¡s\l
1. Relative pronouns usually introduce adjectival clauses and follow the antecedent they
describe. In Arabic, the use of these relative pronouns is determined by the gender and
number of the antecedent.
a. ¸-'' is used for singular masculine nouns.
,'' '´ - ·= '-,= ·' ¸'† ¸- ·' -'· ¸-'' ´ .,† .
56

The agent who met me was very nice.
b. ¸-'' is used for singular feminine nouns.
='--' ¸-'' -'¸ -'' '-- ='- -, -'' '-» - ¸ .
We helped the woman who rented this house.
c. ¸,-'' is used for plural masculine nouns.
´ ·' ¸ - » ·= -'' ¸· '- · - ','†' ¸,-'' ´ -'· --`' ¸'-- .
The friends who ate with us in the restaurant are from Lebanon.
d. ¸-',''' is used for plural feminine nouns.
= - ª ·-,- -'' „-- ·--´ - ¸· ¸' -· , ¸-',''' -'-,-´ ·='' '-, .
We invited the doctors (f) who work at the town hospital.
2. Inanimate plural is always treated as a feminine singular.
=Š' ¸ ·· ¸-'' ´ -'-` ´- ¸,` ·† - -,¸ ='' ¸· '»'-' .
The ads we read in the newspaper (were) many.

3. If the antecedent is indefinite, you do not need to use a relative pronoun.
¸ ´ -' -'· , ª ='- .- ·· =- = .'- `´ = .
I met a man who asked about you an hour ago.
You must have noticed that saying the same sentence in English would require the use
of the relative pronoun.

Verb Conjugation J'·-V' ~-,~-
The following verbs are in the past tense conjugated to plural pronouns:
Q » ; » Q ·--' ; ·--' Q=-

· '-' ¸ ·· ' ¸ ·· ¸' ¸ ·· ',' ¸ ·· ´ ¸´ ·-' ¸ ·· »´ ·-' ¸ ·
¸,- - ',- - ´ ¸´ ·-, - - »´ ·-, - - '-, - - „- -
',- · ·- ´ ¸´ ·-- · ·- »´ ·-- · ·- '-- · ·- ¸- · ·- - · ·-
57

¸·† ¸ ·- ',† ¸ ·- ´ ¸´ ·-·†¸ ·- »´ ·-·† ¸ ·- '-·† ¸ ·- = ¸ ·-
·' ·- ·-·-' ',' ·- ·-·-' ´ ¸´ ·-·' ·-·-·-' »´ ·-·' ·- ·-·-' '-··' ·- ·-·-' . ·- ·-·-' ¸

b. The following verbs are in the present tense conjugated to singular pronouns:
¸ » ; » ~-' ~-' '-'

´ - ='-´ ·- ´ - ='-' ´ ·- - ='- ´ , ¸, ´ - ='- ´ ·- ´ - ='- - ='-
´ ¸´ - ·- ´ ¸´ - , ¸, ¸´ -·- ´ ¸´ - ·- ´ ¸´ -' ´ ¸ -
´ - - ·-· ·- ´ - - ·-· , ¸,- - ·-· ·- ´ - - ·-· ·- ´ - - ·-=' - - ·-='
´ - -·- ·- ´ - -·- , ¸,- -·-·- ´ - -·- ·- ´ - -··' - - ··
c. The following verbs are in the imperative form conjugated to second person singular
and plural.
Q ·--' ; ·--' ~-' ~-'

.´ - ·- ·- .´ - ·- ·- '´ - ·- ·- ¸ '´ - ·- ·- ', '´ - ·- ·- ¸
¸'¸·' ','¸·' ¸'¸·' '¸·' '¸ ··


Drill # 1 J ;V' Q-,- ·--'
Use the words and phrases in the Vocabulary List in good sentences:

Drill # 2 ¸-'--' Q-,- ·--'
Please choose the correct options:
1 ) . ¸-',- ¸ ( -, -'' '-» ¸·¸ ·ˆ´ -'' ¸ -´ª ·- -'= .
The synonym for the word that is between parentheses is in option:
' . - ¸- - ='- . - ¸- =, ¸ . ¸-='

58

2 . ´_ - ·-=´ - ´ ¸- ¸ ·'' ´ _ - ·-=´ -'' . ...........
Which of the following options does not make a good sentence?
' . ´ ¸' -'= - . - ´ ¸' - ·· . ´ ¸=',-

3 . -'' ´ ¸`¸-`'- ´ ¸´ ·- ·- ` '+´ ·-' ´ -'¸ -'' -''· ´¸,- ·† -, .
Therefore, she must be:
' . - ´ª ·- -'= . - ´ª´ -'= . ´- ¸,= ·=

4 . ¸- = ´ .´ ·† ‘'-'' ´ ¸´ - , - • -'· .
The bus runs every:
a. ten minutes
b. five minutes
c. fifteen minutes

5 . ª ·- ·=- -'' ‹ -» ¸· '-, - ´ -- = , '- . ............
Which of the following options can be used to make a good sentence?
' . - ¸€' - = ' . - -'-´ -'' ¸ = . ¸-', = ´ .´ ·†

6 . '+´ ·- ·-,- - - - ¸ - , ª ·- - .-· - =´ ¸ = ·-,ª - -- +'' .
Therefore, this friend is more likely to be:
a. a lawyer
b. a physician
c. an engineer

7 . = ·' ´ ¸', ='' !
I am sure you can impress your friends by choosing the option which means the same.
Which?

' . - = -=´ ·' ¸ - '-» . - =,' = ¸'- ` . = ·' ´_ ·='¸ '-»
59


8 . '- -- = ) ´• ·-´ -, ´-,,´ - ( ¸'=,“ ' .
One of the following words can substitute for the phrase between parentheses. Which?
' . ´-` = - - . ´ -',-' - . ´ª ·' ˆ-´ -

9 . ¸» ) ´- - ·†'-´ - ( -, -'' '-» ¸¸ ·-- ·- - '+´ ·-' .
Which is the antonym of the word that is between parentheses?
' . - ´-¸,¸ - . - ´ª' ˆ-´ - . ¸ ·-´ - ´- - -

10 . - -,¸ ='' ¸· »´ ·ˆ ·-`=' ´ -' ¸ ·· .
The sentence says that this person has seen the ad:
a. on the TV
b. in the magazine
c. in the newspaper

11 . ´ - ='-´ , ......... - = ¸· -',-`'. ª ·',-´ ·`'' .
The word in option ..... makes the sentence good.
' . - ´ .,† ,'' . - ´ ¸'=,Š' . ´ -'´ , -''

12 ............. . ,» = -¸´ - ,_ ¸'- „'=´ª´ ·' =´ - .
One of the following words cannot be used in this sentence.
' . - ´ª =`´ ·`'' . - ´ª ··¸´ -'' . ´ª ·-,- =''

13 . ´ ---'' --'† ) ´- - - ¸ ·-´ - ( -, -''¸'=---' ¸· .
Therefore, this person must be:
' . - ª´ ,- =- - - -,' . - ª',-- - - -,' . - - ·†'-´ - - -,'

14 . -, -' ' ´ ¸' ¸,¸´ ·†- ·- ·- . » ............. - ¸,- ·† .
60

Which of the following options cannot be used to fill in the blank?
' . - ª ·-,- = . - ª ··¸´ - . '=', -

15 . , ´¸,-† ª´ ·-´ -'' ´” -= - »'´ - ='' ¸ - ´-,¸ ·· .
The sentence says that the kitchen is:
a. close to the porch
b. near the bathroom
c. next to the bedroom.

16 . ´ ª´ ·-'-'= ´ ¸´ ·ˆ- ·- , ª ·-=- - ¸· . ...................
One of the following adjectives cannot fit in this context. Which?
' . - , ª ·- -' . - , ª - -'» . , ª ·',- ·`

17 . -, - ´ -† ¸ ·- ) ¸'»' ( - ¸,· - ´ --´ ·† '- -- = .
This woman said that she left her parent’s house when she was young. Which of the
following option cannot replace the word between parentheses?
' . -' - ¸- ¸ . - ¸-´ - = . ¸- ·' -'=

18 ........... . _¸'´ -'' ª ,'+ - ¸· ‘'-'' .
Which of the following options makes a good sentence?
' . - ´ª',- ¸ . - - ´ - ·, . ´ - - ¸ ·-´ -

19 ) . ¸-`'- ´ ¸,·´ -'' ( '´ - ·= ´ ¸¸,¸ - .
Which of the following phrases can substitute for the phrase between parentheses?
' . - ´ -·,'' = '- . - .'-'' ´ª ='¸ . . ··`' „'=

20 . · - ´- ¸ »'= ‹ -» ¸-' - ¸· ´ª ··,¸ .
This sentence is talking about:
' . - ´-,- = ´-¸ - . - ´»,'· - ´-¸ - . ´-,¸ ·= ´-¸ -
61


21 . - ¸ »'-'' ¸· ´ ¸'=,Š' ·, »'= , .ˆ - ·- . ..............
The adjective in option .... makes a good sentence.
' . - ´ ¸¸,¸ - . - ´- -'-´ - . · - ´»,'

22 . ¸'· ) ` ,'=,' ·( , , =' = » · ¸ . ¸` =\' . !
The word which is between parentheses is related to the one in option:
' . - ´ª · -'='' . - ´ _ -'='' . = -'' ´ _,-

23 . »'-• ' ´ ¸'´ ·-'' .'· : =,'¸ „'= ´…'¸ -=' '- -- = ¸, ·' !
The people seem to say to the Imam:
' . · ·- ` - ´ -¸ . -· ,'' •· - ´ _'-= ·- . - . · - ´ • -´ ·- ·- =

24 . = ·' ´_ ·='¸ '-» !
When you hear your Arab friend says this sentence to you, you get the impression that:
a. he has the choice
b. you have the choice
c. nobody really has any choice

25 . .......... ª - -'='' ª ='´ -'' ¸· ‘'-'' .
Only one of the following verbs really makes sense in this context. Which?
' . - ´ - --· , . - '-- , . ´ - ='-´ ,


Drill # 3 ~-' ·--' Q-,- ·--'
a. Fill in the blanks with the proper relative pronouns wherever needed.
1 . ´ª´ ·-´ -'' ...... ='--' ¸ --´ -'' ¸ - ´ª -,¸· '»'- · „-- .
2 . ´ -, -'' ...... † ¸-'-'= ´ ª- ¸--' · ´»,-·, ´¸,- .
62

3 . ·' · = -'' ‹ -» ´ . - =' - „'=ª' ........ ¸·' ´ --† -' '»' ¸ .
4 . -'-''´ ·='' ´ -' -'· .......... _,--`' '-» ¸'- , .
5 . --' ´ .† ´ -, = - ¸-'· .......... ¸-, - „'' »´ +´ ··¸·- .
6 . ,_¸'- ¸· ‘'-'' ´ ¸´ - , .......... ª,· ´ ¸´ ·ˆ-' ´ --´ ·† .
7 . ´ --'¸='' ....... ¸ - ,'' ¸ - '»' ¸-- .
8 . `´ = ¸ ´ -' -'· ......... ª -'¸ -''»'´ ,' ´--´ - =´ ··¸· , .
b. Give the synonym of the underlined words.
. ',''= ¸'† ¸'=,Š' ´ ¸' ´ -¸=' .1
. - ¸'- ·'' ‹ -» ¸ - •''´ ·`'' •-'´ ·='' ¸· ¸',- ¸ ´ ¸´ ·ˆ- , .2
.¸-`' '-» „'= »´ + ·- ´ • -´ ·-' .3
c. Give the antonym of the underlined words.
. ª-,- -'' _¸'= ¸- =, ¸ ª' -'= ´ -, - .1
.´ ¸´ ·ˆ- ·- ¸-=' --'† ¸,' ´ -,- ·- .2
. ¸€' - = ' ª -' -'= „'= ´ - --· , ¸-,- - .3
._,--`' ª ,'+ - ¸· ¸'´ - = „'' '-¸·'- .4

d. Put the following groups of words in the correct order to make meaningful sentences.
1 . »,- ·-'' ¸· '+ -, - '+´ ·-' ¸ - -' ·---' ´ - - ·-=' -'·- - .
2 . = -'' '+ ·=, ¸ .»' ¸· , ª --'» ª - -'= ¸· ´ -, - , ª-=- - ¸,¸ .
3 . , ª ='- „'' ¸´ --´ ·-'' ¸ - ´ª ··'- -'' ´ -- - - ¸'´ ,´ -''- ¸'= -'' .
4 . '´ - ·= ¸,·´ -'' ´ ¸¸,¸ - ¸· ´ ¸' ¸-`'- ¸,'¸ .
5 . '' '+´ ·-´ ·- - ¸· ´ . -· ·- . = - ¸ - ´ª -,¸· ª,· ¸-'' ª ··` = .
6 . ª´ ,=,--`' ¸· -,- ='' ¸ = ´ -'¸ ·· ¸`=`' - -,¸ ='' » ·= -'' .

Drill # 4 ¿-' ,-' Q-,- ·--'
Please choose the correct options and explain WHY:
1 . ´ .,† ,'' .'· : ´ -- ·-'' - ·''-· ·´ª ·- -' ´ - ¸ »'-'' : =' '- '-- ·' ·- !
You understand from this sentence that:
63

a. they disagreed on everything
b. the woman agreed with the agent
c. the agent agreed with the woman

ª ·' ˆ-´ -'' ¸ = ´-'--`' ............ · ·- '+´ ··¸ . 2 . ´ »' ·ˆ- ,
The relative pronoun that can fit in this sentence is option ...
' . - ¸-'' . - ¸-'' . ¸,-''

3 ) . '-´ -´ ¸ ( = , -· ,'' •· - ´ ¸ -'-´ ¸'' ´ _'- .
The word which is between parentheses can be replaced by the word/phrase in option
... without changing the meaning of the sentences.
' . - ¸'¸ ˆ-´ -'' ¸ - . - -,†'´ ·-''- . ´»,'· -

4 . ¸,-'- „'= .,-´ ='' ´ ¸' ´ - - ·-· , ........... ¸,- ·† - .
Arabic grammar allows the use of the word in option ...... .
' . - ´ª' ˆ-´ - . - ª' ˆ-´ - . , ª' ˆ-´ -

5 . ´ ·ˆ -, - ¸ -´ª -,¸ ·· '+´ ·-´ ·- - . » º»
The possessive pronouns implied in this sentence are:
' . ¸» ‚ - »´ » . ¸» ‚ - »´ ·--' . »´ ·--' ‚ »´ »

6 . ´ -, -'' ........ _¸'´ -'' '-» ¸· ´ ª´ ·-¸ ='--'

The correct relative pronoun which is needed in this sentence is the one in option ..... .
' . - ¸-'' . - ¸-'' . ¸,-''

7 . ´ ·· , ·- , ´ ¸ ) ´-, - ( ¸†¸ - ¸ - ´-,¸ ·· ª-,- -'' .
The word in option ..... can substitute for the one that is between parentheses with a
little change.
' . - ´ª´ ·- - . - ´- ¸ »'= . ´ª' ˆ-´ -
64

8 . ¸ - ´-,¸ ··, ´¸,- ·† ª´ ·-´ -'' ´ ” -= - . ............
The word in option ..... cannot fit within this context.
' . - »'´ - ='' . -'' - -' . -, -''

9 . , ª ·-=- - ¸· ´ ª´ ·-` ¸-' -'= ´ -, - ´ - =' . ...........
One of the following adjectives cannot be used in this context. Which?
' . - , ª - = -¸´ - . - , ª · -'¸ . , ª - -'»

10 . ¸ - ,• ·-'= ¸' ¸· ) ª ,'--'' ( º = - ·' -'=´ª´ ·- -
The synonym for the word between parentheses is the one in option ...... .
' . - - ¸'- ·'' . - -` = -'' . - ¸ -'´ -''

11 . ¸ - ´- - = _¸'´ -'' '-» ¸· .............. = -, ª ··` ='' -` .
The word/phrase that can be used to fill in the blank is the one in option ...
' . - -,¸ -'' - ¸ -'- . - ¸ ¸= -'' . » ='= -''

12 . _¸'= ¸,' ¸ ˆ', '-, - ´ ª´ ·- =, ¸ ´ . - ·-´ ·- ª ·-,- -'' .
It is logical to say that this woman prefers to live ...

a. in the suburbs
b. in an apartment
c. in the downtown area

13 · ¸'` , = '¸ =\' = » ·'¸ - - =\' ¸ = = ,'=' ·` -
-´ -´ ¸ ='-´ » ' ......
' . - ´ª' ˆ-´ - . - ´ª ·- ·` . ¸ - ´¸ ·†

14 . -,¸ -'' - ¸ -'- ¸ - ´ª -,¸· ¸-', = ´ .´ ·† '+,· ´¸´ ·ˆ-' ¸-'' ´ª ,'--'' .
65

¸· ´ ¸´ ·ˆ-' ¸ ·-–· = '- ' ..........
' . - , -, - . , ª´ ·- - - . ,¸´ --´ ··

15 . -'' ¸· '+´ =, ¸ ´ . -· , » ·= ¸ ·†¸ - ¸ - -,¸ ·-'' ª=¸´ -'' .
One of the following statements is false. Which?
a. she works in a restaurant
b. her husband works in a restaurant
c. the restaurant and the police station are close to each other

16 . »' -, - ´ -·† ¸ ·- ¸' ............ ª,· '- ·-¸´ ¸ .
Arabic grammar rules would only allow the use of the relative pronoun in option .... .
' . - ¸-'' . - ¸,-'' . ¸-''

17 . '-,' ´¸,- ·†, ´.,- = -, -'' ´ ¸' ´ - - ·-· ·- .
The subject which is implied in this sentence cannot be the pronoun in option ...... .
' . - ,» . - --' . ¸»

18 . '--'= ¸,¸- = - -,- ='' - ¸'- ·'' ¸· . = ·- ='- ' '- „'' ´ _ . ...........

' . - , -'´ , - . - , - ·- - . ¸´ - , ª·

19 . ´ ·-' ´ -'¸ -'' - ·''· ´ ¸`¸-`'- ´ ¸´ ·- ·- ` '+ ´¸,- ·† -, -'' .
¸,ˆ ·- ¸' ´ -´ - ` ......... ... . ....
' , · ¸,= = . -` ='= - » .'=

20 . ´ --´ ·† ¸-´ ·-` -, -''¸'=- --' „'= ¸- =, ¸ ¸-·-·´ = - ..........
' . - '-,=' . '- ·†'-´ - - . '- - ¸ ·-´ -

66

21 . ¸-´ ¸ ·-=´ ·- - ª´ ·-´ -'' ‹ -» ´ ¸ ·='-- ·- '- -- = .
The object which is implied in this sentence is option ......
' . --' - . - '-' . ¸»

22 . - ¸ »'-'' ¸· ´ ¸'=,Š' ·Œ »'= ,.ˆ - ·- ) · - ´.,- .(
The word that can substitute for the one that is between parentheses is in option .....
' . - ´ ¸¸,¸ - . - ´- -'-´ - . · - ´»,'

23 . ',¸,- ¸· ´ª ·`,- = ´- ¸ »'= ¸''·'' ´ ¸'=,Š' .
The sentence says that .....
a. expensive rent is a problem
b. high rent is a new phenomenon
c. low rent effects real estate value

24 . = -, - ¸ - '-,¸ ·· '-,- = '-, - ¸¸ ·-- ·- - .
The subject pronoun which is implied in this sentence corresponds to the personal
pronoun in option .... .
' . - --' . - ,» . ´ ¸=-

25 . -¸=` , ª ·=¸'= „'' ´ _'-=' ......... '- , = .
Which of the following options makes a good sentence?
' . - ¸'·'' •'´ -= . — ¸,´ -'' . ª ·- ·=- -''






67

Reading Exercise --',--' Q-,--

Read the following words, phrases and sentences into your tape recorder, then listen to
them. Give the tape to your teacher to check your performance:

´_`=¦ = · .,¸ ´¸'=,¦ »,. = ´_', = -
\ =` = - . = ` - . . \ » ..¦ · .` .¸ .` = . , =
- ='¸ = \ ´_ ='¸ ¸',\' ¸ ¸'= _'` ,= ·.' _\= ¸
.'· . ` ¸= = _ . = ¸ - ='= ·'= . » = - . .'= -
\,» .\' ` .',=.' - _'=.', ` ¸¸= =\' . _· .· ¸\' = \

' » =\' _\= ., ,\' ¸` = · -
¦ ¸,> ¸\' ¸¸» , . =\' ` _ ´.` , = ¸
\ .'= . \'· _. · _='. . \ \ ·¸ =
· ¸ '=,' .' _',` =\' · .,¸ = _· _`
= = ´,,¸ · _',\' · ·¸ ', ., , '_ = '` .
>¸ '.,. = '., , _. \ .'= . ¸ ='.=¦ '¸,,
'` ¸ ,\' ` . ='=` , ¸'= = _· ` , .\' .',=.' \,» -
·¸ =\' _· ', = = ', . \,= ¸ ` _ >'= . = ¸ = ° -
.' '.'= \ ` = . . ` . ¸ ¸'=. .'=' _· · . » =\' · .= ° -
- ·¸ = ., ,\ \ - = ='¸ - \ =` = _¸' =\' _\= ` _=,.` ¸\'
68

Unit # 4 (4) ;-, --=;-'

(antv arriure in Annan. thr taµita| e| §erean. ehr µ|ans te stav æith a |ani|v in
a ui||agr net |ar |ren thr Drae era te ee a eetnnrntarv |i|n. ehr is ta|king æith a
|rirne ahent his tenntrv ane thr Arah ler|e in grnrra|.



_=.'. · .` . = \ , '_ = _. . \'= ', = . !
. \'= · . '_' _,` , = . '.'= '= °_·¸
_=.'. · > _.¸ ,=' ` -. = ¸ ._ = ¸
. \'= · ` .'¸.' \ , ` _ - . = _\'¸ = - .' >` = ` . . = ·´¸,= = ´. _,,` =
_=.'. · _` .` =\' ` ¸ ,=' _= '= °` _` .¸.' _·
69

. \'= · ' ` = = - = ='=\ =\` =\'¸ ` _' ,¸¦¸ = ¸ >¸ .
_=.'. · » · _'` = = '_ = `,\ · '.,= ·¸'=' = ',,\¦ .\ = ¸ ..` = ' ¸ _¸,'=
. \'= · . , ==' ¸ = . ° =
_=.'. · '` . = - »,= .¸ · ¸,= = _= · ¸ ='»\'> ¸ - = = .'¸` = ` ¸, =¸
. \'= · .' ° · ¸ ='»\' _,·¸'=. .
_=.'. · '=, = = -\ ='> - . = ='.` = .=
. \'= · ° ='.` = .\ = = '.'=
_=.'. · . > -` ,¸ ..>=.' - = ='=¸ -` ,>,¸=.' - = ='=\' _· ` _`¸'.' .
. \'= · -` ,, ¸ =\' .= \ = . ='.` =¸ °
_=.'. · - »,» =\' _· -` ,, ¸ =\' ` , \ = .' .'. , > _· '=¸ ,\¸ = ..¸'= -` ,\
'= . \ · -` ,\ > _,' °'=¸ ,\¸ = ..¸'=
_=.'. · . =¸¸'='= - ,.¸ _·
. \'= · ¸ ' _'> °` _, ¸ = =.'.=
_=.'. · ·', = . ' _·'¸ = ¸ .'.=' _ = .= ¸ .
. \'= · . ° · ¸ ='»\' _\¦ .,'=. ` ,
_=.'. · \'= ¸ _\= .\ = = = \. .= , · ¸ ='»\' _· - ='¸` .\ \ ¸ -
. \'= · , - ,¸ · ` _'` = = · · ¸ ='»\ \ - ,= .\' !
_=.'. · - = = .'¸` = · ¸ ='»\' >¸ = · ¸,, '` .
. \'= · ´_,= = '.= \ - , ='.` =\',¸ ´.'., = ` _` .¸` » =\' ¸= ¸ ='=.' ¸'= ,\' _\= - ,
_=.'. · ='=' ` - .' ` . » .'=' ¸'= = _· -` ,¸ ..>=.' .'.,= '_ = ` ¸
. \'= · '=', = >¸ . '= '= =.' ` _,· _,·¸ -` ,¸ ..> _ ,,.' ¸'= ,\' _\= ` =\' . =` = ¸
70

_=.'. · _· ` . =¸, ¸ = ' > ´¸', . ` _` .¸. °´¸,,
. \'= · . '=, = -,· ` ¸', ' \¸ =¸ ` _` .¸. ¸ .'¸ ` -
_=.'. · °_.'¸\' '.= ` ,'=' '=
. \'= · . , _.'¸\' » _ ,' '= ,
_=.'. · ` .` , . '=` = ` _' = ` ¸\' , _.'¸\' '.= _· - ='¸
. \'= · `,\ ·¸ =\' _· ¸'= =¸ - = ='=\' ¸¸ = _ ='. ,\' .`
_=.'. · ='.` = ¸ = - ='¸ ¸ ° ,¸. =\' _·
. \'= · -` ,¸'¸'= = - » =. = ` ,¸. =\' . >'= , ¸. ,\' ',
_=.'. · ° - ='¸` ¸\' _· °¸. ,\' ¸ ='= , '.'=
'= . \ · ¸ ¸'= =¸ ¸ ¸. =¸ ¸ , . = ·'=` ¸ ¸. ,\'
_=.'. · ¸'·' = .. = ¸ = °¸. ,\' '_ = ` ,
. \'= · ` _¸ . , _'` = = _»,. = ` _ >\¸ ·.
_=.'. · ° =` . \'¸ ¸ ='= , '.'=
. \'= · '=¸ »\' - >¸ = _· ¸= '= , = ¸\' .'» -` ,.
_=.'. · »\' ` . =¸. ¸ - » =. = -` ,' _· '=¸ °.'»
. \'= · '¸ = _· _ -` ='= .`,\'
_=.'. · ' ',,· ¸ = -` ,=',= ` _ >'= °` , ='= =¸ _ .'.·¸
. \'= · . · =` \ =\' ` .'.¸ = ¸',
'. _=. · - » =.= \' ` _' _.= , \ \¸='= . =, - '. ,'
. \'= · \¸ ·´_' >` = ',,· · ,` = . . = ` _ > ¸,\
'. _=. · ` _` .'¸.' _· ¸ = · ´¸'.' - =,. °
71

. \'= · . ¸ = ´¸'.' ',,· ', = -` ,, · -` ,.'=¸¸¸ - =,.
_=.'. · °` ¸'..' · . = _,'
. \'= · . ,\' _· ,¸¦¸ _ ¸ =¸ .'¸ _¸=' _ ='.=¸ .
_=.'. · - =',= , > .. = ·_.= ,
. \'= · = » · = \. _,\ >'¸ = ` _'` = = . = ,'=' ` ,\'=¸ ',¸'=. '¸ '
_=.'. · ´,,= = ! > = . ¸'= ·, >'¸ = ` _'` = ° '` ,\'=¸ '` ,¸'= . '¸
. \'= · '¸ =\' , , = , \ _· -` ,\=.' , _'.,
_=.'. · '=` = . \ »..¦ ·_.= , ¸ =\' ` , = .'> '.` = _\¦ =¸.` ,\'¸
. \'= · =, =\', ! \ »..¦ . ` , ='=` = ¸ =\' .'> ¸.` ,\'¸ _'` = = _\¦ = -\'= = ='.` =¸ _¸= '
_=.'. · -\'= =\' ·.= _= '= .' °_¸=
. \'= · '¸ =\' ¸` = =\' , ¸''= =\' .'..'¸ -` ,.'¸,.' -` ,·'¸ _'¸ =\' _\=
_=.'. · . \ »..¦ ` , ='=` = ¸ =\' -` ,·'¸ =\' =¸.` ,\'¸ .'> '=,' _'` = = _\¦ °
. \'= · ' . = ,=' ·. - ,» =\ _'¸ =\' .'.,= =¦ .'= , _` · ¸'= ,\' .'.,=
_=.'. · ` _, ¸ =\' ¸ . =\' ¸¸» , '=\.= ¸ ,¸ · .. = ¸ ,¸ · ` , .'= = · ` . .'¸ !
. \'= · ¸ = =\' '= '_ >\¸ ·´_,= = '.= · · =` \ !
_=.'. · .= , '.= » =. =\' _· '` = ,` = ¸'= _'` = = ¸'= = ` _' _ -
. \'= · .'¸ .'= > \' ¸ \'=\' -` ,¸ =\' =¸= = . -` ,= ` = = _\¦ ` ¸,= _'
_=.'. · ¸'= »\' .'= . = ·,>¸ °
. \'= · =\' ` _>\¸ ·´¸'= · '. .. = _,\ '=` = _` ¸ ¸'. ·
_=.'. · ¦ .\'¸ .'¸'` ,` =\' .'= . = '_. · .` , = ¸»
. \'= · . ',\'¸ .'¸'` ,` =\' ·', = . .'= ° -` ,.¸=` =\'¸ '` ,¸¸=¸ _'¸=\' _\¦ ` ¸,=
72

_=.'. · ¸ ¸> = ,¸ ¸ ,'= ..', ` ¸,= . ¸ = ¸ ,.'. '=¦¸ °' _.',.
. \'= · _'= ¸\' _\= · · ¸ . , '.= ` _=',` =\'
_=.'. · '= , °_.
. \'= · .'> '.¦ =\' . . '_' ` _ >=` , · .` , = .'·` · ¸'` ,` =\', _== . _\¦ _¸ ·'=
_=.'. · ´,,= = '.= ! , ` ¸ > ·' '.' =` =\' .'..' _== . · ¸',¸ \ -
. \'= · ¸ = .'·` =\' . .'> '.¦ '_ >\ .,· ¸ · .` , = ¸, \ _¸»\= , ,` , =` = ·\' = ¸ -\ >
_=.'. · = ´,,¸ = ´¸=' '.= '` . ! ' . = \. _` . = !
. \'= · = » · '.= _,\ » , = .¸\ ='=` , ¸= .'> ¸ · ` ¸. = = !
_=.'. · = .. > ¸\ _ . = °' _, ¸ = ¸,
. \'= · · · \ .= , '=` ,` ¸ `,\
_=.'. · _,\¦ ', !
. \'= · \` = _'¸ = _\= · · ¸ . , ¸ ._ = ¸ > = .¸.` =\' -
_=.'. · ¸. = , .= = = '= > ._ =\' '.= _.', = ¸ !
. \'= · ¦ ´._ = '.= '= _· ` _.',. \'= ` _, ¸ =\' '. =
_=.'. · . > '= ¸\' ` _' ` ¸` ¸ = .' . .= , _ ¸'= = _· -,\= ¸= '` = = · \
. \'= · \ . . = '.'= ° ¸'= = _· =
_=.'. · \¸ ',,,\ ¸¸¸' '_' .', = ¸ > = '_ . .¸.` =\' .. = _.¸=
. \'= · -` ,,¸ =\' ·. = ¸\' _,= . !
_=.'. · ` , ¸ = ·',` ,= ° _'¸ =\' ¸¸¸' '_' ` _ >=
.\'= · =` ,` ¸ ·¸ -` ,>,¸='> '= = ¸ · ¸,='. _\= ¸¸=` =\' ' , ´, ¸'= =\' , , = g,\ =\' ,'¸ =¸
_=.'. · '.'¸ ¸ _ = ¸ ..` = ° -` ,.¸=` =\'¸ ' .\ ,\' '.= · ¸',¸ ` , =
73

.\'= · . ..' '= .' _,·¸ -` ,.¸=` =\' _· _,\ ` - ',.'.¸ ·- =',= ¸ ¸` = ¸ _ = _.¸> . '_' ` , = ,
_=.'. · '.' '_' ` _ >= , . _.= , = °_.'= ¸ \ .\ ,\' ¸
. \'= · \ '= = ` ¸, = ´._ = '.= · =` , ¸ _¸= -
_=.'. · . ¸ = . '_' ` , = °_= = , =.
. \'= · ` _ >=` , . ! ¸ ,' ¸' ¸ _¸ ¸ _ = _.¸> . _' ` , = , ¸ _' ¸' =. = ¸ ,>'
_=.'. · = °. \'= ', ` .'= ..' ¸
. \'= · - »,» =\' .¦ .\ · '= =', ` , =·' !
_=.'. · _.', = _· '.= ¸. = , .= = = '= = ´,,¸ = ´¸'=' '.= '` .
. \'= · '= = '. . \'= »,. = ', - , _=.'. _. !
_=.'. · > =' ', ´,,¸ . \'= ! . ,.' _\¦ ` ,¸. , ._ = . !
. \'= · _· , ..' . = ¸ - !
_=.'. · = · . = - \'= - \ ,'· _'» .\ \ !

_ .\! ¿= -\.=l Questions about the text
Answer the following questions.
1 °.\'= ` . \'¸ ¸ ='= , _,'
2 -` ,, ¸ =\' ` , \ = . . _=.'. .'. , _,' °
3 = ¸ = ,» =\' ` .'., .` =\' _ ,,.' ¸'= ,\' _\= - ° =` = ¸
4 . = ` _` .¸.' ` ,¸. = ¸ = = ¸ -» -` ,='¸ °
5 ° '` ,\'=¸ '` ,¸'= . '¸>¸ = ` _'` = = . ¸'= ·,>
6 ` , ¸ = -` ,.¸=` =\' ¸¸¸ . '_' ¸ ·'¸=. ` _ >= °
7 ° · ·¸ =\ \ • ` = .\'= _\= _=.'. .=¸.·' '.'=
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8 ° -` ,,,\\' .¸.` =\' .. = _=.'. \ ¸ = = '.'=
9 = _· .\'= _'¸ '= ° _= ,\' , , ='= , _· , ¸ =\' ,' >` = - ·`
10 ,'¸ =\' _· _'=.,' -` ,¸` = _= .\'= ¸'· '.'=

True or False? Please rewrite the false statements in their correct forms.

1 ` _ » , >'=,' ` .'.,= . ¸'= ,\' _\= ¸'= = _· -` ,¸ . ¸ ='=.'
2 >» . _· _=.'. ` ¸ \=` =\' ¸` = _= = . · ¸',¸ -
3 »` =\' ` ¸ \` =\' _'¸ = _\= · · ¸ . , -` ,, ¸ =\' .`,\' _, , .'=
4 ´¸'.' ` _` .¸.' _· - =,. · -` ,.'=¸¸¸ - .,. = -` ,, ¸ =
5 -` ,\'= =\' -» =. =\' .' '_ = -` ,¸'¸'= = ` _` .'¸

Functional Expressions ª·-'~-' ~','-·-'

˜- -''- ! exactly
˜ ·- ·· = '- ¸,' . This isn't all!
-¸ ='' .` = during the war
¸'- ='' -'-`' during the embargo
¸ ='' ´ª´ ,'»`' ´ - the civil war
¸ = ™,' ='' ´ - the Gulf War
„'= ´ -´ ·· , ·- , depends on
_ - ª ·- ¸'--''- in comparison to
¸-· , ..... he/it means
´»,= = '-» ! This is great!
´ - -',· ,», ·· -- = ,», ·· ´ - -'- - ! Someone's calamities are someone's else fortunes!
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´ . - ·'' '- ¸ˆ' ! But, what can be done!
´ ¸-', -'' ´ _- ,'' the political situation
, ª' ˆ-´ - -'' =' ¸,-'= , . They create for you a thousand problems.
'´ - ·= ´-,¸ ·= ´¸-' '-» This is a very strange matter.
` ' _` . = = '- ! I cannot believe that!
´ª´ ,, =''´š,=´ ='' the airlines
˜ ·- ·· '-» ¸,' . This isn't the only (thing).
' ' - - ª',»'- - -,' ´ª-= . The area isn't populated.
´ ,- = =´ ·-'† , - ,- ·- ·- = ·-,' -'·´ , ! They treat you harshly like enemy!
¸+'' ', ! My God!
ª ·='´ -'' ´ _'¸ - the regime/authority's mood
¸-', = ´ .´ ·† all my life
=' ´-¸ - ¸- ¸ ·'' '- - ·''= ¸· , ´ ¸-',- a normal thing in our Arab World
,¸ - ¸ ´--´ - since some time
ª ·- ,Ž,-- - ´ ¸, = ´-¸ - '-» . This thing isn't allowed.
´ ¸ ˆ-´ , ` ! Can't be done!
º´ -'= --' . » Are you (m) serious
' ` , =· ª ·-,- ='' `' ´ -'´ ·· '- -'- ! I swear by Allah I only told the truth!
¸-', = ¸· '-».` - ·- ´ -· - - '- . I never heard of such (thing) in my life.
'´ - ·= ´-,¸ ·= ´¸-' '-» . This is a strange matter/issue.
´ª -· - '-´ ·- ·''= . Our condition is difficult.
- -`' „'' ´ »,- , -¸ - ` ! Nothing lasts for ever!
, ª´ ·- = ¸· »´ ·--' ! You are (live) in heaven!
´ª ·''- - ‹ - » ›'- ·-' ' ´ª ·' ·-'· ! This matter is open for discussion.
-` ,,¸ =\' ·. = ¸\' _,= . ! Long live Arabs' unity!

