You are on page 1of 40

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA, THE

SCHOOL CURRICULUM,
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
EDU555
Curriculum and Instruction
Encik Muhamad Furkan Mat Salleh

Overview
1) Education System in Malaysia
2) National Education Philosophy (NEP)
3) Goals of Education
4) CDD Roles and Functions
5) Curriculum Conceptual Framework, School System

and Curricular Emphasis


6) Pre-school to Secondary School Curriculum
7) Aspects taught across the curriculum
8) Science Curriculum for Secondary and Primary
Schools

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN
MALAYSIA

Education in Malaysia
The education system in Malaysia is centralized and top-

down
Overseen by the Ministry of Education (MoE).
Each state and federal territory has an Education Department to co-

ordinate educational matters.

The main legislation governing education is the Education

Act of 1996.
The Malaysian government provides free education for

primary and secondary level

11 years for each student

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA


MINISTRY
OF EDUCATION

MINISTER OF EDUCATION
Centralized, top-down system
Standardized curriculum prepared by CDD

STATE EDUCATION DIRECTOR


STATE EDUCATION
Primary School
DEPARTMENT
Secondary School

DISTRICT EDUCATION OFFICER


DISTRICT EDUCATION
Primary School
OFFICE
Secondary School

SCHOOL

PRINCIPAL, HEADMASTER, SENIOR


ASSISTANTS,
HEAD OF PANEL,
Teachers
Students

Primary Education
Primary Education is compulsory in Malaysia
Multilingual public schools
Private schools
Home education / Homeschooling
Children enter primary schools at age 7 for a period of 6

years
There are 2 different types of government-run primary

schools:

National schools normal government schools


National type schools vernacular schools which have either
Chinese or Tamil as the main language for instruction

Secondary Education
Secondary Education is divided into the following phases:
Transitional Class
Only for national-type primary school students who have failed Malay
Language subject in UPSR
Lower Secondary
First 3 years (Form 1 to 3)
General education
Upper Secondary
Following 2 years (Form 4 and 5)
Either the arts or the science stream according to personal choice and
teacher advice

Secondary Education
Secondary schools are subdivided into 3 types:
National schools
National type schools
Religious schools
Other types of government or government-aided

secondary schools:

Religious Secondary School (Sekolah Menengah Agama)


Technical Schools (Sekolah Menengah Teknik)
Fully Residential Schools (Sekolah Berasrama Penuh)
MARA Junior Science College (Maktab Rendah Sains MARA)

Secondary Education
The Cluster School of Excellence
a merit system implemented in Malaysia
granted to High Achieving Schools
given wider autonomy in administration
extra allocation for advancement of specific fields like academics,
sports and extra-curricular activities.
Admissions are very selective

reserved for students who demonstrate outstanding academic


achievement and potential at the primary level.
These schools are either full-time day or boarding

schools.

Post Secondary Education


Students from public secondary school would have

choices of:

Studying Form 6 for STPM


The matriculation

Some universities also offer foundation and diploma

program for post-secondary students

Tertiary Education
Currently, the number of tertiary institutions in Malaysia

are as follow:

37 private universities
20 private university colleges
7 foreign university branch campuses
414 private colleges

NATIONAL EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY


Education in Malaysia is an ongoing effort towards further
developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and
integrated manner so as to produce individuals who are
intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, physically balanced and
harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God.
Such an effort is design to produce Malaysian citizens who are
knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral
standards, and who are responsible and capable of achieving a
high level of personal well-being as well as being able to
contribute to the betterment of the family, the society and the
nation at large

GOALS OF EDUCATION
1. To Achieve National Unity.
2. To Produce Quality Manpower for National

Development.
3. To Achieve Democratization of Education.
4. To Inculcate Positive Values.

CDD - VISION

QUALITY SCHOOL CURRICULUM


FOR WORLD CLASS EDUCATION

CDD - MISSION
To develop an integrated school
curriculum for the holistic development
of the individuals full potential to fulfill
the aspirations of the nation.

