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CONSTITUENTASSEMBLYOFINDIAVOLUMEIV
Tuesday,the22ndJuly1947
TheConstituentAssemblyofIndiametintheConstitutionHall.NewDelhiatTenoftheClock,Mr.
President(TheHonourableDr.RajendraPrasad)intheChair.
PRESENTATIONOFCREDENTIALSANDSIGNINGOFTHEREGISTER
ThefollowingMemberpresentedhisCredentialsandsignedtheRegister
Mr.JaiSukhLalHathi(ResiduaryStatesGroup)
Mr.RamNarayanSingh(Bihar:General):Sir,Iwishtodrawyourattentiontoaveryimportant
constitutionalissue.Ithink.andeverybodyknowns,thatwearemeetingasasovereignbodyhereand
makingtheconstitutionforafutureFreeIndia.But'intheenvelopesusedbytheAssemblyOfficewe
stillfindonthetopthewords'OnHisMajesty'sService'.IthinkthisisnotproperandIdrawthe
attentionoftheHouseandyourselftothismatter.Ihopethesewordswillbedroppedfromtheenvelopes
infutureinthecorrespondenceconductedbytheAssemblyOffice.
RESOLUTIONRENATIONALFLAG
Mr.President:Weshallproceedwiththeagenda.ThefirstitemontheagendaisaMotionbyPandit
JawaharlalNehruabouttheFlag.
TheHonourablePanditJawaharlalNehru(UnitedProvinces:General):Mr.President,itismyproud
privilegetomovethefollowingResolution.
'ResolvedthattheNationalFlagofIndiashallbehorizontaltricolourofdeepSaffron(Kesari),whiteand
darkgreeninequalproportion.Inthecentreofthewhiteband,thereshallbeaWheelinnavyblueto
representtheCharkha.ThedesignoftheWheelshallbethatoftheWheel.(Chakra)whichappearsan
theabacuseoftheSarnath.LionCapitalofAsoka.
ThediameteroftheWheelshallapproximatetothewidthofthewhiteband,Theratioofthewidthtothe
lengthoftheFlagshallordinarilybe2:3."
ThisResolution,Sir,isinsimplelanguage,inaslightlytechnicallanguageandthereisnoglowor
warmthinthewordsthatIhavereadYetIamsurethatmanyinthisHousewillfeelthatglowand
warmthwhichIfeelatthepresentmomentforbehindthisResolutionandtheFlagwhichIhavethe
honourtopresenttothisHouseforadoptionlieshistory,theconcentratedhistoryofashortspanina
nation'sexistence.'Nevertheless,sometimesinabriefperiodwepassthroughthetrackofcenturies.Itis
notsomuchthemereactoflivingthatcountsbutwhat,onedoesinthisbrieflifeathatisoursitisnot
somuchthemereexistenceofanationthatcountsbutwhatthatnationdoesduringthevariousperiodsof
itsexistenceandIdoventuretoclaimthatinthepastquarterofacenturyorsoIndiahaslivedandacted
inaconcentratedwayandtheemotionswhichhavefilledthepeopleofIndiarepresentnotmerelyabrief
spellofyearsbutsomethinginfinitelymore.Theyhavegonedownintohistoryandtraditionandhave
addedthemselvesontothatvasthistoryandtraditionwhichisourheritageinthiscountry.So,whenI
movethisResolution,Ithinkofthisconcentratedhistorythroughwhichallofushavepassedduringthe
lastquarterofacentury.Memoriescrowduponme.Iremembertheupsanddownsofthegreatstruggle
forfreedomofthisgreatnation.IrememberandmanyinthisHousewillrememberhowwelookedupto
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thisFlagnotonlywithprideandenthusiasmbutwithatinglinginourveinsalsohowwhenwewere
sometimesdownandout,thenagainthesightofthisFlaggaveuscouragetogoon.Then,manywhoare
notpresentheretoday,manyofourcomradeswhohavepassed,heldontothisFlag,someamongstthem
evenuntodeath.andhandeditoverastheysank,tootherstoholditaloft.So,inthissimpleformof
words,thereismuchmorethanwillbeclearonthesurface.Thereisthestruggleofthepeoplefor
freedomwithallitsupsanddownsandtrialsanddisastersandthereis,finallytodayasImovethis
Resolution,acertaintriumphaboutitameasureoftriumphintheconclusionofthatstruggle.
Now,Irealisefully,asthisHousemustrealise,thatthistriumphofourshas
beenmarredinmanyways.Therehavebeen,especiallyinthepastfewmonthsmanyhappeningswhich
causeussorrow,whichhasgrippedourhearts.Wehaveseenpartsofthisdearmotherlandofourscutoff
fromtherest.Wehaveseenlargenumbersofpeoplesufferingtremendously,largenumberswandering
aboutlikewaifsandstrays,withoutahome.WehaveseenmanyotherthingswhichIneednotrepeatto
thisHouse,butwhichwecannotforget.Allthissorrowhasdoggedourfootsteps.Evenwhenwehave
achievedvictoryandtriumph,itstilldogsusandwehavetremendousproblemstofaceinthepresentand
inthefuture.NeverthelessitistrueIthinkholdittobetruethatthismomentdoesrepresentatriumph
andavictoriousconclusionofallourstruggles,forthemoment.(Hear,hear).
Therehasbeenaverygreatdealofbewailingandmoaningaboutvariousthingsthathavehappened.Iam
sad,allofusaresadatheartbecauseofthosethings.Butletusdistinguishthatfromtheotherfactof
triumph.becausethereistriumphinvictory,inwhathashappened.Itisnosmallthingthatthatgreatand
mightyempirewhichhasrepresentedimperialistdominationinthiscountryhasdecidedtoenditsdays
here.Thatwastheobjectiveweaimedat.
Wehaveattainedthatobjectiveorshallattainitverysoon.Ofthatthereisnodoubt.Wehavenot
attainedtheobjectiveexactlyintheforminwhichwewantedit.Thetroublesandotherthingsthat
companiesourachievementarenottoourliking.ButwemustrememberthatitIsveryseldomthat
peoplerealisethedreamsthattheyhavedreamt.Itveryseldomthattheaimsandobjectiveswithwhich
westartareachievedintheirentiretyinlifeinanindividual'slifeorinanation'slife.
Wehavemanyexamplesbeforeus.Weneednotgointothedistantpast.Wehaveexamplesinthe
presentorintherecentpast.Someyearsback,agreatwarwaswaged,aworldwarbringingterrible
miserytomankind.Thatwarwasmeantforfreedomanddemocracyandtherest.Thatwarendedinthe
triumphofthosewhosaidtheystoodforfreedomanddemocracy.Yet,hardlyhadthatwarendedwhen
therewererumoursoffreshwarsandfreshconflicts.