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Vocabulary List =!._ì=\! -=.!¡
debate, discussion ´›'- -
fellowship ´ª''- ¸
mood, temper ´_'¸ -
cruelty ´- ,- ··
enemy ´ ,- =
self, soul, same ´¸- ·-
money ´.'-
trade, commerce ´- ¸'= -
agriculture ´ª ='¸¸
thousand ´-''
relations, relationships ´-'·` =
problem ´ª' ˆ-´ -
situation ´_- ,
regime, authority ´ª ·='´ -
population ´¸'´ ·ˆ´ -
heaven ´ª´ ·- =
village ´ª ,¸ ··
city,town/s ´ª ·-,- - ‚ ´¸´ -´ -
border/s ´ - = ‚ ´-,-´ =
desert, sahara -'¸= -
Bedouins ´,- -
herders ´-'=´ ¸
goats ´¸- =
camels = · ´.'-
sheep ´» ·- ·=
77

sea = - ´¸
the Red Sea ´ ¸ -=`' ´ ¸= -''
the Mediterranean '' ´ •,-`' ´ ¸= -'' ´˜ -,-´ -
valley , -',
river ´¸+ ·-
mountains ´.'- ·=
port ´-'-,-
matter, issue ´ª ·''- -
service ´ª -- ·=
break, vacation ´ª ·'=´ =
train ´¸'= ·
south ´-,- =
north ´.'- -
west ´-¸ ·=
east ´¸¸ -
open for (something) ·' ´.·-'·
political ´ ¸-',-
populated ´ª ·',»'-
national ´ ¸- ·= ,
complete, perfect ´. -'†
barren ´ -'-¸ =
clean ´-,= ·-
ordinary, normal, usual =' ´ ¸-',-
allowed, permitted - - ´Ž,-
great ´»,= =
I got ´ -' - =
I came ´ -- ·=
78

I lived ´ -- =
I said ´ -'´ ··
I swear ' ` , =·
to prevent, block _ ·- -
to become ¸'-
depends ´ -´ ·· , ·- ,
walks, moves ´ ¸,- ·-
flies ´¸,= ·-
lasts ´ »,- ,
treats ´ . -'·´ ,
creates ´ •´ ·'·= ,
You tell (someone/something)! — - =
during .` = ‚ -'-·`'
about something '´ - =
except for ´`'

Grammar - -';--'
There are two types of sentences in Arabic; a verbal sentence which begins with a verb,
and a nominal sentence which begins with a noun or a personal pronoun. Examples
are:
1. A verbal sentence:
- -'' ´ ¸´ ·ˆ- , =´ -'' ¸· , -'¸ .
2. a. A nominal sentence (starts with a noun):

' ´ -¸ =' `' , ª ·- - ´--´ - -'- - ´ª´ ,'» .
b. A nominal sentence (starts with a pronoun):

¸´ -¸`' „'' ´ ¸ ·'-´ ·- - -·-' .
79


When the verb precedes its subject, it is always in the singular form and agrees with the
subject in gender ONLY.
Examples:
a singular masculine subject , ª´ ·- - ¸· ¸-,- - ¸ ·ˆ - .
a plural masculine subject , ª´ ·- - ¸· ¸-'·- -' ¸ ·ˆ - .

Notice that the verb remains the same though the number of the subject is changed
from singular to plural. You will notice the same thing in the following sentences.

a singular feminine subject , ª´ ·- - ¸· ¸- ·-,- - - ·- ·ˆ - .
a plural feminine subject , ª´ ·- - ¸· ¸-'-,- - - ·- ·ˆ - .

Now, if the verb follows its subject, it is marked by both number and gender, as in the
following examples:

¸· ¸ ·ˆ - ¸-,- - , ª´ ·- - .
' , ª´ ·- - ¸· ',- ·ˆ - ¸-'·- - .
, ª´ ·- - ¸· - ·- ·ˆ - ¸- ·-,- - .
, ª´ ·- - ¸· ´ ¸ ·ˆ - ¸-'-,- - .
N.B. Some grammarians treat equational sentences as nominal sentences.

Verb Conjugation J'·-V' ~-,~-

The following verbs are in the past tense and conjugated to the singular pronouns.
¸» ;» ~-' ~-' '-'

`´ - = —´ - = ´ -· `´ - = -· `´ - = -· —´ - = - ·`´ - =
- -'= ›'= -- = -- = ´ -- = ›'=
- ¸'= ¸'= -¸ = -¸ = ´ -¸ = ¸'=
80

- ¸'- ¸'- -¸ - -¸ - ´ -¸ - ¸'-
- -'- »'- --´ - --´ - ´ --´ - »'-

The following verbs are in the present tense and conjugated to the plural pronouns.

Q » ;» Q ·--' ; ·--' Q=-
¸·-= , ¸,-,= , ¸·- ·= ·- ¸,-,= ·- ´ -¸= ·- -'=
¸' -'·´ , ¸,' -'·´ , ¸' -'·´ ·- ¸,' -'·´ ·- ´ . -'·´ ·- . -'=
¸'´ -= , ¸,'´ -= , ¸'´ -= ·- ¸,'´ -= ·- ´ .´ -= ·- . - =
-´ ·'·= , ¸·-´ ·'·= ·- ¸,-´ ·'·= ·- ´ •´ ·'·= ·- • ·' = ¸·-´ ·'·= , ¸,·

Drill # 1 J;V' Q-,---'
Use the words and phrases in the Vocabulary List in good sentences:

Drill # 2 ¸-'--' Q-,---'
Please choose the correct options:

1 ) . _ - ª ·- ¸'-´ -''- ( ´ª ,¸ ·· ¸'´ - = ´ ¸' ´ - - ·-· ·- - ¸ »'-'' .
The phrase between parentheses means:
a. in reference to
b. in comparison to
c. in accordance with

2 . ¸- ·-,- - ', ´¸,-= - ´» ·''= '-» !
The sentence implies that:
a. this is a crazy world
b. this is a crazy friend
c. it is crazy to talk like this

81

3 . ¸'´ - = ¸· ¸·-´ ·='' ´ ¸' ............. '- -'- .
The correct form of the predicate is option:
' . - `,- = . - ,.,- = . ´.,- =

4 . ‹ - » ........... ··- , ª ·'†' ¸-', = ¸· '+´ ·- .
Which of the following adjectives fits best?
' . - ´--,- ·' . - ´- ·'' . ´--''

5 . -· ,''¸·- ·- ¸·, ·´ª ·',- = ¸ -,-´ª ·-,- - .......... '-,' .
One of the following adjectives cannot be used to describe the city of Tunis. Which?
' . - ´ -'-¸ = . - ´ª ·-,= ·- . ´ª - = -¸´ -

6 . . ..` = ', \=' _ = ` , ,¸ = ` _ >'= . , ' ' . '=.' ` ,'¸ =\ -` ,\
Which of the following statements is true?
a. The civil war is still going on
b. Miriam is participating in the civil war
c. Miriam is unmarried and lives with her family

7 . ª - =, ¸ _ - - ¸,`† . †'- - ´ ª' ´ ¸' ´ -¸=' ` .
The suffixed pronouns in this sentence are:
a. object pronouns
b. possessive pronouns
c. both object and possessive

8 . ´ -, -'' ......... '- =¸'- ¸· ¸,' ¸-=' ´ ª·- ¸ ='--' .
The relative pronoun in option ....... is correct.

' . - ¸-'' . - ¸,-'' . ¸-''
82


9 ) .` . = _. ( = .\ , '_ = !
You want to impress your Arab friend by using the synonym of the sentence between
parentheses. Which option would you choose?
' ,'· \ , _. =' , '¸ . _. \ ='= _.

10 . ·- , - - -¸,- ·- . †'- -'' ‹ - »´ª='´ -'' ´ •´ ·'= .
The sentence implies that your friend who told you this:
a. is indifferent
b. protests the authorities
c. supports the authorities

11 . ´•,- - ¸-´ ·-'† ¸-´ ·' -'·´ , .
You would choose option ... to communicate an opposite message.
' . - ´-,-´ = . - ´ ,- = . ´ª´ ·- =

12 . ¸· '-´ ·= ,- '+´ =, ¸ ´ . -· , ........... ª´ , , ='' .
Which of the following nouns fits best?
' . ª · -'='' - . - ª ='¸ ¸'' . š,=´ =''

13 ............ . ª ·-,- -'' ¸· , ª · -'= ´ ¸ -=' .
Which of the following demonstrative pronouns cannot be used in this context?
' . - = '- . - ‹ - » . =·' -

........... . ºª ·',- =ª ·-,- - 14 . -''¸ '-'
Which of the following options would you choose to show your Arab friends that you
know your grammar well?
' . - ´ -,¸, - . - -,¸, - . -,¸, -

83

15 . ´ ‹ -·- = ´ » -··' ............ ª ,¸-'' ¸· .
“He has the oldest car in the village.” You need to select the word in option:
' . - ´- ¸'´ , - . - - ¸'´ , - . , - ¸'´ , -

16 . º»´ ·ˆ -, - ¸ -´ª -,¸ ·· '+´ ·-´ ·- - . »
Which pair represents the pronouns implied in this question?
' . ¸» ‚ - »´ » . ¸» ‚ - »´ ·--' . »´ ·--' ‚ »´ »

17 . »´ ·ˆ -, - ¸ - '-,¸ ·· '-, - ¸¸ ·-- ·- - .
The implied subject in this sentence corresponds to the personal pronoun in option:
' . - --' . - »´ ·--' . »´ »

18 . ´ -¸ ='' -' - - ............ , -', ·- - ¸- = .- ·· .
One of the following adjectives cannot be used. Which?
' . - ´ª ·- -'='' . - ´ª´ ,'»`' . ·= ,'' ´ª´ ,-

19 . ´ª´ ,-', -'' ´ -'·` ·'' ......... ª -,= = - -, ·' ¸- ¸ ·'' » ·''·'', 'ˆ,¸-' .
Which of the following prepositions fits best within this context?
' . - ¸, - . - „'' . ¸·

20 . -'= ,- -'' - ........ -'¸=´ -'' ¸· ¸,-,· , .
The only word that can fit in the blank is the one in option:
' . - ´ ,- = . - ´-¸ = . ´-'=´ ¸

21 . ´ª --·'' ¸» ........... ¸ -=`' ¸= -'' „'= ¸´ -¸`' .
One of the following words cannot describe Aqaba in Jordan. Which?
' . - ´ª-,- - . - ´ª ,¸ ·· . ´ -'-,-
84


22 . -'-· - „'' ´ ¸ ·'-´ ·- - ........ ª´ ,-,´ -'' ª'·=´ ·'' .
Which of the following prepositions fits best?
' . - _ - . ¸· - . .` =

23 . º´¸,-†, ´.,- = -, -'' ´ ¸' '-,' ´ - - ·-· ·- . »
The subject pronoun does not correspond to the personal pronoun in:
' . - ,» . - --' . ¸»

24 . = . = _.` ¸,= · . = ` ¸ ='.= . '= . - » =\'
The object pronoun corresponds to the personal pronoun in option:
' . - --' . - --' . '-'

25 . ´ª´ ,-'¸ -''´ª''-´ ¸'' .......... ·' - = _ -¸` - ·-'† ¸-=' '+,' = - , -',- - .
Arabic would only allow you to use the relative pronoun in option:
' . - ¸-'' . - ¸-'' . ¸,-''

Drill # 3 ~-'--' Q-,---'

a. Provide the correct relative pronoun wherever needed.

1 . ´ª''-´ ¸'' ........ ¸ -,- ¸· ª -'¸ -' ' --'† '+,' = ´ -' - = .
2 . ´ -, -'' ........ ´.,- =, ´¸,- ·† ª,'' '-' ·- ·--' .
3 . ,¸'-=' „'' _ ---' ¸' ´ - =' ` ........ - -'¸ ='' ¸· '+´ ·-'¸· .
4 . ´ ¸'´ ·-'' ........ ª-=- -'' ‹-» ¸· ¸,-,· , ´,- - .
5 . ´ -'-''´ ·='' ........ ´-'´ ,- ¸ = -, -'' '-» ¸· ´ ¸´ ·ˆ- , .
6 . ,¸= - _- ¸¸ ·'-´ ·- ¸' ´ - ·= , ........ =´ -,¸ ·· ´ ¸,ˆ , .
85


b. Put the words which are between parentheses in the correct form.

1 . ´,- - ¸-¸'·' ) ´ ¸´ ·ˆ- , ( -'¸=´ -'' ¸· .
2 . ·-,- - ¸- ) —´ - = ¹ '-' ( '» -' -, '+ -' -'= ¸ = .
3 . '-'- ' ) ´ -¸= , ¹ »´ ·--' ( º ª-=- -'' ‹-» „'',», , ´ .´ ·†
4 . ´ ¸´ +´ ·-' ´‡,= - . » ) ´ •'= , ( º - -,- ='' --'--“ ' . †'- -''
5 . ´ .'= ¸'' -`œ » ) ¸'- ( -'- -'' „´ ·-=Ž'-´ -'' ¸ - .
6 . '´ ·-´ ·† ) ´ . -'·´ , ¹ »´ » ( ,»'¸ -=' .´ ·ˆ- .

c. Provide the antonyms of the underlined words.
. -,-´ ='' „'= '-', ',-,' - ¸',¸ ¸ - ¸-,·- - .1
. ¸- ¸ ·''»''·'' ¸· ´ ¸-',-=' ´-¸- '-» .2
.´ ,- = =´ ·-'† =-,' -'·´ , .3
d. Provide the synonyms of the underlined words.
. '´ ,''-, ' ,¸'= - '¸†¸ - ´ ¸'´ - = - ¸'- .1
., ª- -´--´ - --¸' ª-,- - ¸· ´ •,·- .2
. ª'=´ ·'' -'-`' •- - - ¸,¸' ¸' ´ ¸ ·ˆ·' .3
.¸-'- -·`'_- ,'' „'= ´ - - ·-·-´- ¸ »'= ‹ - » .4

e. Rearrange the following groups of words to make good sentences.

1 . - ¸,·´ -'' ª-,- -'' - - -- _ - '+ -' -'= „'' '- - ,¸· -¸ ='' ¸ - -'---' .
2 . . †'- -'' , - - - ` ´ •´ ·'·= ·- ´ - ¸=' ¸,-- ´ª ·='´ -'' '-'- ' .
3 . · - ¸ = ´ - - ·-=' ´ ª´ ·-' —´- = ·- ª ·' ˆ-´ -'' ´ --´ ·† = .
4 . »-' ª ·-,- ='' ‰¸--' ` ¸=´ -'' ´ - ¸=' ¸-'' ¸-¸'´ , - ¸·

Drill # 4 ¿-' ,-' Q-,---'
Please choose the correct options and explain WHY:
1 . _,--`' '-» , ª´ ·- - „'= ',' - = .
86

The synonym of the verb within this context is in option:
' . - ',' -'= . - ',¸='--' . ',--·'

2 . -'- - - -·' '- ............... ª ·-,- ='' `' .
“She swore by Allah that she told nothing but the truth.” Which of the following verbs
can be used?
' . - ´ -'´ ·· . - -''· . ¸'´ ··

3 . --, -'' »'-' ´ ª´ ·' ·-'-´ ·- - . » º -'- -'' '-» '
The subject and object pronouns correspond to the pair in option:
' . --' ‚ - --' . --' ‚ - ,» . ¸» ‚ --'

4 . · = ¸, - _ ·-'- .......... '´ - ·= , -,¸ ·· ,_¸'- ¸· .
Only the noun in option .... can be used to fill in the blank.
' . - ´ª -,ˆ´ ='' . -´ -'' - „--- . ´ª-,- -''

5 . '- - ·''= ¸· ´ ¸-'= ´-¸ - '-» .
Which adjective would you select if you want to send the opposite message?
' . - ´ -'= . ·· - ´-,¸ . ´-,¸ ·=

6 . - -, ·' ´ ¸'´ - = -'-· - _ - ª ·- ¸'-´ -''- . ...........
One of the following adjectives can be used as a predicate. Which?
' . - - ¸,- ·† . - ´- ¸,- ·† . , - ¸,- ·†

. „'' ¸,='-= ·- =´ ·-–· ª -,¸ - ¸,-,ˆ ·- '- --= . ........... 7
Logically speaking, only option ... can be used to fill in the blank.
' . - , ª´ ,' - = . - , ª - -'-´ - . , -'¸'-´ - .

87

8 ) . ´ - -'- - ( ,», ·· ´ - -', ·· ,», ·· -- = .
The synonym of the word in parentheses is option:
' . - ´ . †'- - . - ´ª ·''- ¸ . ´ -'=´ ¸

9 . ´ ¸,¸'- ......... 'ž´ ¸,' ¸· , ª ·-,- - .
Which form of adjective is correct within this context?
´-,= ·- ' . - ´ - ·=-' . - ´ª ·-,= ·- .

10 . ¸-- = '- ....... -, -'' '-» ¸¸ ·--' „´ ·- = .
I do not have enough ........ to buy this beautiful house.
' . - ´-· , . - ´.'- . ´ª -·=´ ¸

11 . ,.'- ·=, ,¸- =, ,» ·- = ´ -'=´ ¸ »´ », -'¸=´ -'' ¸· ,- -'' ´ ¸´ ·ˆ- , .
Which verb would you choose if you put the subject in initial position (before the verb)?
' . - ¸,-´ ·ˆ- , . - ´ ¸´ ·ˆ- ·- . ¸,-´ ·ˆ- ·-

12 . - ¸· -'' „'' ´ ¸ ·'-´ ·- - .......... ª ·'=´ ·'' .
Which of the following words cannot be used to fill in the blank?
' . - .·` - . - -'-`' . .` =

13 . ¸'= -'' ¸· . -'· -' ¸ = '- -· - '+ =´ , ¸ ·- -' .
The sentence says that the couple met:
a. on the train
b. at the airport
c. in a wedding party

14 . », ,'' = ··´ ¸ - ·- ´ ¸' .,·' ¸' ´ -,¸' ......... '´ - ·= .
Which of the following options would you choose to fill in the blank if you wanted to
express some appreciation?
88

- . - ´-¸ - . ´-,= ·' ' . = ´ ¸·,-

15 . ª' ˆ-´ -'' ¸ = = · - —´ - = ·- ´ ª´ ·-' ´ - - ·-=' ´ --´ ·† .
The synonym of the sentence's main verb is in option:
' . ´ »´ ·' ·ˆ-' - . - ´ ¸´ ·=' . ´-,= ·'

16 . ¸ = ¸´ -¸`'¸¸ - ¸· ´ .'- ·='' ´ -'- .
Which of the following statements is false?
a. This is a verbal sentence.
b. This is a nominal sentence.
c. This is an equational sentence.

17 . -'¸=´ -'' ¸· ¸-¸'·' ´ .´ ·†, ¸-' -'= ´ ¸´ ·ˆ- ·- .
Therefore, I am:
' . - ´-'--' . - ´¸ --+´ - . ´ ¸, - -

18 . -, -''¸'=,' ¸ - ´ ¸ ·`†' ª´ ·-´ -'' ¸'=,' ´ ¸' ´ -'= --' . » .
The semi-synonym of the predicate adjective of the main sentence is in option:
' . - ´_'¸ - . - ´¸,¸ = . ´- ·†'-´ -

19 . - ·''¸ '-' ............ ª ·',- = ª ·-,- - .
Only the noun in option .... can be used to fill in the blank.
' . - ´ -,¸, - . - -,¸, - . -,¸, -

20 . '-,¸- ·-.,''' -- - ´ -· ,'' ¸'† .
Though it requires that the word order should be rearranged, which of the following
words can substitute for the adverb?
' . ª ·-,- = - . - ¸'', = . ,¸'¸- --'-

89

21 . ¸´ -´ -'' „'' - ¸= ·+'' ¸ - ¸,=` ·-'' ´ -'=´ ·'´ -'' - · ·- - .
You can send the opposite message by replacing the verb with its antonym in option:
' . ·' = - - ·- . - - ·´ = - . - ·' -'=

22 . `´ = ¸» ··= -'' . =- - -- = - ·' -'· ......... ´ ª´ ·· ¸· ·- .
The correct form of the relative pronoun is:
no relative pronoun - . ' . - ¸-'' . ¸-''

23 . ¸,,` - ´ª -- = '» - ·' - ¸· ¸'ˆ´ -'' ´ - - = .
One of the following words can replace the second term of Idaafa without changing the
meaning. Which?
' . ¸= -'' - . - ¸'´ ·-'' . ª -- =''

.´ ,- = ¸-´ ·-'† ¸-´ ·' -'·´ , .24
The synonym of the underlined word is in option:
' . - ´ .` - . - ´- ,- ·· . ´¸´ ¸´ ·=

25 . ´ -'¸'´ ,´ -'' ........... - --'- ¸'´ - = „'' •- - - ¸ - ,¸'¸ .
The correct form of the verb which can be used here is option:
' . - ´ ¸,- ·- . - ¸¸ - , . ¸,¸,- ,








90

Reading Exercise --',--' Q-,--

Read the following words, phrases and sentences into your tape recorder, then listen to
them. Give the tape to your teacher to check your performance:
. = · ¸'= . . ·'=` ¸ ´¸'= · ¸. ,\'
- = = .'¸` = ¸ ¸ - =' \ ='> - »,= . - - = ='=
'= = - = _,,` = . , » ,=.' _ \'= _· '. =
\'= ¸ - -` ,='¸ . '= ,\' ` ¸ ='=.' ` ¸ . ¸'»` =\', _ = -
» =. = - -` ,¸'¸'= = ` _=',` =\' ` _'= ¸\' -` ,\=.' ` ,'¸ =\'
.` =\' ` _ ,,.' ` ¸'= ,\' =` = ¸

= .` . \ , '_ = _. = . !
- == = . \ ,\' ` _' >` = _,,` =
=\' '¸ =\' ¸', \ ,\' _'¸ = _· ` .'. .
.,. =\ \ _.'¸\' _· ´.,. = ´¸'= = -
»,» =\' € .¦ .\ · '= =', ` , =· ' - !
¸ ¸> = , .'¸'= »\' ` ¸,= . ¦ '= ' _.',.
\'= _· ` _.',.=¦ ´._ = '. = ¸ =\' '. = ` _,
.` ¸ = .=' ', > '¸ =\' -` ,\=.' ` , °'>,¸'=' _·
. = . = '¸ = _. = - \ ,\' ¸¸=` . '_ = .¸.` =\' .
.'¸ ` - \ ` ¸. = _. .'> _. \ ='=` , .¦ _,\¸» . . _,. = ` - !
91

Unit # 5 (5) ,¡_ i.>¡\l
Cinev ane Ti-a haur hrrn in Danastns |er a vrar`s stav. (eæ it is tinr te ge
henr. ane thrv arr grtting rraev te hnv µrrsrnts ane ee senr sheµµing. Thrv ge te
thr een¢ a|tanieiva ane srrn te rn{ev hargaining æith a sheµkrrµrr.



= _.. · .., ', '` ,= !
'¸,\ · ° _,.,¸ . '.'=
_..= · _\` = = ! '.'¸ ='.
'¸,\ · °'.'= _\= '.'¸ ='.
_..= · ° .,= . ¸ =
'¸,\ · ° .,= . '.'=
_..= · .' .,= . = .' ` ¸ ,= , -` ,.,= =\' _¸= _\¦ ,¸ ,\' ` , =.. = '.
92

'¸,\ · ,= . '= ·. - .'='= . .\ ¸ '= _ .>\¸ · . !
_..= · .` = .'= . · '=', = =' '` . = · ¸
'¸,\ · .= . _.= ` ¸ >..' . ¸ ¸'= ¸ > _\= - ='= _.,='=¦ ·
_..= · ` _' _ = ` ¸ ='. . = · . ='¸\' _= _.' - ='` =\' ¸', =\' .= ,
'¸,\ · '¸ .` ¸' ` , = .=' '_' ` .,¸' _¸'= = · » =
_..= · ' _'.=' _\¦ , =.' '_ _¸\ »\' _'= , , ='=. =. ,\'
'¸,\ · » \ = ' '_' ` _ >'=` , . '_¦ · '¸.¸. _,== = = _` ,= . = \
_..= · '¸> = ·. '¸.¸. _,== = '_ = ¸ .>' ` _'.='
'¸,\ · = _¸` =\' ¸ > _,¸ .= . = ¸ °
_..= · . ','. = _'.=' '¸ _,,, =¸ _\= _.=
¸,\ ' · ' '= ., , =. ,\' _\¦ _,, =. . . '.'= \ ` . = .'=
_..= · > · · ¸ '= = \ '_>\¸ ·- \¸» ¸ - ='= '_ = ¸ .>' _, !
'¸,\ · '. ='= _,\¦ ', _. ! _,\¦ ', _.'. ='= ! - \ ='> -. = = .\` = = . ·, > !
_..= · \ '_ = ¸ .>' _, - .`'= > ', .. , ', ·¸ - ='= !
'¸,\ · = ¸=\ \ _=` ,,= ¸\' · = !
_..= · ´_` ¸ ¸ .` = ¸` =` ¸\' · =, \ = ´¸'= !
'¸,\ · _'> '.¦¸ ! ,'¸ =\' ` , =' '.' · =` =` , , . !
Cindy and Liza are in the market now.
_..= · ,¸ ,\' '` . = ´, = .'¸` = _¸` =\'
'¸,\ · '=` =\' ` ,¸ , ¸= '. = - =
_..= · _¸` =\' '. = ,'` ,.' ¸ > '` . = ´, = .'¸` =
93

'¸,\ · .` ¸' _ ¸= =\' '.= ` ¸¸¸ . !
_..= · ¸ ¸'= ` _ ¸= =\' '.= ·. '` . = ° _,¸ >. . . .'
'¸,\ · = = = _ =\' - ,\'= . .'> ¸ ·` ¸ = ¸ =' ` ·` ¸'=='
_..= · ,'¸ ·´_,= = '.',=' , ¸'=` , '_' ` , = , ` _'=.
'¸,\ · =` =\' ¸' - = = _. ,'¸ ' '_' _.` , ='=` , , ¸'= !
_..= · - = ¸'=` =\' ` ¸,= . \ =` = - '.',=' ,' ` , ¸'=` , ¸ ¸.¸. ¸'=' '_ = ` _'=.
'¸,\ · . ¸` = · . = ', ,' _¸> , '_' ` , = , '¸ ='= ` _'=.
_..= · - =',\' ..• = ¸ ¸ _= = ¸ > '_ = ` ¸ ==' !
'¸,\ · _¸ . '.,= . !
_..= · _ ¸= =\' '. = ,` ¸ = . \ ·',` ,=
_.',\' · -` ,' · `=' °¸ - ='. =
_..= · °` _'.'= »\' '. = ', > ,
_.',\' · '¸.¸. _¸= ,¸' ` ·` ¸'= =¸ ¸,¸ =\' '_ = ` _'.'= »\' '. =
'¸,\ · °¸ _= · ` _'.'= · '. = ¸ =
_.',\' · ·,` =\' ¸'= » \ ´, ='.` = ¸=¸ ·', = .
_..= · ·¸` =\' '_ = ` - \> = ·` _,= »\' '. =¸
_.',\' · _ \'=\' ·¸` =\' '_ = ´_¸.'= = ` _,= »\' '. =
'¸,\ · ¸'= » \ '` . = ´, ='.` = .'. =\'
_.. = · - ='= , = .. = ` _' ` ¸ ,= , ¸¸= »\' ¸ > \
_.',\' · . . , \'=\' .` , ¸ > '_ = ´_'` ¸= '. .. = ` -
_..= · °'. = _¸` = = . '.'=
94

_.',\' · '¸.¸. _,.` . , ´.` , = ` _\'= ¸ ´_'=» · '. =
_..= · ¸ .=' '.¦ _. \'¸ ` _ ¸» , = _'=» »\' '. = ` - \ .,
'¸,\ · ° _,,` ¸\ \ ´_'.= · = .. = ¸ =
_.',\' · ` ¸\ \ ` ¸ ==.' ` _'.= »\' '. = _,, _¸¸= = ` ·` ¸'= =¸ ·,¸ =\'¸ '¸.¸.
'¸,\ · °` _\'= ¸ ¸= ¸ = °` ¸ ='=.' ` _,= »\' '. =¸
_.',\' · ,',.' · . = _'¸ · ='.` = _, \ ! _> =\', ` _> =\'¸ ` _.'= . ` _\'=` ¸\'
_..= · ´_,= = =` =` > ! _,,, = _'='= · ` _ ,\' '= .'. '.' !
'¸,\ · ,,.' = \.¸ ·` ¸` ¸ .` =\' ` .¸=.' '. = '=¸ °` _
` _.',\' · -` ,·¸> ` _ ,,.'¸ ·¸'» = ` ¸` ¸ .` =\' ` . ¸=.'
'¸,\ · ° _'` ¸\' _\= ` _' .\' '=,` = ,\ , ¸ =
_.',\' · _'` ¸\' _\= ` _' .\' '=,` = ,\ , ·', = .
_..= · ` .',=.' ·. = ` -` , ='= . _,,, = =' '_' '_ >'=` , ,,¸ . ` - \ '=
_.',\' · ` . '= ·` _¸¸¸ = '. = '= .'. ` - .'='= · _,= ,\ . .'=
_..= · _.'='= ·¸ _='¸·' ` _ ,\ , '=.'. ¸=
_.',\' · =' '.` ¸ .'= , ! =' '.` ¸ .'= , !
_..= · ' _\=' ' _¸¸= ¸ .'. = _¸ ¸ ` .,¸ . _` ='
_.',\' · - ,.'=' '. .. = · ¸'.'=` = -` ,\ = = °', = . · ` _',· ¸= '=
_..= · .'=' .' ` . » - ,.'= . ` -
_.',\' · \ = ¸ .'. = ` _¸ ¸ '. = '¸.¸. _¸¸=` = ` - . = . ' _.
'¸,\ · ° -` ,·¸>\'¸ ¸'» =\' ` _ = . ', >
_.',\' · · ¸= = ¸ .'¸.¸. ° _,,` ¸\' _'.'= · _,` , = . ¸ =
95

'¸,\ · °` - . = . ', >
_.',\' · '¸.¸. _¸= ,¸'
'¸,\ · '¸.¸. _¸.` . · . = -` ,·¸>\'¸ ¸'» =\'¸ _'.'= »\ \
_..= · =,='=' '.' '¸.¸. _,= ,'¸' .¸ .'. =\ \ ¸,¸ =\' ,¸
_.',\' · . . = . .` = ', _¸ '¸.¸. _,='= =¸ ¸ - ='= = , = \ '_>\¸ · '¸.¸.
_..= · _¸=,¸'¸ - ='= = .
\' _.', · = ¸ _ >'=` = ` ¸, ! ¸'= = '_ = ¸ ·' '. = - »\ >\' ` ¸ =='= '='.'= = !
_..= · _¸=' ¸ .'¸.¸. - ='= = = ., ='=' ` - .. ·` ¸ == . . ·¸ =
_.',\' · °¸ ._ = ` _.
_..= · _'.'= »\'¸ ¸'» =\'¸ -` ,·¸>\ \ '¸.¸. _¸=,¸'¸ - == =
_.',\' · = » · _'.'= »\ \ '¸.¸. _¸= ,¸' !
'¸,\ · » »\' ` _ = . ', > ° _'=
_.',\' · . = '¸.¸. _¸
_..= · = ¸'= .. = ` _ ='¸' ` _'=» »\' !
_.',\' · ` _ =' . '= .'. - ,\'= ` - . ='=, · - == ¸\' ` _,¦ !
_..= · 45 ‚ 40 '¸.¸. _¸.'=.¸ - == = · . = ·
_.',\' · ` ¸ =='= '='.= =
_..= · = ` - .. ` ¸ == . . ·¸= _· =. = _¸ .= . ,» .'=` =\' ¸
_.',\' · = . . · .'= ¸ '=.' · . = '_ = , > ,'='=' '¸¸ , '¸'=
_..= · '. ,' ! '¸'¸'=' '¸'='=.' !
'¸,\ · '¸' .\\ '_¸¸, '¸'='=.' '_ =» , '_ =¸ !
96

_..= · '¸'='=.' '_ =» , '_ =
'¸,\ · '¸'='=.' '_ =» . '_ = · .\ · '= '.' !

Questions about the text _ .\! ¿= -\.=l
Answer the following questions.

1 °'¸,\ . = . '.'=
2 ¸,\ ` .,¸ . '.'= ° .` ¸' ¸. =» . '_' '
3 ¸ , , = ` _. ` .,¸ . _..= °=.,\' _\¦ , =. . '_ '
4 '.'= °_.. = _\= '¸,\ . = ¸.·'
5 ° ·¸` =\' _,= · '_ = '¸,\ . \'· '.'=
6 ° _ .',\ \ _..=¸ '¸,\ . = · . ', >
7 °` _=,,` ¸\' _'.'= »\' ` _¸ \ '=
8 °_..= ` , ' , . · ` _', · ¸= '=
9 ° ¸ ¸'=` =\' _ ¸= =\' _· ¸'='=.' _..= . » = ¸ ·, >
10 = _,\=. ¸= '= ° _,\= .\' '. = _ = = '= .. = _¸= =\' , ='

Cultural Expressions -·.!=\! =!_!,·\l
.., ', '` ,= ! Come on girl!
_\` = = ! Hurry up!
=` =` , , . ! Don’t worry!
.'=' '= ., , ` . = while I get ready
97

- \¸»= = · ¸> · reasonable idea
. '_¦ _` , = . = \ If you (f) like that.
_,\¦ ', _.'. ='= ! My God, help!
'= > ', .. , ', - .` ! You, lazy girl!
.` = ¸` =` ¸\' · =, \ = ´¸'= ´_` ¸ ¸ ! Shame on you. The man is married!
_'> '.¦¸ ! So what?
,'¸ =\' ` , =' '.' ! I love sin!
- = ¸'=` =\' = _. ,'¸ Bargaining is my hobby.
. ¸` = · . = ', That is its sweetness.
= , ,' _¸> , '_' ` , '¸ ='= ` _'=. One has to be smart.
¸ _= = ¸ > '_ = ` ¸ ==' - =',\' ..• = ! Those venders are the smartest!
. '.,= . ` ,` ¸ = ! Let us try!
. '.,= . _¸ ! Let us see!
. '.,= . ¸ ='. ! Let us get in!
. \ ·',` ,= _ ¸= =\' '. = ,` ¸ = OK, let us try this store.
»\ >\' ¸'= = '_ = ¸ ·' '. = - This is less than cost.
= ` ¸ =='= '='.'= ! It means I will lose.
'¸ > =\', ` _> =\ _ and vise versa
May Allah protect us (from sin)! .'= , =' '.` ¸ !
·¸ _='¸·' ` _ ,\ , _.'='= He wears my earrings and shirts
',¦ '= ¸\' ` _ - = son of dirty mother
98

Please do not tell your friends! > ,'='=' '¸¸ ,= . . · .'= ¸ , !
Never! Prices are secrets! '. ,' ! '=.' '=' '¸'= '¸'¸ !