CDD - AIMS

The development of the school


curriculum towards increasing the quality
of education in line with the National
Philosophy of Education

CDD - ROLES AND FUNCTIONS


1. Design and develop the school curriculum
2. Disseminate and implement curriculum
3. Monitor curriculum implementation
4. Prepare curriculum support materials
5. Conduct research for the development and

evaluation of curriculum

THE NATIONAL CURICULUM IN THE 1996


EDUCATION ACT
... an educational programme that includes curriculum
and co-curricular activities which encompasses all the
knowledge, skills, norms, values, cultural elements and
beliefs to help develop a pupil fully with respect to the
physical, spiritual, mental and emotional desirable
moral values and to transmit knowledge
Educational Act 1996
[Education (National Curriculum) Regulation 1997]

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CYCLE


NEEDS ANALYSIS

EVALUATION &
SUPERVISION

PLANNING

Implementation &
monitoring

DISSEMINATION &
IMPLEMENTATION

CURRICULUM
DISSEMINATION
AND TRAINING

DESIGN &
DEVELOPMENT

PILOT
STUDY/LIMITED
IMPLEMENTATION

AIMS OF EDUCATION
A learner who is
intellectually, spiritually,
emotionally and
physically balanced
-Knowledgeable
-Towering personality
-Believe in God
-Desirable Values
-Confident

CORE OF CURRICLUM
DEVELOPMENT
- National Philosophy of Education
- National Education Policy

Responsible Citizens
-Courteous
-United
-Patriotic
-Fair
-loving
Serve the country

- Vision 2020
- National Long Term Plan
- New Economic Model
- Current World Trends
Global Player
-Competitive
-Resilient
-Able to communicate in
English/International
Language
-Self Dignity

- Learning Theories
- 4 Pillars of Education (UNESCO)

Knowledge Worker
-Innovative
-Creative
-Thirst for knowledge
-Master ICT Skills
-Creator of Technology
-Life-long learning

CURRICULUM CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


CONSIDERATIONS
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Economy
Unity
Information Technology
Science and Technology
Socio-Culture
INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT
Human Capital Development
Development of a Malaysian
citizen
LEARNING THEORY
Multiple Intelligences
Emotional Intelligence
NATIONAL EDUCATION
PHILOSOPHY
Education is an on-going process
Holistic and integrated
development of an individual
(intellect, spiritual, emotional and
physical)
4 PILLARS OF EDUCATION
(UNESCO)
Learning to know
Learning to do
Learning to be
Learning to live together

PRESCHOOL, PRIMARY AND


SECONDARY SCHOOL
CURRICULUM
SUBJECTS
Compulsory
Core
Additional
Elective
SPECIAL PROGRAMMES
Patriotism
Environmental Education
Reproductive and Social
Education
Preventive Education on Drug
Addiction
Computer in Education
Special Programme for the
Indigenous People

CLASSROOM
PRACTICES
TEACHING & LEARNING
STRATEGIES (STUDENTCENTERED)
Enquiry
Integration of discipline
Integration of knowledge and
practice
Enrichment and intervention
Critical and creative thinking
Mastery learning
Learning how to learn
Genre writing
Scientific process skills
Contextual learning
Fun learning
Generic skills
Future studies
Integrative learning system
Aspects across the curriculum

ASSESSMENT
Assessment for Learning
School-based Assessment
Centralised Assessment

OUTCOME
INDIVIDUALS
K-Worker
IT Literate
Skilful
Patriotic
Possess high moral values
Socially united
Respects the environment
Critical and creative
Resilient and have self dignity
Innovative
Ethical and respects own and
other peoples culture

THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM

SCHOOL SYSTEM AND CURRICULAR EMPHASIS


UPPER SECONDARY
(FORM 4 - 5)
development of aptitude & interests, development of
personality, attitude & values, specialization,
career & higher education
LOWER SECONDARY
(FORM 1 - 3)
general education, consolidation of skills acquired at
primary & pre-vocational level, development of aptitude
& values
PRIMARY LEVEL II
(YEAR 4 - 6)
reinforcement & application of 3Rs, complex skills,
acquisition of knowledge, pre-vocational education,
development of personality, attitude & values.