Threedaysago,thisHouseandthiscountryandtheworldwasshockedbythebrutalmurderina
neighbouringcountryoftheleadersofthenation.Todayonereadsinthepapersofanattackbyan
imperialistpoweronafriendlycountrySouthEastAsia.Freedomisstillfaroffinthisworldandnations,
allnationsingreaterorlesserdegreearestrugglingfortheirfreedom.Ifweinthepresenthavenot
exactlyachievedwhatweaimedat,itisnotsurprising.Thereisnothinginittobeashamedof.ForIdo
thinkourachievementisnosmallachievement.itisaveryconsiderableachievement,agreat
achievement.Letnomanrunit,downbecauseotherthingshavehappenedwhicharenottoourliking.
Letuskeepthesetwothingsapart.Lookatanycountryinthewideworld.Whereisthecountrytoday,
includingthegreatandbigpowers,whichisnotfullofterribleproblems,whichisnotinsomeway,
Politicallyandeconomically,strivingforfreedomwhichsomehoworothereludesitsgrasp?The
problemsofIndiainthewidercontextdonotappeartobeterrible.Theproblemsarerotanythingnewto
us.Wehavefacedmanydisagreeablethingsinthepast.Wehavenotheldback.Weshallfaceallthe
otherdisagreeablethingsthatfaceusinthepresentormaydosointhefutureandweshallnotflinchand
weshallnotfalterandweshallnotquit.(Loudapplause).
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So,inspiteofeverythingthatsurroundsus,itisinnospirit'ofdownheartednessthatIstandupinpraise
ofthisNationforwhatithasachieved.(Renewedcheers).Itisrightandproperthatatthismomentwe
shouldadoptthesymbolsofthisachievement,thesymboloffreedom.Nowwhatisthisfreedominits
entiretyandforallhumanity.Whatisfreedomandwhatisthestruggleforfreedomandwhendoesitend.
Assoonasyoutakeonestepforwardandachieve
somethingfurtherstepscomeupbeforeyou.Therewillbenofullfreedominthiscountryorintheworld
aslongasasinglehumanbeingisunfree.Therewillbenocompletefreedomaslongasthereis
starvation,hunger,lackofclothinglackofnecessariesoflifeandlackofopportunityofgrowthforevery
singlehumanbeing,man,womanandchildinthecountry.Weaimatthat.Wemaynotaccomplishthat
becauseitisaterrifictask.Butweshalldoourutmosttoaccomplishthattaskandhopethatour
successors.whentheycome,haveaneasierpathtopursue.Butthereisnoendingtothatroadto
freedom.Aswegoahead,justaswesometimesinourvanityaimatperfection,perfectionnevercomes.
Butifwetryhardenoughwedoapproachthegoalstepbystep.Whenweincreasethehappinessofthe
people,weincreasetheirstatureinmanywaysandweproceedtoourgoal.Idonotknowifthereisan
endtothisornot,butweproceedtowardssomekindofcosummationwhichineffectneverends,
SoIpresentthisFlagtoyou.ThisResolutiondefinestheFlagwhichItrustyouwilladopt.Inasensethis
Flagwasadopted,notbyaformalresolution,butbypopularacclaimandusage,adoptedmuchmoreby
thesacrificethatsurroundeditinthepastfewdecades.Weareinasenseonlyratifyingthatpopular
adoption.ItisaFlagwhichhasbeenvariouslydescribed.Somepeople,havingmisunderstoodits
significance,havethoughtofitincommunaltermsandbelievethatsomepartofitrepresentsthis
communityorthat.ButImaysaythatwhenthisFlagwasdevisedtherewasnocommunalsignificance
attachedtoit.WethoughtofadesignforaFlagwhichwasbeautiful,becausethesymbolofanation
mustbebeautifultolookat.WethoughtofaFlagwhichwouldinitscombinationandinitsseparate
partswouldsomehowrepresentthespiritofthenation,thetraditionofthenation,thatmixedspiritand
traditionwhichhasgrownupthroughthousandsofyearsinIndia.So,wedevisedthisFlag.PerhapsIam
partialbutIdothinkthatitisaverybeautifulFlagtoLookatpurelyfromthepointofviewofartistry,
andithascometosymbolisemanyotherbeautifulthings,thingsofthespirit,thingsofthemind,that
givevaluetotheindividual'slifeandtothenation'slife,foranationdoesnotlivemerelybymaterial
things,althoughtheyarehighlyimportant.Itisimportantthatweshouldhavethegoodthingsofthe
world,thematerialpossessionsoftheworld,thatourpeopleshouldhavethenecessariesoflife.Thatis
oftheutmostimportance.Nevertheless,anation,andespeciallyanationlikeIndiawithanimmemorial
past,livesbyotherthingsalso,thethingsofthespirit.IfIndiahadnotbeenassociatedwiththeseideals
andthingsofthespiritduringthesethousandsofyears,whatwouldIndiahavebeen?Ithasgonethrough
averygreatdealofmiseryanddegradationinthepast,butsomehoweveninthedepthsofdegradation,
theheadofIndiagasbeenheldhigh,thethoughtofIndiahasbeenhigh,andtheidealsofIndiahavebeen
high.Sowehavegonethroughthesetremendousagesandwestanduptodayinproudthankfulnessfor
ourpastandevenmoresoforthefuturethatistocomeforwhichwearegoingtoworkandforwhich
oursuccessorsaregoingtowork.Itisourprivilege.ofthoseassembledhere,tomarkthetransitionina
particularway,inawaythatwillberemembered.
IbeganbysayingthatitismyproudprivilegetobeorderedtomovethisResolution.Now,Sir,mayIsay
afewwordsaboutthisparticularFlag?Itwillbeseenthatthereisaslightvariationfromtheonemanyof
ushaveusedduringthesepastyears.Thecoloursarethesame,adeepsaffron,awhiteandadarkgreen.