Vocabulary List =!._ì=\! -=.!¡
¸'= to become
to bargain , ¸'=
` . = .=¦ to get ready
to shower .'=¦ ` , =
to try, experiment ,` ¸ =
to be late ¸ ='.
to protect, shield ¸ . =
to wear _ , \
to bear, endure . ` = = ¸.
to be glad, rejoice _ ¸ ·
to name _` = =
to lend = · \.
Say hello to ....! ', \. =
Help (someone)! '. ='=
Hurry up! ¸.` = = [ '_ ¸'='
Let (someone) do (something)! '_ . !
[You] give! ='=¦ !
we see . _¸
99

I dry (something) » = ' ·
I earn, win ` _ ,'¸'
I lose ` ¸ =='
expensive ¸ ¸'=
rounded ´¸` ¸ .` =
yellow »'=' ` ¸ [ ` .'¸» =
blue _ ¸'¸' [ ` .'·'¸ ¸
black ` . ¸'=' [ ` .'.¸ =
white ` _ ,',' [ ` .'=, ,
red ` ¸ ='=' [ ` .'¸'= =
green ` ¸ ==' [ '= = ` .'¸
lazy > ` _`'=
sleepy . ` _'='=
handsome ´,,= ¸
smart ´¸ ='=
original ` _\'='
pure ´_ \'=
manufactured ´_¸.'= =
dress · ´_'.'=
caftan · » ´_'=
shirt · ´_,=
100

cost \ > - »
merchandise - ='= ,
salesman, vendor/s .', ´_ - - =',
shoes ´.'. =
pair ´_¸ ¸
measure ´_',·
earring/s ='¸·' [ '¸ · =
head gear -` ,·¸> ¸'» =¸
dress . ´,¸
sweetheart ´,,, =
present, gift/s -` ,. = - ','. =
skin ´..\ =
wool ·¸=
cotton · ´_=
silk ´¸,¸ =
warm ._·'.
warm, moderate .'=` = ¸ .
season/s ¸.'= · - · ¸¸=
Autumn ·,¸ =
Summer ·, =
Spring ´_,, ¸
101

Winter ´.'. =
neighbor/s ´¸'= - ´_'¸,=
secret/s ` ¸ = - ´¸'¸'='
something forbidden, sin ´,'¸ =
hobby - ,'¸ =
hair ´¸'= =
future » .'=` = , . ¸
difference ·` =
while, during ¸` = [ .' .'.
first .` ¸'

Grammar .=!¡s\!
1. “Diptotes” is a category of Arabic nouns and adjectives that cannot take Nunation and
they take the accusative marker for the genitive case.
·'= .'.= , _\¦ _=' ¸
Notice that the noun .'.= , takes the accusative marker instead of the genitive marker
though the word is the object of the preposition _\¦ .

2. Diptotes include many place-names which are not Arabic in origin such as:

` _ .¸. · ` _'=` = · ` _'` =ƒ = · ` ¸'= = · _= = . · .¸¸, , · ` .'.= ,

3. Several broken plural patterns are also included in this category. Usually, they are
made of three or four syllables, such as:

102

· · ` _ ¸'. = ` .'· .'=' · _ .'.

4. These plural nouns are treated as diptotes when they are indefinite. Once they
become definite, they behave like regular nouns, i.e. they take the genitive marker for
the genitive case.

\ = .'· .'=.' _\= .'=
5. Comparative and superlative adjectives as well as colors are included in the Diptotes
category.

Verb Conjugation ¸!·¡v! =,_«.
1. The following verbs are in the imperative form conjugated for the second person
pronouns.
..l , l =. =.l

¸` = = ¸` = = _\` = = '¸\` = =
_='=' ==¦ _='=¦ '¸='=¦

2. The following verbs are in the past tense _='=\' conjugated for the second person
pronouns.


¡= _= =.l =.l !.l

· \ = · \ = . » \ = \ = » . \ = .» » \ = .
¦ ƒ , = .'= ¦ ` , = .'= ¦ .'=¦ .` = = .'= .'= ='= .'=¦ .'= ='= .'=¦ .'= ='=

103

3. The following verbs are in the present tense _¸'==\' conjugated for the plural
pronouns
,´ = ´ ¿´ = ..l , ..l ´ ¿ . ´ ¿>

.'=¦ ƒ . = .'= , _¸` . = .'=, '= '. . _ .'= . _¸` . = _'. .'= .'= . ` . = .'= .
» .'= . ` . . » .'= . _ _¸. » .'=. .'= , _. » _¸. » .'= , . » .'=¦

Drill # 1 ¸¡v! ¿,_=.\l
Use the words and phrases in the Vocabulary List in good sentences:

Drill # 2 _.!.\! ¿,_=.\l
Please choose the correct options:
1 » =\' . .'> - \ '=` = - = .
Which adjective would you choose if you like to send the opposite message
' \,= = - , · ¸ ='.` = . \ =` = -

2 =' _»,. = ` _' ` _ · =. ,\' _\¦ , =. '. _¸\ »\' _'= , , ='= , \
The synonym of the sentence's main verb is in option:
' \ = ' · , . ` . » .'=' » = ' ·

3 = ¸'=` =\' _. ,'¸ = - ' '.' = ' '_' ` , , ¸'=
This person loves to:
a. shop b. bargain c. stay late

4 '¸\` = = !
104

You would tell your friends that because you are:
' '¸¸ ='. , . . '¸¸ > . '¸= \ =

5 ¸` ¸ .` =\' . ¸=.' '. = _. ='=¦
Your friend says this to a shopkeeper. She/He must mean the item in:
' , ¸'» = . -` ,·¸> » · ´_'=

6 - » =' '.' - .'='= . .\ ¸ '=
This sentence indicates one of the following:
a. lack of sleep
b. lack of money
c. lack of interest

7 > .'¸=' _¸'= _ , ¸ · ¸,.
Which verb would you choose to send the opposite message?
' ¸ = = , · \ = . ·` ¸ =

8 =,\ = ´¸'= !
This expression means:
a. Shut up! b. Hurry up! c. Shame on you!

9 \ ` _'` = = · .'.= , _ = - . ¸'»` =\', . =,
Arabic grammar will only allow you to use option:
' , · ¸,, > · ¸,, > . > ¸ · ¸,,

105

10 ` .'. =\' · ·,¸ =\' · ·,` =\' · ` _,,` ¸\'
Which of the following options is not related to the seasons:
' , ·¸` =\' = »\' . ` _ ¸'» =\'

11 > ´_'. _¸` =\' _· ,¸ ,\' '. = _¸¸,.
Therefore, the market is:
' , ´_ \'= ´, = .'¸` = . > ´¸,,

12 ·'= _ = .'¸ _\¦
Which pair of words can grammatically fit in the blanks?
' ` .'· .'=.' „ _ .¸. , .'· .'=.' „ _ .¸. . .'· .'=.' „ _ .¸.

13 . ='= , ` _. _ ¸= =\' '. = '_ = _¸ .= . · .` , = ` -
We shop at this store because of:
a. its good merchandise
b. its good prices
c. both a & b

Which is the incorrect order of the seasons? 14
' ` _,,` ¸\' ·` .'. =\' · ·,¸ =\' · ·,` =\'
, =\' · ` .'. =\' · ·,` =\' · ` _,,` ¸\' ·,¸
. ` .'. =\' · ·,¸ =\' · ·,` =\' · ` _,,` ¸\'

15 . _¸` =\' _\¦ . , = .= . \ _¸
One of the following words would not make sense within this context. Which?
106

' ',,, = , . ','. = · '= '.'.

16 = . \ .'= . . > _· ',
Which is the correct form that can be used to fill in the blank?
' , _'.', \ . ` _'.', \ \ _'.',

The best way to say to your friend, “Let us go in !” is option ..... 17
' . '.,= . ` ,` ¸ = ! , . '.,= . ¸ ='. ! . '.,= . >'. ¸ !

18 . = =' = ¸ !
You are mad at someone and you had said something nice like this sentence. Now, you
realized that he deserved something else! Which one?
' » = = =' = ! , =,· =' = ¸', ! . · =' = = = !

Your friend calls you late in the evening. You want to go to sleep. 19
What would you say to her/him?
' .'='= . .'= \ , - - .'='= . .\ ¸ '= . - .'='= . '.'

20 ¸¸= »\' ¸ > \ - ='= , ', > .. = ` _' ` ¸ ,= ,
The best translation for the sentence verb is:
a. I think
b. it seems
c. you have

21 =¦ . =¸ ¸ . ¸ . ' ` - · - \,= = '='¸
What has been bought is related to the:
a. ears
107

b. eyes
c. neck

° _'=» »\' '. = ` _ = . ', > 22
One of the following options cannot be used to substitute for the underlined word in this
sentence. Which?
' , ` _',· ` ¸'= = . · ¸'=

23 » \ ´, ='.` = _ \'=\' ·¸` =\' '_ = ´_,= · '. = ¸'=
' , _,,` ¸\' . ·,` =\' .'. =\'

24 - ='= ` _'.'=' = . _ ¸ _¸'= =
Which pair of verbs make sense?
' · » = ' - .'=' ` , = , ,'.' - . · » = ' .'= ' . ` , = - ' » = ·

25 >.'= , ¸. ,\' ` _ · .'= \' _· ¸ ¸ , . = ·'=` ¸ ',` =¸ · .'¸'=` = ¸ ¸'= =¸ ¸ ¸. =
Which is the correct form of the verb if it follows the subject?
. . '= >. _¸. ' . '= ` _ >. , '= , >. _¸.

Drill # 3 =\!.\! ¿,_=.\l
a. Vowel the underlined words.
¸'= = _· ',. \ .'= - »,. = ` _ >.'= . 1
_\ .'· .'=' ,` =¸ , ` = ·` =\' _· 2
· ¸'= '_ = ¸ ,>' ¸` = ¸ ¸= 3
·,= \ _. \ ,'· _.\' ¸,> ¸\' _'> 4
108

. ,.' _\¦ ,¸. , ._ = . 5
_',=' - \ =` = - = ¸'=` =\' ` ¸,= . 6
b. Give the correct forms of the words which are between parentheses.
1 '.¸ = . ) ¸ .'¸'= ‚ _=. ( - \» =\' _\¦
2 _.\' .'.`=,' ) '¸ · ‚ '.' ‚ .'.`=,' ( - = .'=` =
3 ·, > ) ¸.` = = . ‚ ,` = ‚ ..' ( ° - \ ='> - . =
4 _.= ' ) · \. = ‚ '.' ( '¸'.,. _,== =
c. Put each pair of the words in the corresponding sentence to expand its semantic
scope, then translate them.
1 ¸¸= »\' , > .. = - ='= , ¸ > \
2 _.'· .'=' .\ = ¸ _ .>\¸ ` _¸' =\' _'> '= = .'¸` = ¸', ·
3 ¸ _¸= '_ = ` - . =¸ ¸ . ¸ .=¦ ¸ ,,¸ · '='¸·'
4 .'. =\' ¸'= » \ ·¸` =\' '_ = '. = ´, ='.` = ´_,= ·
5 · .` , = ` - . ='= , _ ¸= =\' '. = '_ = _¸ .= . ` _.
6 , = . _»,. = ` _' _¸\ »\' _'= , =.,\' _\¦ , ='= , \ ` _ = '

d. You need to change one word in each sentence in order to send the opposite
message.
1 ¸', =\' '. = · ¸,. > .'¸=' _¸'= _ , ¸
2 =' ', >` = =» , !
3 ¸ ¸'= _'=» »\' ` _ = .
4 - = .'=` = . .'> '= .`,= .,= - \» =

e. Change only one word in each sentence without changing its meaning.
109

1 '` . = ¸,= = ´_,¦ _. ¸'= \
2 _,¸', '_ = ',` ,¸ .
3 ° _,= »\' '.ƒ = ` _ = . ', >
4 _ ¸= =\' ,'=' ` _ > ,'='=' .\ ,'·

f. Put the following groups of words in the correct order to make good sentences.
1 . ¸= ' ` .,¸ ' _.'.= » \ ', ='.` = ¸ .'. = _¸ ¸ ' _.\ =
2 '_ = _ = . _, ,\' ` _. _ = . ` ¸ == ' ¸ · ' .'¸ =\' _ .¦

Drill # 4 _,!´ _\! ¿,_=.\l
Please choose the correct options and explain WHY:

1 ¸¸= »\' ¸ > \ - ='= , , > .. = ` _ ' ` ¸ ,= ,
The verb that can be used instead of the sentence verb without changing the semantics
very much is option:
' , ` . » .'= ' . ` ¸ ='. ' ` _'.'='

2 _. . '> _. \ ='=` , ´_'¸ .'=' _.. = _, \¸
One of the following nouns cannot be used to fill in the blank. Which?
' , _,. = . ` ¸. = ´¸'.'

Which option has the natural order of the seasons? 3
' ·,¸ =\' · ` .'. =\' · ·,` =\' · ` _,,` ¸\'
, ` .'. =\' · ·,¸ =\' · ·,` =\' · ` _,,` ¸\'
110

. · ·,` =\' ` _,,` ¸\' ` .'. =\' · ·,¸ =\' ·

4 =. ,\' '_ = '=¸\ · , ='=' '_' ` .,¸ '
_.. = _¸> , '_' ` , = , ·'_ .¦
' , ´. =¸ = . ´,'= = - ='= ,

5 _¸` =\' _· .\ ,'· _.. = ¸ - »,. =
The correct form of the adjective which can be used to fill in the blank is option:
' , ¸ · ¸,¸ = . ` ¸ = ' '¸,¸ =

6 - . =¸ ¸ _ = · ¸,. > ¸ >'= = ` - \ ` ¸, = _'=¸ ¸ '=` = '_ .¦
' , _, .,= = '= > .` _, . .'='= . _,

7 ´_` ,. .` = ` ,'= · .,. =\' _. ¸'= ` _¸ ¸
` , ¸= , . ¸= = \ . \
' ¸'= =\' , . ¸,= =\' .'=\'

8 ·¸= · ´_= · · ´¸,¸ =
One of the following options cannot be related to the words above. Which?
' , ´_'.'= · . ´_,= · ´.'. =

9 -` ,¸ .. >'=.' =` = ¸ .` =\' _,,.' ¸'= ,\' _\= ` _¸'= =
Which of the following words does not make a meaningful sentence?
111

' - .,. = , ,'¸ · . - ´.'., =

10 ',,¸ = = \ . _,\' ! = \ ` ¸. = ` = = . ` - .¦
This sentence has to be referring to the concept in option:
' , · ¸'= · . ´_'¸ = - ='. =

11 = ` ¸'= · .'= _. .,. = _· ` _» =\' ¸'= · _· '` .
It makes more sense to use the word in option:
' , .'. =\' . ·,` =\' _,,` ¸\'

', .,'¸ ` , ,¸ = ', \.'=' _ = 12 ` _ >.'= .
One of the following adjectives cannot describe Miriam’s son. Which?
' , ` ¸ =' =\' . ` ,,= ¸\' ` _\'=.'

_ ¸= =\' '. = 13 ¸'='=' ` _' .= =. ¸ =
The only adjective that can be used to fill in the blank is in option:
' , - . .'= . - ,\'= - » .'=

14 , ¸= =\' '_ = . ¸'=.' _'=» »\' '. = ., ¸ .=¦
If you want to use the antonym of the adjective in this sentence you need to choose the
one in option:
' , ¸ ='=.' . ¸ ==.' _ ,',.'

15 ¸'=¦ ` - . =¸ ¸ ¸` = ¸ ¸=¸ - \,= = ·'
112

It makes more sense to use the adjective in option:
' , ` _'='= . . ´¸ ='.` = ´,,= ¸

16 .¸'¸.¦ - \» = '= ' ¸', · ',,\¦ '., = . - = .'=` = . .'> ¸ _¸,
The relative pronoun which can be used in this sentence is in option:
' , _.\' . _.\' _,.\'

17 ,'¸ =\' ` , = ' '.' · =` =` , , . !
If someone says something like this, you would not respond by using the expression in
option:
' =,\ = ´¸'= ! , .'= '_¦ =' ! . =' '.` ¸ ..'= , !

18 ', > ) ` _ = . ( ° ¸ ='=.' .'. =\' '. =
The synonym for the word which is between parentheses is in option:
' , ` ¸'= = . ` ¸', = - ,'¸ =

19 ·'= · ¸ ='»\' _\¦ _. \ .'= . ¸ ) _\', · (
If you want to send the opposite message, you have to choose the word in option:
' , _.'= , . _,'¸ _.,=

20 ¸ ·` ¸ = ¸` ¸. _. =¸ ¸ .\ ,'· ) '¸ ·'=` = .. > '= ., , ( ¸'= »\',

One of the following options cannot be used to substitute for the phrase between
parentheses. Which?
' , _¸ » = ¸` = . .'¸ ·'= '= .. = .'¸ ·'= _ ..

113

21 _. »,. = ', ·´_¸.'= = ´, \'= '. = !
` _'= ¸\' ·'_ .¦
' , ´_ .'¸ . ¸¸,» = ´._ =

22 ` . ¸'= ' · ` ¸ ='= ' · ` _ ,,'
These adjectives cannot be used to describe:
' , ´.'. = . - ,'¸ · ·¸=

Which of the following pairs is not like the other two? 23
' , ´_'=» ·¸ ´,¸ . . ´_'.'= ·¸ ´_,= · ´.'. =¸ ='¸·'

24 '. .. ·_.'· .'=' ', '¸\` = = !
' , '.'¸ > . . . '.= \. = '.'¸ = '.

25 '= ' . - = .'=` = . .'> - \» =\' ` _ ' ` . » . . .'> ', . ' _,'¸ _·
' , - \,= = . · ¸ ='.` = - \ =` =

114

Reading Exercise is!_s\! ¿,_=.

Read the following words, phrases and sentences into your tape recorder, then listen to
them. Give the tape to your teacher to check your performance:

'.` = - .'='= . - = .', · » = ' ` , = .'= ' · ¸ =
' ` , ='= ' ´_,= · ´_'.'= · ` . = .'= - ='= ,
.'. =\' ¸'= · ¸ .'. = ` _¸ ¸ ´.\ =¸ ´_= · - \,= = ='¸· ' _,,, = \ ','. =
` _ ,,' ´_'=» · ` ¸ ='= ' ´_,= · ¸ ¸,¸ = ` _'.'= · ` _ \'=\' ·¸` =\' ¸'» =¸ -` ,·¸>

_. »,. = ', _\` = = !
- \ ='> - . = = .\.` = = . ·, > !
- ,\'= _ ¸= =\' '. = _· - ='= ,\'
.\ =\' '_ = .'. =\' '. = ` _ ' ` _ ='
_.'· .'='¸ _\'=. ','. = _¸ .='
,¸ ,\' _¸'= = · » = ' '_ ' ` _'.'=' .
'.` , = .'= . '= _. .. - .'='= . .\ ¸ '=
,'¸ =\' ` , =` , .¸ =' ·'= , ¸` = ¸ '. =
= ° _ .¸. '_ = _'=» »\' '. = ` _' ´_,= = ¸
_ \'=\' _= »\' '_ = '.'=» · ·,` =\' _· ` _ ,\,


115

Unit # 6 (6) ,¡_ i.>¡\l
eha|i¢ ane ehahrrn arr tæe Arah stnernts in thr OeA. Thrv arr rraeing an
Arahit nræsµaµrr ane snrurving thr nræs e| thr Arah ler|e ane thr æer|e in
grnrra| that eav. Thrir |rirne. )ithar|. is |ving en thr tenth ane |e||eæing thrir
tenurrsatien.



_,»= · · .,¸ =\' _· ` ¸',=.' _= '= °
_,='= · - = ='¸` = ` ¸',=.'
_,»= · '.'¸ ,= ' =' ', !
_,='= · _'.¸ ` =\' _· ` _¸ >'= = ´,` ».¦
_,»= · -` ,. . =\' - =¸>` =\' . = » = _.= ,
_,='= · -` ,. = ¸\' · .'= ¸\' _\= ` . >•, ,` ».,' ` . .'·
_,»= · -` ,='¸»` =,.\'¸ -` ,` ¸` =\'¸ ¸'` ¸ .\' _ = ,`` =\' _,»'= .¸
116

_,='= · _,. ¸ ` ¸,= = '= ° · .',»\'¸ .'¸ ¸¸\'
_,»= · _'=` =\' _· ,` , \ > ¸` ¸= .\' '¸= . =¸ ¸'= =\' _¸` ,,`».,' _ \= '
_,='= · ,\' '¸ \ =¸ ¸¸.'=` .\' '¸\ = = · '=, =¸ '¸ _'=\
_,»= · .'¸` ='= .\' '¸= . = ·` =` =\' '¸\ = =¸ _` = = .\'¸
_,='= · - .,. =\' _ ¸'¸ = _· _, =\'¸ _'=.' .'` ¸· · .,= ¸\' - =¸>` =\' ', . ' · ¸'= . ¸ =
°` ,= =\' ', , = ..' _.\'
_,»= · · ¸,. > ¸ >'= = , = .. =
_,='= · _¸. =`\'¸ - ='= =\'¸ ` ,'¸ =\' ·´_,= =
= _,» · ° . \ ,\' ` ¸',=' _= '=
_,='= · .,. = . ! ` ¸ = .'=` = .'.,=\'¸ -` ,,'¸ =\' .¸¸, , ` ¸'= =
_,»= · ° -` ,·¸ =\' .¸¸, , \ ·'= · . . = ¸ =
_,='= · -` ,,'¸ =\'¸ -` ,·'¸ =\' .¸¸, , _, , ¸ ==.' ==\' ¸¸ = ·'= ·
_,»= · , '_' ` _¸¸» =\' _'> -` ,.¸=` =\' _· ` _'= \¸ ,\' _ = .'=
_,='= · °'.'= \
_,»= · - \ >=` =\' '¸ \ = ,¸ '=,. ¸ '¸, = .. , _ . =
_,='= · ¸ = . . ='.` = '= \'= … ¸ = - \ >=` =\ \ _, \
_,»= · ° ,¸. =\' ` ¸',=' _= '= ·',` , =
_,='= · _¸ »\' _'= , . , ¸ = ¸,.'¸'=¦ .'¸ .'=
_,»= · ° _¸¸,. > ','= = ='.` = _'> ¸ =
_,='= · .¸,` ,\' '_ = '. . = . ¸` = .¸ ·¸ _'==' - ='= = . \ . ·
_,»= · ` ¸ ,>' =' !
117

_,='= · ´, ` = ',,· _'> '= = =\' _=` = \ '_ > \¸ · - = ¸'. =¸
_,»= · = '=` =\' ,¸ , ·'= »\' . . - = - \ = =` = ` _ ¸'. =\' - »` =\' '_ = ´¸',=' ='.` = ¸ =
° ·` ¸ =¸ -` ,,'¸ =\'
_,='= · ='.` = . .'>¸ .'¸` ='= . '=` =\' ·` = .'= , _'. »\' _· - =
_,»= · °` ¸ =' ´._ =
_,='= · ·` ¸ = .'=` = - ='» ..,'
_,»= · ¸ = °¸ .¸,` , ` ,,.', . ¸' ¸ _'==' ` .'=',¦¸ ..'» .=¦ ='.` =
_,='= · ', = . '¸\ » .'=¦ 45 ,,.= '¸.=,'¸ 20 _, ., , '¸= . =¸
_,»= · ¸ -` ,, ¸ = ¸ - ,'¸ · _\= _,. =¸ .=` =\' ,¸=` = '_ = ´¸ , = _'=.' _· _'> _, =\'
\' ` _ > \¸ · ¸ , =\' _» . ` _\,.'¸=,' ` ·¸. > ' , .'=.' _,\='¸` =
_,='= · °' _, ¸ = ' ,'= ¸ .» = .'= , ` - .¸» ., ·, >
_,»= · ` , ¸ =\' ` - \ . · = \ . \¸ ·,, = = '.¸'= .` = _'> ` ,' =\' ` _¦ ` _\,.'¸=,' _, =\' ¸'·
_,='= · '=` ¸'=` = _.\' - \» =\'¸ ·',` , = 9 °¸ .'¸ . =
_,»= · ¸ . . .'> · ¸'= =\' _= · ¸'= =\' ¸'»=' '_ = _= ° _'¸ =\' '_ = ¸ ¸',=' '_ = ¸ =
_,='= · ' · ¸ . ..` = - \,\ · ` ¸',=. _'¸,¦ _ = ,'¸ =\' ·
_,»= · °¸ .,. = '_ = ¸ =
_,='= · ¸ · ¸ .'= . .'= _· _'·` .\' ¸,¸ ¸ ¸ .» =
_,»= · =\' _¸\•'= =\' .¸= , · '= .'. ¸ .'¸ .'= . .'¸ = _· ` , ¸
_,='= · ¸ =¸=\' '_ = - . .¸ = _,¸ = _· ¸=¸ ¸,¸ ¸\' · ¸ .'= . = = = .
_,»= · ¸ -` ,¸ · ¸ -` ,` ¸ = ¸ - » ='= , , = , · ¸ .'=\' . =» = · '=', = !
_,='= · _¸'= .\' ¸ .'= ¸¸ ¸ ,'` ,' - .` . \ ` .'. =\'
118

_,»= · = _\'¸ . . , ¸ =\' .'=•` ¸\'¸ =¸\` =\' '_
_,='= · °¸,.'` ¸\' '_ = ¸ , =\' .'= = = ¸ = °'.'=
_,»= · . '¸,. > '='.'= = =¸ -=,\>\' · . = · ¸'= . ` _=.
_,='= · ` _.¸=` =\' _,¸ »\' ¸¸ · '_ = ` _=',¸ ´¸ , = '. =
_,»= · \ , . »\' · ¸ > _,¸ · _¸> , '_' ` , = , ',=' - \¸=` ,
_,='= · _, · . = ¸ ,'»` = ¸ ·'.'=' - .` . , ',¸,\'= _,¸ · _\= ` _.¸=` =\' _,¸ »\' ¸'·
_,»= · ´,,= = ! ° _,¸ »\' '. = _\= '¸· ¸ = ', > _¸'. . ¸ =
_,='= · '` = ,` = _, \ ! _¸= ' .',=' _\= ¸'¸'=.' '¸· ¸'= , '_' '_ = ` _ ='=' '. =
_,»= · ¸,¸'¸ ,\'¸ ',.'=\'¸ ',.',=¦ '_ = · ¸ ,'=.'¸ _,,¸.` =\' ¸ >
_,='= · '=. ¸ » \ ` _=¸` ¸\' _,.` ¸\' · ¸',¸ ¸= -` ,= \'=\' ¸',=.' ` , = '
_,»= · °_,¸', _\¦ ¸ = ¸ _. =
_,='= · ´¸,, > ´.· ¸ ` - = =¸ _'= ' ¸ = ¸
_,»= · '=.' _» = _¸= ·'.` , = = \ ` _¸ >'= =\' _` ¸'¸ .\'¸ -` ,¸ ¸ .\' -
_,='= · ` _=¸\¸.> .\'¸ ` _¸'= .\' ¸` .', .\'¸ -` ,.'. .\' .'·` =\' _¸= ·'.` , = '=` ,` ¸
_,»= · ,` , . ' ` = = . ',.'=\'¸ '.. \¸, _· ` _=',` =\' ¸,,= .\' '=,' _¸= ·'.` , =
_,='= · ´.,>' ! . ,.'=\' ` .,=¸ ` =\' ` _'. ».,'¸ ' -` = ,` =\' _,='¸ =\' '_ = ` _=',
_,»= · _.' .'= , ¸=¸'¸ ·\ =¸ _= \=.' ·\ = \ - ='= . ` - . ' ` . » .'='
_,='= · .· ¸\' _'= , _\¦ ` _'.'= , '. · ` - . > \¸ · `,= .=` = '. = _, \
_,»= · _¸= ·'.` , = ,` , . ' ` . » .'= . ¸ = ° = =¸.' _¸ =\' - \ >=` =
_,='= · · ¸'= ' . = \ . '_ = ¸ ._ = ` _' ` ¸ >. . . · .,¸ =\'
_,»= · °,` , .· ¸ _¸=` , =` , '.'= \
119

_,='= · '=. ¸ » \ - . \' .\' ` _=¸` ¸\' _,.` ¸\' · ¸', ¸ · . =
_,»= · .\ \ _'. . =\' _¸> .\' _= - .` =\' · . = -` ,=. ¸ »\' · ¸¸
_,='= · - , ='.` =\' · . , , - > ¸'=` =\ \ ¸ = = ` _=¸` ¸\' ` _,.` ¸\'
_,»= · ` ¸` ,= . , ` , \'=\' ! ° - =¸` =\' · . , , ` _` = = . . .'·` =\' ` _ ' _` .=` , _'> '_ =
_,='= · . \¸, ` ¸¸¸ , = _` , ` _>,¸=.' _,.` ¸\' ` _ ' _¸'. . ¸ = ° ',,¸ · '.
_,»= · _,=¸,'= ' .'= , ·', = .
_,='= · ´._ = ` .'= .·, ' ` _>'¸ .=.' ,'= .\' _· - > ¸ ,\ ' !
_,»= · '=,' · ¸,. > ¸ >'= = -,· '>,¸=' _· ` _.'= .·.' ` _'= ¸\ '
_,='= · °'>,¸=' '_ = ¸',=.' ..'= ' _= '= · - , ='.` =\',
_,»= · '>,¸= ' _','=,' _· .'= .\' _ = -` ,= » , - \¸== =
_,='= · ',\` =\' - = >'= =\' _\= ´_¸¸= = ` _¸=¸ =\' '. =
_,»= · °` ,>` =\' ¸ . = ¸ =
_,='= · -` ,¸ >'¸ =\' - =¸>` =\' '_ = ¸,¸= .\' '¸= = · '_> \¸ · - ,. ¸ ¸ > \ ¸'¸ »\' '¸> ¸ .
_,»= · .'= ¸,¸'= . °'
_,='= · _','=,' .'.', = \ ` _¸ >'¸ =\' ¸,¸= .\'
_,»= · .'= .\' _¸»` = '_ = ´_` ='¸ . '. = !
_,='= · -` ,= · _· ` ,>` =\' ¸= ·` ¸=' ` ,'= ´¸ , = ='.` = ) .¸¸. ¸»,\¸' (
_,»= · °` ,>` =\' _'> '.'=
_,='= · · .,». .\' ·· ¸ _ = _'=` =\', ¸ .'¸ . = .` . - ='¸ =¸ 150 ¸.¸. ·\'
_,»= · °= » · '. =
50 _,='= · -` ,='¸\,' -` ,='=.'=,' - ='. =\' _· - ='=
120

_,»= · - =,= »\' '_ = '='= . .¸.= = _, \ ¸` =` ¸\' ` _ ' ` . » .'= '
_,='= · \'=' ¸ - =\` = '_ = ¸ ='¸ ' . » .` , _'> ` - .' _¸· ¸'= , ` _,= =\ ' _
_,»= · - \'= \ ` ·¸> ¸ . - =,= »\' . » = >.¦ '= .. = '_ > \¸
_,='= · ¸ .'. · _, > !
_,»= · =' ·'=` ,` ¸ ` , \'= , ` · .'= ¸ !
_,='= · ` , \'= , ` · .'= ¸ =' !

Questions about the text _ .\! ¿= -\.=l
a. Answer the following questions.
', = ' [ -,\'.\' -\.=.' '_ = _,,=' ·
1 ¸ »\' _'=,.` ¸\' _ ·'.` , = '.'= ° .` ¸' ` _=¸` ¸\'¸ ` _=.
2 ° '.,. = '=,. ¸ , = .. , _> \ ` _ = .'= , = ` _.'., \\' ` _'=\¸ ,\' _'> _, '
3 - =,. . ¸ . · '== = ', > =\' ·'= » \ ° .'¸ .'
4 ° ·'= »\' . . = '= .. = ´, ` = - = ¸'. =\' _· _'> ¸ =
5 °` _¸ >'= =\' ` ,` ».,' .. = _,'
6 °'=. ¸ · _\¦ ` _=¸` ¸\' ` _,.` ¸\' ¸ = ¸ '.'= \
7 .' _'¸ =\' - \ >=` = ` _=¸` ¸\'¸ ` _=.¸ »\' _'=,.` ¸\' _ ·'.` , = ¸ = ° = =¸
8 °.¸¸. ¸»,\¸' -` ,= · _· - = >'= =\' ` ,>` = ¸= '=

b °'= = ,' ,'¸ = '. = ' [ _,=ƒ =\' ',\> = , - =,\` =\' ¸, = ¸ =` =\' - ,'. > _.,='
1 ¸'= = ,¸. = -` ,\,.'¸'=,' .'¸ .' =\' . » = ·
2 . ·¸ -` ,\,.'¸'=¦ - ,¸ · ` , ¸ =\' , ='= '` ,'=¸ - \» = '¸\
121

3 _,. =¸ .'=` =\' ,¸=` = ¸ , = ` _\,.'¸'=,' _, =\' . > '
4 ¸ .'¸ . = _'= . _¸. =¸.'=` =\' ', \ . · _.\' - \» =\' ` ¸'=` = _'>
5 ` - . ¸ .'= . = » = '= .. = ` _·'¸ =\' _'·` .\' ` ¸,¸ ¸ .'=
6 ¸ > \ ., ¸>\' _,¸ · ¸'· ',¸,\'= _,¸ · _\= , . »\' ·
7 ¸ >'= = -,· _, \ '>,¸=' _· ` _.'= .·,' ` _'= ¸\ '
8 ',,¸ · ',.'=\' _` , ` _>,¸=.' ` _,.` ¸\' ` ¸¸¸ , =

Functional Expression ª·-' ~-' ~','-·-'

Come on , tell us! '.'¸ ,= ' =' ', !
.,. = . ! Nothing new!
¸` ¸= .\' ` _. = curfew
_¸. =`\'¸ - ='= =\'¸ ` ,'¸ =\' war, famine and refugees
'=` =\' ·` = - = Friday prayers
·` ¸ = .'=` = - ='» ..,' ¸ The uprising is on.
¸ = . . ='.` = '= \'= As long as there is interference
¸ _'==' ` .'=',¦ sending individuals on exile
¸ .¸,` , ` ,,.', . demolishing houses
· ¸'= =\' ¸'»=' children with rocks
· ¸ . ..` = ,'¸ =\' · since war ending
'` = ,` = _, \ ! That is not important!
'=.' ` _» = -` ,¸ ¸ .\' - = \ Nuclear weapon reduction
122

` _¸ >'= =\' ` _` ¸'¸ .\' military balance
-` ,.'. .\' .'·` =\' bilateral relations
\' ¸` .', .\' ` _=¸\¸.> .\'¸ ` _¸'= . commercial and technological exchange
`,= .=` = '. = _, \ This is not impossible.
_= \=.' ·\ = Atlantic Alliance
` _=',` =\' ` _'. »., ' political opening
The economy is worse. ´._ = ` .'= .·, '
Bless the socialist system! ` _>'¸ .=.' ,'= .\' _· - > ¸ ,\ ' !
°,` , .· ¸ _¸=` , =` , '.'= \ Why would they waste their time?
_` . =` , _'> '_ = ° Who would believe …….?
` ¸` ,= . , ` , \'=\' ! The world is changing!
_','=,' _· .'= .\' _ = women’s right for abortion
.,». .\' ·· ¸ _ = ` _'=` =\' jail sentence on probation
_','=,' .'.', = \ ` _¸ >'¸ =\' ¸,¸= .\' federal funding for abortion clinics
\' _¸»` = '_ = ´_` ='¸ . .'= . back step for women’s rights
-` ,='¸\,' -` ,='=.'=,' - ='. =\' compulsory social service
` , \'= , ` · .'= ¸ =' ! Only Allah knows!
¸ .'. · _, > ! scapegoat
-=,\>\' · . = · ¸'= . ` _=. ! We know this cliché!