PRIMARY LEVEL I
(YEAR 1 3)
mastery of 3Rs, development of personality,
attitude & values.

PRESCHOOL
socialization process, personality
development, preparation for primary schooling.

TRANSITION CLASS
(13 year olds)
reinforcement & enhancement
of National Language

THE PRESCHOOL CURRICULUM


EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT

SUITABLE
CLASSROOM
PRACTICE

FOCUSES
HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT
LEARNING IS FUN
MEANIGFUL LEARNING
LIFELONG LEARNING
E
ITIV
N
G
CO

SPIRITUAL & MORAL

LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION

CRE
ATI
VIT
Y

SOSIOEMOTIONAL

PH

AL
IC
S
Y

OUTCOMES
COMPETENT IN LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION
THINKING SKILLS
HIGH MORAL VALUES
SELF CONFIDENT & DISCIPLINED
HEALTHY & ACTIVE
CREATIVE, IMAGINATIVE & EXPRESSIVE

READINESS FOR SCHOOL

SUITABLE
CLASSROOM
PRACTICE

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL


(ICPS)
COMMUNICATION

Basic Literacy 3Rs


(Reading, Writing & Arithmetic)
Languages
Mathematics

PUPILS

MAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENT

INDIVIDUAL SELF DEVELOPMENT

Spiritual, Moral and Attitude, and


Man and His Surroundings

Arts and Recreation

Islamic Education
Moral Education
Science
Local Studies

Living Skills
Music
Arts Education
Physical and Health Education

PRINCIPLES OF THE INTEGRATED CURRICULUM FOR


PRIMARY SCHOOL
The Use of Existing
Knowledge & Skills
to relate with the classroom
activities

Equal Education
for All

Development of Individual
(Integration of
Intellectual, Spiritual,
Emotional &
Physical Aspects)

Enhancing the Use of


Bahasa Melayu
and Other Languages
(English, Chinese, Tamil)

Principles of ICPS

Emphasis on
Noble Values

Life-Long Education

THE GENERAL STRUCTURE OF ICPS


AREAS

COMPONENTS

PHASE I

PHASE II

COMMUNICATION

Basic Skills

Bahasa Melayu,
English Language,
Chinese Language,
Tamil Language,
Mathematics

Bahasa Melayu,
English Language,
Chinese Language,
Tamil Language,
Mathematics

MAN AND HIS


ENVIRONMENT

Spirituality, Values and


Attitudes, Humanities
and Environment

Islamic Education,
Moral Education,
Science

Islamic Education,
Moral Education,
Science
Local Studies

SELF DEVELOPMENT

Living Skills, Art and


Recreation, CoCurriculum

Music Education,
Visual Art
Education, Physical
Education, Health
Education

Living Skills, Music


Education, Visual
Art Education,
Physical Education,
Health Education

LANGUAGES TAUGHT AT THE PRIMARY


SCHOOL
Bahasa Melayu Medium of Instruction in National Schools
Aims of the language
Develop the child fully (intellectual, spiritual, emotional & physical)
Inculcate and develop desirable moral values
Transmit knowledge
Create a united Malaysian race

Numbers of hours taught in primary schools

National Schools
Year 1, 2 and 3
360 minutes a week
Year 4, 5 and 6
300 minutes a week
Vernacular Schools
Year 1, 2 and 3
270 minutes a week
Year 3, 4, 5 and 6
180 minutes a week
(Taught as a second language)

Design of the National Standard based Preschool


and Primary School Curriculum
Communication
Integration of linguistic skills during interaction
through verbal and non-verbal codes in Bahasa
Malaysia, English, Chinese and Tamil

Science and Technology


Mastery of scientific knowledge and
skills.
Mastery of mathematical knowledge and
skills.
Mastery of technology-based knowledge
and skills

Humanistic
Mastery of knowledge and practices
regarding social sciences, local
environment, country and global,
internalisation of patriotism and unity.