InthewhitepreviouslytherewastheCharkhawhichsymbolisedthecommonmaninIndia,which
symbolisedthemassesofthepeople,whichsymbolisedtheirindustryandwhichcametousfromthe
messagewhichMahatmaGandhidelivered.(Cheers)Now,thisparticularCharkhasymbolhasbeen
slightlyvaried
inthisFlag,nottakenawayatall.Whythenhasthisbeenvaried?Normallyspeaking,thesymbolonone
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sideoftheFlagshouldbeexactlythesameasontheotherside.Otherwise,thereisadifficultywhich
goesagainsttherules.Now,theCharkha,asitappearedpreviouslyonthisFlag,hadthewheelonone
sideandthespindleontheotherIfyouseetheothersideoftheFlag,thespindlecomestheotherway
andthewheelcomesthiswayifitdoesnotdoso,itisnotproportionate,becausethewheelmustbe
towardsthepole,nottowardstheendoftheFlag.'therewasthispracticaldifficulty.Therefore,after
considerablethought,wewereofcourseconvincedthatthisgreatsymbolwhichhadenthusedpeople
shouldcontinuebutthatitshouldcontinueinaslightlydifferentform,thatthewheelshouldbethere,not
therestoftheCharkha,thatisthespindleandthestringwhichcreatedthisconfusion,thattheessential
mittoftheCharkhashouldbethere,thatisthewheel.So,theoldtraditioncontinueinregardtothe
Charkhaandthewheel.Butwhattypeofwheelshouldwehave?Ourmindswentbacktomanywheels
butnotablyonefamouswheel,whichhadappearedinmanyplacesandwhichallofushaveseen,theone
atthetopofthecapitaoftheAsokacolumnandinmanyotherplaces.ThatwheelisasymbolofIndia's
ancientculture,ItisasymbolofthemanythingsthatIndiahadstoodforthroughtheages.Sowethought
thatthisChakraemblemshouldbethere,andthatwheelappears.Formypart,Iamexceedinglyhappy
thatinthissenseindirectlywehaveassociatedwiththisFlagofoursnotonlythisemblembutinasense
thenameofAsoka,oneofthemostmagnificentnamesnotonlyinIndia'shistorybutinworldhistory.It
iswellthatatthismomentofstrife,conflictandintolerance,ourmindsshouldgobacktowardswhat
Indiastoodforintheancientdaysand.whatithasstoodfor,Ihopeandbelieve,essentiallythroughout
theagesinspiteofmistakesanderrorsanddegradationsfromtimetotime.For,ifIndiahadnotstoodfor
somethingverygreat,IdonotthinkthatIndiacouldhavesurvivedandcarriedonitsculturaltraditionsIn
amoreorlesscontinuousmannerthroughthesevastages.ItcarriedonItsculturaltradition,'not
unchanging,notrigid,butalwayskeepingitsessence,alwaysadaptingitselftonewdevelopments,to
newinfluences.ThathasbeenthetraditionofIndia,alwaystoputoutfreshbloomsandflowers,always
receptivetothegoodthingsthatitreceives,sometimesreceptivetobadthingsalso,butalwaystrueto
herancientculture.Allmannerofnewinfluencesthroughthousandsofyearshaveinfluencedus,while
weinfluencedthemtremendouslyalso,foryouwillrememberthatIndiahasnotbeeninthepastatight
littlenarrow'country,disdainingothercountries.Indiathroughoutthelongagesofherhistoryhasbeen
connectedwithothercountries,notonlyconnectedwithothercountries,buthasbeenaninternational
centre,sendingoutherpeopleabroadtofaroffcountriescarryinghermessageandreceivingthemessage
ofothercountriesinexchange,butIndiawasstrongenoughtoremainembeddedonthefoundationson
whichshewasbuiltalthoughchangesmanychanges,havetakenplace.ThestrengthofIndiaithasbeen
said,consistsinthisstrongfoundation.Itconsistsalsoinitsamazingcapacitytoreceive,toadaptwhatit
wantstoadapt,nottorejectbecausesomethingisoutsideitsscope,buttoacceptandreceiveeverything.
Itisfollyforanynationorracetothinkthatitcanonlygivetoandnotreceivefromtherestoftheworld.
Onceanationoraracebeginstothinklikethat,itbecomesrigid,itbecomesungrowingitgrows
backwardsanddecays.Infact,ifIndia'shistorycanbetraced,India'speriodsofdecayarethosewhenit
closedherselfupintoashellandrefusedtoreceiveortolookattheoutsideworld.India'sgreatest
periodsarethosewhenshestretchedherhandstoothersinfaroffcountries,sentheremissaries,
ambassadors,hertradeagentsandmerchantstothesecountriesandreceivedambassadorsandemissaries
fromabroad.
NowbecauseIhavementionedthenameofAsokaIshouldlikeyoutothinkthattheAsokanperiodin
IndianhistorywasessentiallyaninternationalperiodofIndianhistory.Itwasnotanarrowlynational
period.ItwasaperiodwhenIndia'sambassadorswentabroadtofarcountriesandwentabroadnotinthe
wayofanEmpireandimperialismbutasambassadorsofpeaceandcultureandgoodwill.(Cheers.)
ThereforethisFlagthatIhavethehonourtopresenttoyouisnot.Ihopeandtrust,aFlagofEmpire,a
FlagofImperialismaFlagofdominationoveranybody,butaFlagoffreedomnotonlyforourselves
butasymbolof.freedomtoallpeoplewhomayseeit.(Cheers).AndwhereveritmaygoandIhopeit
willgofar,notonlywhereIndiansdwellasourambassadorsandministersbutacrossthefarseaswhere
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itmaybecarriedbyIndianships,whereveritmaygoitwillbringamessage,Ihope,offreedomtothose
people,amessageofcomradeship,amessagethatIndiawantstobefriendswitheverycountryofthe
worldandIndiawantstohelpanypeoplewhoseekfreedom.(Hear,hear).ThatIhopewillbethe
messageofthisFlageverywhereandIhopethatinthefreedomthatiscomingtous,wewillnotdowhat
manyotherpeopleorsomeotherpeoplehaveunfortunatelydone,thatis,inanewfoundstrength
suddenlytoexpandandbecomeimperialisticindesign.Ifthathappenedthatwouldbeaterribleending
toourstruggleforfreedom.(Hear,hear.)Butthereisthatdangerand,therefore,Iventuretoremindthis
HouseofitalthoughthisHouseneedsnoreminderthereisthisdangerinacountrysuddenlyunshackled
instretchingoutitsarmsandlegsandtryingtohitoutatotherpeople.Andifwedothatwebecomejust
likeothernationswhoseemtoliveinakindofsuccessionofconflictsandpreparationforconflict.That
istheworldtodayunfortunately.
InsomedegreeIhavebeenresponsiblefortheforeignPolicyduringthepastfewmonthsandalwaysthe
questionisaskedhereorelsewhere:"Whatisyourforeignpolicy?TowhatgroupdoyouadheretoIn
thiswarringworld?"RightatthebeginningIventuretosaythatweproposetobelongtonopowergroup.
Weproposetofunctionasfaraswecanaspeacemakersandpeacebringersbecausetodaywearepot
strongenoughtobeabletohaveourway.Butatanyrateweproposetoavoidallentaglementswith
powerpoliticsin,theworld.Itisnotcompletelypossibletodothatinthiscomplicatedworldofours,but
certainlywearegoingtodoourutmosttothatend.
ItisstatedinthisResolutionthattheratioofthewidthtothelengthoftheFlagshallordinarilybe2:3.
Nowyouwillnoticetheword"ordinarily".Thereisnoabsolutestandardabouttheratiobecausethe
sameFlagonaparticularoccasionmayhaveacertainratiothatmightbemoresuitableoronanyother.
occasioninanotherplacetheratiomightdifferslightly.Sothereisnocompulsionaboutthisratio.But
generallyspeaking,theratioof2:3isaproperratioSometimestheratio2:1maybesuitableforaFlag
flyingonabuilding.Whatevertheratiomaybe.thepointisnotsomuchtherelativelengthandbreadth,
buttheessentialdesign.
So,Sir,nowIwouldpresenttoyounotonlytheResolutionbuttheFlagitself.