123

Vocabulary List =!._ì=\! -=.!¡

´g ='¸` = annoying
´_¸¸= = open for discussion
´_ ¸'= .` = collaborating, coordinating
¸ = =` = closed down, not working
` _. . = civil, civilian
´_¸¸» = enforced
` _¸ >'= = military
´¸,¸ ¸ - ` .'¸ ¸` ¸ minister/s
´_,. ¸ president
· .', · leadership
´. .'· leader, commander
´_'= ' security
·` ¸· - .'` ¸· power, force/s
_, = army
´,` ».¦ coup
´¸ .'. [ ´¸'` ¸. rebel/s
´_'· . defense
´¸¸.'=` . constitution
- =\` = authority, power
124

´¸,= = fate, destiny
´¸,='. . destruction
-` ,= = victim/s
·'= · bombing
´¸'= = blockade
- ='» ..¦ Intifadha, uprising
- ='= = famine
´_` = = . assembling
.'¸` ='= . demonstrations
´_'= = prison, jail
´,,.', . demolition, destruction
¸ .» = murder
- ,'¸ · [ _¸ · village/s
´_ ·¸ = position/s
¸ ='¸` = correspondent
· ¸'= = - ´¸ = = stone, stones
´,¸=` = attack
´.'=',¦ deportation
¸ = . . intervention, interference
¸` .'=¦ occupation
` ,'= young man
125

- ='= need
- ,¸'= . condolences
´.'. = mourning
- \'= ¸ - ¸ .'= ¸ letter/s
´_ =¸ .'=` = - _¸. =¸ .'=` = settler/s
´._ =. - _¸. =. refugee/s
´_» = reduction
´_'. ».¦ opening
¸¸•= = official
,= · - = scandal
-` ,= · case, issue, matter
´_` ='¸ . backing away
· .¸ = return
´.,=¸ . unification
- ='¸ = fine
¸,¸'= . financing
´.· ¸ delegate
´,` ¸ .` = coach
- \¸=` , championship
',=' Asia
, ¸ = to defeat, conquer
126

¸ = to dissolve, solve
¸ = = to suspend
_ \= ' to close
= » = to fall
. > ' to emphasize
¸ >.' to deny
¸'· to win
_\'¸ . to keep coming
· ¸ = to spend
. · ¸ to be murdered
. » . to execute
_ = · to cut off
· = >.¦ to be exposed
¸ » .'=¦ to arrest
_= ¸ to fire at
, = = . to crash
_ ·'. to discuss
, = ..¦ to elect
'= \'= as long as




127

Grammar --';--'
Hollow Verbs are those verbs in which the second consonant of the root is a long vowel as in:
¸'- »'- .'·
This category of verbs is divided into three groups according to the way in which the vowel
changes.
1. The first group is:
¸'· - ¸¸» , ' ---- ¸
The middle short vowel of the present form is -
2. The next group is:
' ---- ¸'= _ - ` ¸,= ,
The middle short vowel of the present form is -
3. The third group is:
' ---- ,'. ' - ` ,'. ,
The middle short vowel of the present form is -

Remember that these changes are required when you change the hollow verb from past to
present.

In the past form of the verb, the long vowel does not appear except for the third person singular
(m. & f.) and third person plural (m. only). It also shows in the third person dual (m. & f.)

Verb Conjugation J'·-V' ~-,~-
1. The following is the conjugation of the verb ¸'· to both singular and plural pronouns, for
both past and present tenses.

!. l =. l =. l _= ¡=
' _='=\ . \'· ¸'· \ · .\ · .\ · .
128

¸¸» , _¸'=` =\' ¸¸» . ¸» . _,\¸» . ¸ ¸¸·'
´ ¿>. ´ ¿ ..l , ..l ´ ¿´ = ,´ =
, .\ · '.\ · ` _ .\ · '¸\'· _='=\' _\ ·
_\ » . _¸\¸» . _\ » , _¸\¸» , _¸'=` =\' ¸¸» .
2. The following is the conjugation of the verb _', to both singular and plural pronouns, for
both past and present tenses.
!. l =. l =. l _= ¡=
.'= , .'= , . =', _', _='=\' .'= ,
` _,,' _,=,, . ` _,, . `_,, . ` _,, , _¸'=` =\'

´ ¿>. ´ ¿ ..l , ..l ´ ¿´ = ,´ =
'.'= , ` _ .'= , ', .'= , _'= , '¸=', _='=\'
' ` _,, . _'= , . _¸=,, . _'= , , _¸=,, , _¸'=` =\
3. The following is the conjugation of the verb ,'. to both singular and plural pronouns, for both
past and present tenses.

!. l =. l =. l _= ¡=
=\' .'= . .'= . .'= . .='. ,'. _='
` ,'. ' _,='. . ` ,'. . ` ,'. . ` ,'. , _¸'=` =\'
´ ¿>. ´ ¿ ..l , ..l ´ ¿´ = ,´ =
'¸='. _='=\' '.= . ` _ .'= . , .'= . _'= .
` ,'. . _'= . . _¸='. . _'= . , _¸='. , _¸'=` =\'

129

Drill # 1 ¸¡v! ¿,_=.\l
Use the words and phrases in the Vocabulary List in good sentences:


Drill # 2 _.!.\! ¿,_=.\l
Please choose the correct options:
1 ',>¸ . _\¦ _` ,,·'¸ =\' _,. =†\' '_ = ´. . = ¸ =¸
` =\' ` _¸> , . '=` ,` ¸ ` , , ·
' , - ='= =\'¸ ` ,'¸ =\' . ` ¸'= =\'¸ ·'= »\' - ='. =\'¸ - = \'=.'

2 ' ·· ¸ _ = - . = _'=` =\' - = >'= =\' ` ¸'¸ · _'> .,». .\
This sentence says that the person got:
a. a year in absentia
b. a year on probation
c. a year of hard labor

3 ¸` =` ¸\' _'> ',\` = ¸ .'= \` =
: ¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =·'
' ` , =` , , ` - .· ¸ ` _ . ¸ ='¸ ' . » .` , .'·` =\' _ ·'.` ,

4 =, \ = ´¸'= !
You would use this expression when you:
a. express sympathy
b. accept an invitation
c. none of the above

5 '= ` _'= ¸\' _'> _'= ' ,¸ , .'¸` ='= . .'= , '. . ='.` = . =, \ ` - . ' _.'= , . '. =
130

¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , - ='= = . - ='» ..¦ -` ,. =
One of the following statements is false vis-à-vis the Hollow Verbs. 6
Which one?
a. They begin with a long vowel.
b. The long vowel is in the medial position.
c. Mostly, the long vowel changes in the present tense.

7 _',` =\' . .'¸ = _· -` ,= »\' '_ = '.'¸ · - =¸>` =\' _\= ` ¸'=\ ' !
: ='.` = ` _ ' = \ . _.'= =
' , - ='¸ = . - =,= · ´¸,= =

8 ·¸= · ´_= · · ´¸,¸ =
One of the following cannot be made of all these materials. Which?
, . ´_,= · ´.'. = ' '.'= · ´_

¸ , ='.` = ¸, = _'¸ =\' _· _'= ¸\' '_ = _'=.' 9 _ \'= = ` ¸'¸ · _'>
The medial long vowel of the sentence's hollow verb will change to the vowel in option
...... if the verb tense is changed to present.
' , ¸ . ' _

10 ¸` ¸= .\' ` _. =¸ .¸,` ,\' ` ,,., .¸ ` .'=',,'¸ _'==.' ¸'» .'=¦
: ='.` = ` _ ' _.'= , '. =
' , .,». .\' ·· ¸ . - ='¸ = - ='» ..¦

131

11 =\' _· -` = ,` = -` ,= · ` _, ¸ =\' , \'
, ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' ' - = ,'` ¸\ ' , -` ,\.'=\ '=` =\' ·` = . - = _','=,' _ =
You need to use a ´_', · when you want to buy .................. 12
' = , .'. . '='¸·' . .'¸ =
13 ¸ ¸', = ..` = ` ¸ = .'=` =
` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, ' ¸= , ='.` =\' ·
' , ` ¸'= =\' . ·'= »\' - ='= =\'

14 , ¸'= =\' .'= \` =\' . » \= ' , , =
` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, ' ¸= , ='.` =\' ·
. -` ,¸ =\' - » ='=\' ' , _,¸ »\' ¸¸ · ` _¸ >'= =\' ,` ».,'

15 ` _¦ .`,=\' .,=
: ¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· '
, - \» = „ . -` ,\.'= - \» = - ¸ -` ,\.'= ' - \» = - -` ,\.'=

16 ¸` .'=,' _, = _\= · ¸'= =\' ¸'»=.' _='¸ ,
: '_ = .` . = .' '.'
' _','=,' _· .'= .\' _ =
, ' ., ,\' _· ¸ - =,= · _ ,,.
. -` ,,¸ =\' - »` =\' _· .'¸` ='= .\'
132


17 ,`».,' ¸',=' ` , .'=.' _¸\ ='¸` =\' . > '
What is the antonym of the sentence's verb?
' , _» . . = » = ¸ » .'=¦

18 · ¸.' =\' - . .'= , , = , _ ,,.' ., ,\' _\= _\'¸ . .
: ¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· '
' , - ,¸'= .\' ¸ .'= ¸ . -` ,¸ = - » ='= , . »\' · ¸ >

19 -` ,¸ =\' - » ='=\' , , = , -` = ' _ = ¸» =\' ,'.
The hollow verb of this sentence, ,'. , will change to ............. if we change the tense
from past to present.
' , ` ,'. , . ` ,¸. , ` ,,. ,

20 .' .'= \` = _ = ´_ ¸'= .` = ` - .. - ,¸ »\' '_ = `` = ¸ ` , ¸ =\' ¸ . · ¸` .'=
a. was a collaborator
b. was a revolutionary
c. was a member of the regime party

21 '=¸,'= ' - ,¸ »\' _'=.' .'` ¸· . ¸ ='=
: ', .' _.'= , '. =
' . .\' .'·` =\' . » . -` ,.'
, _` ¸ =\'¸ _ ¸'¸ =\' . » \= '
. ` _=',` =\' _'= ¸\' . = ·'.

133

22 _¸=¸ , ¸'»=.' _'> ¸` .'=,' .'` ¸· _\=
: ¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· '
' , · ¸'= =\' ¸¸.'=` .\' . - = \'=.'

23 _=' ,¸ , -` ,\,.'¸'=,' .'¸ .' =\' . » = ·
: , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, '
' - =` =` =\' ·` = .'.. '
, ` _=¸\¸.> .\' ¸` .', .\'
. ¸ =\' _'= , _¸ »\'¸ _ ·'

24 .'= .\' _¸»` = '_ = ´_` ='¸ . - = >.'= =\' ¸'¸ · ` _¦ · '¸ =\' . \'·
This woman seems that she:
a. protests the Supreme Court decision
b. supports the Supreme Court decision
c. hasn’t heard of the Supreme Court decision

25 ¸ - ='» ..,' . .'· ¸` .'=,' .'= \` = ` - ., ,
: ¸= ¸ ¸',=' ¸ = · '
' . = = = . „ , . \ = = . \ » .'=¦ „ . . = . = . » = >.¦ „ . . » .

Drill # 3: :=\!.\! ¿,_=.\l

a. Vowel the following: : '=` ¸ = [ - ,\'.\' ¸ =` =\' _· .'=\ >\' ¸ ='¸ ' _>` ¸ =
1 °_','=,' - ,= · _· ',\` =\' - = >'= =\' ,>` = ¸= '=
134

2 == = '>,¸=' ._ = _', °- \¸
3 _. »\' _· - =` =` =\' ·` = .'= , .'¸` ='= .\' . . . =
4 °. . =','¸ ¸` .'=,' .'= \` = . . =', ' _= = , >
b. Change the verbs to the present tense:
¸` ¸ = [ _ ¸'=` =\' _ =` ¸\' - =,= _\¦ - ,\'.\' ¸ =` =\' _\` ¸ = !
1 . = ` _¦ · '¸ =\' . \'· ', . ,'¸ · _\= ´_¸¸» = ¸` ¸ = .\' _
2 _¸= ' ¸ - .,. = _\¦ '¸¸ ='=¸ ',` , .¸,` , _,= \'=` =\' ` , ='=` = _',
3 ¸ .'¸ =\' _· ` _¸ >'= =\' ,` ».,' . . ='= '>,¸=' ` _¦ '¸\'· _¸\ ='¸` =\ '
4 > ¸ -` ,.'= .·' ¸ .'. ='=` = , ,` ».,' - =¸>` = .¸'· ,'¸ =\' '_ = ¸ · ¸,',
5 ¸` .'=,' ` . = ¸ · ¸,, > ¸ .'¸` ='= . _· ` _' .\' ¸'=
6 -` ,¸ =\' - » ='=\' '_ = · .'= ` - . . -` = ' _ = ¸» =\' ,'.
c. Rearrange the following words to make good sentences:
: '. = ' [ \'.\' .'= \ >\' ,,.¸ . _.,= ' ¸ - =,= = ¸ ¸ =` = _,¸> . \ - ,

1 .'= .·,' - =,= · -` ,>'¸ .=,' ¸',=' _,.¸ _ = '.'¸ · - =¸>` =\' · ¸,¸ ¸
2 ` _¸,¸ =\' ¸'= » \ ` - ., ¸ .=' ´, ='.` = _.\' ` . » .'= ' ·,` =\' _,= »\' ` _ '
3 ' ·` =` =\' . » \= ' ` _¦ .'= \` = _· .'= ='=\' - »` =\' . \'· ¸` .'=,' -` ,,¸ =\
4 ` _¸> , = _'= ' .'= , _'=.' _'= ¸\' .'¸` ='=. '. .'= ` _ = , . ,¸ , ` _ ' ¸'= ¸

Drill # 4: :_,!´ _\! ¿,_=.\l
Please choose the correct options and explain WHY:

135

1 = = = _ =\' ` _¸¸¸ = ´._ = ` _=¸\¸.> .\' ¸` .', .\' ` _¦
: _. . ' = \ . _.'= =
' , = = = _ » . ' . = = = · \ .= ' . ' = = = . »

2 _ = ´_ ¸'= .` = ¸` = ¸ ` - . ' _¸. » .'= ,
: ¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· '
' '=` =\' ·` = , - = . -` ,.'. .\' .'·` =\' ¸` .'=,' .'= \` =

3 ,` ¸ .` = \ .,\¸ ¸'· _,¸ »\' · _'='¸,' _\= · =' '. '
Mr. Walid is sorry for:
a. coming late
b. talking loudly
c. bothering someone

4 _'.', \ ,¸. = _· _,. =. , .. > ¸ =
:` .` =· ' '.'
' , ',` = . ', .. ' ` _ .. '

5 _, =\' ` . .'· ¸ '= · ° - ,¸ »\' ¸'= = , .\ => ' ¸ =

The pronoun suffixed to the verb is:
a. a subject pronoun
b. an object pronoun
c. a possessive pronoun

6 _\= · ¸'= =\' _¸='¸ , ¸'»=.' _'>
: ¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,'
. _'=.' .'` ¸· ' , ,'¸ =\' ·· ¸ _,\¸•'= =\'
136


7 ¸, \\' ·'= . .'¸ .' =\' ·'= · ' . , ) ,,¸» . ' (
Which of the following words is the synonym of the one between parentheses, even
though you need to change the order of the words?
' , _\'¸ = . ¸ ¸'¸'= .'=', - »,» =

8 · ''= · - ='¸ =\' , .> = ,'=' ¸` =` ¸\' = » = ! , _\¦ , =. , '_ ' ` _'.'=
: ¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, '
' , _'=` =\' . _»= .'=` =\' · .',=\'

9 .'¸ .' =\' . » = · ) _',` =\' _· (
Which of the following options cannot replace the phrase that is between parentheses?
: ¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, '
' '=` =\' ·` = .'= , - =
, _¸ »\'¸ _ ·'¸ =\' _'= ,
. _=¸\¸.> .\' ¸` .', .\' _ =

= _'. ».,' ` _,· ', . =',= - =¸>` =\' ¸ _ >.'=` = ` ¸, 10 ) '= \'= ( ` ¸` , = . .
The word between parentheses means:
a. as long as
b. it is probably true
c. one can conclude that

11 .'¸ ¸¸\' ` _,. ¸ ¸'· · ` _>'¸ .=,' ,'= .\' _· - > ¸ ,\ '
The prime minister is talking about:
a. the Islamic system
b. the socialist system
c. the capitalist system

137

12 ‡, ` _·'¸ =\' , . »\' · ¸ > _,¸ · ¸'· ',='
: ¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· '
' , ·'.'= ' - \¸=` , . · ¸ ,'= '

13 ° -` ,,'¸ =\' - »` =\' _· = ..\ ,'· _. . ' _,¸ >. . . ¸ =
: ` . =· ' '. '
' , .. ' . ` _ .. ' .. '

14 · _¸ »\' '_ = '. . = .'¸ .' =\' . » = · ,¸. =\' _
: ='.` = _¸> , '_ ' - =,. .\ '
' , , .'=' . ','= = '='. ».'

15 ¸` =` ¸\' _'> ',\` = ¸ .'= \` =
You want to say, "wasting his time."
: ¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· '
' =` , , .· ¸ ` _` , . ¸ ='¸ ' . » .` , .'·` =\' _ ·'.` ,

16 ='.` = ¸ = ° _.' .'= , ¸=¸'¸ ·\ = \
¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· ' ·
. - ='= ' , ´.,=¸ . · .¸ =

17 '` ¸· ` _ ' _.,·` . = _ ¸'¸ =\' _· _'=.' .
.` . = .' '.' ·
138

' , = = = . = = = ` - = =

18 ·` .'=',,'¸ .¸,` ,\' ` ,,.', .¸ _'==.' ¸'» .'='¸ ¸` ¸= .\' ` _. =
·. = ¸ > - ·` = ',\ ·
' .,». .\' .· ¸ , , . - ='¸ =\', - ='» ..,',

19 _'> ¸ = - ='» ..,' '_ = °
¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· ' ·
' ,'¸ - „ , ´,,¸ = ` - ,'¸ „ . ¸ ,,¸ = ` -` ,'¸ - ',,¸ =

20 · ¸ .' =\' - . .'= , , = , _ ,,.' ., ,\' _\= _\'¸ . .
¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· ' ·
' , _¸'= .\' ¸ .'= ¸ . -` ,` ¸ = - » ='= , . »\' · ¸ >

21 ¸'= '= =\' ¸'¸ · ` _ ' _. .'= .\' _¸»` = '_ = ´_` ='¸ . ',\` =\' - = >
¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· ' ·
' , ` . » .'= . . ` , = = . ¸ = = .

22 -` ,¸ ¸ .\' - = \'= .' _» = _¸\¸•= =\' _ ·'.` ,
The officials are discussing the .......... of nuclear weapons.
a. control
b. reduction
c. elimination

23 ° ,` ».,' '_ = ` _¸ >.'= =\' ` . .'»\' , > ¸ ,= ' ¸ =
139

` . =· ' '. ' ·
' , .. ' . ',` = ', .. '

24 _',` =\' '. = · ¸ .' =\' . = = = . · · = ` \
¸= ` , ,` =\' ` _¸> , '=` ,` ¸ [ _= ·
' , ` _¸ >.'= =\' _` ¸'¸ .\ ' = \'=. ' . -,` ¸ ¸ .\' - -` ,` ¸ =\' - » =\=\ '

25 .'¸ .' =\' ` , = = . · -` ,¸ ¸ .\' - = \'=. ' · .'¸ .' =\' ·'= ·
All of the above are terrible. Which one is the most deadly?
' .'¸ .' =\' ·'= ·
, -` ,¸ ¸ .\' - = \'=. '
. .'¸ .' =\' ` , = = .












140

Reading Exercise is!_s\! ¿,_=.

Read the following words, phrases and sentences into your tape recorder, then listen to
them. Give the tape to your teacher to check your performance:

´.'. = - ='= = ´.'=',¦ ´,¸=` = ´. .'·
¸ = . . ´¸¸.'=` . '¸. =',' '¸ \ = ´¸,==
·` = ¸` ¸= .\' ` _. = '=` =\' ,'¸ =\' ·· ¸ - =
.¸,` ,\' ` ,,.', . -` ,` ¸ = - » ='= ` ¸ ==.' = =\ '
¸` .'=,' .'= \` = = =¸.' _'¸ =\ ' -` ,,¸ =\' - »` =\ ' - ,¸'= .\' ¸ .'= ¸
` ,' =\' ¸ .» = _¸\ ='¸` =\' . > '
'=` =\' , = = ¸ -` ,, ¸ = ¸ - ,¸ · _\= _¸. =¸.
- =¸>` =\' _\= - ,¸'= .\' ¸ .'= ¸ _\'¸. .
',=' - \¸= , , _'= ' , . »\' · ¸ > _,¸ · ¸'·
.'¸ ¸¸\ \ '.,. = '=,. ¸ '. = ` _'= \'¸ ,\' ` , =.. ,
-` ,,'¸ =\' - »` =\' _· -` ,,'= =\' - ='» ..,' .' . , _. = °
¸` .'=,' _, = _\= · ¸'= =\' _¸='¸ , ¸'»=.' _'>
` . .'· -` ,, ¸ =\' · .'= ¸\' _\= ` . > •, ` _¸ >'= =\' ,`».,'
.'¸` ='= .\' _· ` _' .\' = ¸'= '=` =\' ·` = .'= , · ¸,, >\' - =
- ,'= = _' .\' ·', = _¸> . '_ ' _ · ¸ .` =\' '_ = ¸` .'=,' .'= .
¸



141

Unit # 7 (7) ;-, --=;-'
§aaei ane Onar arr ta|king ahent thrir ineiuiena| hehhirs. thrn §aaei hrgins tr||ing
Onar ahent senrthing hr has rxµrrirntre en his ||ight henr |ren Tangirr æith a steµ in
§rank|nrt. ©rrnanv.



_.'· · ` _','= . _. . ' ` ¸` == ' `,\ ·
¸ =` = · ° .\ = = '.'=
_.'· · _,'='= ' . = ' _ = _'= ' _ . .\' · ¸ > .', = \
¸ =` = · .', ='= _.'=¦ ¸' = ,'='= ' . = ' _ = ° =
_.'· · _,'='= ' . = ' _ = ='¸ .
¸ =` = · _ . = = .'>` ¸ = .¸ = ¸'¸'=' _»= . .' . , ..' !
_.'· · °¸ .'>` ¸ = .¸ ¸ ¸'¸'=' -` , '
¸ =` = · ._ = . · ._ = . ° ¸'· '_ =
142

_.'· · '=', = ·¸=
¸ =` = · ° .'.= ' ', · - ,'¸ ,\' · . = ` _ ¸'= . .' . , _.=
_.'· · ¸ _ = ¸ ..` = - ,'¸ ,\' · . = ` _ ¸'= ' .' . ,
¸ =` = · °.,.'= - = ..' .\ ,'· '` = \
_.'· · ', = . ¸ ¸,¸ = ¸ _ = ¸ ..` = ', . '> ` ¸` == ' ='¸ !
¸ =` = · _ . .\' · ¸ > ` , =\ . ·, > =. = \ = _.\' _=
_.'· · ´_,= = '. =
¸ =` = · '> = . ,'¸ = , . »\' · ¸ > `'= ' . .
_.'· · _»,=¸=\'¸ - =',` =\' _. ,'¸ = . .'> - »,» =\' _· ·.
¸ =` = · , . »\' · ¸ > ` , =\ . .. > '_ > \¸
_.'· · - = ¸'. =\' _,¸ · _= '.',= '
¸ =` = · _.' .¦ _»,=¸=\' _¸, . = . ' .'= = = '= '.'
_.'· · > '` = \ '¸,. > _»,=¸=\' _¸= ' .. > - » ='¸` =\' - \ ='¸ = _· ..
¸ =` = · .· ¸\' = \ . _· - \ ='¸` =\' _¸, . = .' ` . » .'=' .. >
_.'· · '='= . ` .'· .'=' _.. = _'>¸ _¸= ' .` , '_ =
¸ =` = · ¸ ¸` =\'¸ _ ,'¸ =\' _¸\ .', . . , .. >
_.'· · . ' . > ¸ ¸` =\'¸ _ ,'¸ =\' ¸ .', .
¸ =` = · ° . . = '.'=¸
_.'· · _ =` ¸\' _= ` ¸` ,= . . _'=.,' .','¸ =
¸ =` = · · ¸¸¸` =\', _, \
_.'· · °` . =» . '.'=
143

¸ =` = · _ =` ¸\' _= .¸` , = . '= · . ='¸ - ,'¸ = _\ '.'
_.'· · ` , = . '= _.\' - ,'¸ ,\' · . = _= '=¸ ° _ =` ¸\' _= .¸
¸ =` = · · .'¸ »\ '
_.'· · ° . ` = =\' ', ' _ = »\' ', ' , . >\' · .'¸ ·
¸ =` = · ', ='¸. ' ¸ >
_.'· · · » .` = ..' _.'= , !
¸ =` = · ¸'=\' ¸'. · _\=
_.'· · '¸'= = ` , .> . .. > = . ' ·` ¸ = _\ .\ ·
¸ =` = · ¸ · '.',= ' ¸= .\ \ _, \ '_ > \
_.'· · °. '.'= \
¸ =` = · ` _'= _¸'= =
_.'· · ,'¸ =\' _· '= ·'¸ .. > '` = \ ° -` ='=\' ¸ ='= =\ \ - = ='¸ .
¸ =` = · - » ='¸` =\' - \ ='¸ = _· .. > '` = \ '¸,. > '¸'= = .', . >
_.'· · ° ¸'= =\' ` , = . .' . , _. =
¸ =` = · -` ,.'. .',,' - \ ='¸ =\' _· '.'¸ ¸'= =\' ` , = ' .' . ,
_.'· · - = \\' , \ =` = '_ = ¸ ¸,.'. ,
¸ =` = · - = \\' , \ =` =¸ _. \'¸ ` ¸,.'. · _ ·'¸\' _·
_.'· · °- ,.'. - ,'¸ = = .. = '=¸
¸ =` = · _\= '¸ .'· .'= \ '_ > \¸ ·_¸= ' - ,'¸ = _\ ', . = ¸'=` =
_.'· · °', . = ¸'=` = _\= '¸ .'· .'= \ '.'= \
¸ =` = · ` - > \'= ' . ¸ ¸'= _\¦ ` _'.'= . ', ..
144

_.'· · · ¸,'= · ` . ,\'¸ ·¸,= , ` _, =\ '
¸ =` = · · ¸,'= · ` . ,\'¸ ·¸,= , ` _, =\ ' · '='= .
_.'· · ,\' · . = _= '= _. ¸ ,= . '_ ' ` _ >'=` , ¸ = °-,\'=\' - ,'¸
¸ =` = · _ ¸'=\' _\¦ ¸ ·'= ' '_ ' ` , = '
_.'· · ° ¸ ·'= . '_ ' ` .,¸ . _, '
¸ =` = · .'¸, =` ,¸ ¸', = ',,· ¸ · .,'= , ¸ .` , _\¦ ¸ ·'= ' '_ ' ` .,¸ '
_.'· · - ,·'= ', .'= =¸ ` .'¸'= = ',` ='¸ '
¸ =` = · ¸ . .'=` = ',` =» =¸ _, \ '. ¸', _, \¸ '` ¸'=
_.'· · .,. \ ,` ,` ='= =¸ _¸,` , = ', \'= '¸
¸ =` = · - = ¸'. = ` ¸ »` =\' · ¸ » = .'.. ' ` , \ = . , ` _'=., '
_.'· · , = .,\'» .¸ . \ ,\' ¸'= ' .'.'= _'= , ` , \ = . , '=', =
¸ =` = · '= , ` , \ = . ,¸ , , . ¸'= =¸ , , =, ¸'.¸ , , . = \ _
_.'· · _='=\' _· _'> '= \. = '= .'=` = ` ¸ »` =\' .'= '= · · = ` \
¸ =` = · °` . =» . '.'=
_.'· · ` ¸ ='= = '.',= '¸ ·.'.,»'= .¸ · ¸,. > ¸ >'= = ='.` =
¸ =` = · = .'= · ` , ,· ' .
_.'· · . ' _¸· ¸'= , '= .. = .'» ,'=` =\' '.', . ` _, ¸ = =
¸ =` = · _,»'= .\'¸ .'¸'=» .'=,'¸ _,.» .\'¸ = =\' ` . =» .
_.'· · · ¸',` ¸\' ` , , =¸ · ¸'= . '_ =¸ ¸ ,'» .` = '_ =¸ ` , =. . = _, ' _ \¦
¸ =` = · ¸ .\', ` ¸` == . = .¸\ ='= , ! . '.' ·¸ - ='¸ = , = \ . _\= ,` ,` =¸\ '
_.'· · ` . =» . '.'= ,` ,` =¸\ ' . '= .¸.` = . ¸ ¸'= . -` ,= »\ ' ° !
145

¸ =` = · ° ¸,, »\' '. = '_ = ´._ = = \ . . = ¸ =
_.'· · ',.'=\ ' _· · ¸ .' =\' . » · ¸ . - =. = '_ = '= ='¸ .. > '= .. =
¸ =` = · ¸ - .,. = -` ,' _· ° · ¸ .' =\' . » · ¸ .
_.'· · .¸¸»>.'¸· _· _. = . = ` _='¸ =\' ` _ > \ · - ='= ¸ ¸. ' '_ ' .'. ¸ '
¸ =` = · °= » · .. '
_.'· · . ´¸,= · · · ¸ .\' ` _ ' -` =` = , , ¸ =\' _,¸ ·'=` =\' ¸ > _ . = ` _='¸ =\'
¸ =` = · , ¸ =\' ¸, = \ _ =` =¸ °'¸\ ¸. , '_ '
_.'· · · ¸ .' =\' _· ` _'= . '.,» ,¸ ·'¸\ ¸ . '¸\ ¸. , '_ ' '¸` , = ' _,. \ '
¸ =` = · .'.'¸'=,' · . = ` , , = ¸= . .'¸ =\' '_ = ·¸ =\'¸ ¸ . =\' ` _ ' ` _ >'=` ,
_.'· · -` ,¸` =.` =\' = \ .\ · = ' '_ > \¸ ·'.» \ .=' '= =» .\ ' , ¸ =\' - » ,'=` = _= -
¸ =` = · = = = _ =\ ' ! °·,¸ = , \'= '. »,. = -` = · .'= = = ¸ = '_ > \¸
_.'· · . °` - .` = · _= '=
¸ =` = · =',` ¸\' _· ¸ ='= , _.\' -,= ' · ¸',¸ \ ¸ ·'= ,\'=
_.'· · °` - \ . . = '.'=¸
¸ =` = · .¦ ¸'= =\' _· ` - \ '¸\'· -,· ¸ ,¸=¸ = ` ¸, = ´_= = ` - !
_.'· · .` ,\' ¸¸=` . -,\ = ´_¸.'= = _.'= , °` , ,` =\' ¸= '=
¸ =` = · - =¸ >` =\' ',,· . » ..' · .,= · ¸ = . ` - . ' ·, , . ,'¸ ¸ ,'= = ` , ,` =\ '
_.'· · , \'= ', ´_,>'= = !
¸ =` = · \ _', \ , \'= ` _ ' ` = ='=` =\' ` ._ =\' · .,= »\', - ·` = ` -
_.'· · - =',` =\' ` · ¸> ,¸ ¸'= =\' ` , .> , . , \'= ` _ ' · ¸'= '
¸ =` = · ` - . =¸ >` = ',,· ` . » .. , · _ = ,\' '_ = ,=,' _» . , ¸ ¸ ='= \ · .,= »\ '
146

_.'· · ` _. = , · .,= »\' ` , ='=¸ ·` _¸¸= , \'= '. »,. =
¸ =` = · =\'¸ _, ..,' _, , _` ¸ » . . -` ,, ¸= =\' - =¸
_.'· · =',` ¸\' _· ` ·'= ' ¸¸¸ , _ . = ` - ==¦ ¸` , =` , '_' , \'= ` _'.'= , '_ .¦
¸ =` = · -` ,.'=\.' - =¸ =\' ,¸\ . .. '¸ !
_.'· · _,= ='= ' , ,, \ = =' - .'= \ !

