You are on page 1of 3

History

LifeinLenin'sRussia
LifeimprovedformanyordinarypeopleinLenin'sRussia.
ButRussiawasnowa dictatorship[Dictatorship:Acountry
ruledbyoneperson,whomakesallthelawsanddecisionsfor
thatcountry.]andanyonewhoopenlycriticised
Communismriskedlosingtheirlife.

Fiveaspectsofthecommuniststate
The Bolsheviks[Bolsheviks:Russianrevolutionarygroup
originallyledbyVladimirIlyichLenin.Bolsheviksgainedpower
inRussiain1917,andbecamethedominantpoliticalparty
there.]wantedtosetupaCommuniststate.Thiscomprised
fiveaspects:

1. Peaceaspromised,LeninmadetheTreatyofBrest
LitovskwithGermanyalthoughitmeantthatRussialost
vastamountsofitsbestindustrialandagriculturallandin
PolandandtheUkraine.
2. CommunisteconomytheBolsheviksgavetheland
previouslyownedbythenoblestothepeasants,and
factorieswerehandedovertoworkers'committees.
3. CommunistlawstheBolsheviksbannedreligion
broughtinaneighthourdayforworkers,aswellas
unemploymentpayandpensionsabolishedtheteaching
ofhistoryandLatin,whileencouragingscienceand
alloweddivorce.
4. Communistpropagandatherewasahugecampaign
toteacheveryonetoread.Agittrains'wentaroundthe
countryshowingcommunistnewsreelsandgiving
lecturestoteachpeasantsaboutCommunism.
5. DictatorshipLenindismissedtheConstituent

Assembly,whichwastheparliamentthattheProvisional
Governmenthadarranged,anddeclaredthe
'dictatorshipoftheproletariat'(whichwasreally,the
dictatorshipofLenin).Asecretpoliceforcecalledthe
Chekaarrested,torturedandkilledanybodywhotriedto
destroytheCommuniststate.

WhatisCommunism?
HereareeightthingsCommunistsbelieved:

1. Theideasof KarlMarx[KarlMarx:German19thcentury
scholar,whofoundedMarxism(keytheoryof
Communism).].
2. Peopleshouldcontributetothepublicwealthaccording
totheirability,butreceiveaccordingtotheirneeds.
3. Themeansofproductionshouldbeownedequallyby
thewholecommunity(hencecommunism),notasin
capitalismwhereindividuals(whomightbeveryrich)
ownthemeansofproductionandleavetherestof
societytobepoorandoppressedwageslaves.
4. Adeterministicinterpretationofhistory,whichsaidthat
societymustinevitablydevelopthroughsuccessive
stagesofslavery,feudalism,thencapitalism,endingup
withtheviolentoverthrowofcapitalismandthe
establishmentofacommunistsociety.
5. Theyshouldworktooverthrowcapitalismthroughoutthe
worldbymeansofarevolutionbytheproletariat
(workers).
6. Classwasafeatureofcapitalistsociety,andshouldbe
destroyedandreplacedbyasocietyofequals.
7. Theeconomyshouldbeplannedcontrolledbythe
government.
8. LeninchangedMarx'sideastoaddthataCommunist

governmentfirsthadtobeadictatorshipwhichwas
essentialinordertobringinthecommuniststatesafely.

Revisiontipandanswerpreparation
Revisiontip
Tofamiliariseyourselfwiththisinformation,imagineanormal
dayforapeasantoraworkergettingup,havingbreakfast
withthefamily,goingtowork,passingthechurchontheway
etc.Usingtheinformationabove,noteallthethingsthatcould
bedifferentaboutyourlifeundertheBolsheviks.

Answerpreparation
Aspartofyourrevision,thinkabouttheargumentsandfacts
youwouldusetoexplain:

1. HowlifechangedforRussiansundertheBolsheviks.
2. WhetherlifeimprovedundertheBolsheviks.
3. WhatkindofstatetheBolshevikstriedtoestablishin
1917.
NowtryaTestBite
BacktoRevisionBite