TherearetwooftheseNationalFlagsbeforeyou.OneisonsilktheoneIamholdingandtheotheron
theothersideisofcottonKhadi.
IbegtomovethisResolution.(Cheers.)
Mr.President:IhavegotnoticeofthreeamendmentstothisResolution.
ManyHonourableMembers:NO,no.
MrH.VKamath(C.P.andBerar:General):Mr.President,Sir,myamendmentreadsasfollows:
"Thatthefollowingnewpara.beinsertedinthemotion:
ThatinsidetheChakrainthecentreofthewhiteband,theswastika,theancientIndiansymbolof
Shantam,Shivam,Sundaram,beinscribed'."
WhenIsentintheamendment,Ihadnotseenthe
designoftheFlag.Therewereatthattimetwoorthree,considerationsuppermostinmymind.Ithought
thatthisFlag,beingtheFlagofournewIndianRepublic,ofBharatavarsha,shouldadequatelysymbolise
ourancientculture,thecultureofourspirit,thespiritwhichhasanimatedoursagesandourseers,which
gavethemessageofShantam,Shivam,Sundaramtotheworld,themessageofpeace,thepeacenot
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merelyofstillness,notmerelyapassivepeace,butadynamicpeacethatpassethallunderstanding,the
peaceofwhichthegreatValmikihassung(Samudraivagambiryedhairyechahimavaniva).Ithought,
Sir,iftheSwastikabeinscribedinsidetheChakraitwouldalongwiththeDharmaChakraofAsoka
fittinglysymboliseourancientculture,thatistosay,theesotericandesotericaspectsofourculture.The
DharmaChakrasymbolisestheesotericandtheSwastikasymbolisestheesotericaspects.But,Sir,Ihave
nowseentheflagandIfindthatitissomewhathardtofittheSwastikaintothisChakra.Itwouldlook
cumbersomebecauseofthedesignoftheChakra.TheChakrasymbolisestheDharmaChakraorthe
WheeloftheLaw,theWheelofSamsarawhichrevolvesontheseeternalveritiesofShantam,Shivam,
Sundaram.TheseveritiessustaintheSamsaraandinthemwe.aspartofthatuniverseliveandmoveand
haveourbeing.PanditNehrureferredtoourroleaspeacemakersandpeacebringers.Thatiscertainly
true.India'srolehasbeenthatfromyearssempiternal,fromthebeginningoftime.InthewordsofSwami
Vivekananda,wehaveneverdippedourhandsintheneighbour'sblood,ourembattledcohortshave
nevermarchedintootherlandsforconquest,andwehavealwaysbeentheharbingersofpeaceandthe
makersofpeaceinthiswartorn,warwearyworld.Mr.President,Sir,afterhavingseenthedesignof
thisFlag,IdoseethatitisdifficulttofittheSwastikain,muchasIwouldliketoseeitfittedin.,Itwould
makeitratherclumsyandcumbersome.Inthesecircumstances,Idonotpressthisamendmentandbeg
leaveoftheHousetowithdrawit.
Mr.President:Mr.TajamulHusain.
Honourable,Members:HeIsnotpresent.
Mr.President:Dr.Deshmukh.
Dr.P.S.Deshmukh(C.P.andBerar:General):Mr.President,Sir,aftersuchanimpressiveand
emotionalspeechbyPanditNehruonehesitatestosayoraddanthingthatmaybeInterpretedor
consideredtotakeawayfromitseffect.Wealwaysrespecthiswordsandonasomewhatsentimental
questionlikethis,ourrespectapproachesadoration.Ihavesomeverystronggroundsonwhichmy
amendmentwasbased.Itisnotinanywayorsensediscordantwiththespeechtowhichwehavejust
listened.Myideawasessentiallybasedontheretentionofthetricolourabsolutelyintactwiththecharkha
retainedasitischarkhawhichIstheemblemofAhimsaandthecommontoilingmanassociatedso
inseparablywiththeacquisitionofourpoliticalfreedom,andthenameofMahatmaGandhi.Butinview
ofthefactthattheHousewouldrathersticktotheFlagthathagbeenproposedIdonotwishtomovethe
amendment,althoughIstillfeelthatmyideahasmuchinittorecommenditself.
Mr.President:Mr.ShibbanlalSaksenahadgivennoticeofanamendmenttotheaboveamendment.of
Dr.Deshmukhbutsincethatamendmentitselfhasnotbenmoved,noquestionofthisamendmenttothe
amendmentbeingmovedarises.NowweshalldiscusstheResolution.
SethGovindDas(C.P.andBerar:General):*[Mr.President,Ihavecomeheretosupporttheresolution
movedbyPanditJawaharlalNehru.IconsiderthisdayalandmarkinthehistoryofIndia.Today,
IndependentIndiaisdisplayinghernationalflag.Everyonewho,hastakenpartinthestrugglefor
freedomduringthelasttwentysevenyearsistodayremindedlikePanditjioftheeventsduringthat
period.Wewereunarmedandhelplessandhadnoresourcesforachievingindependence.Butthewayin
whichthisbattleoffreedomhasbeenfoughtandvictoryachievedhasnoparallel,notonlyinthehistory
ofIndiabut
alsointhehistoryoftheworld.Todayweareachievingthevictoryforwhichweweretryingforthelast
somanyyears.Wearealsoremindedofthosewhocameforwardsomanytimesto,pulldownthisflag,
totrampleitandtosetfiretoit.ButwhenTruthandJusticewerewithus,itwasaltogetherimpossibleto
trampleitandtofinishitinthatway.Aftertwentysevenyearswehavebeenabletoprovetotheworld
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thatevenanunarmednationwithnoresourcesatitscommand,canachievefreedom,ifitfollowsthe
pathofJusticeandTruth.
Today.Iamremindedofthedaywhenin1922,PanditMotilalNehrucametoJubbulporeforthefirst
time.IamaresidentofJubbulpore.ThatwasthefirsttimewhenthisflagwasdisplayedinIndia.Atthat
timeithadthreecoloursred,whiteandgreen.Itwasatricolournodoubt.Atthattime,thisflagwas
hoistedovertheTownHallofJubbulporeforthefirsttimeinIndia.WhoisnotremindedofPandit
MotilalonseeingPanditJawaharlalNehru?AtthattimeaquestionwasraisedintheHouseofCommons
astohowthisflagwashoistedoverapublichallandthePrimeMinisterofGreatBritainassuredthe
housethatnoeventofthesortwouldberepeatedinIndiainfuture.ButIampleasedtofindtodaythat
theflagwhichwashoistedforthefirsttimetwentyfiveyearsagoinJubbulpore,myhometown,will
nowbeunfurledovereverypublicbuildingthere.ItwillbeamatterofprideforeveryoneinIndia.