Questions about the text _ .\! ¸¡> -\ .=l
a. Answer the following questions: ', = ' [ - ,\'.\' - \ .'=.' '_ = _,,= ' ·
1 °_ . .\' · ¸ > _.'· , \ = _.\' '_ =
2 ° - ,\'=.' _.'· .','¸= _= '=
3 . , _.'· _'> '.'= ° - .'· .'=' _= ¸ .',
4 ° - » ='¸` =\' - \ ='¸ = _· ` , .> , ¸ =` = _'> '.'=
5 ° _ =` ¸\' _= . ¸` , = . '= _.\' ¸ =` = - ,'¸ = _= '=
6 ° ¸ »` =\' - ,'¸ = _ ¸'=` , '_' ¸ =` = ` _,= .'= , . '.'= \
7 ¸¸»>.'¸· ¸'= = _· · ¸ .' =\' _· _.'»\ . . = '.'= °.
8 ¸¸¸ .\' '_ = _,¸ ·'=` =\' ¸ > ` _='¸ =\' _ . = ¸ =
9 °·,¸ = , \'= \ -` ,, ¸= =\' - ='¸ =\' . \'· '.'=
10 ° , ¸= =\' · ¸',¸ '_ = ·,¸= ,\'= _. = \ ¸'¸ »\' ` , , = ¸= '=

b. '. = ' °'= = ', ' ´,'¸ = [ = ' ,,\` =\' ', \> = , '= =\' ¸ =` =\' - ,'. > _.,
1 - =',` =\'¸ ¸'= =\' ` , =` , . _.'= ,\' ·,¸ = , \'=
147

2 , ¸ =\ \ -` ,, ¸= =\' .'= \` =\' .'» ,'=` = '_ = ´g = ¸.` = _.'·
3 ,` , = . = _.'=\.' ¸ =' =\' ` _ . ` , ¸ =\' _¸¸ ·'=` =\' ¸ ¸ . '=
4 .'.,»'= .\' ,= ¸ , ´_ .'=` = ¸ »` =\' ` _ ' _.'· `. » .'= ,
5 ', . ¸'= =¸ '=` ¸¸¸ , _.\' _'.\` ,\' .'.'= _'= , ` _'=.,' ` , \ = . ,
6 .'» ,'=` =\' '.', . ` _, ¸ = = . ' .'= \` =\' · ¸'= . '= .. =
7 , ` _, ¸ =\' ¸'= =\' _.'· ` , = ' - = \\' , \ =` = '_ = ¸ ¸,.'.
8 · ¸ ='= = \ - = ='¸ . ,', =\' - \ ='¸ = _· _.'· ` ¸'= = _'>
9 '¸,= ' .¦ _»,=¸=\' _¸, , _.'· ` _ ' ¸ =` = _ = = '=
10 , . »\' · ¸ > , = \ ` - . . ', =.` = _.'· _'>

Functional Expression -·.! =\! =!_!,·\l
._ = . · ._ = . No thing, no thing.
- » ='¸` =\' - \ ='¸ = teenage stage
` ¸` ,= . . _'=.,' .','¸ = Man’s hobbies change.
` _'= = ¸ ¸` =\'¸ _ ,'¸ =\' stamps & pictures collecting
· ¸¸¸` =\', _, \ not necessarily so
°. '.'= \ Why not?
,'¸ =\' _· '= ·'¸ .. > '` = \ When you were (falling) in love
· ¸,'= · ` . ,\'¸ · ¸,= , ` _, =\ ' One cannot get all what one wants.
- = ¸'. = ` ¸ »` =\' Travel is like (going) to school.
'= .'=` = ` ¸ »` =\' .'= '= Travel is no long a joy (to do)
148

` ¸ ='= =¸ .'.,»'= .¸ ¸ >'= = problems, complications & dangers
= .'= · ` , ,· ' . I don’t understand your intention.
'.', . ` _, ¸ = = . ' _¸· ¸'= , '= .. = .'» ,'=` =\' Harassments begin when
they realize that you are an Arab.
_,»'= .\'¸ .'¸'=» .'=,'¸ _,.» .\'¸ ` = =\' suspicion, search, questioning &
investigation
¸ .\', ` ¸` == . = .¸\ ='= , ! They make feel humiliated!
= \ . _\= ,` ,` =¸\ ' . ·¸ - ='¸ = , Frankly, I do not blame them for that.
'= .¸.` = . ¸ ¸'= . -` ,= »\ ' ! The matter has gone past its limits.
¸,, »\' '. = '_ = something like that
-` ,¸` =.` =\' = \ .\ · = ' Add to that racism.
, ¸ =\' - » ,'=` = _= - =» .\ ' The point is harassing Arabs.
-,· ¸ ,¸=¸ = ` ¸, = ´_= = ! a persona non grata!
, , . ,'¸¸ ,'= = ` , ,` =\ ' the reason according to their account
` _ ' ` = ='=` =\' ` ._ =\' The funny thing is that ……..
= =' - .'= \ _,= ='= ' , ,, \ ! May Allah’s curse falls upon them!

Vocabulary List =!._ì=\! -=.!¡
_` ¸ » . she/you (m) discriminate
` ,¸\ . she/you (m) blame
¸ .', . . she/you (m) exchange
` · ¸> . she/you (m) hate
149

_¸, . she/you (m) like, love
` , = . she/you (m) like, love
_»= . she/you (m) hide
¸ ¸. ' I go down, descend
` . » .'= ' I believe, think
` ¸` == ' I feel
` _` = ' I sense, feel
· · ¸ . to stop
, \ = to teach
¸ ,'· to meet, encounter
¸ = . to publish
\ _ = to curse
. » ..¦ to criticize
¸ = = to start (followed by another verb)
.' . , I began
.', = \ I played
´, . > - ´,'. > book/s
· .'¸ · reading
´¸ ¸= - · ¸¸= picture/s
- \ ='¸` = correspondence, writing to pen pals
_»,=¸= music
150

- =', = swimming
´¸ » = travel
- ,'¸ = hobby
´_ = · - -` = · story/ies
- \ = = magazine
` _','= . tired, exhausted
´¸,.'. influence, effect
_ \¦ etc.
´,'¸ = infatuation, love
` ¸ ='= = feelings
·¸ = fear
´¸'¸'=' - ` ¸ = secret/s
- = ¸'=` = practice
- = ='¸ . translation, expression
´¸'= = poetry
´, ='· understanding
´= ='=` = funny
¸ ·'= clear
¸ . .'=` = moderate
= ´,` , fine
´¸,= · short
151

_,»'= . investigation
- » ,'=` = harassment, bothering
'= . .'.,» complications
_,.» . search
´.'¸'=¦ procedure
… ¸ . humiliation
´¸'=» .=¦ questioning
· ¸'= = civilization
_,¸'. history
,\'» . ` . - ´.,\» . tradition/s
· .'= custom, habit
´.'= = sky
· ¸, =` , lake
´=` ¸ = . move
` ¸ ='= = - ´¸ = = danger/s
- =» . point
¸'= ' people of, family
.¦ except for
`'= ' originally
- \ .'=\' ` .'¸· ' [ · ¸'= .' family members
´.'.'= ' - ` . = grandfather/s
152

·` . = grandmother
- .',¦ · .. , daughter
· . \'¸ · ` , ' mother
´. \'¸ · ´, ' father
¸'¸= ' - ¸'= maternal uncle/s
´,'='= ' - ` , = paternal uncle/
` _'¸\ . ' the colors
` .'¸'= = [ ` ¸ == ' green (m) / (f)
` .'.¸ = [ ` . ¸'= ' black
` .'·'¸ ¸ [ _ ¸'¸ ' blue
` _ ,', ' · ` .'=, , white
` .'¸'= = [ ` .'¸'= = red
-` ,\'» .'¸` , [ ` _\'» .'¸` , orange
-` ,\ = = [ ` _\ = = honey
-` , .` , [ ` _.` , brown
` .'¸» = [ ` ¸ »'= ' yellow

Grammar .=!¡s\ l
Assimilated Verbs in Arabic is a group of verbs which usually have a weak semi-vowel
in initial position. This semi-vowel is commonly ¸ as in:
to fall, to occur _ · ¸ , to find . = ¸ , ¸ = ¸ to arrive

153

In the present tense of this category of verbs, the semi-vowel is fully assimilated, and
thus the verbs mentioned above would take the following forms.

¸ = ¸ „ .'. = ¸ ¸ = , „ '¸= · ¸ _,. = . „ _¸= » ,

Verb Conjugation ¸!·¡v! =,_«.
The following is the conjugation of the Arabic Assimilated Verb

¸` ¸.' ¸ .=` =\' ¸=»\' - ¸ = ¸ to both singular and plural pronouns, for both past and
present tenses.

!.l =.l =.l _= ¡= ._ì´ =\! _.!= «
_«!=\! - ì,« .\ = ¸ .\ = ¸ .\ = ¸ . \ = ¸ ¸ = ¸
g_!«´ =\! - ì,« ¸ = ' _,\ = . ¸ = . ¸ = . ¸ = ,

´ ¿>. ´ ¿ ..l , ..l ´ ¿´ = ,= _=¡\! _.!= «
_«!=\! - ì,« '.\ = ¸ ` _ .\ = ¸ , .\ = ¸ _\ = ¸ '¸\ = ¸
g_!«´ =\! - ì,« ¸ = . _\ = . _¸\ = . _\ = , _¸\ = ,

Drill #1 ¸¡v! ¿,_=.\l
Use the words and phrases in the Vocabulary List in good sentences:





154

Drill # 2 _.!.\! ¿,_=.\l
Please choose the correct options:

. , , = , . \ ,\' ', . \ .'= . > ¸ - =¸>` =\' 1
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , .','¸ = . .'» ,'=` = .'.'¸'=¦

2 .'.,»'= .\' , , = , _'¸` ¸\' ` .,¸` , . _»,. =
The sentence implies that this man is unmarried because:
a. he hates responsibilities, in general
b. has not met the right person
c. none of the above

3 - \ ='¸ = _· ¸'= =\' '. = _. »,. = . , . >
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , - \ ='¸` =\' . - =',` =\' - » ='¸` =\'

4 .'¸'= =\' _,¸'. ·.'¸ · _¸, . _. ¸'= .. ,
¸= - \'=` =\' ¸'= » \ · .'¸` =\' ¸= »\' ·
' , _` ¸ » . . ` . » .. . ` , = .

5 _· _\,= ¸ · » .` = ¸ = =\' ) ¸'=\' ¸'. · _\= (
The phrase in parentheses means:
a. at least b. certainly c. within limits

6 ` _¦ _'> ..` = _»,=¸=\' _=
155

¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
` - . ,'¸ = „ ¸» = ' ` - . ,'¸ = „ , `» = ` - . ,'¸ = „ . `» =

7 .,». .\' ·· ¸ _= - . = _'=` =\' - = >'= =\' `¸'¸ · _'>
The sentence implies that the person got
a. a year in absentia
b. a year on probation
c. a year of hard labor

8 -` ,` ¸ =\' - » ='=\' , , = , -` = ' _= ,'. ¸» =\'
¸= - \'=` =\' ¸'= » \ _ ¸'=` =\' - =,= ·
' , ` ,,. , . ` ,¸. , ` ,'. ,

9 .'» ,'=` =\' '_ = ¸ ¸,. > , '.¸'= = ) '` = \ ( ¸ ¸', = ¸', · _,¸', '.'¸` ¸
You need to change the adverb that is between parentheses.
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , '= .. = . _.' '= ., ,

10 - .,. =\' · . = _· ` _» =\' '= .'.
\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ¸= , ='.` = ·
' , ´_ .'=` = . ´.` . ¸ .` = ¸ . .'=` =

11 ` , ¸ .'= , _.\' ¸= ` ..` , =\' ` _'=.,' _' .\'
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , ¸ ='= = . .'.'¸'=¦ _,.» .

156

12 ` =\' _¸` ,» = ,` ».,' .'= , .,. =\' _,.` ¸\'
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , '¸\ ,'· . '¸='. '¸= \ = .

13 · ¸,'= · ` . ,\'¸ · ¸,= , ` _, =\ '
An Arab would use this expression if she/he is:
a. able to get what she/he wants
b. unable to get what she/he wants
c. indifferent to things around her/him

One of the following statements is false vis-à-vis Assimilated 14
Verbs in Arabic. Which?
a. They begin with a semi-long vowel.
b. The semi-long vowel is in medial position.
c. The semi-long vowel changes in present tense.

15 =` =¸\ ' . !
You would say this expression to someone in case you wanted to tell her:
a. I don't blame you
b. I feel bad for you
c. I hold you responsible

16 '_ = ¸,. >\' · ¸'= , - = ='=\' ` _,.¸ , ¸ =\'
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' .'.'= „ , = .,\'» .¸
, , . ' „ , = ¸'= =¸
. ¸ ='= = „ , , .'.,».'= .¸

17 - .'>` ¸ = .¸ ` · ¸'¸'= ' _»= , ¸` =` ¸\' '. ,
157

='.` = '_ .¦ ·
' , - \ >=` = . - » ='= - =\` =

18 ` = = '_ = · ¸ .' =\', ', »,. = ¸ = , ¸ _¸,'= ' .'= , _'
One of the following words cannot describe the verb of the sentence. Which one?
a. hollow
b. present
c. assimilated

19 .'= .\' _¸»` = '_ = ´_` ='¸ . - = >'= =\' ¸'¸ · `_¦ -` ,\ >\' _· _. \,= ¸ . \'·
If you want to change the tense of the verb from past to present, the medial vowel of
that verb will be:
' , ' . ¸ _

20 · ¸,. > ¸ »` =\' ¸ ='= = ` _ ' ` . » .'= , ¸` =` ¸\' .'= '=
This sentence implies that this man:
a. is talking about travelling again
b. thinks that travelling is unwise now
c. has a paranoia concerning travelling

21 . ` = =\'¸ , . >\' · .'¸ · ` · ¸> , ', .',' ` _¦ · '¸ =\' . \'·
' = \ . _.'= = . . \ ¸\' ` _ . ` = =\'¸ , . >\' · .'¸ ·
' , ` , =` , . ¸ .', . , · · ¸ . ,

22 ., .'¸ = = ¸ ¸¸»'= = ` ¸, = ´._ = '. =¸ ·_. \ , _· '. '¸
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , ¸ .\' ` =\' . · .'= _'=.'

158

23 .`, =\' .,= - \» = _· ', \ ,'· '= .. = ', ='¸= _· _ · ¸
` - . ' = \ . _.'= = ·
' , ', = ¸ > . '= . » ..¦ ',` , = '

-,· ¸ ,¸='¸ = ` ¸, = ´_= = = .¦ - =¸>` =\' ¸¸» . '_ ' 24 '> ='=` = '¸= ' _'>
The sentence says that I found the regime's decision:
a. funny
b. unfair
c. strange

, , = , . \ ,\' _· .'¸'= =\' 25 _,= = .'= \` =\' . » \= '
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' .,' , ` _¸ >'= =\' ,` » . _,¸ »\' ¸¸ · -` ,=\ .\' - » ='=\'

Drill # 3 =\!.\! ¿,_=.\l
a. = '=` ¸ [ - ,\'.\' ¸ =` =\' _>` ¸ = ·
1 - » ='¸` =\' - \ ='¸ = _· _=¸ ¸'»=` \ _ = · , . > . . ' . ,
2 _ .¸. _· -,· ,¸=¸ = ¸, = _= = ', . ' · ¸'= ' .. > '=
3 .', ='¸\'¸ _¸»` =\' _, , _` ¸ »` , . _.\' _'=.,' _.` = ='¸` ,
4 '. » = _ = ·.,. =\' ,` »..' - =¸>` = .'.'¸=¦ . » .. . _ '

b. ¸` ¸ = [ _ ¸'=` =\' - =, = _\¦ - ,\' .\' ¸ =` =\' _\` ¸ = 1
-.' .'= > _',` =\' _· · =. =\' - , . > = _\¦ ¸ = ¸
2 =\' ` , =` , ` - .¦ ¸'· - ,·'` =\' .'=` =\'¸ ¸ . .'=` =\' _»
3 ` - . ,'¸ = · . , · ·¸ .'='= \ _ .. \ _ ¸'¸ = _· ¸'=
159

4 ',, \ = ',¸.> = - . ·. . = ¸ · ¸,= · ` . ,\'¸ · ¸,= , ` _, =\ '

c. ' '. = [ ,,.'¸ . _.,'= ' \' ¸ - =,\ = ¸ ¸ =` = _,¸> . \ .'= \ > ·
1 ` _ ' ´._ = . _' .\' _· - » ,'=` = .'¸'= =\' ` . » .'= ' ·,= \
2 .'= \` =\' '.'= = = ` -. = . = _.\' '_ = . \ ,\' -` = · ¸¸=` . '. »,. =
3 ',,' _· ,` =¸ '¸.'> _ ,'¸ =\' - \ ='¸ =\' ´, ` = _¸\ .', . , -` ,.'. .

Drill # 4 _,!´ _\! ¿,_=.\l
Please choose the correct options and explain WHY:
1 =» . ¸ = ° -,· ¸ ,¸='¸ = ` ¸, = ´_= = ` - . ' _,.
Which of the following reflects the reality of this sentence?
a. he is liked
b. he is not liked
c. he is well-liked

.'¸ .' =\', ¸ »` =\' ` · ¸> , ', =¸ ¸ ` _¦ _. ¸'= . \'· 2
¸= - \'=` =\' ¸'= » \ ` _ >'=` =\' ¸'= »\ ' ·
' , ` , =` , . ¸ .', . , · · ¸ . ,

3 - \,\ · ¸ »` =\' ¸ ='= = ` _ ' ` . » .'= , ¸` =` ¸\' .'= '=
The sentence implies that this man:
a. is talking about travelling again
b. believes that travelling is wise these days
c. has developed a paranoia concerning travelling


4 '_ = ',,¸ · '., , _¸ .= . =
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, ' ·
160

' , · ¸, =` ,\' . .'=` =\' ¸ , =\'

5 ¸ .'» ,'=` = -` , ' , '.'¸ = = '= ) '= .. = ( ` _` .'¸ .' '.'¸` ¸
¸= · .'¸` =\' ·'¸ =\ˆ ' ·
' , '= \'= . '` = \ '=

6 = \ -` ,. = , . >\'¸ . ` = =\' · . = _¸ .= . = · .`,= .,= _· _\'
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ¸ ='»\' ` ¸,= = ·
' , .. ' . ` _'= . ¸=

7 ` .'· .'= .' ..• = ¸ ¸,¸ = ¸ _ = ¸ ..` = _ ,'¸ =\'
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, ' ·
' '¸\ .', . , . _¸\ .', . , ¸ .', .

8 ., ,\' ` _ » , - , .> =\' '_ = ',,¸ · ` ·'.'¸ ='.'='
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ¸'= ¸\' ` ¸,= = ·
' , _.\' . _,.\' _.\'

9 == =\' ` _ ' ` . » .'= . ¸ = °´¸,, >¸ ¸,= = -,· '.\ > ' _.\' ,
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ¸ ='»\' ` ¸,= = ·
' , ¸= . .. ' ` _'= .

', \ ·` ¸ = .'=` =\' 10 , , = , ` - . =¸ ¸ ` -. > ¸ .
161

= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=, ' ¸ ·
' , - .','¸ = . - . '.'¸'=¦ - .'» ,'=` =

11 '., = _'> -,· ¸ ,¸='¸ = ` ¸, = ´_= = ', .¦ .'= \` =\' ¸¸» . '_ '
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, ' ·
' , '»,= \ ',,¸ = . '> ='=` =

12 ', =¸ ¸ '_ = ', .'>` ¸ = .¸ '= ¸'¸'=' _»= . .' ., _. »,. = ` _ ' · =•=\' '_ =
='.` = '_ .¦ ·
' , - \ >=` = . .'.'= ` .,\'» .

13 ¸ .=' _.\' - » =\' ¸ = °, > ., , '_ = - ,,¸ · = .= ' ',.
'=` = = \ = .\' '¸,= = ·
' ..' „ , _= , ..' „ . ..' ..' „ , ..'

-` ,>,¸'=.' '= .'. 14 _.'¸ = - ,. ¸ _· ` _» =\ '
_= - , ='.` =\' - »` =\ˆ ' ·
' · , ´¸,= . ¸ . .'=` = ¸ ·'=
15 ) - ='¸ = _· . = · ¸ ( .,. =\' ', \ = = _· ` -. \ ,'· '= .. =
¸= - \'=` =\' ¸'= » \ ` _ >'=` =\' ¸'= »\ ' ·
' , ` -. = ¸ > . ` -. . » ..¦ ` -. = \ =

162

16 .'¸ = = '` ,=,, = ` ¸¸= =\' = \ . _'>¸ ·_. \ , _· '. '¸
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, ' ·
, . ¸ .\', _'= .', ' · .'=` =\',

17 \' .'.= , _\¦ _= = . '_ = '` ¸ = ', . \ .'= ` ¸·'= . ,¸ ,
· ¸'= .' =\ . ` ¸ ·'= . = '_ .¦ ·
' , ¸'= »\', . · ¸ .' =\', · ¸'` ,` =\',

18 ` ¸, = ´¸'= ' - =¸>` =\' .'» ..' ` _ . . \ ,\' ¸¸=` . '_ = .'= \` =\' _.. = . =
- , ='.` =\' - »` =\ ' _= ·
, . ' _» =. = ¸ ¸¸»'= = ' ¸ ¸¸,» =

19 - =,. »\' .'¸'= =\' '_ = ¸ ¸'¸'= .'=', '¸» , '_' ` - . ,'¸ =
- =,. »\' .'¸'= =\' '_ = ¸ ¸'¸'= .'=', '¸» , '_' ` - . ' = \ . _.'= =
' ` , \ =` , , . ` · ¸> , ¸` = »` ,

20 _` ¸ ¸ . , '_ ' _` = = ` .,¸` , . '.'= \ · ¸'= . . _.` . =
¸= -` ,=,.` ¸\' - \'=` =\' ¸'= » \ · .'¸` =\' ¸'=»\ ' ·
' , ¸ ='= . . ` , \'= . ` , \ = .

21 ) .· ¸\' = \ . _· ( -` ='=\' · ¸ ='= = \ - = ='¸ . ` ·` ¸'= = _'>
Which of the following is the closest paraphrasing of the phrase in parentheses?
a. at that time
b. in the old days
c. in ancient poetry
163


22 _.` ¸ ,= . = , .'»\' ¸', =\' _· _ .¸. _· _» .\ . '= .. = = ='= ' ` ¸` =\',
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ¸ ='»\' ` ¸,= = ·
' , _= . '.' ..'

23 - =¸>` =\' ¸'¸'= ' ¸ > · ¸'= , ` - . ' ` ,,. »\' _¸'= ` _ = ,
¸= -` ,=,.` ¸\' - \=` =\' ¸'= » \ · .'¸` =\' ¸'= »\ ' ·
' , ` . » .'= , . ` _ ¸'=` , ¸ = ,

24 _,= ='= ' , ,, \ = =' - .'= \ ·,` ,. = _ == ' '_ ' ` , = ' . !
If you hear someone says this expression, you will have the impression that she/he is:
a. mad
b. happy
c. reserved

25 ` , ¸ .'= , . _.\' ¸= .` , =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸'=\ ' · ¸'=
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = - , ¸¸=» =\ ' ·
' , .,\'» . ¸ ='= = . _,.» .








164

Reading Exercise is!_s\! ¿,_=.
Read the following words, phrases and sentences into your tape recorder, then listen to
them. Give the tape to your teacher to check your performance:
` .,\'» . .'.'= _¸', . _»= . .' . ,
_»,=¸= - =', = ` ¸ ='= = _,.» . · ¸'= =
¸ . .'=` = ´_» = ¸'=\' ¸'. · _\= _ ,'¸ =\' ` _'= =
.· ¸\' = \ . _· - ,,¸ = .'>` ¸ = . . ` = =\' · .'¸ ·
-` ,=`'=,' · ¸'= =\ ' - » ='¸` =\' - \='¸ = ¸'»= .' ` _ = ·
· ¸,= · ` . ,\'¸ · ¸,= , ` _, =\ '
'= .'=` = .'= '= ¸ »` =\' ` _ ' ` . =· ' .. >
' _, , _` ¸ »` , . ¸` = ¸ '. = .', ='¸\'¸ _¸»` =\
-,· ¸ ,¸='¸ = ` ¸, = ´_= = ` - . ' ` . =» . . .'> '=
', . =', =¸ - =¸>` =\' .'.'¸'=¦ . » .. . '_ ' '. » = '_ =
- ,·'= ` .'=` =\'¸ . . .'=` = ` _» =\' _'> · _ ·'¸\' _·
- \ ='¸ = _· -` ='=\' · ¸ ='= = \ - = ='¸ . ` ·`¸'= = - » ='¸` =\'
- =,. »\' .'¸'= =\' '_ = ¸ ¸'¸'= .'=', '¸» , '_ ' _»,. = - ,'¸ =
- = \\' , \ =` =¸ _. \'¸ ¸,.'. , ,,. »\' ` _, ¸=\' ¸'= =\' ` , = ' .\ ¸ '=

165

Unit # 8 (8) ,¡_ i.>¡\l
lintrnt Tatt|r æerkre ane |iure in Tagheae |er a nnnhrr e| vrars. tr naer nanv |rirnes
int|neing tis 3ra¢i |rirne. eani. æhe is uisiting hin in lashingten. D.C. Thrv sat
eeæn te rrninistr thr eavs in Tagheae. ane µ|an te uisit uariens |etatiens in D.C.



..=.· · °` .'.= , ·, >
_='= · _='= · '= .'. - = .'¸
..=.· · ',. = -\,= = .',¸> . _\
_='= · ',,· _¸¸,. > ´.'· .'=' = .. =¸
..=.· · _ ¸'= _· _¸> ' '_ ' _ . = . ' '.',= ' · · ¸'= . _'•. ¸, '
_='= · . . . ` _'= . ='.` = '.', = . '= \ > =` ¸ >
..=.· · ¸` = »` =\' _= ¸'= ¸=
_='= · = =` =\' ¸ >'. .. > ., = ·¸‰'= =\' _ ¸ =\' , ¸= . '_ ' .'= ,
..=.· · ` _ ¸'= _'•. ¸, ' ¸,= = '¸,. > _.` , ='=` ,¸ - ,'=\ \
166

_='= · ' = = _¸. , ! .'¸',\'¸ , ='= =\' ` _ ¸'= ¸= _.'¸ .\'¸ .'= .,` =\'¸
..=.· · .\ ¸ '= '=` = ¸ > .'= = _¸= = .'= . , ° ='.` = ¸ - =
_='= · _ » »\' '¸\ = . · '¸=` ¸ ¸ . _,.\' '. = '= · '=', = !
..=.· · °¸ _ » · ` _ ' ° ¸¸» . '.'=
_='= · _'¸` ¸\' _ » · '¸\ = .
..=.· · ·' ! ¸.'= =\' '. »,. = ¸'= ·, > °, ='> · _
_='= · ', = ·'.` ,¸ - » =\ »\' '¸» , ¸'¸ '=
..=.· · ` .'= , . ', ' .'= .'¸ = ·¸ _= = ¸ > _=
_='= · ´_,>'= =¸ ´_¸.'= = ` ,'= · - »,» =
..=.· · - . ·'= '_ = ` ¸ .> ' ` -` =`'= ' !
_='= · ¸ »` =\' '_ = , \ > . , '_ ' ` , =` , '= .'. _'>
· ..=. · '¸, = ¸ >', _ . = - ,·'> ´_¸\ · ` · .. = _, \¸ ` ¸ ·'=` , ·, >
_='= · ` ·'= '¸ ` -` = ' ¸,=` ,¸ ¸,\ · ` -` , .'¸
..=.· · '¸ = .'=` = '=\` = _,'= , , ='> ° - \,= =\' _¸. »\' -` ,\ > _· ` ·¸= ' ¸'¸ '= '
_='= · ´,¸=¸ = ´_' . · _» ='=` = ` ¸ = . , = ¸ - . = .'= , ` _
..=.· · ´,,= = ! , ='> -` ,\¸.'= = · » =` , · ¸ · .' _\ =
_='= · _ ¸'=\ \ ¸ ·'=¸ ·,` =\' '. = ` - \'= ¸` , . ·¸ ¸'= ¸ > _\=
..=.· · °` _ \»` =\' · » .` =\' ¸ ·'= _, '
_='= · '=', = ·'=¸¸¸ '.,. '
..=.· · _¸=`·¦ ¸¸¸ , _ . = _,¸ =.'¸ ='¸»` =¸ !
_='= · - . ¸» = '_ = ,` >\' , '. > \ = · _ = ¸ '` = \¸
167

..=.· · · ¸»` =\' · . = '_ = . = = = ', \ > .'.= , ` _' ` .` , .
_='= · .,>' .\', ¸ - ='.¦ - = = = , ='>
..=.· · ' _,= =\' _\= ` , = , ¸ -` ,='¸\¦ ¸ - ='.¦ - = = = ',,\¦ '¸= = .'= , '_
_='= · ° -` ,¸ =¸` =\' ¸'..' _ ='. = ` ¸¸¸ . '.', = . '= .. = ` ¸ > . . . ¸ =
..=.· · '` ,¸ =¸= '¸'= = _ . =` , _'> '` = \ !
_='= · ° .'. = _'¸` =\' = \ . _` = = . ¸ =
..=.· · '` . = _'¸> = _'>
_='= · . ´, ='=` = `'= · ¸= -` ,== = , ) ¸.,>. ' (
..=.· · ¸ _'=.¦ ·'= .¸ ¸ - \¦ ·'= . '.= ¸.,>. ' ` _¦ · ¸¸='= .' ¸¸» .
_='= · ', ·'· ¸ - \, \ _· ¸ ·'. · ¸ > _= ` ,'. , _'> ` - . ' · ¸'= . '
..=.· · ¸.,>. ' ¸» = , ¸ ·'. · ¸ > ¸ ,'= . _ . = !
_='= · > . . . ¸ =¸ ° ¸ ,', ¸'.' '.¸` ¸ '= .. = ` ¸
..=.· · ', = . ¸'.= = - , \.' - .,. = _=. ' ·, > !
_='= · -` ,\,',\' - , \.' ¸ ,= ' . .'> ` ¸'.= =
..=.· · ,` , = ='= ' ¸, ·,` = ¸ ,= ' . =, \ , ='> _'¸ _· _=
_='= · .'· ¸ _` ¸ =` = ¸` ¸ ' _,'¸¸= = ` ¸', .'= , ¸=¸ _,¸' .\' _· ' _.¸
..=.· · '` ,=,¸'. ' _¸ >'= = ¸ . .'· ` , == ' '¸` = . . =¸, . ` _ ' '=, ' , ='> _'¸ _·¸
_='= · -` ,=,¸'. _ .'» = · . ,· ´_,= = '. = ° '. = ¸ ,'» . . '_ ' ` , = . _. =
..=.· · . ¸ '¸ _. ·'¸ = · = . ' '_ ' ` _'.'= ' · - »,» =\' _· _.'. ' ,
_='= · ° ¸', =\' .'= , _» .\ . '_ ' =` ,'¸ '=
..=.· · · . ='¸\' - ='` =\ ' °´, ='.` = = \ . ¸ =
168

_='= · ° - = =\' ·, >¸
..=.· · _ ,',.' ., ,\' _\¦ ` , =. . .` ¸'
_='= · _ ,',.' ., ,\' _\¦ ` , =. . !
..=.· · ., ,\' _\¦ ` , =. . ', = . _ ,',.'
_='= · = ` ¸\ \ ´_¸.» ¸'` ¸ ! _,.ƒ ¸\' ¸¸'= · '_ = , ¸ .» . '_ ' ´_¸.'= = '. .` , _·
..=.· · ', > .` , _· '. = · \ .= . -` ,= »\' '. .` , _·
_='= · =' >\' ` , ,\' '. = _\= '.` . ='=` , ¸,, !
..=.· · \ ,'= . _\¦ ` , =. . = \ . .'= , _ =. ='¸ ,'= .¸ _ >.
_='= · °´,,¸ · _',.¸=. ==\' · =. = ¸ =
..=.· · - » =. =\' _» . _· ', \ > ` _=,, =\' _,¸' .\' · =. =¸ _',.¸=. ==\ '
_='= · °_¸= ' · ='. = ='.` = ¸ =¸ ·´,,= =
..=.· · -` ,. = ¸\' _ .'. ¸\' · =. =¸ .'= »\' · =. = .,. =\' ` _ »\' · =. =¸
_='= · ° ='.` = · .¸=¸ = -` ,\'= .' ¸¸.'=` .\' - ='= . ` _ ' ´_,= = ¸ =
..=.· · -` ,. = ¸\' _ .'. ¸\' · =. = _· ', = .
_='= · °´.,= , ', ' ´,,¸ · _` =¸ » = ` ,'= . ¸ =
..=.· · · ¸,= · - ·'= = ¸ ¸,= ·'= . '_ = ¸ · ' _¸‰.¸>\' - ,'. , '_ =
_='= · °_¸‰.¸>\' - ,'. , ` ¸¸¸ . = ¸ =
..=.· · ,¸ ,\' _» . _· = \ . ¸ > ¸¸¸ . '_' ` _,= .'= . '.. ' ` . » .'= ' .
_='= · =· ' . · '=', = . ,¸ ,\' _» . _· ` .
..=.· · .'= »\' · =. = ¸¸¸ . \ ` ='> '=¸ , ` _'.'= .
='= _ · '` . = '¸,, > _¸> , '_ ' ` .` , .
169

..=.· · · ¸,. > ` .',= ' -,· '= .¦ ·= » · '¸,, > _, \
_='= · .'= »\' _ »` = _ .'= . -,· . ='= ' '_ ' ` _· ¸ . '
..=.· · .'¸.' =\'¸ _,¸'¸` =\'¸ .'= »\' ` _ »` =
_='= · ° .'= =\' _· ¸ ='= . '.'= ·',` , =
.· ..= · °_ =. ='¸ ,'= . - » =. = _\¦ , =. . '_' =` ,'¸ '=
_='= · ° ='.` = ` . =¸, '.'=
..=.· · - ='` =\' _· · ¸'= . -` ,»,=¸= _ ¸ · · .'= ` . =¸.
_='= · °_¸'. _¸¸= - »=. = \ ` , =. . _. =
..=.· · .' _· · =' .'= '_¦ , .'»\' _¸,'=
_='= · ¸¸` =\' '_ = _¸'. _¸¸= - » =. = ¸¸¸ . '_' _¸
..=.· · .,>' .\', ¸ =' '., = ¸¸¸ . '_' ` , = . ¸ =
_='= · _\¦ , =.' '_' ` , = , ` _¸ >'¸ =\' _¸` =\'
..=.· · °¸¸=\' ` .` =» .
_='= · - \ .'=\' ¸ > \ ','. = _¸ .=' '_' ` , = , ` - .. ·', = .
..=.· · \ ','. =¸ '=\'¸ ,¸'·` _'¸, !
_='= · '·`=¦ '.` , = _, \ ` .¸=¸ =\'¸ · ¸'= =\' , , = , ´._ = _¸` =\' _· _, \ - \ >=` =\' !
..=.· · _ ¸'=\ \ ´. = ' ` ¸ ·'=` , '= .. =¸
_='= · ', .¸. , ` _ ='¸ . '= .. = _¸\='¸ ,¸ ·','. ,\' _¸¸ = .. , ` _,= =\'
..=.· · = ',.` .\' ` _¸\ · = .. = _¸> , '_' ·'.'= !
_='= · ¸,¸= . , ` _ ='= . - =¸>` =\' 500 °= » · ¸.¸.
..=.· · =` . ='=` , =' ! `,\ · ` _'.'¸ . = >` ¸.'=
170

_='= · - =`` =\' _ =

Questions about the text _ .\! ¿= -\.=l
a. Answer the following questions:
1 ·¸'· _,= _='= . = · '.'= _ » »\' '¸\ = . _,.\' °
2 ° _, ' '_ =¸ ·_» ='=` = ` _` ¸ = . , = _.=
3 , ='> '_ = _='= ¸'· '.'= \ _,>'= = °
4 ¸` =\' ¸'..' · ¸',¸ \ '¸, = . '= .. = ¸ =» , ,='> _'> '.'= -` ,¸ =
5 ° · ¸¸='= .' =\ . ¸¸» . '.'=¸ ¸.,>.' · ¸¸='= ' '_ = .'= = = ¸ =
6 °` _ , ·'· ¸ _\', \ ¸', · .', . »\' _ = ` ,'. , ¸.,>.' _'> ¸ , , = ` _.
7 ° -` ,\'=.' ` _>,¸=.' ¸¸.=` .\' - ='= . ` . =¸. _ ,'
8 ..=.·¸ _='= ¸ =» , = '.'= ° .'= =\' _·
9 °` _·'¸ =\' _,.` ¸\' ¸'= · '_ = _='= ¸'· '.'=
10 =\' ` ¸'.' _= '= °` _·'¸ =\' ,'= =\' _\= ¸'=
b. True or False. Please change the false statements to the correct form.
', .> ' °'= = ',' ´,'¸ = [ ` =\' ', \> = , '= =\' ¸=` =\' _, .> ' ,,\
1 , ='> .'. = , ´, ='=` = _='=
2 ´.,= , ` - . . · =. =\' · ¸',¸ \ ` ='> '=¸ , ..=.· _ ¸ .·¦
3 .'= »\' _ »` =¸ _,¸'¸` =\ \ ` _ .'= . _=,, =\' _,¸' .\' · =. = _·
4 - » =\ »\' · .'¸ · ` -` , ='= . , ='>
5 . ¸` , '_' _='= ` _'.'= , ` - .'.' · = .` ,¸ ` - . ·'¸ = ,
6 _\'.\' ,¸ ,\' _· ,='>¸ ..=.· _» .\ , =
171

Functional Expression -·.! =\! =!_!,·\l
·¸‰'= =\' ` = =` =\' grilled fish, the Iraqi style
= _¸. , ' = no doubt
_ » »\' '¸\ = . · '¸=` ¸ ¸ . _,.\' ! Those who married and entered the cage!
` .'= , . ', ' .'= .'¸ = Whether he likes it or not.
- . ·'= '_ = ` ¸ .> ' ` -` =`'= ' ! His dreams are more than his capacity!
'¸, = ¸ >', _ . = so that he can earn a living (has enough in
order to eat bread)
- \,= =\' _¸. »\' -` ,\ > college of fine arts
·,` =\' '. = ` - \'= ¸` , . he managed his situation this summer
` _ \»` =\' · » .` =\' the penny less intellectual
='¸»` =¸ _¸=`·¦ Plato and Socrates
¸ -` ,='¸\¦ ¸ - ='.¦ - = = = a compulsory broadcasting station
=` . ='=` , =' ! May Allah help you!
'.` . ='=` , =' ¸,, >\' ` , ,\' '. = _\= ! May Allah help us overcome this big worry
¸'= =\' , , = , because of the embargo

Vocabulary List =!._ì=\! -=.!¡

she, you (m) rest . ` _'.'¸
she gets pregnant ¸ ,'= .
she, you (m) play an instrument · ¸'= .
172

he gets upset ¸ ='¸ ,
he discusses _ ·'.` ,
he reduces (responsibility) · » =` ,
he supports (family) ¸,=` ,
I arrange ` , . ¸ '
I clean, sweep · = . '
I wish, hope, like _ . = . '
to arrange, manage ¸` , .
to perish, wiped out = \ =
we meet ¸ ,'» . .
enough (m-f) ¸ ·'> [ - ,·'>
poor (s-p) ´_,>'= = - ` _,>'= =
admirer, interested in ´, ='=` =
penniless ´_ \»` =
educated, intellectual · » .` =
gifted ´,¸=¸ =
preferred ¸` = »` =
on going, continuous ` ¸ = .'=` =
original ` _\'= '
drunk ` _'¸> =
salary, pay ´, .'¸
173

change, exchange ¸,¸= .
worry-ies ` , = - ´,¸=` =
plan - = =
god/s ´-\¦ „ - , \'
legend/s · ¸¸='= ' - ` ¸,='= '
cage ´_ » ·
Arak (hard local liquor) _ ¸ =
dream/s ´, \` = „ ´,`'= '
constitution ´¸¸.'=` .
copy - ='= .
wedding ·'· ¸
singing ´.'. =
energy, capacity, power - ·'=
trip, journey · ¸» =
speech, talk ´,` >
world, globe ',.` .
monument ´,'= .
open area, plaza - ='=
model/s ´_ .¸= . - ` _ .'= .
meaning/s _.'= = [ ¸ _'= =
visitor/s ´¸ .'¸ - ´¸'` ¸¸
174

rocket/s _¸¸'= - _,¸'¸ =
week days _¸,'= .' ` ,'` , '
Friday '=` =\' - =
Saturday .',` =\'
Sunday ` . = .'
Monday _, ...'
Tuesday ` .'.` .\'
Wednesday ` .'= ,'¸.'
Thursday ` _,= =\'
except for '. = '=
when (conjunction) '` = \
when (conjunction) ., =
whenever '= \ >
sometimes '.',='
never '·`=¦
the National Archive Museum -` ,. = ¸\' _ .'. ¸\' · =. =
the Natural History Museum . = ` _=,, =\' _,¸' .\' · =
the Fine Art Museum .,. =\' ` _ »\' · =. =
The Space Museum .'= »\' · =. =
the mall ` _¸ >'¸ =\' _ ¸'= =\' _¸` =
the broadcasting station - ='.,' - = = =

175

Grammar .=!¡s\l
1. Defective Verbs in Arabic are a category of verbs which end with a long vowel such as:
to meet _» \
to walk _= =
to invite '= .
to see, witness _'¸

These verbs will take the following forms when changed to the present tense.
_» \ „ _ _»\ , „ _
_= = „ _ _='= , - _
'= . „ ' ¸='. , - ¸
_'¸ „ _ _¸ , - _

Notice that even in the past tense, the long vowel is reduced to a short one for:
,` = „ _= '¸= = „ . = =

The long vowel is changed to the corresponding forms (displayed in the previous frame) for the
rest of the pronouns. Examples are:
you (f.s.) walked .. ' - ., = =
I invited '. ' „ .¸= .