CRITICAL &
CREATIVE THINKING

Spiritual, attitude and values


Internationalisation of religious practices,
beliefs, attitude and values.

HOLISTIC
INDIVIDUAL
INNOVATIVE

Personal Development
Nurturing and developing leadership and
attitude through curricula and co-curricula
activities.

STANDARD-BASED CURRICULUM (2011)


Content Standard
Specific statements about what a learner should know and be
able to perform in a stipulated schooling duration involving
knowledge, skills and values
Learning Standard
A prescribed criteria or indicator on the quality of learning and
achievement which is measurable for each content standard

Concept
Based on the National Philosophy of Education
Based on the principles of ICPS
Standard-base

Assessment
Formative and ongoing
Enhancement,
enrichment

KSPK & KSSR


Kurikulum Prasekolah Kebangsaan
(National Preschool Curriculum)
Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah
(Primary School Standard Based
Curriculum)

Curricula Materials
Standard documents
Teaching modules
Learning modules

Curriculum
Design
Based on 6 Thrusts
in NKRAs

MBMMBI
Enhance the Malay language and Strengthen English

1 October 2009

STRATEGIES
Curriculum Transformation modular approach;

back-to-basics; skills-based; integration of new


technologies
Enhance teacher capacity
Development and provision of materials to support

classroom teaching
Curriculum leadership training

NKRA:
Widening Access to Quality and affordable
Education

NKPI 3.2:
All children without any learning difficulties will acquire
basic literacy and numeracy after 3 years of primary
education by the Year 2013

BASIC LITERACY AND NUMERACY


3R

Skill

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Read

Understand
and use

Minimum of 500
simple common words

Minimum of 800 simple


common words

Minimum of 1000 simple


common words

Write

Able to read,
write and
understand

Simple sentences

Simple and compound


sentences with the
conjunction and

Simple and compound


sentences with the
conjunction and in short
paragraphs

Arithmetic
Whole
Numbers

Read, write,
count and
order

Numbers up to 50

Numbers up to 100

Numbers up to 1000

Basic
Operations

Know

Basic addition and


subtraction facts

Basic addition and


subtraction, multiplication
(for 2, 5 & 10) and
division (for 2, 5 & 10)

Basic addition and


subtraction, multiplication
(for 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 & 9) and
division (for 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 &
9)

Application

Able to

Count money up to
RM10
State time of day
Measure length of
objects in relative units

Count money up to
RM50
State time in hours on
an analogue clock
Measure length of
objects in correct units

Count money up to RM100


State time in hours on an
analogue clock
Measure length of objects
in correct units (in cm only)

PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATED CURRICULUM FOR


SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Continuity Between Primary
& Secondary Education

Integration of Intellectual,
Spiritual, Emotional &
Physical Aspects

General Education
for All Students

The Use of Existing


Knowledge
Areas/Disciplines

Emphasis on
Noble Values

Principles of ICSS

Enhancing the Use of


Bahasa Melayu

Life-Long Education

ASPECTS TAUGHT ACROSS THE CURRICULUM


Drugs prevention education
Family health education
Bahasa melayu
Moral values education
Integration of science elements
Science & technology
Environmental studies
Critical & creative thinking skills
Parental education
Road safety education
Future studies
Consumerism education
Study skills
IT

MORAL VALUES

KINDNESS

SELF-RELIANCE

INTEGRITY

RESPECT

LOVE

HONESTY

RATIONALITY

JUSTICE

FREEDOM

COURAGE

MENTAL &
PHYSICAL
CLEANLINESS

DILIGENCE

COOPERATION

MODERATION

GRATITUDE

PUBLIC
SPIRITEDNESS

PATRIOTISM

SCIENCE SECONDARY
SCHOOL CURRICULUM