Thereisnotouchofcommunalisminthethreecoloursoftheflag.Panditjihasalreadytoldyouthisin
thecourseofhisspeech.Itistruethatatatimewhenthecolourswerered,whiteandgreentherewasa
traceofcommunalismintheflag.Butwhenwechangethesecolourstosaffron,whiteandgreen,we
declareditinclearwordsthatthethreecolourshadnocommunalsignificance.Atthattime,wealso
madeitcleanastowhatthesecolourssignified.ThosewhohavebeenmaddenedbyCommunalism
today,shouldnottakethisflagtobeacommunalflag.YouseethatithastheAsokachakrainthe
middle.PanditjitoldyouwhatagreatplaceAsokahasinourhistory.AfterthebattleofKalinga,Asoka
triedtounitethewholeworldwithloveandheachievedsuchsuccessthatthehistoriansnotonlyofthis
countrybutalsoofthewholeworldadmitthattherehasbeennoEmperorlikeAsokaintheworld.Mr.
H.G.WellswritesinhisHistoryoftheWorldthat'whiletherestoftheEmperorsledabloodylife,
Asokaalonetriedtounitetheworldwithlove.

*[EnglishtranslationofHindustanispeechbegins.
Whenweseethecoloursofourflagweshouldkeepinmindotherthingsalso.Iwanttotellthosewho
saythatthesaffroncolourrepresentsHindus,thatitiswrongtosayso.Nodoubtatmetimeitwasthe
colouroftheHindus.DuringtheregimeofthePeshwasitwasthecolouroftheHindus.Intheirfightsfor
freedom,Rajputsusedsaffrondressandsaffronensign.ButIfwegomoreremoteintothepast,wewill
havetoacceptthatsaffronwasnotthecolourofthesetimes.Youmaybeknowingthatinthetimesof
Mahabharattherewasnoquestionofcolour.TheflagflyingoverthechariotofArjunhadthesymbolof
Hanuman.Karna'sflaghadthesymboloftheelephant.Thereforetodescribeanycolourastheancient
colouroftheHindusishistoricallywrong.Isaythatitisnaturalthattheflagunderwhichwefoughtthe
battleoffreedomduringthelasttwentysevenyearsandhavenowachievedindependence,shouldbeour
nationalflag.Iampainedtoseethatatpresent,somepeoplemaddenedwithcommunalismarebringing
aboutsuchevents,whichIamconfident,aftersometimewhensensewilldawnuponthem,willmake
themverymuchashamedofthemselves.OnlydaybeforeyesterdayameetingwasheldinDelhi
regardingHindi.ThemotionthatHindishouldbethenationallanguageandDevanagariscriptthe
nationalscript,wastobemovedinthemeeting.Pandemonium
prevailedinthemeetingandnationalflagswereremovedfromcarsandthrownaway.Isaythattobe
madwithcommunalismandtodosuchthingsandtoinsulttheflaginthiswayisaninsulttothewhole
nation.Humanbeingsliveinthiscountryandnotgodsandtheyhavethethreedispositionsof
"Satvaguna,RajogunaandTamoguna"('goodness,passionanddullness').Ifsuchincidentsoccur,peace,
righteousnessandhappinessofwhichthisflagisthesymbol,willdisappearfromthisland.ThereforeI
warnthesepeople,whoaremadwithcommunalismthattheyshouldnotdosuchthings.Asregardsthe
greencolour.therewagatimewhenthiswasthecolouroftheflagofthewarofIndependence.Iwould
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remindyouofthewarofIndependenceof1857.Atthattime,thecolourofourflagwasgreenandunder
itwefoughtthatbattle.ItwasatthattimenotthecolourofMuslimsaloneorofHindusbutofallthose
whofoughtthewarofIndependence.Thereforenothingismorepainfulthantobeagainstanyparticular
colourandthattooatatimewhenthewholeofIndiaisbecomingindependentandthisflagwillbe
hoistedeverywhereinthecountry.Wehavestyledthisflagasaworldconquerorandhavespokenofits
conquestoftheworldwithlove.Wewanttoconquertheworldwithnonviolenceandlove.Thisisits
symbol.Whenwewillhavedonethat,wewillhavefulfilledourpledge.Isupportthisresolutionwithall
myheart.]*
ShriV.I.MuniswamiPillai(Madras:General):Mr.President,Sir,Iappearbeforeyoutodaytosupport
theResolutionsoablymovedbyourgreatnationalleaderPanditJawaharlalNehruwhohadalion'sshare
inthefreedomstruggleofthisgreatcountry.
Sir,hehasexplainedtousthesignificanceofthisFlagwhichistobeheldanddefendedbythemillions
oftheinhabitantsthatliveInthisgreatcountry.ItisnottobetheFlagoftherichorthewealthybutitis
tobetheFlagofthedepressed,oppressedandsubmergedclassesalloverourcountry.
Sir,Iparticularlywelcometheintroductionofthewheelinthecentre.MahatmaGandhigaveusthegreat
mantrathatliesinthematteroftheCharkha.ThoseofuswhohavetakentoCharkhafeelproudtoday
aftersomanycenturiesofpoliticalstruggleinthiscountry,thatithasbeenpossibletobringaFlagfor
thiscountrywhichwaslackingallthesecenturies.
IalsowelcometheintroductionoftheSarnathLionCapitalofAsoka.Asoka,comingashedidafterthe
greatBuddhistorder,hasgivenusthegreatPanchaseelam,aboveall,sympathyforhumanity.

*[EnglishtranslationofHindustanispeechends.
TheHarijanclassesandallthosecommunitieswhoareInthelowestrungoftheladderofsociety,feel
thattheconstitutionwhichisontheanvilofthissupremebodyisgoingofbringsolacetothemillionsof
thesubmergedclasses.TheprincipleofBuddhawhoexhibitedPracticallyhisgreatsympathyfor
sufferinghumanbeings,Iammire,Sir.willbepracticallycarriedoutafteracceptingthisgreatFlag.
Withthesewords,IsupporttheResolution.
ChaudhriKhaliquzzaman(UnitedProvinces:Muslim):*[Mr.PresidentIsupporttheresolutionmovedby
PanditNehru(Cheers).Ithinkthatfromtodayeveryone,whoregardshimselfasacitizenofIndiabehe
aMuslim,HinduorChristian,willasacitizenmakeallsacrificestoupholdandmaintainthehonourof
theflagwhichisacceptedandpassedastheflagofIndia(Cheers).Idonotwishtonarrateagainhistory
whichiswrong.Iwantthatallofusshouldforgetthepastandshouldoustfromourmindstheoldthings.