2. You can create adverbs from the adjectives derived originally from time concepts by
changing the case from nominative - to accusative ' as in the following:

daily ` _=¸ , - '` ,=¸ ,
weekly ` _=¸,'= ' - '` ,=¸,'= '
176

monthly ` _¸', = - '` ,¸', =
yearly, annually ` _¸ . = „ '` ,¸ . =

Verb Conjugation ¸!·¡v! =,_«.

The following are the conjugation charts of four Arabic defective verbs. They are conjugated to
singular and plural pronouns, for both past and present tenses.
to invite '= .
!.l =.l =.l _= ¡= ._ì´ =\! _ .!= «
'= . .¸ = . .¸ = . .¸ = . . = . _='=\' -=,=
¸='.' _,='. . ¸='. . ¸='. . ¸='., _¸'==\' -=,=

¿> . ´ ¿ ..l , ..l ´ ¿= ,= _=¡\! _ .!= «
. _¸ = . '¸ = . '.¸ = . _ .¸ = . , .¸ = _='=\' -=,=
¸='. . _,='. . _¸='. . _,='. , _¸='. , _¸'==\' -=,=
to walk _= =
!.l =.l =.l _= ¡= ._ì´ =\! _ .!= «
= = _= = ., = = ., = = ., = = . _='=\' -=,=
_='=' _,='= . _='= . _='= . _==, _¸'==\' -=,=

¿> . ´ ¿ ..l , ..l ´ ¿= ,= _=¡\! _ .!= «
, ., = = _, = = '¸= = '.,= = ` _ ., = = _='=\' -=,=
_='= . _, ='= . _¸='= . _,='= , _¸='= , _¸'==\' -=,=
177

to meet, encounter _» \

!.l =.l =.l _= ¡= ._ì´ =\! _ .!= «
_» \ ., » \ ., » \ ., » \ . ,» \ _='=\' -=,=
_»\' _, »\ . _»\ . _»\ . _»\ , _¸'==\' -=,=

¿> . ´ ¿ ..l , ..l ´ ¿= ,= _=¡\! _ .!= «
» \ '¸» \ '., » \ ` _ ., » \ , ., » \ _, _='=\' -=,=
_»\ . _, »\ . _¸ »\ . _, »\ , _¸ »\ , _¸'==\' -=,=

to see, witness _'¸
!.l =.l =.l _= ¡= ._ì´ =\! _ .!= «
.,' ¸ .,' ¸ .,' ¸ . ' ¸ _'¸ _='=\' -=,=
_¸' _, ¸ . _¸ . _¸ . _¸ , _¸'==\' -=,=

¿> . ´ ¿ ..l , ..l ´ ¿= ,= _=¡\! _ .!= «
'.,' ¸ ` _ .,' ¸ , .,' ¸ _,' ¸ '¸' ¸ _='=\' -=,=
_¸ . _, ¸ . _¸ ¸ . _, ¸ , _¸ ¸ , _¸'==\' -=,=


Drill # 1 ¸¡v! ¿,_=.\l
Use the words and phrases in the Vocabulary List in good sentences:

178

Drill # 2 _.!.\! ¿,_=.\l
Please choose the correct options:

1 . '.' = .. = · =` =¸\' _'¸` ¸\' '_ = - \,= =
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸,= ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , .',¸> . . ´,`'=' _,¸'¸ =

2 ¸'= · = = = _ =\ ' ) ` , \'=\' ( .'.,»'= .\' · . = ¸ > , .¸== =
· .'¸` = ¸= _,=¸ · _, , _.\' - = \ >\' ·
' , ` _ .'= .\' . _ ¸ »\' ',.` .\'

3 · . = '.'¸ · ) · ¸¸='= .' ( '='.= ·'.¸ -` ,¸ =¸` =\'
¸= _,=¸ · _, , _.\' - = \ >\' · .'¸` = ·
' , -` = »\' . _¸.'»\' - , \.'

4 '=¸=' _'> ) ` , =` , ( ` _,'¸ =\' , ..' · .'¸ ·
¸= _,=¸ · _, , _.\' - = \ >\' · .'¸` = ·
' , _` ¸ »` , . _¸', , ` . » .. ,

5 ' _ ¸ »\' ¸ .'= = ¸ > - ='` =\' · . = _· -` ,»,=¸=\
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ¸',.=,' ·
' , · ¸'= . . ` , ¸ .» . _ . = .

179

6 - \ ='¸ = _· ¸,= =\' ¸'= =\' '. = . , . >
= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ¸ ·
' , - \ ='¸` =\' . - » ='¸` =\' - =',` =\'

7 .,. =\' ` _ »\' · =. = _· ,¸=¸ =\' _' . »\' '.= .,» \
- \=` =\' ¸'= » \ _ ¸'=` =\' - =,= ·
' , _»\' . _»\' _».\'

8 ', .'= = = ) _ . = . ( ', . »,. = .`,= .,= _·
Which kind of verb is the one between parentheses?
a. hollow
b. defective
c. assimilated

9 ) ` -. ,» \ ( _'=' .'= = ', . \ .'= _= ¸'= =\' _·
¸` = ¸= _,=¸ · _, , _.\' - = \ >\' · .' ·
' , ` -. \ ,'· . ` -. \'=' ` -. » = .
10 ° ,¸ .\' ¸', · '¸,. > ¸» =\' _> , '.'= \
- \=` =\' ¸'= » \ _ ¸'=` =\' - =,= ·
' , ¸>', , . _>', , _>', ,

11 ´, ='=` = ` - .' ` . » .'= . ¸ = _,= \'=` =\' °
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' .'.'= , „ , ', = .,\'» .¸ `'=', , „ . ', = ¸,='='¸ _¸. » , - ', = ¸'.'¸

180

12 ) '.'= ¸ ( .'· .'=.' _'= , _ = ,'= .\ \ , =. . '_'
- \=` =\' ¸'= » \ _ ¸'=` =\' - =,= ·
' , '.'='¸ , '.¸='¸ , . '.,='¸ ,

13 _\= '» » .` = ` - =» . ` ¸ , .'= , _¸'= ) ¸'=\' ¸'. · (
The sentence implies that my neighbor is:
a. at least reserved
b. somehow humble
c. certainly boasting

14 .'=` .\' - ='= . · =. = _· - =¸»'= = -` ,\'=.' ` _>,¸'=.' ¸¸
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , .,'. =\' ` _ »\' . -` ,. = ¸\' _ .'. ¸\' ` _=,, =\' _,¸' .\'

15 . .'> ¸'.= = ` _ ' _. »,. = ` . » .'= . -` ,\ ,',\' - , \.'
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , - =,= = . , ='=' '=,= =

16 - \» = _\¦ ', .'»,. = . = . ) _'¸ ¸ ( ', .. ,
,' ¸= _, =¸ · _,, _.\' -=\>\' _,¸= .\ , ='.` =\' `¸, = ` ¸',.= ·
' , .`,= . ,'= . ·'· ¸

17 ¸ =·' ¸` =` ¸\' _'> ` _' .\' ` - · ¸ =
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' - ='= . , ¸¸.'=` .\' . - \,= =\' _¸. »\' ' _.¸.'· ¸ _` ¸ =` =
181


18 ` , ¸ .'= , _.\' ¸= ` .` , =\' ` _'=.,' _' .\'
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , ¸ ='= = . .'¸'=» .'=' ,¸=¸ =

19 ´, ='=` = '. .'.'= ' ) - »,» = ( - . ¸¸='= '¸ ¸.,>.' -` ,== = ,
¸= _,=¸ · _, , _.\' - = \ >\' · .'¸` = ·
' , '= .'. . '.',=' `'= ·

20 ) ¸ ='¸ , ( = ` _ ='¸ . '= .. = ` _,= =\' ','. ,\' = = =¸ ¸ »` =\' '_
¸= _,=¸ · _, , _.\' - = \ >\' ` _> = ·
' , ` ,¸\ , . _>', , ` _ ¸» ,

21 · =. =\' · ¸',¸ \ ` ='> '=¸ , ` _'.'= . · `'= · '_ .¦ ·
' ´¸,, > · =. =\'
, =\' '. ., , '_ = ´,,¸ · · =.
. · ¸,. > .'.,»'= . -,· · =. =\'

22 ..` = ` - . ¸'= ' _»,. = ¸,=` , · . \'¸
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , .'. = . ¸¸= = .¸ =

23 ` _¦ _'> ..` = _»,=¸=\' _=
182

¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' ` - . ,'¸` = „ , ¸ ¸» = - . ,'¸ = „ . ¸» = ` - . ,'¸` = - `» =

24 .'» ,'=` =\' '_ = ¸ ¸,. > , '.'¸ = = ) '` = \ ( ,¸', '.'¸` ¸ '.,. = _
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , _. = . '= .. = '= ., ,

25 - , ='.` = , ', .'· .'='¸ ', , ¸'·' ¸ > ¸ = = ) _'¸` ¸\' (
\ >\' · .'¸` = ¸= _,=¸ · _, , _.\' - = ·
' , ·'·` ¸\' . -` ,\¸.'= =\' ,`'=.'

Drill # 3 =\!.\! ¿,_=.\l
a. > ' ', . [ > ' _', . \' ¸ =` =\ ' ,\' . _ ¸'= =\' - =,= , -
1 ) _= = ( _¸‰.¸>\' _.', = _\¦ _` .. »\' '_ = ..=.·¸ _='=
2 ) '= . ( _¸'. _¸¸= - »=. = _· ¸ ¸ ='· ¸ , == = _· .'= =\ \ ..=.· ` - »,. = _='=
3 ) _'¸ ( , = _· ¸ ·` ¸ = ¸` ¸ . _¸=. ='¸ ,'= . '. », = - .'
4 ) _» \ ( .'= »\' · =. = _· _,¸,. > ', ¸ = ` _ .'` =\'

b. '. = ' [ ¸ · .` , = ¸ ¸ =` = _,¸> . \ .'= \ >\' ,,.'¸ . _.,='
1 ` ¸ , .'= . ' _.¸.'· ¸` ¸ ' _,¸'.\' _· _,'¸¸= = ¸ _` ¸ =` =
2 ,¸ ,\' _ ¸ .·¦ _\' .\' _· .» ·'¸ · '_ ' _»,. = _» .\ .
3 ¸ - ='= ,'. _'¸> = _= ' ` - .. ¸ · ¸ ='.` = _ . = _'>
4 ,¸ =\' '_ = - \,= = _.', ¸> . ¸¸· ' `_¦ ¸', · ¸` .'=,'¸ _'¸=\'
183


c. '=` ¸ = [ ¸ =` =\' _>` ¸ = ` ='> '>,¸= . - ,\' .\'
.'==\' _· _=¸, _=.='¸ 1 ,=. -='= _\¦ _¸,=.,
2 '.= '¸=,\ _'¸¸\' _»· '¸\=. _,.\' .'·.=.'
3 »\.=, _¸,·'¸=\' _¸»».=\' -=>'=\' -=\=\' _= _¸
4 _.¸.'· _¸== ¸,=' ,,.»\' ¸=»\' =\. _· _>=
5 -=,.»\' ¸,='=.' '¸». _' _=' .., _¸,.
6 ¸'==\' _¸'= _· -='.,' -=== ..'> '.¦ ·¸=' .

Drill # 4 _,!´ _\! ¿,_=.\l
Please choose the correct options and explain WHY:

1 ',\'=,¦ '_ = ` ,¸=¸ =\' ` _' . »\' '. =
¸= ¸ ¸',.=¦ ¸ =·' ·
' , _` ¸ = . . _ ¸ . , \ = .

2 .'= = = '=' ) _>', . ( , ,` =\' '.· ¸ = '=¸ ', . ·'¸ = _·
Which kind of verb is the one in parentheses?
a. hollow
b. defective
c. assimilated

3 ¸'= =\' _\¦ ., ,\' '_ = '. »,¸ = _· - ='.,' - = = =
The sentence may imply that .......
a. the radio station is closer to my house
b. the radio station is past my house and the airport
c. the radio station is located between my house and the airport
184


4 -` ='=\' _,¸', .'='= _· - ·'¸ »\' · . = . · ¸ =
The band played:
a. indoors
b. outdoors
c. in the Opera House

5 - , ='=` = '. . .'.'= ' ) ' » = ( -` ,=`'=,' -` ,, ¸ =\' · ¸'= =\',
¸= _, =¸ · _, , _.\' - = \ >\' · .'¸` = ·
' , '= .'. `'= · . '.',='

6 ¸ - . = , _.'= , .'.= , - = ='= '_ = - = ='· _. »,. = . =` ¸ = .
The sentence implies that:
a. I graduated after my friend
b. my friend graduated after me.
c. we graduated at the same time.

7 - ·'= = _» > ·', =¸ ¸ \ · '¸ =\' . \'·
_= '_ .¦ ·
' , - >¸\` = , - , ='=` = . ` - >¸\` = ` . » .. . ` - >¸\` = · ¸'= . .

8 . = ` = \', , , , = , '` ,¸ . = ',»,¸·' _· _' .\' '_ = ´¸,, > ´.
',.=,' ¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸ ·
' , - ='= =\' . ¸>.' _·` ¸\'

9 ..` = ', , ´, ='=` = ¸= ` _. = ¸\' · =. =\' _· ', \ ,'·
. ¸= '_ .¦ ·
185

' , ',` , =` , . ',` = ¸> , '=` ¸¸¸ ,

10 ` .'.= , _'¸ =\' _· ¸ - .,. =
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , · ¸,, > . · ¸ ,>' ` ¸ ,>'

11 ` , =` , . ´_= = _¸'= ) -` ,\¸.'= =\' (
_= _, =¸ · _, , _.\' - = \ >\' · .'¸` = ·
' , , ='¸\' . _¸»` =\' ¸¸.'=` .\'

12 · .,= = -` ,=¸ ¸ ·', = '. »,. = \ '.¸ = ¸
¸= - \'=` =\' ¸'= » \ _ ¸'=` =\' - =,= ·
' , '='¸ . . ¸='¸ . _='¸ .

13 =\' - ='¸ = \ .\ · ´._ = _.. = _, \ ` - .¦ ¸'=
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , · » .` = . ´_¸.'= = ´, ='=` =

14 ´_,¸ = ` - . . _>', , ¸» =\' ` _' ` = = .
¸= - \'=` =\' ¸'= » \ _ ¸'=` =\' - =,= ·
' , _> , . '> , _> ,

15 ` _¦ ·'·` ¸\'
186

¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' - \» = „ , -` ,\ .'= - \» = „ . -` ,\ .'= - \» = - ¸ -` ,\ .'=

16 ` _' ` . » .'= . _= ) -` ,\ .'=\' - = ,'` ¸\' ( ` _, ¸ =\' , \'=\' _· -` ,¸ ·
The phrase between parentheses means

a. family ties
b. the Arab family
c. the Arab World

17 ','. ,\' · . , , _¸= ¸» , = _. =¸ ¸¸ _..¸' ` _' `_ = '
` . =· ' · '¸» = ·
' , _¸, ¸ .» , = . _¸, . ¸` , = _¸\ ='¸ , =

18 ) ',.` .\ ' ( = ', \ > _'¸ =\' _· .,. =\' _'= ¸\' .'.,»'= . , - \¸==
¸= _, =¸ · _, , _.\' - = \ >\' · .'¸` = ·
' , ` _ .'= .\ ' . _ ¸ »\ ' ` , \'=\ '

19 ='.` = . =, \ ` - .' _.'.= ,\' '.` , ='= ¸'· ¸` .'=,' ..` = · . \ , _·
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , - =',= . - =',= ¸ - =',=

20 ¸= ` _\ ,',\' _,'¸¸=` = \' _'¸ =\' _,¸'. _· ' _.¸.'· ¸ _` ¸ =` = ,,. »
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , ` , ¸=' . ` ¸ ,=' _¸·'

187

21 ¸ , =\' · ¸,=` =\' - ,¸ »\' _· _' .\' ¸ > _ ==
,` = _ .¦ ·
, . ` ¸` =\' '¸='.' ` ¸` =\' '¸\ » . ' ` ¸` =\' '¸· ¸ =

22 ` · .. = '= ¸'..' - » =. = _· ¸ = =\ \
, ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ¸= ·
' , - ·'= . .· ¸ ´¸'= =

23 '_' _\ '¸= ='=¦ ,,¸ > _»,. = , > \
¸= ¸ ¸',.=' ¸ =· ' ·
' , ,` . · ' . ¸ > . . ' _»\'

24 ` _¸ >'¸ =\' _¸` =\' _\¦ , =. . '_' _. \ .'=¸ '.' ` _'.'= .
The person is talking about the need to go to:
a. the mall
b. the store
c. the market

25 \' ·` ¸ = . _'> ¸ = . \ ¸ ) .¸»'= =¸ '` ,» =. = ( °
¸= _, =¸ · _, , _.\' · ¸', =\' · .'¸` = ·
' , ',,¸ = . '·¸¸'= = .¸,» =

188

Reading Exercise is!_s\! ¿,_=.

Read the following words, phrases and sentences into your tape recorder, then listen to them.
Give the tape to your teacher to check your performance:

\ = . =` , = _¸> . · » =` , ¸,=` , _
´,¸=¸ = ´,`'=' -` ,== = -` ,\¸.= = - ·'=
'· ´_` ¸ =` = ·'·` ¸\' - \, \ . ` _, ¸ = · » .` = ` _.¸ -` ,»,=¸= _ ¸ ·
_,.` ¸\' ` ¸'= · ` _=,.` ¸\' _ ¸'= =\' _¸= _,¸'¸` =\'¸ .'= »\' ` _ »` =
,' - = = = - ='. - =,. · · ¸¸='= ' -` ,. = ¸\' _ .'. ¸\' · =. =

- \,= =\' _¸. »\' -` ,\ > _· · .'.'= ' ` - . . \'¸ ¸ ='= .
_,¸'¸` =\'¸ .'= »\' _ »` = \ ` _ .'= . · =. =\' _·
= = = ¸ _· -` ,·'¸ =\' - ='..' - = = = ` _ » . .'.= , - .,.
` _=,, =\' _,¸' .\' · =. = · ¸',¸ \ _ » = ` , ` = , = .
= . .'> ¸,>' _· _. »,. = ·'· ¸ - \» _= = . _ .'. ·
_'= ' - \, \ _'¸> = _'> ` - . . ¸ · ¸ ='.` = ¸ - ='= _ . = _», = ,'.
· .¸¸, , '_ = - \,= = .',¸> . _\ -` ,\'=.' ,'¸ =\' - ,'. , ¸',
-,=' _'¸ ¸ - \» = _· _',` =\' _ .= _ . =¸ _ ·¸¸ , ¸ =¸ ¸ > '
.' ¸¸.'=` .\' - ='= . '.'. ='= · =. = _· -` ,\'= .' ` _>,¸= -` ,. = ¸\' _ .'. ¸\'
. = '='.= ·'.¸ -` ,¸ =¸` =\' ¸.,>.' · ¸¸='= ' '.'¸ · -` ,¸.' .\' - \ ='¸ =\' _· ', ` = ' . > '= .



189

Unit #9 (9) ,¡_ i.>¡\l
taur|v Tav|er sti|| rrnrnhrrs thr sterv e| a |rttrr hrr |rirne §arn¢ A|i æretr te senrenr
hr knræ. §arn¢ æas thrn a high sthee| stnernt. tr hae ærittrn thr |rttrr ane æas
anxiens|v æaiting |er a rrµ|v.



- .` ¸ \` =\' · ¸¸` =\'
š'´ -´ -'' ´ ¸= 88
` .'.= , „ -` ,·'¸ =\' -` ,¸¸,'= =\'
14 ¸¸` = . 1965
190

¸'= = ,,, =\' _` = =
'` ,= .\ ' =, \ = ` ,`` =\'¸ = \ - > ¸',` =\' .
_\¦ ¸» =\'¸ · .'» =\' _\¦ ` _,¸ =\'¸ · .'=\' _\¦ ` _'¸` ¸\' _'.= , '= > =, \¦ _'.=' _ .¦
-` = ' _. . , =',\' = ,'= ¸¸ - \,= =\' = . ¸¸= , _. ·'¸ = = .'= _` ,¸ ' '_' ` , = ' _ .¦
` - .'> ¸ ,¸ =' - ='= ¸¸ , >, \ = ` ,`` =\'¸
` _ \=` =\'
_\= _¸¸'·

. = ' ¸=` =\' '_ = ` - \ · - =` = ¸ .` =\' - \ ='¸ =\' '_ = _\¸ .' - .` =\' _· ´, \'= _\= _¸¸'·
'='= ¸ = = ¸ .'. , ` _'= =¸ ¸ ..¸' - .` . ', \ ¸ · ¸'= ' '_ = ¸=¸ '¸,, > '= ,'= ` ·` . \'¸ ¸ ='= ,
` _·'¸ =\' _, =\' _· ¸ ., , -` , ¸ _, · ` -` = ' '` = '
'_' .'= , - \'= ¸ ¸ ='= . ¸ - ='= = · ¸¸= -, \ = , = ¸ _.\' · ·¸¸= =\' - ·'= _¸¸'· ¸ \ ,
· _ = ¸ .,¸ ,\' · ¸ .'. _\¦ _ ¸'= ' ` , . · ,'= =\' -, ` ·` ¸¸ . .'= _ . = ·` =\' _· ¸ = ..¦
- ` = = ', · ', ='¸ = _¸¸ · ',' _ !
- _¸¸'· `'=' ° . \'¸\' ¸'= ·, >
- ¸ ¸, = , ` _¸ >'= =\' .· ¸\' _ = ¸>=¸= _\¦ ¸ · ¸',¸ _· _.' ¸=
- '¸ , =`` =\', ` _ = =' .'= '_¦ -
- _` = = ', '¸> = !
- °` , = . '.'=
- ¸'= = _\¦ ¸ -` ,` ¸ = ¸ - \'= ¸ \ '= ,'= ` .,¸ '
- 15 '=\ · ° ¸'= = _· _,. = = .. = ¸ =
'= ¸'= .,¸ ,\' · = ¸= ¸'=
191

- _` = = \ - \'= ¸ · . = ·.
- ° _.' ¸'= = _· .¸== = =` = =
- ·. ¸ =.' _` = = \ - \'= ¸ · . =
'.` , = _¸¸'· - \ .'= · ¸'= , .,¸ ,\' · = ¸= _'> ·= » · '. ='¸ '` = = ` - \ ` _' · ¸'= , '= >
, = ¸¸ . ¸'= ..' _· '¸.'> _,¸ =.' _' .\' ` _. ¸'=» .'=,' _· ` ¸ = .'= , '_' '= , ', \ ` - . > \
\' ` ·'='=' ¸'·¸ · _ = .\' . = ' '_' .'= , _ ,' = ·
- - =`` =\', ` .¸= , '= .. = . \'¸\ \ _=` = Š \ ,
- =' .'= '_¦ !
- =¸ · _· -,»\` , '_' ¸', · ` - \` , · ` , . · ·¸¸= =\' _\= _ ,' =\' _ = ¸¸ ='` , =\' _¸¸'· = ¸ .
.. = ` _='=` ¸\' _¸..` =\' .,¸ ,\' _.', = ¸ ='. = - ='¸ · ` - ,\ · ` ¸` == . '= ¸'=` = ., ,\' _\¦ .'=
· ¸,, > '.` . ¸ .` = _'> ` - . > \ ¸ _ = ¸ ..` = ¸'= = ` , =\' _\¦ - \'=` ¸\' · . = - ,'. > _· ¸ > · '. » \
¸ ,'¸ = , _='= , . ' - ·'= = > '` = = ` _ ' , ¸ = = · ¸'. = '_ = _'¸.' '. · '¸,, _.' - \'=` ¸\'·
¸'= = ` , =\' _\¦ ', »,¸ = _· ,¸\= =\' · ¸¸` =\' _.'. =¸ ·', , ` _ ¸» , = ` - .' ` .` , . _ ¸'=', -
` _ · ¸ . , '` = = !
` - \ ¸ .','= = '_ = .,¸ ,\' _` ¸ ¸= ¸'= , '_' ¸= `_=¸ ,\' _¸¸'· ` , = ¸'= , = . _ . = ·
¸ · .,= , ¸ - ,,, = '_ = ¸ ,'¸ = - \'= ¸ ` ¸ = .. , _¸¸'· ` _ ' ` -. = ' . = .'¸'=» .'=,' '_ = ` _` ¸ ¸=\' !
- , ` · ¸ ,= ' ¸ ._ = ¸` ¸' _'> · _, =¸,'= ' .'= , ¸>=¸= _\¦ - . \'= ¸ '_ = ` ·` . \'¸ ` _ = ¸ '= .. =¸
'=` ¸\' -` = · ¸= _¸¸'· ¸'= = ` , =\' _\¦ - \ ` · . \ ¸ ` _ = .'= , ¸=¸ ¸ .',¸',> , ` . \'¸\' , =.',¦
,` >\' ¸,\ · - . =,, = , _'> '. » · · ¸ ,>.'
` .` ¸\' ¸ = , ', \¸ _,,'=' - . = .` ¸ = _¸¸'· ` . ¸'¸ . ` =¸> =\' . '. , - \'=` ¸\' . . » · '=` ,` ¸
.,¸ ,\', ` ,` ¸ ` -', ='= . ', \¸ - \'=` ¸\' ¸'= = ` , =\' '¸ · '= '_ = ` , = ' .',=', ¸¸== = ¸= '=` ,` ¸
192

_\= _¸¸'· - \'= ¸ _\= ` .` ¸\' ! ¸¸` =\' '_ = - ,·'> ´.'.'=' ` ¸ · ¸ . . . '=` ,` ¸ ¸ »= ' '=` ,` ¸
_· '.'= = '='= ¸ ¸' - \'=` ¸\' ` _'=\' ` ¸,. ¸>` =\' '=` ,` ¸¸ '=` ,` ¸¸ '=` ,` ¸ · .` =',` =\' - \ = !
- ,'= = _\= ` .` ¸ , = ¸'= = ` , =\' ` _ ' `'= · ` . » .'= , _'> '_¦ ¸ .'= = .'. ` · . \'¸ _¸¸'· ¸'=
¸'= = _\¦ - = .'»\' - . \'= ¸ _· _¸= ' - \'= ¸ '` ,== = ¸ ='= , = ` - . ', ` . \'¸\' ` - . ''= = .'= ,
` _¸ >'¸ =\' · ¸ ='»\' .,¸ , , .> = _· ¸ .'=` ¸\' _¸..` = _· - =» . , ',` = = , =¸ · _, ¸', =
='.` = - \¸=¸ ,¸ , _·
· .'¸» , .¸== = ¸= _'> '= ., , ·¸ _', = .'. ` -` = ' . = ¸ = '= .. = '=,= = ` -` = ¸ · _'>
-` = · '= ,\'¸ _, =\' ` ¸ _ ¸‰. = = .= .'¸' ` _.'¸` ¸\ \ _,= = , _, . = = \` = '='. , . .'>
_'= = ¸ ` ¸', =\' _'> '. » · ··¸`» ,\' '=` ¸ >= , ¸=¸ .,¸ ,\' _` ¸ ¸= .¸ = _¸¸'· _ = =
` .'· ·
- '¸ ='= , > ., , =' ¸ = = ! ` -. = . . , ., == ' '.'
= _¸¸'· · » \ . ¸ ¸¸ =¸ ` - = . ·¸ ` ·` ¸'=..' ¸'= _.\' ¸,, >\' ·¸¸= =\' -` = ' =',¦ .'= . '_
´, \ = ', . '> · ¸· ¸ . · . , _· · ¸¸` =\'¸ _ ¸' =\ \ _,.` ¸\' . , ='=' - ,. =\' - .'= \ > ` _' ` .` , .
- .` ¸ \` =\' · ¸¸` =\' =\ . ¸'='¸,, ¸ = '·
_·¸ - = ¸'. =\' _\¦ ` - = = · ¸¸` =\' . = ' _\'.\' ,¸ ,\' ` - · ¸'= , _,.` ¸\' ` _¦ - .`=` ¸ \ ¸'·
- .` ¸ \` = · ¸¸= ` -\ ¸ =¸' '_' , ` · ¸` , = '. , \¸ '` ,== = _ =. . _.\' ·` ¸¸, =\' ` . \ ¸\' ¸ = =
>. .'='¸ .'=` .,' '. = '_ = ·` ¸ =\', ` ·'., = _\= ` .` ¸\', .¸== = ` _,.` ¸\' _¸> , '_' ¸
..¸.' .','= = ! '=. = _¸¸'· _ » . _· ` =¸> =\' . ¸ . ' '. » \ ` _,.` ¸\' ` - \ . =', , ·, >
,,\ =\' ., = ·¸¸'= =\' ` , ¸=` =\' ` . ¸ '= ., , ·`_,·¸ .\' _'> = \ . >¸ ·¸ _¸,= = ¸ ,'= = , '.¦
= ·'= . ,\' = = , ·` ¸ =\', ` ·'., = _ =. . _.\' · ¸¸, =\' . \ ¸\' ,'= = _\=
193

_¸. '_ = · .,. = ·,¸'= = _¸ .='¸ - , .> =\' _\¦ _= = · · ·` ¸ =\' · . = _¸¸'· '.` . ¸ . , ', \
., = ¸ \ = . _¸=` .\' '_ = - ,'= =¸ ` , .> , '. ,¸ ·` _¸ =\' .,¸ ,\' -,
¸'= = ,,, =\' _` = =
¸= = , .> = _· _,» = ¸=\' . =' ` _'¸ ·',,\= ` .`¸ . ¸' _. \'= ¸ '¸» . ', \ = .' ´_,= = ¸ =
_¸' '_' ` , = ' _ .¦ °` ¸¸, =\' ` . \ ¸\' ¸¸» , '= > · ¸¸` =\' . =', ,¸ ¸ .'=` ¸\' '¸» , _.\'
> ` - \` , · '· ¸,= =\' = = = · ¸¸` =\' ¸` , · ' '= > ¸ ,¸ , ¸
·¸¸= =\' ` -` =¸=` . . \ \ ,¸


Questions about the text ç --' J;= ª--~'

a. Answer the following questions:
1 \' _\¦ - . \'= ¸ _· _¸¸'· , \ = '.'= °¸'= = ` , =
2 °¸ - ='¸` = , ',, \ = ` .` ¸\' .'= ¸ =
3 °_¸¸'· .'¸'=» .=' , , = _· .,¸ ,\' _` ¸ ¸= ` _'¸ ¸= '=
4 ° - \'=` ¸\' '_ = _¸¸'· -` = · .,¸ ,\' · = ¸= _` . = ¸ =
5 °¸'= = ` , =\' '_ = - .` =` ¸ \ _¸¸'· ¸'· '.'=
6 ` _ ' ´_,= = ¸ = ° - .'¸=¦ ` ¸ ='= ' ¸= _¸¸'·
7 ° · .,. = - \'=` ¸\' · ¸> · . .'> ¸ =
8 `'=' ', . ,'. > _· _¸¸'· .` . ¸ . '.'= \
9 °_¸¸'· ` . \'¸ ¸ ='= , '.'=
10 ° · ¸'='»\' _\¦ · ¸ » = ` . =¸ = ` _¸> , _. =

194

b. True or false? Please rewrite the false sentences in the correct forms:
1 .¸== = -` = = _\¦ - \'= ¸ _¸¸'· . = ,
2 ¸'= = ` , =\' , .> = _· _¸¸'· ` , ' ¸ ='= .
3 ¸'= = ` , =\ \ _¸¸'· - \'= ¸ ¸', · , ¸=` =\ \ ¸¸, =\' . \ ¸\' - \'= ¸ . .'>
4 - .` ¸ \` =\' · ¸¸` =\' ¸'= = ` _,.` ¸\' . = , '` ,== = _¸¸'· · ¸'= , ` - . .
5 .¸»'= = '., = ` ¸¸, =\' ` . \ ¸\' ¸'·
6 '¸,. > ` , \ > . , - . =,, = , _¸¸'· ` . \'¸
7 _¸¸'» \ ¸,, >\' ·¸¸= =\' .,¸ ,\' _='= _='= '
8 ¸ .'¸ =' ` _'= =¸ _'¸ = ' _¸¸'» \
9 =\ \ ` ¸ ='=.' ` _',,' ¸= _¸¸'· - \ .'
10 _'= = ¸ ¸', = - ,'. , _· ,'= =\' _¸¸'· . = ,

Functional Expressions - · .! =\! =!_!, ·\l

=, \¦ _'.=' _ .¦ I miss you
` _=¸ ,\' ` -` = = his daily worry
¸ ,'¸ = - \'= ¸ love letter
. ,\' = = hand writing
¸ ., , -` , ¸ housewife
¸ ,'¸ = , _='= , . ' - ·'= = For fear that he would not get a response.
` _='=` ¸\' _¸..` =\' the marble box
¸ .'=` ¸\' _¸..` = mail box
195

', , ` _ ¸» , = ` - . ' ` .` , . Certainly, he will be happy with it.
` -. = ' . = (he) believing that
` _ · ¸ . , '` = = _ ¸'=', Faster than what he would expect.
'¸ ='= , > ., , =' ¸ = = ! May Allah fill your house with riches!
.` =',` =\' - \ = _· '.'= = '='= ¸ He purposefully tossed it in the trash can.
¸ .'= = .'. one evening
` _` ¸ ¸= [ .,¸ ,\' _='= mail carrier
,` >\' ¸,\ · - . =,, = , _'> He was by nature of a little talk.

