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Job Analysis: Overview

Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job
duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given
job. Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collected
on a job.
Job analysis, which is also called job review or job classification, is a systematic
exploration of the tasks, duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job. The
process of job analysis involves collection of background information, selection of
representative jobs to be analyzed, collection of job analysis information,
development of a job description and job specification.

The formal and systematic methods of job analysis are functional job
analysis, the position analysis questionnaire, and the critical incident technique.
Job analysis is useful for preparing job descriptions and job specifications which
are the basis for most of the HR activities like recruitment, training, performance
appraisal, industrial relations and wage and salary administration.

Job design determines the way in which work should be performed which, in
turn, affects the degree of authority of an employee over the work; the scope of
decision-making by the employee; the number of tasks an employee has to
perform; and employee satisfaction. The main objectives of job design are to
meet organization requirements such as higher productivity, operational
efficiency and quality; and to simultaneously satisfy the psychological and
sociological needs of the employees.

The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the
analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be
collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of
the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the
person.

1. Purpose of Job Analysis


The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of
employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and
performance appraisal.

Determining Training Needs


Job Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop:

• training content
• assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
• equipment to be used in delivering the training
• Methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video,
classroom...)

Compensation
Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:

• skill levels
• compensable job factors
• work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)
• responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
• required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)

Selection Procedures
Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:

• job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;


• appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary
should be offered to a candidate;
• minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening
applicants;
• interview questions;
• selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);
• applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;
• orientation materials for applicants/new hires

Performance Review
Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:

• goals and objectives


• performance standards
• evaluation criteria
• length of probationary periods
• duties to be evaluated

2. APPROACHES FOR COLLECTION OF JOB


INFORMATION:
There are different approaches to job design – the engineering approach, the
human relations approach, the job characteristics approach and the
sociotechnical approach. An effectively designed job enhances employee
productivity and satisfaction. Modern management has many job design options,
which can transform monotonous and routine jobs into more challenging and
motivating ones. Some of the popular job design options are job rotation, job
enlargement and job
3. METHODS FOR GETTING JOB ANALYSIS:

Methods of collecting job analysis information include:

OBSERVATION METHODS

Methods of observation include direct observation, work methods analysis, critical


incident technique.

1. Direct observation

Direct Observation is a method of job analysis to observe and record behavior / events /
activities / tasks / duties while something is happening.

2. Work methods analysis

Work methods analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as
factory or assembly-line jobs. Work methods analysis includes time and motion study
and micro-motion analysis.

3. Critical incident technique (CIT model).

Critical incident technique is a method of job analysis used to identify work behaviors
that classify in good and poor performance.

4. INTERVIEW METHOD

Interview method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask questions to both incumbents and
supervisors in either an individual or a group setting. Interview includes structured
Interviews, unstructured interview, open-ended questions.

QUESTIONNAIRE METHODS

Questionnaire methods include 6 techniques as follows:

5. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ model)

PAQ model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis. It developed by McCormick,


Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972), is a structured instrument of job analysis to measure job
characteristics and relate them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements
that describe generic human work behaviors.
6. Functional job analysis (FJA model)

FJA model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by the Employment and
Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor. It includes 7 scales
(numbers) that measure: 3 worker-function scales: measure % of time spent with: data,
people, things; 1 worker-instruction scale; 3 scales that measure reasoning, mathematics,
language.

7. Work Profiling System (WPS model)

WPS model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis, is a computer-administered


system for job analysis, developed by Saville & Holdsworth, Ltd.

8. MOSAIC model

MOSAIC model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis used to collect information


from incumbents and supervisors. It contains 151 job tasks rated in terms of importance
for effective job performance and 22 competencies rated in terms of importance, and
needed proficiency at entry.

9. Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ model)

CMQ model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by Harvey as a “worker-
oriented” job analysis instrument designed to have applicability to a broad range of
exempt and nonexempt jobs. It includes 41 general questions of background section, 62
questions of contacts with people, 80 items of decision making, 53 items of physical and
mechanical activities, 47 items of work setting.

10. Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS model)

FJAS model is is a technique of job analysis that describe jobs from the point of view of
the necessary capacities. It includes 52 cognitive, physical, psycho-motor, and sensory
ability, each of the categories consists of two parts – an operational and differential
definition and a grading scale.

OTHER METHODS

11. Task Inventory

A task inventory is a list of the discrete activities that make up a specific job in a specific
organization.
12. Job element method

This method is same the critical incident technique. It focuses on work behaviors and the
results of this behavior rather than more abstract characteristics. Job element method
developed by Ernest Prim off.

13. Diary method

This method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask worker maintaining and keeping daily
records or list of activities they are doing on every day…

14. Checklists and rating scales

Checklist is job analysis method base on an inventory of job elements. You can ask
question about purpose of position; key responsibility areas; organization; relationships;
decision making; authority; Skills, knowledge, experience; working conditions

15. Competency profiling

Competency modeling is the activity of determining the specific competencies that are
characteristic of high performance and success in a given job. Contents of competency
modeling include skills, knowledge, abilities, values, interests, personalities.

16. Examining Manuals/reference materials

Manuals/reference materials such as quality manual, human resource manual, procedures,


instruction, forms, job description…are useful for analyst in job analysis. These
documents are available for organizations applied to ISO 9000 standard.

17. Technical conference

Technical conference is a useful tool of job analysis base on Subject Matter Experts
(SMEs). SMEs conduct brainstorming sessions to identify job elements. SMEs can use all
job analysis methods in here.

18.Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model)

Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model) is a method of job analysis, was
developed in 1970 by Felix Lopez. Threshold traits analysis system include a standard set
of 33 traits: ability traits are “can do” factors and attitudinal traits are “willing to do”
factors.
Combination of methods
In process of job analysis, analyst can use and associate all methods to collecting job
information. For example, when you use direct observation, then you always do interview
method.

4. APPLICATIONS OF JOB ANALYSIS:


What are the uses of job analysis information?

Job analysis information is used in human resources on a regular basis to define:

• Job description: A job description gives an account of the work and duties
associated with a particular job. It describes the way the job is performed
currently. Most job descriptions contain the following information:

 the job name


 summary description of the job
 a list of duties for the job
 a list of organizational responsibilities related to the job

• Job specifications: Job specifications define the characteristics of the activities


associated with the job and given in the job description. They describe the skill
sets and qualifications that a candidate for the job should possess.

• Job classification: Job classification groups similar jobs into classes and families.
This simplifies the overview for managers and is essential for streamlined
functioning of an organization.

• Job evaluation: Job evaluation involves finding out the monetary worth of a job
and helps to set up equitable pay structures.

• Job design: Job design integrates employee needs with productivity needs to
maximize worker efficiency.

The conclusions draw from this data will often be:

• Identifying training needs of personnel


• Creating recruitment strategies
• Making performance reviews

Without proper job analysis by the human resources department, it is difficult for any
organization to remain competitive and be able to attract and retain talent.