Therefore,Ihopethatthemajoritytooshallforgetthepast.AllofusshouldmakeafreshhistoryofIndia
fromtodayinwhicheveryone,whohasgotsincerity,dignityandinterestinthereconstructionofthe
countryandthenation,mayjoinhands.Iknowthataflagtolookat,issimplyapieceofclothbuta
country'sflagsymbolisesitsidealsanditsaspirations,
bothmoralandspiritual.Ifeelhappythatnone,whocallshimselfacitizenofIndia,canhaveoccasionto
disagreewiththespeechofPanditNehruinsupportoftheflag.Therefor..Ithinkthatfromwhatever
angle,wemayviewit,thesteptakentodaywillonlystrengthenthefoundationsofIndia.EveryMuslim,
HinduandChristianwillfeelproudinhoistingthisflagthroughoutthelengthandbreadthofIndia,and
heshallhonourit(Cheers).WiththesewordsIsupportthemotion.]*
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SirS.Radhakrishnan(UnitedProvinces:General):Mr.President,SirIdonotwishtosayverymuch
aftertheveryeloquentwayinwhichPanditJawaharlalNehrupresentedthisFlagandtheResolutionto
you.TheFlaglinksupthepastandthepresent.Itisthelegacybequeathedtousbythearchitectsofour
liberty.ThosewhofoughtunderthisFlagaremainlyresponsibleforthearrivalofthisgreatdayof
IndependenceforIndia.PanditJawaharlalhaspointedouttoyouthatitisnotadayofjoyunmixedwith
sorrow.TheCongressfoughtforunityandliberty.Theunityhasbeencompromisedlibertytoo.Ifeel,
hasbeencompromised,unlessweareabletofacethetaskswhichnowconfrontuswithcourage,strength
andvision.Whatisessentialtodayistoequipourselveswithnewstrengthandwithnewcharacterif
thesedifficultiesaretobeovercomeandifthecountryistoachievethegreatidealofunityandliberty
whichitfoughtfor.Timesarehard.Everywhereweareconsumedbyphantasies.Ourmindsarehaunted
bymyths.Theworldisfullofmisunderstandings,suspicionsanddistrusts.Inthesedifficultdaysit
dependsonusunderwhatbannerwefight.HerewearePuttingintheverycentrethewhite,thewhiteof
theSun'srays.Thewhitemeansthepathoflight.ThereisdarknessevenatnoonassomePeoplehave
urged,butitisnecessaryforustodissipatethesecloudsofdarknessandcontrolourconductbytheideal
light,thelightoftruth,oftransparentsimplicitywhichisillustratedbythecolourofwhite.
Wecannotattainpurity,wecannotgainourgoaloftruth,unlesswewalkinthepathofvirtue.The
Asoka'swheelrepresentstousthewheeloftheLaw,thewheelDharma.Truthcanbegainedonlybythe
pursuitofthepathofDharma,bythepracticeofvirtue.Truth,Satya,DharmaVirtue,theseoughttobe
thecontrollingprinciplesofallthosewhoworkunderthisFlag.ItalsotellsusthattheDharmais
somethingwhichisperpetuallymoving.Ifthiscountryhassufferedintherecentpast,itisduetoour
resistancetochange.Thereareeversomanychallenges

*[EnglishtranslationofHindustanispeechends.
hurledatusandifwehavenotgotthecourageandthestrengthtomovealongwiththetimes,wewillbe
leftbehind.Thereareeversomanyinstitutionswhichareworkedintooursocialfabriclikecasteand
untouchability.Unlessthesethingsarescrappedwecannotsaythatweeitherseektruthorpractise
virtue.Thiswheelwhichisarotatingthing,whichisaperpetuallyrevolvingthing,indicatestousthat
thereisdeathinstagnation.Thereislifeinmovement.OurDharmaisSanatana,eternal,notinthesense
thatitisafixeddepositbutinthesensethatitisperpetuallychanging.Itsuninterruptedcontinuityisits
Sanatanacharacter.Soevenwithregardtooursocialconditionsitisessentialforustomoveforward.
Thered,theorange,theBhagwacolourrepresentsthespiritofrenunciationitissaid:
(Sarvetyagerajadharmesudrsta).
AllformsofrenunciationaretobeembodiedinRajaDharma.PhilosophersmustbeKings.Ourleaders
mustbedisinterested.Theymustbededicatedspirits.'Theymustbepeoplewhoareimbuedwiththe
spiritofrenunciationwhichthatsaffron,colourhastransmittedtousfromthebeginningofourhistory.
ThatstandsforthefactthattheWorldbelongsnottothewealthy,nottotheprosperousbuttothemeek
andthehumble,thededicatedandthedetached.
Thatspiritofdetachmentthatspiritofrenunciationisrepresentedbytheorangeorthesaffroncolourand
MahatmaGandhihasembodieditforusinhislifeandtheCongresshasworkedunderhisguidanceand
withhismessage.Ifwearenotimbuedwiththatspiritofrenunciationinthandifficultdays,wewill
againgounder.
Thegreenisthereourrelationtothesoil,ourrelationtotheplantlifehereonwhichallotherlife
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depends.WemustbuildourParadisehereonthisgreenearth.Ifwearetosucceedinthisenterprise,we
mustbeguided.bytruth(white),practisevirtue(wheel),adoptthemethodofselfcontroland
renunciation(saffron).ThisFlagtellsus'Beeveralert,beeveronthemove,goforward,workforafree,
flexiblecompassionate,decent,democratic,societyinwhichChristians,Sikhs,Moslems,Hindus,
Buddhistswillallfindasafeshelter.'
Thankyou.(Loudcheers).
Dr.MohanSinhaMehta(UdaipurState):Mr.President,Sir,asIhadlistenedfrommyseattothegreat
speechwhichwasdeliveredbyourgreatleaderonagreatsubject,thefirstthoughtthatroseinmymind
wasthatthereshouldbenomorespeechesonthatsubjectandthattheResolutionshouldbeadopted
unanimouslyfromeverysectionoftheHousebyacclamation.Butsinceitwasnottobeandsome
speechesweremadefortunatelynoamendmentsarebeingconsideredIventuredtocomeuphereandsay
afewwordsinsupportoftheResolution.
Sir,IshouldliketosaythattheproposalwhichhasbeenputbeforeushasthesupportoftheIndian
Statesalso.(Cheers).Oneofourrepresentatives,adistinguishedPrime,Minister,participatedinthe
deliberationsoftheCommitteewhichhasbroughtthisproposalbeforeyouthroughPanditJawaharlal
Nehru.
Sir,thisisahistoricoccasionwhenfreeIndiaisgoingtoadoptaNationalFlagandIwishyouto
understandthataverylargemajorityoftheIndianStatesinIndiaareandremainanintegralpartofIndia.
(Cheers)
Sir,whenIwaslisteningtoPanditNehru'sspeechfrommyseat,Ifelthesymbolisedtomeinmyvision
thesubjectoftheResolutionwhichhewasmoving,thesombrebackgroundofthepanelsofthisroomand
PanditNehruinhisspotlesswhite.KnowingPanditNehruaswedo,IamsureIamnotexaggerating
whenIsaythatheinhisfigurerepresentedthesignificanceofthesubjectmatterofthisResolution.