Vocabulary List =!._ì=\! -=.!¡

` = = „ ´=¸> = doubt/s
= '=. certainly
= .'= „ ` _'=, = wall/s
´.'» = recovery
´_'¸ ¸ plant
´, ¸=` = singer, entertainer
-` ,= . greeting
` ¸ = evil
´¸¸ . role, turn
… · = row, line
- ='= = dove
196

- ·'= edge
- =¸ · opening, slot
·¸¸= = „ ·,¸'= = envelope/s
´.· ¸ delegation
´_,·¸ . signature
- ='= . „ ´_¸=` . tear/s
· ¸`» , Baklava (ME dessert)
´_,= = dough
=',¦ armpit
- ='¸ · happiness
´,\ · heart
´_. . female’s breast, utter
´¸'. = breast/chest
´. . = „ ´.'.'=' number/s
- =,, = nature
` .',¸', > pride
- ·'= = fear
· ¸· ¸` , flaps
¸ \ =` , shades
` _ · ¸ . , expects
` ¸ · ¸ . , be available
197

_ =. , utters, pronounces
_='= , attains, obtains
` _` , ¸ ' I decorate
_\¦ _'.= ' I miss someone
¸ = = to scoff, sneer, ridicule
¸` , = to discriminate, select
¸ ¸¸ = to jog
¸ \ , to moisten
_»\ ' to drop, throw
¸` , · to kiss
_ = .'=¦ to hug
_'¸.¦ to move aside
¸ = = to flood
.` . ¸ . to be hesitant
_ ''= = to assure
¸ >. .'=¦ to protest
· » \ . to snatch up
_= = to go
Š \ , convey, tell (imperative)
´,'=` ¸ marble
´¸¸, = jealous
198

´.` . ¸ .` = hesitant
´, =', smilingly
´¸ ='= blessed
´_ ¸'= jokingly
´_¸,= = printed
_ = \` = stained, covered with
'= , ', \ He didn’t want

-´ ,, _ ·\! ´ _¡¡ =\l The Arabic Calendar
,` ¸ =` = 1
¸ » = 2
¸` ¸ .' ` _,, ¸ 3
_.' .\' ` _,, ¸ 4
¸` ¸.' .'=` = 5
_.' .\' .'=` = 6
, = ¸ 7
_','= = 8
_'= = ¸ 9
¸'` ¸ = 10
· .'= »\' ¸. 11
-` =` =\' ¸. 12
199

-´ ,.>,=\! ´ _¡¡ =\l The Western Calendar
_.' .\' _¸.'> 1
=', = 2
_¸'= 3
_'=,. 4
_,'= 5
_'¸,¸` = 6
¸¸` = . 7
, ' 8
¸¸\,' 9
¸` ¸.' _,¸= . 10
_.' .\' _,¸= . 11
.´ ,`' ¸,-'† . 12

Grammar -·····-';--'

1. The Active Participle, which can be formed from all transitive and
intransitive verbs, is made on the pattern FAA’IL ¸ ='· for pattern number
one of the Arabic verbs. Examples are:
, . > „ _ = ¸ ´, .'> „ ´_ ='¸ ¸ = = „ ¸ ='=
The active participle often functions as an agent noun (one who does the
action).

The writer is in his apartment. ` , .'>\' - . » = _·
Under certain linguistic conditions , the active participle can be used as a
verbal adjective.
200

A fasting man ´, .'= ¸` = ¸
2. The Passive Participle is formed from transitive verbs on the pattern
MAF’UUL ¸¸=» = , for pattern one the Arabic verbs. Examples are:
_ . · „ '¸ · ´_¸.» = „ _ = = ´.¸¸» = - ´_¸='= =
The passive participle is often used as an adjective.

The door is open. ´_¸.» = ` ,',\'

3. We already know that you can negate the past tense by using the
negation particle '= before the verb as in:
., ,\' '. = _· _. ¸'= ' . . > =
., ,\' '. = _· _. ¸'= ' . . > = '=
Another way to negate such kind of a verb is by using another negation
particle, ', \ followed by a verb that has to be in the Jussive Mood.
., ,\' '. = _· _. ¸'= ' '_ >'= . ', \

The jussive mood is based on the Indicative Mood (the regular present
form) with some changes in the terminations. These include the following:
a. The short vowel of the indicative - is replaced by the zero vowel
Sukuun - in final position.
., ,\' '. = _· _. ¸'= ' . . > =
'_ >'= . ', \ ) ` _ >'= . ( ., ,\' '. = _· _. ¸'= '
b. Feminine plurals remain unchanged from the indicative; all other forms
ending in and drop that terminations.

You (s.f.) .,¸ ,\' · ¸ .'. _\¦ .', = .
_, =. . ', \ ) _,, =. . ( ,\' · ¸ .'. _\¦ .,¸
201

They (m) ' , == =\' '. = _· '¸\ >' _.'· .'=
' '¸\ >', ', \ _.'· .'= ) _¸\ >', ( , == =\' '. = _·

'= ,` = ' _= '. \ = = _'.. ,\ ' Dual

_'.. ,\ ' » ' ` ='= . ) _` ='= . ( '= ,` = ' _=
(The verbs between parentheses above are in the indicative
basic mood)

Verb Conjugation ¸!·¡v! =,_«.

The following chart demonstrates a number of Arabic verbs used in this unit
conjugated to singular and plural pronouns for both past and present
indicative tenses.
to go, depart, leave _= =
'. ' .. ' .. ' _= ¸= . ¸»` =\' ¸ .'= =
., = = ., = = .,= = . = = _= = _='=\' - =,=
` _=. ` _ .. ' , .. ' ` _` = ',` = _= =\' ¸ .'= =
= '¸ = = _='=\' - =,= '., = = ` _ ., = = , ., = = _, =

to miss, long for _'.=¦

'. ' .. ' .. ' _= ¸= . ¸»` =\' ¸ .'= =
.» .=¦ .» .=¦ . ·'.=¦ _'.=¦ _='=\' - =,= .» .=¦
` _=. ` _ .. ' , .. ' ` _` = ',` = _= =\' ¸ .'= =
202

'.» .=¦ ` _ .» .=¦ , .» .=¦ _» .=¦ '¸·'.=¦ _='=\' - =,=

to ensure _ ''= =

'. ' .. ' .. ' _= ¸= . ¸»` =\' ¸ .'= =
.. ''= = .. ''= = . . ''= = .. ''= = _ ''= = _='=\' - =,=
` _=. ` _ .. ' , .. ' ` _` = ',` = _= =\' ¸ .'= =
' . ''= = ` _ .. ''= = , .. ''= = ` _ ''= = '¸. ''= = _='=\' - =,=

to drop, throw \ ' » _

'. ' .. ' .. ' _= ¸= . ¸»` =\' ¸ .'= =
»\` , _ ¸'=` =\' - =,= _»\ ' _,»\ . _»\ . _»\ . _
` _=. ` _ .. ' , .. ' ` _` = ',` = _= =\' ¸ .'= =
_»\ . _,»\ . _¸»\ . _,»\` , _¸»\` , _ ¸'=` =\' - =,=

to kiss · ¸.` ,

'. ' .. ' .. ' _= ¸= . ¸»` =\' ¸ .'= =
¸.` , · ' _,\.` , » . ¸.` , » . ¸.` , » . ¸.` , »` , _ ¸'=` =\' - =,=
` _=. ` _ .. ' , .. ' ` _` = ',` = _= =\' ¸ .'= =
¸.` , » . _\.` , » . _¸\.` , » . _\.` , »` , _¸\.` , »` , _ ¸'=` =\' - =,=

203

to expect ¸ . · _

'. ' .. ' .. ' _= ¸= . ¸»` =\' ¸ .'= =
¸ . , _ ¸'=` =\' - =,= · ` _ ¸ . . · ` _ ¸ . . · ` _ ¸ . . · ¸ . ' _,= · ` _
` _=. ` _ .. ' , .. ' ` _` = ',` = _= =\' ¸ .'= =
¸ . , _ ¸'=` =\' - =,= · ¸ . , _¸= · _'= ¸ . . · _¸= ¸ . . · _'= ¸ . . · ` _

Drill #1 ¸´ ¡v! ¿,_=.\l

Use the words and phrases in the Vocabulary List in good sentences.

Drill #2 _.! .\! ¿,_=.\l

1 -` = ' _. . ` _ ='¸ , ¸=¸ _'=.', ¸» =\' ` ¸` == ,
` _ ='¸ , ¸= '_ .¦ ·
' , '¸,= = . ',,\ = .'=

2 ·¸¸'= = ¸ = ¸ _»,. = ` . \'¸
_= - · .'¸` =\' - »` =\' ·
' = , ´¸¸,= . ´¸ ='= ´, =',

3 ', =¸ ¸ =¸\` = ¸¸ = '=` . ¸'¸ . ` =¸> =\' . ' . ,
='.` = '_ .¦ ·
' , - ='= . . - ='¸ · - \ >=` =
204

4 - > ¸ =\' ¸,.` = _\¦ ','= = .. = ,
'_ .¦ ` ¸ = ..' '.' ·
' , '` . ¸ . .'. = '¸'=» .'=¦

5 - \ .'= .,¸ ,\' · = ¸= · ¸'= , .
' , _¸¸'· _,' . _¸¸· _,' ¸'= = ` , =\'

6 =\'¸ ¸¸ =\' , , = , ` ,'= =\' ` ¸ · ¸ . , . ¸`.'=,'¸ ,¸
¸= - \'=` =\' ¸'= » \ · .'¸` =\' ¸'= »\' ·
' , ¸ \ =` , . ` . =¸, · ¸· ¸` ,

7 · .,= = - \'= ¸ · ¸,¸ =\' '. . »,. = \ '., . = .
¸= · .'¸` =\' - , ¸¸=» =\' ·
' , · ¸» = - ='= . . - =¸ ·

8 = = ´,¸\ [ ´_¸,= = [ ´, ¸=` =
One of the words is unlike the other two. Which?
' = = , ´,¸\ . ´_¸,= = ´, ¸=` =

9 _= = [ ` _` ¸ ¸= , = . [ - ., , _\¦ .,¸ ,\' _='=
¸'= »\' ¸= - \'=` =\' ¸'= » \ ` _ >'=` =\' ·
' , _ = ¸ . ¸` , = ¸ = =
205

- =,= = . .'> '. . »,. = _¸=` ¸ , '. . ='¸ · 10
_= - · .'¸` =\' · ¸', =\' ·
' , '. . .'= = . '. . =,, = '. . ='= .

11 '= ' .,¸ ,\' _='= ¸ = ¸'= = ` , =\' , .> = '_ =
¸= , ='.=\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , - \'= ¸ . '·¸¸= = - ='= .

12 _'= ' .'= = ,` ».,' - =¸>` = ` .· ¸ ¸ = ¸
='.` = ` _¸> . = '_ .¦ ·
' , .'= ¸'»` = . .'=¸.= = .'= =',

_¸,'= .' '. = _. ¸'= ' _\¦ - \'= ¸ . =',' = .,>' .\', 13
¸= · .'¸` =\' ·'¸ =\ ' ·
' , '= .'. . '.','= ' '=. =

14 = = ` , =\' _\¦ ,'= =\' _¸¸'· . = , ` ·¸, ' _'> '= .. = ¸'
' , .'.= , _· . · ¸ ='»\' _· ¸>'=¸ =

.'= \ >\' _'= , _ = . '= .. = ¸ ·` ¸» , ', \» = ` , .' . . = .'=¦ 15
¸= · .'¸` =\' ¸'= »\ ' ·
206

' , ¸ · ¸ . \ > . . , _ · ¸ .

16 ,'` ¸ ,\' _\¦ ¸,, >\' ·¸¸= =\' .,¸ ,\' _='= _='='
¸= ` _ >'=` =\' ¸'= »\ ' ·
' , . = ' . _»\ ' ¸ ,·'

17 · ¸'. = '_ = ` ¸,, >\' ` , ,\' ¸'¸.¦
¸'= »\ ' ¸= ` _ >'=` =\' ·
' , .'.'¸¦ . ¸ >. .'=¦ ` _ ' ==¦

18 ¸', =\' '. = _. \ .'= '_ = _¸= ' - \'= ¸ _.. \= ¸
¸= · .'¸` =\' ¸ ='»\ ' ·
' , - ·'= = . ` .',¸', > ´,'= =

19 ' . \ '= °` _,= =\' _, ' · - \ .'· ', .. , ` , .
` ¸ > » . . .,>' .\', _=
' , · ¸`» ,\', . ¸', =\', ¸,= =\',

20 _'= ' _.. \ = ¸ _.\' - \'=` ¸\' . .'>
.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, ' ¸= , =' ·
' , - =¸,= = . '= = \` = . ,\' = = ,
207

· ¸ > ,` = ', ='¸ · _\¦ . , = . · · ·¸,= =\' ', .. , ` , .' . . = .=¦ 21
¸= · .'¸` =\' ¸'= »\ ' ·
' , . ='¸.'· . . >. , · . = = ·

22 ´,\ ·
This word can be related to one of the following options. Which?
' , ´-'= ¸ . ´¸'. = ´. ,

23 '_ = · .,. =\' ·,¸'==\' '_ = '. . = .,¸ .=¦
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , .,¸ ,\' , .> = . .,¸ ,\' _` ¸ ¸= _,.` ¸\' , .> =

_,.` .\' _\'¸= ` - . ' ,=` ¸ _'¸` ¸\' _· ´.` . ¸ .` = _»,. = '.'= \ · ¸'=' . 24
_= - = >'=` =\' - »` =\ ' ·
' , ` _¸,= = . ¸¸== = ´. >' .` =

25 '= [ _, \ [ ', \
One of the options is unlike the other two. Which?
' , '= . _, \ ', \



208

Drill # 3 =\! .\! ¿,_= .\l

a. Underline and specify the Active and Passive Participles in the
following sentences.
1 ¸ ¸', = ¸` = ,'= =\' , .'> _\¦ - ,¸\= =\' · ¸¸` =\' _.'. =
2 ¸ ·¸¸'= = ¸ , ¸=` = '_ = ´,'= = ¸¸, =\' . \ ¸\ \ ¸ = ¸
3 .,¸ ,\' _` ¸ ¸= ` ¸ = ..' . '.' .'='= .',,' ` _` ¸ ¸, ` - . ' ,=` ¸ '` ,=¸ ,
4 ¸ · ¸,. > .',=', _.¸== = ., ,\' -` , ¸¸ - \ .'=\' ` , ¸
5 '=¸,= = ','= = ',, \¦ . = , _.\' ¸ ='¸` =\' ·¸'= . .
6 _='¸ ¸ . =¸ = '_ = '= ¸'= ` ¸ ·'=` =\' _»,. = _. \'= !

b. Vowel the following sentences.
1 -.=' _,, ·¸¸= ..=' -.¸=' _\¦ -.\'=¸ _· ,\=
2 ·` =\' _¸'= .\¸¸=¸ ',\,=¸ ., _= ,'.>\' .»»\.
3 _,,'=' -.`. _= ¸.>. -.\'=¸ _\= .¸\' ¸¸=¸ ¸=..¦
4 °-.,.=\' ·.= _· .,¸,\' ,.>= _,' _,·¸=. ¸=
5 »=\' -»,.= _,¦ .¸=, _' -.`= _· =' '=. ,`=, -.,, _\¦ .¸»
6 _',=\' ·.,¸= _· ,\'=\' ¸',=' '¸», ¸=¸ ·¸,»\' ,¸=, _' ,=,

c. Rearrange the following words to make good sentences.
1 '.` . ¸ .` = ` .` ¸\', . ' ',, \¦ - ,'. >\' _· - ·'= = _='=' .. >
2 , , ='.` = ` _ ' _'¸,=\' .. , ` . » .'= . -` = · _, ,¸ ¸ ,'¸ = ` - .
3 ·¸ =\' _· ,,. »\' ',. ¸ ='.=' ', = = ', . \,= ¸ _.\' ` _ >'= . = ¸ = - ., ,\' _· °
209

4 .` = , ..' '.'= \ ` . ¸ » =\' · .= ¸'=. .'=' _· _¸ . - ¸ ', . ' ,=` ¸ - =,¸` =¸ - = =' °
5 - \ =` = ¸ - » =. = _\= - ·¸ = · ¸'= .' ¸ - . .'= - = ='¸ ., , \ _· ` _=,.` ¸\' _¸' =\'

Drill #4 _,!´ _\! ¿,_=.\l
Please choose the correct options and explain WHY.
1 =', ´¸,= = ´. \ ¸ '. = -'= ¸\' ` ,
_¸> , '_' ` , = , '_ .¦ ·
' , '.,= = . '.,¸ = '.` . ¸ .` =

2 ', =¸ ¸ ` _ . - .,¸ = ', . ' · ¸'= . '` . =
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ¸ ='»\' ` ,'=¦ ·
' , ´, ¸=` = . ´, =', ´¸¸, =

3 ¸'.= .\' '. = '` . = ¸,= = ` ,,. »\'
_= - , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = - »` =\' ·
' , ` _='=` ¸\' . _ = \` =\' ` _¸,= =\'

4 . .'> ', . . ` - . =¸ ¸ _ .'= =` , '_ ' ¸` =` ¸\' ¸ ¸'=
_= - , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = - »` =\' ·
' , - » \ · . · . >'.` = · .` . ¸ .` =

5 ', · ¸'= , - = ='=\' ` _,. ¸
210

¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ·'¸ =\' ·
' , '` ,== = . `'= ' ' . =

6 ` _=¸ ,\' - \ = = '_ = .,¸ ,\' ` _` ¸ ¸=
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ¸'= »\ ' ·
' , ¸ \ , . ¸ ¸'¸ = , = .

7 ¸ ,¸ , ¸ > ` - . »,. = ¸¸¸ , '_' ` _=¸ ,\' ` -` = = ¸'=
'_ .¦ ¸= ·
' , ', \ ` _ ,=` , . ', \ _'.= , ', \ ` _` , ¸` ,

8 _='= . . ' - ·'= = ` - = = .,. =\' _· · .` . ¸ .` = . .'>
_= - , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = · ¸', =\ ' ·
' , ` .` ¸\', . ,'¸ =\', ', .',¸', >\

9 ¸ ='= , . ¸= =' - ·'= =
¸= ` , ='.` =\' - , ¸¸=» =\' ·
' , ¸, =\' . ` ¸ =\' ¸'.` =\'

10 ` ,'. >\' _, ' ¸', · · ¸ ='»\' _· 150 ° '='=
» =\' ` ,=¦ ¸= ` , ='.` =\' ¸¸= ·
211

' , ¸¸== =\' . ` _¸,= =\' ¸¸,» =\'

11 ¸ - ='¸` = , ., ,\' _ ¸'= ` . \ ¸\'
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ¸'= »\' ·
' , ¸ ¸'¸ = . _ ''= = ¸ = =

12 \' _»,. = ´._.'= · =. =\' _· ¸ ='= , _.
_= - , ='.` =\' · ¸', =\' ·
' , - . =,, = , . - ,\ » , - =',,,

` -. = ·` =` =\' ` -. \'· '= ` _,.` ¸\' ¸ , · 13
¸= ` _ >'=` =\' ¸'= »\' ·
' >. .'=¦ , ¸ . ¸` , · _»\ '

14 · ¸¸= _¸¸'· , = ¸ ·¸¸= =\' _\=
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ,'=,' ·
' , _ ,' =\' . - ='= =\' _` ¸ ¸=\'

15 _· .. ' · ¸¸» , - . =¸ ¸ _\¦ , . >
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ,'=,' ·
' , ` _. . . _,\ · _¸'. =
212


16 '=,= = '. ='=' ` - . =¸ ¸ ¸` =` ¸\'
¸= , ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ¸'= »\' ·
' , ¸` , · . _'¸.¦ _ = .'=¦

17 _= - =,=` =\' - \'=` =\' ·
' ·¸¸= =\' -,· ¸ \ ,¸ ,'= =\' - ·'= _ = ¸
, ,'= =\' -,· _ = ¸¸ ·¸¸= =\' - ·'= ¸ \ ,
. ·¸¸= =\' -,· _ = ¸¸ ,'= =\' - ·'= ¸ \ ,

18 _,¸` =\' .'» =\' _. \'= \ _ . = . '
_. \'= '_ .¦ ·
' , - ·'= . - =,¸ = - ='= =

19 ` _ ='¸ .¸ ',` = ' ` _ = .'= . · ¸,=` =\' - \» =\' . .'>
- , ¸¸=» =\' ¸= ` , ='.` =\' ·
' , ', ,. . . ', ,\ · '= ¸'. =

20 ` ¸ =\' _, , _¸¸` , =` , . _,.\' ` _' .\' ',` , ='=` , .
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ,'=,' ·
' , ·` =\'¸ . ¸, =\'¸ ¸¸` .\'¸
213


21 '. , \ '= ,'= ` _'.'= '
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ,'=,' ·
' , _'¸` ¸\' . .'» =\' ,'= =\'

22 - \'=` ¸\' , . > '= .. = _¸¸'· ` ¸=` = _'> ·
' 11 , - . = 12 . - . = 13 - . =

23 ` , \ =\' _'> _,.` ¸\' · ¸'` , = _\=
¸= ` _,=` =\' ¸'= »\' ·
' , · ¸· ¸` , =` , '= . ` _ . ` ¸` == ,

24 . » · '.¦ _'=.¸ \ _» , , '.'= °
¸', =\' _= - , ='.` =\' · ·
' , ` - .',¸', > . ` - =¸=` . ` - =,·¸ .

25 - ='¸ »\' . .'> ` - \ . = = .',' ', . . ` - ,\ ·
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ¸'= »\' ·
' , ` ¸` == . . ` ¸ · ¸ . . ` _ · ¸ . .
214

Reading Exercise is!_s\! ¿,_=.
Read the following words, phrases and sentences into your tape recorder, then listen to
them. Give the tape to your teacher to check your performance:

` _` , ¸ ' = ´¸¸, = _'.= ' ` _ · ¸ . , ` _ ,'¸
´¸'=» .'=¦ ´.` . ¸ .` = - =,, = `.',¸', > ¸ \ =` ,
´_ ,'= -` =` =\' ¸. · .'= »\' ¸. ` ,` ¸ = - \'= ¸ ´,,'. · -
¸ ,\' _¸..` = ¸` ¸ .' ` _,¸= . _.' .\' ` _,¸= . _.' .\' ` _¸.'> .,
-` ,.`,=\' ` ¸¸, =\ ' · .,. = ·,¸'= = -`,, ¸ =\' ` ¸¸, =\ '

_,¸ =\' ', \» = ` , .' ` _ = .'= .
.'= \ >\' _'= , _ =. , ¸» =\' ' . ,
- .= ' =¸\` = ¸¸ = ` ·` . ¸'¸ . ` =¸> =\' . ' . ,
¸== = - \ .'=\' ` , ¸ ` _ ' ` . » .'= ' - . ¸'= ' ¸¸= ', ¸
\ = ¸ . ¸ ·¸¸'= = ¸ , ¸=` = '_ = - \'= ¸ ¸¸, =\' . \ ¸\ \
` ¸ =\'¸ ¸, =\' _, , _¸¸` , =` , . ,` , . ' ´_ ¸'=` = ´¸'=. ` - .¦
¸ - ='¸` = , - .` ¸ \` =\' · ¸¸` =\' _.'. '_' ` _ · ¸ . , _¸¸'· _'>
= . =¸ = .'¸` , = · = ` \ _, =¸,'= ' ¸` = · ¸ ='»\' _\¦ _¸ »
¸ · .,= , ¸ - ,,, = '_ = ¸ ,'¸ = - \'= ¸ ` ¸ = .. , _¸¸'· ` _ ' .,¸ ,\' _='= ` _ =
¸'= = ` , =\' · ¸¸= , \ = _¸¸'· ', »,. = ` _ ' ` ¸ > . . . ¸¸\,'. _\·'= . \'¸ '=



215

Unit #10 (10) ;-, --=;-'
Trngt §ehnsen æas uisiting nv henrteæn in senthærst 3ra¢. tr rrae a sterv in thr teæn`s
nræsµaµrr. tr |ikre it ane thrrr|err tnt it ent ane srnt it te nr. Thr sterv hrenght hatk senr e|e
nrnerirs. rsµrtia||v ahent that nitrehns æhith steµµre enr a|trrneen in thr ui||agr æhrrr 3 nsre te
trath. Tæe µreµ|r in thr nitrehns ærrr trving te narkrt thrir nræ ¨æenerr ertrrgrnt¨.






















´ -,= ·'' ´ ¸,=- -''
= ¸\' _.', = _ \= = _· .\ = = ',` ='=' _'> ·¸ -` ,.'. .',' ¸ - = ¸'. = _· '= \ =` = -` ,»,
) - => =\' - = ¸'. = ( - ,¸ · _· - = ¸'. =\' ` _ » . ) _ = = _. , ( _,¸= = _\'¸ = ` .` =', .¸
216

-,¸=' .\' ·_. .,. = '_ = `,= · - ,\'=\' ¸,= .\' ¸'==' '_ = ¸ - ,'= ='= ¸ -,¸ »\' ` _ » .
.¸ ` -` ='=¦ _='=·¦ ', > \'= , _'> _'= »\' - ='¸ ¸\ - = ='¸ ¸¸»= ', , =,= ) _, =\'
_¸` , = ( ,'= ¸¸` = . · ¸¸ . .'= , - =\` =\' . = \ .'=' _.\' · .,. =\' - =¸>` =\' ƒ _ ' ¸, =
1958 _='¸' _\= . \¸ .=' ·, ='· ,,¸ >\' ` .', = ` ,,=` ¸\' '= .'· _.\' · _,= =
_`'=,' _¸.'· , =¸= , ·',.¸= ¸'¸ , _,.\' _,= ` »\ \ ',. ='='¸ _,,='=·.'
` _='¸` ¸\' `'= ' ¸= _'> _.\' .'.= , _\¦ ¸ = ¸¸ - » =.=\' _¸` , = _, =\' = ¸ .
',. = .'='¸ ',` = '=¸= ¸ ¸ _.\' _'¸ .' _¸= ` »\' = \ =. '. > =¸ .'. = \ ,` =` .'
_,.` =\'
- , \'=¸ ', \'= _¸='= = _\'¸ = ',,·¸ · - ,¸ »\' ¸'= ' '_ = ´. ='¸ _'` ¸ · - = ¸'. =\ \ _'>
¸ .'= ¸,' ` -` ='=¦ ´¸,.` = _,= =\' _\= · ¸=` ,¸ · _,= \ =` = - ='= = ,` ,` =` ¸ .` , ¸ .'= ¸,' _'>
_.\' · - = = , ¸= »\' .,. = `,= = ¸'= »\', _'> _· ¸ , \ =` = ¸` ¸ ' - .¸ > , ` ¸ =» , _'> '= >
.'= , - . = ',,= \ =` =¸ ', . , \ = ` . . = .'.'¸'¸ . =` = ¸ . ` , . ·', =` = ' _.\' ¸, · · - = ¸'. =\'
¸ ·¸»` = - . = , . \ = .>' '_ ' _\¦ _¸= '
.' . = ' _· ¸ .'= ¸,' _'> ` , ` =\' · ¸ =.' '_' .'= , - = ¸'. =\' - . ·. = = ` .,=` , ,'` ,
, , .¸,` , _\¦ '¸'= = ` -. = .', ¸ .·' '_ ' .'= , ` - .\ '= ·
- °¸ · . ='=` = _\¦ ` _'.'= . ¸ =
- '¸> = ·. '='= ¸ = = _..' ..` = ¸ ,'= ¸ > ', = = .,= ' '_' .'.` ¸ = .
- ° - ,'. ,\' . .'> ·, >
- '¸\'·¸ - ,,¸ .\' ¸,.` = _\¦ ¸ , \ = , _¸= ` »\' ,` . » . · ¸¸ .\' .'= , ,,\'= . \ - = ¸'. = ` .,¸ .
'. \'»= ' ` _ ' _=` . , ` - . . - = ¸'. = '. . ,'¸ · _· _¸> . '_' ` _ ¸'=` , _'> _¸` , = _, =\ '
» . _ ¸'. =\' = \ . ` _,· ¸ . ='¸ ‹ · = _· .'. ,\'¸ ` ..¸ .' _ \'= , '_ '¸ · ..¸ .' ¸¸»` = ` . =
217

_,` .\' ` . = ´._ = ! ` ¸'.,` .\'¸ ¸'=\' ¸= _¸` , = _, =\' _,. ` _ ' '.` , = · ¸'= . ` _'= . ! ` _¦ ` , .
¸ .'=¸ =`,.'>\' ` - . ¸'` , = , > ¸ '. · _¸` , = _, =\' .'.= , _\¦ _\¦ ¸ - ='= , '. \'»= '
,,\'= .\' ¸,.` = · ¸'= = ', ·¸ - = ¸'. = !
'» ·'¸= ¸'» · ·` ¸ =\' · . = ', , , \ = _ ·'¸ , '_ ' _\= ,,\'= .\' ` ¸,.` = •¸'= , ', \ ·
- _·',\' , >, \ =¸ · '= \ =` = , >,='= ' '. '
=` , \ `,\ · ¸ .'= ¸,' · · ¸ . - . ,'> = _· ` ¸ = .'=' ` , . · - . ¸'=,= ¸'==¦ .,
- - ,¸ »\ \ ,,\'= .\' ` ¸,.` = ` ·'='= ' _.\' , \ =` =\' .. > '. » · _. »,=¸ _\= .\ = = '.> =¸ !
_¸'= ..' _· '¸.'> ,` , . ' .'. = ¸ · ¸ _¸,'= ' .'= , - ,'¸ »\' _\¦ .. = ='¸ .\', _.¸\ ,» .'=¦ ,,
- , ='.` =\' =\ . , .'» .'=¦ ·'¸ =\' '_ = '. . = '¸= , .¸ =,== . \ _ .. ,` =\' ¸¸ . , .'= ·¸
.'¸ »\' ¸', . '_ = ',,¸ · - = ¸'. =\' _·¸ =
¸` ¸ .' ·` =\' , ` = \ _¸= .'¸ _\ · . ='¸ · _, . »,¸ = ` .'. , ` , . ,¸ ,\' _» . _·¸
) ` _ .' =\' ` _ >` =\' _=¸ · , = »\'¸ ¸,= .\' ·'= = '_ = · .'= _.,` , ´¸,= = _¸> - »,¸` =\'
- = = ¸¸ _'¸ =\' ,¸. = _¸ · _· ( _, . »,¸ = ¸ ' ¸ - »,¸ = .'. , ` .,¸ . ' . > ¸ - .= ¸ > _·¸
.` .` =\' - , \ =\'¸ , \ =` =\ \ \= '.\ = = '` ,=,¸'. .¸ - , \ =\ \ . ='» = _
¸ .'= ',' .\ '= ·
- ° -` ,¸ .' .\' - \ ='¸ =\' _· ,` , =,\'= . _¸\ ='¸`, _,.\' - ,'= . ', >
- - ,\'= . =, \ · · = ` \
- ° = \ . > _= '.'= \
- ` ..¸.' -` ='=¸ ` _'= ,\' ` , =. ,¸ · _'¸ .' - ='¸¸ _· ,` ,` ='= , ` ¸ = .'= , - .,. =\' _\¦
¸ ¸ = = '_ = .'= ,\ \ _, =\', _ = .\ , ` , . _¸= ' ¸ .'¸. = ,` ,` ='= , `¸ = .. ,¸
- °_¸= ' ¸ .'¸ . = ` ¸'= ...' '.'= \
218

- - ='. =\' '_ = . . , -` ,=¸ =\' - ='. =\ \ _¸, =. , · ¸ = = - = ='=\' ` _ = _· '¸.¸> , _ . =
` ,='¸\,' ¸ = = - = .'` =\' ` _ = _· -
¸ -` ,¸» = , .\ '= ·
- ° -` ,='¸\,'¸ -` ,=¸ =\' - ='. =\' _, , _'¸ »\' ¸= '=¸
- .'.'= ' ', ` , .'` ¸\' ! ` -` , .'¸ -` ,='¸\,' - ='. =\' _· _..` =\' 3 - ='. =\' _·¸ ¸,.'. .
` -` , .'¸ -` ,=¸ =\' 15 '= , · '¸'.,. _.' = , .'¸ ¸'. » , _. - \ \ ` .'= =\' ¸ · '_ > \¸ ! = \ . ¸¸·'
` _ . _, .'¸ _\ = = .' . , '= .. = _'> 5 _. \ .'= ¸,= ' '_ ' ` _\ = _'>¸ ·= »· ¸,.'. .
_'¸` ¸\ \ ¸ =` . '¸ ) ! ` , \¸ · - ,¸ »\' .'= . '_ = - .', \'= _.'=¦ ¸ .'= ¸,' _` ¸ ¸ . - ='= = _.' '=
' ¸ .'= ,` =` ¸ ,> ' ·¸ ..¸ (
'= ¸'= .\ · ·
- ..¸ .' ¸¸»` = ` . =» . ` _ ¸'. =\ ' ·'_ .¦ ‹ _ = _\= _¸` , = _, =\' _'> '. » \ !
¸'· _.\' ¸ .'= - .',' ¸¸=¸ , _ = ».' '. .,. = ` _ > \ ·_»,\'= . ` -', ='=` , ', \ ·
- = _` = ' ¸¸» . ° .'= =\ \ =,` .\' _ ,. . \ ` ¸` ='= . = _.
- .'= ´, .'· '.' ·'¸ ='=
- . »,¸ = · - =¸> _· .'= =\ \ _.'= .¸ ` _\¦ . ».\¦
- _= = _ = .¸ ¸'= . ! - ,'= = = .', = ` _ ' ` .` , . ,'= =\' _', = _¸.,= . . ¸. ,\' , .. ' !
- ´_,= = '. = ¸. ,\' ,` >\' _', = .¸ ,'= =\' _', = _¸.,=` , . ) ! _¸» ·'.` , . _.'= = , (
¸,\ »\' _\= _¸=,= , ¸. ,\' ` _ ' ` , . · _, =\' '_= ¸¸•= =\' ¸,· .'¸ = _.', - > ¸ ,\'
) ` - = = - »,¸` =\' ` , ='» . ' _.\' ` , \ =` =\' ¸= .'¸= (
'¸= ` - ='¸ ¸ .'= ¸,' ` ¸ = - . »,¸ = _\¦ ' . = … ¸ > , = .¸ · '» ·