Sir,asheexplainedtousthecontentsoftheFlag,anditsdesign,especiallywhenhawascomingtothe
ChakraofAsoka'scolumn,Ithoughthewouldalsorefertoitassymbolisingtheparticipationofthe
IndianStatesintheIndianUnion.Forthefirsttime,Sir,afteralong,longtime,wewillhaveIndiaruled
forIndiaandbyIndians.AgainPanditNehrusymbolisesthisalsothesymbolofselfrule.Butyouwill
pardonmysayingthatinalargepartofIndiawhichyoucolouryellowonthemaptheidealofselfrule
wasmaintainedbytheIndianStates.Pleasedonotanalysethispropositiononthebasisofpolitical
philosophy,WhenwearediscussingtheFlagofIndiawearenotdiscussingabstractdoctrinesorpolitical
practices,butprimarilythingswhicharesymbolic,thingsofsentiment.AmIfarwronginsayingthatthe
ChakraofAsokarepresentstheIndianStates,becausesincethetimeofAsoka.theGreat,thewhole
countryhasnotbeanunderIndianrule,ruledbyIndiansforIndians?Atanyrate,someofuswouldlike
tolookuponitwiththatsentiment.Iam,therefore,speakingherenotonlyonmyownbehalf,butalsoon
behalfofalargenumberofStatesIhavenotconsultedthem,butIamsuretheywillagreewithmewhen
IsaythatthisFlagwhetheritisflyingoverabuildinginIndiaoronthehighseasinforeignwaters,this
FlagwouldrepresentthecombinedsentimentsoftheUnionofIndia,irrespectiveofwhatplacesof
worshipwegoto,irrespectiveofthedifferenceinournamesandnomenclaturesweareallIndiansand
thisisourFlag.
Sir,IwholeheartedlysupporttheResolution.
Mr.MohomedSheriff
(MysoreState):Mr.President,Sir,Iamsorrythatsomecontroversyhasbeencreatedaboutthe
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ResolutionwhichwasgoadmirablymovedbyPanditJawaharlalNehruaboutthequestionofthe
considerationoftheIndianFlag.Somegentlemensuggestedthatthereshouldbesomevariationinthe
coloursrepresentedonthisFlag.Somewantedthatthe..........(Hon'bleMembers:"No,no".)Verywell.
Whileappreciatingthemotivewhichhasactuatedthesegentlemeninmakingthisrepresentation,yet,
speakingformyself,IsaythatsofarasthisFlagisconcerned,itisthebestFlagandIdoendorse
whateverPanditJawaharlalNehruhassaidthismorningwhilesponsoringthisResolution.
Sir,thewhite,thesaffronandthegreencolours,signifyrenunciation,purityorsacrifice.Greatspiritual
significanceisattachedtothemThesecoloursareveneratedbyallpersons,whethertheyareHindus,or
Muslims,ChristiansorParsis.TheChakrawhichisthereinthecentreoftheFlagsymbolisesmotion,
progressandadvancementandfromaestheticandotherconsiderationsalso,itsuitsthegenius,tradition
andcultureofIndia.AswassaidbyChaudhuriKhaliquzzaman,itisaFlagwhichdeservestherespectof
everybodywholivesandhashisbeinginIndia.Withthesewords,Sir,Ihaveverygreatpleasurein
supportingtheResolutionsponsoredbyPanditJawaharlalNehru.
Mr.SatyanarayanSinha(Bihar:General):Isuggest,Sir,thatthequestionbenowput.
HonourableMembers:Thequestionmaybeput.
Mr.President:Ihavegotthenamesofsometwentyfivespeakersherebecauseitisanoccasiononwhich
everyonewouldliketoexpresshimself.ButIthinkitisnotnecessarytocarryonthedebateanyfurther,
becausewehaveheardfrommembersallthatcouldbesaid.Iwould,therefore,puttheclosuremotionto
vote.
Mr.TajamulHusain(Bihar:Muslim):Sir,beforeclosureisapplied,Iwouldliketosubmitthatmore
speechesshouldbeallowed,becauseonanoccasionlikethiseverybodyshouldbegiventheopportunity
toexpresshisthoughts.
Mr.B.K.Sidhwa(C.P.andBerar:General):Sir,thisisamemorabledayandtheopportunitytoexpress
himselfshouldbegiventoeveryonewhowishestospeak.
RaiBahadurSyamanandanSahaya(Bihar:General):Sir,itisnoteverydaythatwewillbeadoptinga
NationalFlagforthecountryandassuchitisbutproperthatifafewmorememberswanttospeakto
daytheyshouldlieallowedtodoso.
PanditGovindMalaviya(U.P.:General):Sir,letushavethewholeoftodayastheFlagday.
Mr.President:IamentirelyinthehandsoftheHouseifyoudonotwantmorespeeches,Ishallstop
here,butifmemberswantmoreopportunitiestospeakIshallproceedintheorderinwhichIhavegotthe
namesherewithme.
ShriBalkrishnaSharma(UnitedProvinces:General):Wewanttoheartheoldmother.
Mr.TajamulHusain:Wewouldliketohearthe"BulbuleHind."
Mr.President.Iwillcalluponherattheend.Iamsureitwillbethesweetestspeechandweshould,
accordingtoouroldcustom,endwithsweets.(Cheers).
Mr.Saadullamaynowspeak.
SaiyidMohammadSaadulla(Assam:Muslim):Mr.President,Sir,myinterventioninthisdebatewasnot
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atallnecessary,inviewoftheverylearnedandablespeachofPanditJawaharlalNehruandspeeches
fromotherquarters.ThereasonformystandingbeforeyouisthatIwanttomakeperfectlyclearour
position.'DieMuslimmemberswhoareinthisHouseinspiteofthefactthatyouhaveextendedtothem
"swagatam"ontheveryfirs'day,arelookeduponbysomememberswithdistrustandattemptswere
madetodebarusfromparticipatinginthisAugustAssemblyunlesswedisclaimcertainopinionswe
hold.IhaveseeninthepresscertainreferencesthattheMuslimmembersinthisConstituentAssembly
areunwanted,andsomepapershadgonetothelengthofsayingthattheMuslimmembersherewillbe
fifthcolumnistsandsaboteursoftheConstitution.IamverygladthattheResolutionofPanditNehru
givesusa
chanceofbelyingtheseaspersionsandremovingdistrustbyproclaimingfromthehousetopsour
allegiancetotheUnionofIndiawherebyaccidentofresidenceandbirthwehappentobe.Itthe
injunctionofIslam,emphasizedbyinstructionsfromLeagueHighCommandandleaders,thatwherever
webewemustbegoodandloyaltothegovernmentwhichfunctionsthere.ActingontheprincipleI
salutetheFlagwhichhasbeenpresentedtotheHousebyPanditNehru.
InmyopiniontheFlagsymbolisestheevolutionofouraspirations,thefulfilmentofourstrugglesandthe
ultimateresultofalloursacrifices.IfImaybepermittedtodrawananalogyfromnature,thesaffron
representstheconditionoftheearth,thescorchedconditioncausedbythetorriedheatoftheIndianSun.