219

- = ¸'. =\' - ='= _· .'=¸ =¸ '.'¸ =' .'= = = - ='` =\' ` , ¸'»` , '= .'= , .'¸'` , = . .'>
-` ,.'= . '=`·' _ ¸'= . \ .',='= .' _'= , _· _.'. '= ', \'= -` =` =\' ¸' ,`'=,' · ¸'¸¸
` ,·'» . ¸' '¸ > ,` = ¸'¸ '= .· ¸\' ` _ > \ · - ·¸'` , = .'. ='= · ,',\' ¸` = '_ = .'¸ = .
_ . =` , - ='= . _, =` = .¸ = ` _ ='=' .' . , ` , . ·´¸,, > _¸·¸ ¸>,'= ',, \ =¸ _ ,¸¸>,'=
· ¸'=` =\' ¸= . ' ¸=¸ ·´¸¸,= = ` _·'¸ = ´, ¸=` = '.= - ='= . _, =`=¸ - .,. = '_ = `'=
-` ,¸ =' .\'
,`· .' - , ¸ = ', . ' _, .'= .'. ,\'¸ ` ..¸ .' _` = = . ¸', .\' '_ = ¸'¸ =\' .'. \'= ` .'= .\'¸
.'.¸` =\' - ='¸ =\' ·'¸ = , -'= ¸\' , .'= _, = = '. ·¸ _» · ¸ _.\' - . .'»\' · ''¸ =\' '` = '
'> ¸ ='» = , ` -. . .'='¸ · - , ¸ =\' , .'= . = ·¸¸ . \ ¸ . '. » · _.'` =\' ¸'¸ = , ` _ \'= . . .
¸ · ¸,= = ¸ - \ ¸'= > _ ,'='· ¸ -` ,.,. = \' '_ = '¸,, > '¸\ . - . .'»\' · ''¸ =\' . = = ¸ '= .'=`Œ
= '` = \ ', .` ¸ = , .'» ·'¸\' _.=¦ . =` ¸ , .¸ . , \ .'=
,` >\' ,` ,. = , \ = . '_ = ' ¸ ·¸ · ..¸.' _\= -` ,· ¸ ¸ ¸,.'. = - . .'»\' · ''¸ =\' . =` ¸ ¸
¸ , .'= \ . , ,¸.> =\' '=', , ¸ .> ' ', \ ='= ,¸ _ ,` =\' ¸ == , ·` ,,= =\' _¸='= =\' '. ,'. !
¸ · '¸= ·'. .¸ ` ..¸.' , ='¸ . ·,=` =\'¸ ` ¸,=` =\' ,` ,. = _ · ¸,.'. =\' ` _` ¸ ¸. _= '= ., ,¸
-,='= . '_' -, \ = . = ¸ =¸ '='= .' ¸ .> .' - ='.=` .\' _. . \ ¸\' . , . > ='= ' -` ,· ¸ ¸\'
- =,=` ¸\' - =,. »\' ` - . ='.= . ',,='=` , '_ ' _\= ',\'= '` ,¸,¸ = ',¸ .
¸ ¸ - ·'¸` = , _> ,¸ ',. = . \» , \ . ='=¸ · _'¸ =\' ` . \ ¸\' _ · - > ='=` = _=¸ . \ ¸'=
¸ == . '_' .'= , '= = ,¸ .\'¸ ` - . ='.= . -,='= . ·¸ = ', . ' - \ .'· ` - . .'= = . '_ ' - ,,,` . ,
'= = · ¸= .\' _¸ . _ > \ - = = .` =\' - ='.=` .\' .,. =\' ,,= =\' _¸='= =\' ¸ '_ = . , \ = ` , .
` . \ ¸\' ` ·'¸ , _ > \ · ¸'` ,` =\' ¸ ='. '_ = .,. =\' ` _¸,¸ =\' ,¸ .\' ¸ ='=` , '_ ' _ .'` =\'
_¸¸ =.'¸ _'¸` = = =¸ ·` _,= =\' ` ·'¸ , _ > \ _\=' _\¦ ` - =· ¸¸ ,¸ .\' _ .'` =\' ¸ == '
220

.¸.' _'¸ =\' ¸¸, · _\= . \ ¸\' _¸=` = =` , ,` =¸ · '.'== .'=' . - ='.=` .\' '. . \ ¸\' ` _ > \
_,=` , '_ ' _,' '='= .' ¸ .>.'
-` ,· ¸ ¸\' ', .` , . = _»\'¸ ',. = . \· ' '_' .'= , · . \ ¸\' =¸\` = '_ = - . .'»\' · ''¸ =\' . , ¸= .'=¦
_\= ·\ =\ \ ', = =.` = ,',` =\'> _ ¸ =¸ _'¸.' ',. = '.,= , ¸'= '` = \ - .,.'= =\' ¸ == .'=¦
· ¸'= . '_ > . ', \ _, · _ =\' ',\¸ ·', . ¸, = _· - · ¸'= _= . .'> '= ., , · '='.'¸` = .` , . .¸
` _.'.'= .\' _', \\' ` _ ,\ , . ` - . ' ¸'= ¸ .',¸', > ¸ > , - . ¸'= ' - »,¸ = _\¦ ` . \ ¸\'

Questions about the text ç --' Q- ª--~'
', = ' [ - ,\' .\' -\.=.' _= _,,=' ·
1 °- ,'= = .,. =\' , \ =` =\' ·', = '_' - = ¸'. =\' ` ¸,.` = . » .'=' '.'= \
2 . =\' , \ =` =\' _'¸ _· ¸. ,\' °'=` = '= · _, ., = , _¸·¸¸'= = .,
3 ° ¸ ='= . '_' ` .,¸ . - . .'»\' · '¸ =\' . .'> '.'=
4 ° . \ ¸\' _\= - . .'»\' · '¸ =\' . = ¸ = '.'=
5 ° _¸ .' _¸= ` »\' = \ = . _. =
6 ° _'¸ =\' _· · ¸¸ .\' . ='· _. =
7 ¸ = '= ` . \ ¸\' _ · ¸ '.'= \ ° - . .'»\' · '¸ =\' -,\ = . =
8 ° - = ¸'. =\' ` ¸,.` = '= , , ` ¸ = .» , _'. \\' _'., =\' '=` = '=
9 ° ., ,\' _\¦ ¸` ='= , '_' ', =¸ ¸ '_ = ¸ .'= ` , ' . , \ = '.'= \
10 ° · ¸¸ .\' ¸', · .¸,» = _ ¸'. =\' '_ = _¸` , = _, =\' ` _'¸ _'> ¸ =
11 ° - = ¸'. =\' _,='. , .'» .'=¦ _¸= ` »\' ¸ = = '.'=
12 ° -` ,=¸ =\' - ='. =\' _· ` ,` =\' _ = .\ , ' _ = -` ,' _·

221

', .> ' °' = = ,' ´,'¸ = [ ,,\` =\' ', \> = , ' = =\' ¸ =` =\' _, .> '
1 ` ,='=·,' _='¸' _\= - =¸>` =\' . \¸ .'=¦ · ¸¸ .\' .'= , _,
2 `'= · · ..¸.' ¸¸»` = ` . =» . ', . . _ ¸'. =\' _¸` , = _, =\' _ ¸'=
3 _,` .\' ` . = ¸ . ='¸ ‹ · = _· .'. ,\'¸ ..¸.' .¸=¸ ` _ ' _¸` , = _, =\' _=` .¦
4 . =\' '_ = _¸` , = _, =\' _'¸ _= _¸= ` »\' _ » .¦ _ ¸'
5 ¸ - ,¸=` = , -` ,· ¸ ¸\' ¸,.'. =\' _\= ,¸.> =\' ,` >\' ` ..¸.' ' ¸ ·
6 -` ,¸,¸ = ·''¸ =\' ',. =` ¸ ¸ _.\' ¸,.'. =\' . .'>
7 ,,\'= .\' ¸,.` = '_ = '¸, \ = '= ¸ > _\= _¸= ` »\' ¸ = =
8 \» , '_ ' '¸,= ' ` . \ ¸\' _'= .'=¦ - . .'»\' · ''¸ =\' '_ = .
9 -` ,¸,¸ = ` - . ='.= . ` _ . . \ ¸\' = \ . - . .'»\' · ''¸ =\' . ¸'.=¦
10 '»,= . _'> ` - . . ` - ,¸ . _='=` , '_ ' ` . \ ¸\' _ · ¸

Functional Expressions -·.! =\! =!_!, ·\l
_.', = _ \= = _· early in my life
` _ ' ¸, = but
- =\` =\' . = \ .'=' took over power
_¸.'»\' , =¸= , according to law
agrarian reform ` _='¸` ¸\' ` _`'=,'
`,= = ¸'= »\', _'> was truly pretty
- = = , ¸= »\' .,. = extremely proud of his handwriting
_,` .\' ` . = anti religion
222

..¸ .' ¸¸»` = ` . =» . corrupts children’s minds
,,\'= .\' ¸,.` = · ¸'= = ', ! Mr. district school director
_·',\' , >, \ = the rest is your responsibility
, .'» .'=¦ - , ='.` =\' in celebration of the occasion
- \ \ ` .'= =\' ¸ · ! Say thanks to Allah!
-` ,=¸ =\' - ='. =\ ' voluntary service
-` ,='¸\,' - ='. =\ ' compulsory service
-` ,.'= . ´,`·' propaganda films
-` ,·'» . ´,`·' educational films
¸ -` ,¸» = , .\ '= I naively asked
-` ,· ¸ ¸ ¸,.'. = paper napkins
'='= .' ¸ .> .' the dirtiest
'_ ' _\= providing that, on condition
', . ¸, = _· - · ¸'= sunk in her confusion
,¸.> =\' ,` >\' ' ¸ · ¸ , .'= \ . , He read the written words stumblingly


Vocabulary List =!._ì=\! -=.!¡
` _'¸= . ·´.'= . ··¸= . women
_'` ¸ · attendant, custodian
` _='=·¦ land owner
´_'= · wheat
223

¸» = „ ¸¸»` = field-s
- \= . „ ¸,= . date palm-s
- ,'= forest
´¸'= = afternoon
´_ \= = start, beginning
_¸='= = detergent
_,\'= . comment
´¸¸ . role
- ,'= . percentage
´¸'. · measure
-` ,¸» = naiveté
´_¸ > universe, being
´=¸\` = manner, behavior
´¸'= = charm, magic
- .,.' = = feeling of security
´¸= · pride
… = = calligraphy
` ,,,` . sleeves
· ¸'=,= cigarette
¸'==¦ lighting (fire, cigarette)
` .'=¸ = noise
224

.¸ = „ ¸'= ' .' voice-s
¸» = „ ¸¸»` = mind-s
´,', = arrow
¸'» .'=¦ celebration
´¸'= ..¦ waiting
´, = · reeds
` _'¸'=` = mats
- »'= = „ ·'= = date palm leave-s
´_ ·¸ = location
´_,='. founding
- ='¸ = woman’s headgear
· ¸ = end
´¸\ . bucket
·` ¸ = „ ´¸'¸ = earthenware jar
- , ¸ = vehicle, cart
·¸¸ = „ ·'¸ = lamb-s
´=,. rooster
´,¸ . dress, garment
´_'¸ = to show, offer
` _ ¸'=` , to oppose
_ = .\ , to join
225

¸ ='¸, to continue, pursue
_.', , to build, construct
` _,=` , to obey
` _ ,\ , to put on, wear
` _ \= , to take off
` .,=` , to repeat, return
_ ·'.` , to play the hypocrite
` ¸ = to shake
_, ' to resist
= \ = . to own
¸ = ¸ to migrate
. » .\¦ to turn
` . =» . to corrupt, spoil
` _` ¸ ¸. to distribute
•¸'= , to dare
_=` . , to claim
_ = ».¦ to be cut out
.` , . . to sigh
¸ == .'=¦ to feel
_ ¸ = to dash, dart
_ · ¸ to reject, refuse
226

. \· ' to get, yank loose
. ='= to struggle
_ , . to slaughter
= \ = to own
, .'= \ . to stumble
_ ·'. . to push each other
, ='¸ . to crowd
. =` = ¸ . to expand
. = ¸ = to show, demonstrate
. , ¸= .'=¦ to be surprised
. > ='= ' she held
. = \ .'=¦ she received
` .,¸ . we increase
.. .'=' I supported
.'= · I stood up, undertook
` .,= ' I repeat
` , ='» . ' I share
` ¸ =` . ' I save money
.'.` ¸ = . I used to
. \ = .>¦ be completed
. =` ¸ , . she donated
227

- . \'= „ .'. \'= water bearer-s
´¸ > ,` = early
- . .'· charming, gorgeous, enchanting
·'» . -` , educational
-` ,.'= . propaganda
_ = .` = dirty
- > ='=` = holding
´, = =.` = withdrawn
´_'.'¸` = relaxed, comfortable
·\ = behind
'` ,=,¸'. . gradually
´.,. = intense
.,. = ` _ made of iron
` _¸,¸ = made of silk
´,,= = wonderful, great
·,= = weak
- ='.= . garment common male dress in Iraq
- »,¸ = [ _¸> hut made of date palm leaves, reed and mats
_ ,¸¸>,'= van
Grammar . =!¡ s\l
1. The Active Participle ¸ ='»\' ,=¦
228

a. For Hollow Verbs (CVC) as in ¸'· , the active participle pattern is FAA’IL,
with Hamza ) . ( taking the place of the second consonant (C2) in all cases.
¸'· „ ,'. ¸ .'· - ´, .'.
b. For Defective Verbs (CCV), the pattern is FAA’IN as in:
= _= „ '= . ¸ _'= „ ¸ _'.
You must have noticed that the verb loses its weak long end vowel

c. Doubled Verbs (CvCCv) as in ` = = undergoes the same loss of the weak vowel.
The pattern is FAALL
` = = „ ` ='=
2. The Passive Participle ¸¸=»=\' ,=¦ of the Hollow, Defective, and Doubled
Verbs follows the following patterns.

a. Hollow
The pattern is MaFUUL is used for (C2W)
¸'· „ ¸¸» , - ¸¸» =

The pattern MuFAAL for (C2Y)
_', „ ` _,', , - ',` = ´_

b. Defective
Defective (C3W) produces a regular passive participle on the pattern MaF’UUW
'= . „ ¸='. , - ` ¸='. =
Defective (C3Y) gives a passive participle on the pattern MaF’IIY
_. = „ _.', , - ` _.', =
c. Doubled
The formation of Passive Participle from a doubled root is perfectly regular,
MaF’UUL.
` = = „ ` = = , „ ´=¸>= =
229

3. '. » \ or '. · is used with verbs in the past tense to indicate a tense somewhat closer to
the English past perfect tense. To say, “I had gone to the library before I ate my ,”
in Arabic the sentence is:
_.'= = ¸ >' '_ ' ¸', · - , .> =\' _\¦ .', = . '. » \

Verb Conjugation J'·-V' ~-,~ -

The following charts show a number of Arabic verbs conjugated to singular and
plural pronouns for both past and Present Jussive tenses ,¸¸==\' _¸'=` =\' .
to take off _ \ =
!.l =.l =. l _= ¡= .¸»` =\' ¸.'= =
.'= \ = .'= \ = .'= \ = . = \= _ \ = _='=\'
= , ,¸¸==\' _¸'=` =\' '_ \= ' _= \= . '_ \= . '_ \= . '_ \

to continue, pursue ¸ ='¸
´ ¿> . ´ ¿ ..l , .. l ´ ¿= ,= _==\' ¸.'= =
='¸ , .\ ='¸ _\ ='¸ '¸\ ='¸ _='=\' '.\ ='¸ ` _ .\
'¸\ ='¸, ,¸¸==\' _¸'=` =\' '¸\ ='¸. _\ ='¸, _\ ='¸. ¸ ='¸.

to join _ = .\¦
!.l =.l =. l _= ¡= .¸»` =\' ¸.'= =
_='=\' _ = .\¦ = .\¦ . » = .\¦ .» = .\¦ .» = .\¦ .»
, ,¸¸==\' _¸'=` =\' \ . _ = . \ . _ = . \ . _ = . \ ' _» = . \ _ = .

230

to put on _ , \
´ ¿> . ´ ¿ ..l , .. l ´ ¿= ,= _==\' ¸.'= =
' '.'= , \ ` _ .'= , \ , .'= , \ _= , \ '¸= , \ _='=\
'_ ,\ . _'= ,\ . _¸= ,\ . _'= ,\ , '¸= ,\ , ,¸¸==\' _¸'=` =\'
to get used .` ¸ = .
!.l =.l =. l _= ¡= .¸»` =\' ¸.'= =
_='=\' .` ¸ = . .` ¸ = . . '.` ¸ = . . '.` ¸ = . . '.` ¸ = . .
' ,¸¸==\' _¸'=` =\' '.` ¸ = . . '.` ¸ = . . '.` ¸ = . . .` ¸ = . ' _ '.` ¸ = .

to feel, sense, perceive ¸ == .'=¦
´ ¿> . ´ ¿ ..l , .. l ´ ¿= ,= _==\' ¸.'= =
_='=\' ¸ == .'=¦ '¸ '¸ == .'=¦ _ '¸ == .'=¦ , . '¸ == .'=¦ ` _ . '¸ == .'=¦ '.
` == .'= , ,¸¸==\' _¸'=` =\' ¸ , '¸ ` == .'= '¸ ` == .'= . _ ¸ ` == .'= . '¸ '¸ . _ ` ¸ == .'=

Drill #1 ¸¡v! ¿,_=.\l
Use the words and phrases in the Vocabulary List in good sentences.

Drill #2 _.!.\! ¿,_=.\l
Please choose the correct options.
1 '> ` _\'= . - . .'»\' ·''¸ =\' . .
' , _ .'` =\' ¸'¸ = , ·\ = . _ .'` =\' ,'= ' _ .'` =\'

2 ..` = - = ¸'. =\' - . ·. = = ` ¸,.` =\' ` .,=` ,
231

' , '='= ¸ = = _..¦ . '='= ¸ = = - ='= = - ='¸ ¸

', . ='¸ = ·¸ = , · ''¸ =\' . > ='= ' 3
- ·` = ',\ … = = ', .'= . _.\' - = \ >\'
' , _'` ¸\', . . ,\', _, =\',

4 ,,\'= .\' ` _ ' _¸= ` »\' ` . » .'= ,
' , ¸¸»` =\' _., , . - ='¸` ¸\' ` _` = =` , -` =` =\' ` _` = =` ,

5 '` . = ´¸¸= · - => =\' - = ¸'. = ` ¸,.` =
' , - .',', . - = = , - \'= = ,

6 =¸>` = . \¸ .'=¦ _,` ,='=·,' _='¸' _\= · ¸¸ .\' -
- =¸>` =\' ` _' = \ . _.== ·
' , ',. > \ = . . ',. =` ¸ ¸ ',. ¸ .=¦

7 _¸ · _· ` _ .' =\' ` _ >` =\' _= - »,¸` =\ '
' , _'¸ =\' ,¸. = _'¸ =\' = = ¸ . - = = ¸¸ _'¸ =\' ,¸. =

8 ,\ »\' _'. ='=` , _ .= _» · ¸ ¸'¸ =\' .'. \'=
` . =·' '.' ·
232

' , · ¸= .\' . ..¸.' _,= \ =` =\'

9 - => =\' - = ¸'. = , ` = ` _'= , ` , =. ,
' , -` ,¸ >'= =\' - ='. =\ \ . -` ,. . =\' - ='. =\ \ -` ,=,\'= .\' - ='. =\ \

10 - => =\' - = ¸'. = ` _,='. ` , . ·
' , _ = = _. , - ,'= _· . · ¸¸ .\' .'= , _'= »\' ¸¸»` = == ¸

11 _ ¸'. =\' ` _ ' ` _='=·,' _=` . , ·
' , ¸¸» =\' _., . . ¸¸» =\' ` . =» . ¸¸» =\' ` _` = ¸.

12 · . ='=` = _· _.· ¸ _` , = ' '_ ' ` , = ' .
' , -` ,.'=` .\' ,`· .' . -` ,·'» .\' ,`· .' -` ,=,¸' .\' ,`· .'

13 '_ = - ,\'= - ,'= . '>,¸= ' ` ¸` . = . , \'=\' _'¸= .
' , ', ='= · . ', =» . ', .'¸'` , =

14 ¸ - ='¸` = , , .> =\' ,', .'= . · ` . =· ' '¸ » =
' =,¸'. . , '` , . .'= -` ,.,. =

15 ·'¸ =\' '_ = '. . = - ,¸ »\' ¸'= ' _ , . ='.` = '_ .¦
233

' , ¸'» .'=¦ . - \ >=` = ´,', =

16 _¸` , = _, =\' _'> ·
' , _,` .\' ` . = .\' ` . = . ,,\'= - =¸>` =\' ` . =

17 ` - . . ` - ,¸ . _='=` , '_ ' ` . \ ¸\' _ · ¸ ·
' '='= .' ` ¸ .> .'
, - .,.''= =\' ` ¸` == .'= , .
. .\' _ ,` =\' ` _ ,\ , . -` ,.'.'=

18 ¸. = ¸ - ='¸` = , _` .. »\' ,'=' - ='¸ =\' · ¸'` , = . · ¸ =
' , ,,` =\' . · =` =\' .¸` =\'

19 - \ >=` =\' _· '= ¸¸ . '_ = '.\' =
' ` .,¸ . ' . > '_ .¦ '` = = · ¸'= . '_ ·
' , ` -. \ = · . ` -. ¸ = ..¦ ` -. ,'

20 ` ¸ = .'= , _,= \ =` =\' _.'. _· ¸ · ¸ =' .` = ¸ - ='= _ . = ,`·,'
¸= ` , ='.` =\' ` ¸',.=,' ·
' , ` _'¸ = . ¸ ='» = ` ¸'¸ =

234

21 =¸ ,\` = ..¸'= -` ,\ >, _ = .\ . '_ ' _. .',¦ ` , = .
'_ ' ` .,¸ . _= '_ .¦ ·
' , ',,· _,, . . ', , ¸ ='= . ', \ _` ¸ , . .

22 _, , _='= . ' . >¸ ·` - \ > ¸', .\' - = ='¸\' - ,'=\' =\ . _· '., = =
' , ¸,= .\' . ·=` =\' _, , _'= »\' _, ,

23 - = ¸'. =\' - ='= _· , ` =\' , ='¸ .
,` , . ' ¸ = .'=` =\' _ = _ .¦ ·
' , _¸= ·'. . , . _¸=` ¸ ¸, _¸¸ = .» ,

24 - => =\' - = ¸'. = ` ¸,.` = _` ¸ ¸ . ·
' · ¸'=` =\' .'= . _.'=¦
, _ = = _. , - ,'¸ · .'= . _.'=¦
. _'¸ =\' _· ´_ .'= ¸= '= > -` = = .. ,

25 ·,= = ¸» =\' '. = '` . =
` - . ' ` _ = ' ·
' , ´_,¸ = . ´, = =.` = ´= ='=` =



235

Drill #3 =\!.\! ¿,_=.\l

a. Vowel the following sentences.
1 _¸.'.\' ,,=,\=. _¸\='¸, ,`=\' _= -\,\· -,=.
2 »\'¸ _'¸==\'¸ ¸,=.\' ·== _= ·.'= -»,¸=\' _.,. ,=
3 -,,,`., .>==' '=..= -..'»\' ·'¸=\' ,¸'», .\¸\' ¸=.='
4 -=¸.=\' -='= _= .,=, _,=' '=..= -.,.'==\' .\¸\' ¸==.='
5 ',,,= ·¸=. ,\ .'=¸=¸ -,\'= .'¸=' ¸,\\' ¸=' _· '.===

b. Rearrange the following groups of words to make correct sentences.
1 .'= , _ ·'¸ · ¸¸ .\' - = ¸'. =\' ` ¸,.` = _,='. _\= ,,\= .\'
2 °_\= ` _ » . _ = = ` _ ' ¸', . ´_,= = _. , - ,¸ · .'¸ »\' ¸ =
3 ` - \ > ¸,= .\' - ,'= ¸', .\' - =='¸\' _· '., = =
4 - \ >=` =\' '.'=¸ . \ = · '_ = '.\' = '= ¸¸ . .,»= . \
5 -` ,·'» .\' ,`· .' · . ='=` = _· ', .· ¸ _=» . '_ ' ` , = .

c. Negate the following sentences.
1 ` - . . '='.'¸` = ` . \ ¸\' .` , . . .,. =\' ,¸ .\' _\= ¸ = =
2 - .,. =\' _· ¸ ¸ = = '_ = .'= ,\' ¸', · _, . . = ` ..¸ .' ¸ = ..¦
3 - ,¸ »\' ¸'= ' '_ = ´. ='¸ _'` ¸ · - = ¸'. =\ \ _'>
4 = ' .'= , - . = ',,= \ =` =¸ ', . , \ = ` . . = .'.'¸'¸ - = ¸'. =\' . =` = ¸ . _¸
5 _,= ` »\ \ ',. ='='¸ _,,='=·,' _='¸' _\= - =¸>` =\' . \¸ .'=¦

236

d. Underline the active and passive participles and explain the grammatical
function of each of them.
1 '»\' ·''¸ =\' . , '_ = . \· ' ` - . . '='.'¸` = ` . \ ¸\' .` , . . - . .
2 ¸ -` ,.'. .',' ¸ - = ¸'. = _· '= \ =` = -` ,»,= ¸\' _.', = _ \= = _· .\ = =
3 '» ·'¸= ¸'» · ·` ¸ =\' · . = ', , , \ = _ ·'¸ , '_ ' ,,\'= .\' ` ¸,.` = •¸'= , ', \
4 = ',,¸ · ,¸\= =\' _·¸ =\' =,== . \ _ .. ,`=\' ¸¸ . , .'= · .'¸ »\' ¸', . '_
5 '¸ > ,` = ¸'¸ '= .· ¸\' ` _ > \ _.'. -` =` =\' ·¸'¸¸ .'¸'` , = . .'>
6 ¸ _ ='¸ ¸ , .'= \ . , ,¸.> =\' ,` >\' ..¸.' '_ = , \ = . '_ = ' ¸ ·
7 ' - .,. = '_ = `'= ' ¸=¸ ·´¸¸,= = ` _·'¸ = ´, ¸=` = - ='= . _, =` = -` ,¸ =' .\
8 - ='¸ =\' ·'¸ = , -'= ¸\' , .'= _, = = '. ·¸ _» · ¸ ¸', .\' '_ = ¸'¸ =\' .'. \'= ` .'= .\'
9 . , \ = '` = \ ', .` ¸ = , .'» ·'¸\' · ¸= .\' _.=¦ . =` ¸ , . ·''¸ =\' - . .'»\' .'=
10 =.` = ,',` =\'> ` . \ ¸\' _ ¸ = ', . ¸, = _· - · ¸'= · ''¸ =\' . .'> '= ., , ·\ =\ \ ', =

Drill #4 _,!_\! ¿,_=.\l
1 _· ´¸,, > ´¸', . .'¸ »\ ' ·
' , _'¸ =\' ,¸. = . _'¸ =\' _'¸ =\' ¸'= =

2 =,'= · ` . \ ¸\' _ \ = ´. ¸', _» =\' ` _ . ` -
` . =· ' .. > · '¸» = ·
' , _ , \ . . ='= _ ¸ =
3 - ='.'¸` = . =» =\' _\= ` _ \'= . ', .'. ='=
` ¸` == . _= '_ .¦ ·
' , - .,.'= =\', . -` ,¸» =\', ·¸ =\',
237

4 - \'= ' ,` > _ ='= , '_ ' ` ,' =\' _, '
` - . ' = \ . _.'= = ,` , =` >
' , _ , . . _ ·'¸ _ · ¸

5 ¸, \\' ¸ =' _· .'= = =
, ='.` =\' ` ¸, = ` ¸',.=, ' ¸= ·
' , '.'¸= ' . .'=¸ = '= \= =

6 '=`· ' · ¸ ='»\' _¸,¸» \ . ` _` ¸'= , ¸ .'= = ¸ > · .,. =
¸¸· ' '_ ' ` _ >'=` , . '=', = ·
' , -` ,.'. .',¦ . -` ,·'» . -` ,.'= .

7 ,¸ · _\¦ - ,,¸ · _ = = _. , -
' , .'¸ »\' . -` ,¸ =' .\' .'.= ,

8 ¸,· ·_»,. = ` _= =\' = \ . _¸> , '_ ' ` _ >'=` , .
' , _ ·'.` = . ´,,¸ > ´_,= '

9 .. = ¸` =` ¸\' , .'= \ . - \ = = '_ = ` _=¸ =\' ` - \ '= '=
¸= '_ .¦ ·
, · .'= . ´_'.'¸` = ´= ='=` =
238


10 ` , \'= , '` = = ¸ .> ' _=` . , ` - . . _.` , ='=` , . ¸=
¸= _,'¸ _· '_ .¦ ·
' , '¸,. > · ¸'= , `,\ · · ¸'= , . '., = · ¸'= , .

11 ´_¸.'= = = \ . ` _¦ ` -\ '¸\'»· , == =\' _· ` - . ¸'=,= _»,. =
' , ¸ ==' . . \· ' _, '

12 '` = \¸ _, . . = '=` , . ·` = .` ¸ = .'=¦ . = · ¸ _'¸` ¸\' ',, \ =
' _ ¸ = , . ¸ =` .¦ .` , . .

13 _,` =\' _· -` ,='¸ .' ·` ¸ ,\' ','= = · . ='=` = \ ', , .'¸ , . =` ¸ , .
', . ' = \ . _.'= = ', , .'¸
' , . . = ' . . ='= ' . · ¸ =

14 '¸ .` =\' ¸` = '¸,. > .'= '.'¸ =` .¦ · ¸,= .' ¸= =\' .
_.'= ' .. > · '¸» = ·
' , '., \¸ .'=¦ . '.· ¸ = '.'= ¸'=

15 -` ,= ¸'. =\' - \=` =\' .· ¸ .'¸'=` =\' _\¦ , =. ' '_ '

239

' , .'= ='» . .'. .'= ' . .'.` ¸ = .

16 _ ,, .' ., ,\' '_ = ,¸ »\', ',,¸ = '., = .'.='=
.'. ='= _. . ' '¸·` . = . ¸ = !
' , ¸ .', ¸ = . · ¸= . '·'¸ =

17 '•= _.. \ '= _. ¸'= ` _ . .', ¸= .'=¦ '. , > . !
¸'•` =\' _'> '_ .¦ ·
' , ',,= = . ','= = '»,= =

18 _\¦ ` _='=·,' ¸ = ¸ · - ='¸' _\= -` ,¸¸ .\' - =¸>` =\' . \¸ .'=' '_ ' .'= , ·
' , -` ,¸ =' .\' . '_ = = _. , - ,¸ · .'.= ,

19 _'¸.' _\= ` -. »\' ` , . · ¸` =` ¸\' ,, ,` . , -` ,='¸ =\'
' , . \¸ .'=¦ . . =` ¸ , . . > ='= '

20 ` - .¦ ¸¸» . ` _'= .¸ · ¸¸»` =\' ` . =»` , ,,\'= .\' ` _¦ ` _='=·,' ¸'·
' , ',` =,=` , ',,.', , . ', > \'= ,

21 ', \ _¸= ' ¸ · ' ¸=', ` - . ·` = . » = > '= .. = ' .,= ¸¸» , '_ ' ` _¸` ¸\'
' , •¸'= , . ', ='¸ . , '_` = ¸ . ,
240


22 _· -` ,»,= ¸\' ` - .', = ` .,. =\' ` , \ =` =\' ' . , ·
' - ,'=\' , . - ,¸ »\' - .,. =\'

23 _.\' ` _= =\' '.` , ='=` , . ` - =` >
' , ` .,=` , . ` _ ¸'=` , ` _ = » . ,

24 ,'= ' ` - ,¸ . ` _ \= , '_ ' ` . \ ¸\' _, ' ·
' , - ,¸ »\' ¸'= ' .'»\' · ''¸ =\' . - . .,. =\' , \ =` =\'

25 . ¸ ='= '. · · ¸,. > .¸»` = ` _ ' _= _'¸ =\' - \ >=` = ` _¦ · .,¸ =\' ¸¸» .
Here the newspaper is talking about:
a. a political problem
b. a brain-drain problem
c. an economic problem









241

Reading Exercise is!_s\! ¿,_=.
Read the following words, phrases and sentences into your tape recorder, then listen to
them. Give the tape to your teacher to check your performance:

.'= ¸ = . . = ' ` _ ,\ , ` .,=`, . ·
'` ,=,¸'. . .'= ='» . .'.` ¸ = . `_ ¸'=` , '.'¸ =` .¦
- = ¸'. =\' - ='= ,'= =\' _', = - ,¸ »\' ¸'= ' - \,\ · - ,'= . ¸ , \ =` = ¸` ¸'
» = ´_'¸ - ,'= = ·', = ` .,. =\' ` ,¸ .\' ,,\'= .\' ` ¸,.` = ` _¸ .' .\' ` ,,\'= .\' ¸¸,

¸¸»` =\' _.', , ,,\'= .\' ` _ ' -,· ` = = . '` = =
· ¸¸ .\' .'= , _'¸.' ` .'¸ » »\' _¸= ` »\' = \= .
` _¸ ¸ »\' . \ ¸\' =¸\` = '_ = - . .'»\' · ''¸ =\' . , ¸= .'=¦
>\' ¸ - ,¸=` = , ` , ` =\' ' ¸ · _ ¸ ¸\' _\= ,¸.> =\' ,`
-` ,='¸.' ·` ¸ ,\' ','= = · . ='=` = \ ', , .'¸ ¸> , . =` ¸ , .
- ,¸ »\' ¸'= ' ,'= ' _ = .` =\' ` - ,¸ . _ \= , '_ ' ` _¸ ¸ »\' ` . \ ¸\' _, '
»\' =\ . _` . =` , _'> '.¦ ¸ -` ,¸» = , - = ¸'. =\' ¸,.` = .\ ' = -` =
_,` ,='=·,' _,= = _='¸' _\= -` ,¸¸ .\' - =¸>` =\' . \¸ .'=¦
-` ='=\' - »,. =\' _· ¸ . =» = _\ = - . \» = _= '='.'¸` = ` _ \'= , ` - .'. ='=
°, , .'.', ' ,,\'= . \ - = ¸'. =\' _,='. , .'».'=¦ - ,¸ »\' ¸= ` · ¸ = = '.'=


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