Whenthecrystalclearwhiteraindropsandthewaterfromthesnowcappedmountainsandriverscomes
downwegetourandareasconvertedintosmilinggreenfieldsthecropsofwhichsustainusandconduce
tothegrowthofthepeople.Similarlywehadinourpoliticalstruggleourscorchedearthdaysbutlateron
cameourdaysofhopeandtodaythisFlagunfurledinthisHousehasbroughtustotheculminatingpoint,
thedesiderataofourpaststruggles.Iamglad,Sir,thattheFlagremainsasitisandthattheamendments
proposedwerenotmoved,forIndiaisrepresentedinthedifferentcoloursofthisFlag.Indiaisverywell
notedforherspiritualattainments.EverywhereitisadmittedthatIndiahasgotagreatspiritualmessage
tosendouttothedifferentcountriesoftheworld.Thesaffron,asiswellknown,isthecolourofallthose
peoplewholivethespirituallifenotonlyamongHindusbutalsoamongMuslims.Thereforethesaffron
colourshouldremindusthatweshouldkeepourselvesonthathighplaneofrenunciationwhichhasbeen
therealmofourSadhusandsaints,PirsandPandits.Ithereforewelcometheinclusionofthiscolourin
theFlag.
NextIcometothewhiteportion.WhitebothamongHindusandMuslimsistheemblemofpurity.In
congratulatetheHighCommandoftheIndianNationalCongressthatbyaboldstrokeofimagination
theytookupthewhitecapasthesymboloftheircreed.ThepresenceofthewhiteportioninthisFlag
shouldremindeveryonewhotakesitupthatwemustbepurenotonlyinwordbutalsoindeed.Purity
shouldbethemottoofourlifeindividuallyaswellasinconnectionwiththeState.
Lastly,Sir,greenremindsmeofthefactthatitwastheemblemoftheupsurgeofIndia'sfreedom.Green
wastheemblemoftheFlagwhichwasraisedbyBahadurShahin1857.Butithasmorethana
sentimentalorsymbolicalvaluetousMuslimsbecausegreenwasthecolouroftheFlagoftheMuslims
fromthetimeofthegreatProphetofArabiathirteencenturiesago.SomemayregretthattheCharkha
whichwastheemblemofthemasseshasbeenreplacedbytheDharmachakraofAsoka.ButIconsider
thatitwasreallyaheavenborninspirationoftheauthoritiesthatthisChakranowtakestheplaceofthe
Charkha.AlthoughtheCharkhawastheemblemofourselfhelpandofourapproachtothecommon
massesandwasembodiedinouractivitiesbythemessageoftheMahatma,yettowardsthelaterstage
theidealofCharkhahadbeenpolluted,theinstructionorinspirationofMahatmaGandhihadbeen
deviatedfromandthosewhoworetheCharkhawhichwasthesymbolofnonviolenceweremostviolent
intheiractionswhichatonetimePanditNehruhadatgreatpersonalrisktoassuage.TheDharmachakra
ofAsokaremindsusoftheconditionofthepeopleatthetimeofthatgreatBuddhistEmperorofIndia.
Herulednotforhispersonalaggrandisementbutforthecontentment,peaceandprosperityofthepeople
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underhischarge.ThisemblemnowembodiedinourNationalFlagoughttoremindeveryadministrator
andeverycitizenofthefederationofIndiathatweshouldforgetthepastandlooktothefutureandtryto
carryonthetraditionofthatgreatBuddhistEmperorAsoka,andweshouldberemindedatalltimesthat
we
areherenotonlyforourmaterialprosperitybutalsoforourspiritualadvancement.ThisChakrawasa
religiousemblemandwecannotdissociateoursociallifefromourreligiousenvironments.
Sir,withthesefewwordsnotonlyonbehalfofmyselfbutalsoasDeputyLeaderoftheMuslimLeague
PartyandasanoldinhabitantofthefurthestandthesmallestprovinceoftheIndianUnion,Assam,I
salutethisFlagasasymbolofIndia'sfreedom.
Dr.H.C.Mookherjee(WestBengal:General):Mr.President,eversincetheIndianChristiancommunity
becameconsciousofthefactthatitwasfundamentallyanIndiancommunity,itsgreatleadersinthepast
havealwaysfullyidentifiedthemselveswiththeIndianNationalism.Ineedonlyremindthose,whodo
methehonouroflisteningtome,ofthenameofthelateKakaBaptistofBombay,ofthelateKC.
BannerjeeofBengal,ofthelateBishopChidambaramoftheUnitedProvincesandthelateDr.S.K.
DuttaofPunjab.ThesenamesareonlyafewoutofthemanyIcouldquotetoprovethatwehaveall
alongidentifiedourselvesfullywithIndianNationalism.Fromonepointofviewwehavebeen
misunderstood.IthasbeenheldthatbecauseweprofessChristianity,essentiallyanAsiaticreligion,and
becausewehavecertaincontactswithforeignmissions,thereforetheIndianChristiancommunityhas
whatisknownasChristianmentality.ItisnotsoandIstandheretosaythatitisanincorrectidea.Itisa
misconceptionandIwantittobeclearlyunderstoodthattodayIonbehalfofmycommunity,am
pledgingourallegianceoncemoretotheFlag.
TomeitseemssignificantthatsomeoftheworkersverycloselyassociatedwiththeCongressareIndian
ChristiansandIamsureMYfriendswillbeartestimonytothefactthatwetoohaveproducedleaders
whohavefullyidentifiedthemselveswithIndianNationalism.WeoweourallegiancetotheFlag,not
onlybecauseweareIndianChristians,butbecausewehavebeenalwayswelltreatedinthepastbythe
IndianNationalCongress.Infactitwouldbenoexaggerationtosuggestthatwehavebeenbettertreated
bytheIndianNationalCongressthanbythosewithwhomweareaffiliatedfromthestandpointof
religion.ItakethisopportunityofremindingtheHon'blePanditJawaharlalNehruofanoccasionwhich
happenedin1938whenIhadbeencalledtothePunjabbyDr.S.K.Duttatodoalittleservicein
connectionwithafunctionattheFormanChristianCollege.AtthattimetheUniversityUnionat
AllahabadhadarrangedforanaddressbymeonProhibitionandtheyinsistedthatIshouldspeakonthis
subjectbecauseshortlybeforethatIhadvisitedSaleminMadrasthroughthekindofficesofRajaji.
PanditJawaharlalNehruhadagreedtopresideoverthefunction,buthadforgottenthesubjectonwhichI
wasexpectedtospeak.Athisrequest,firstofallIexplainedmyideasaboutthedutiesofminorities
whenaskedbyhimtoputbeforetheaudienceourviewsregardingtheminorityquestion.Hewastohave
leftforDelhiwithinhalfanhour,butheforgoteverythingaboutitandinconsequencemissedthetrain.
AfterIhadspoken,PanditNehrutoldmethatwhatthecommunityhadstoodforwouldberemembered
bytheIndianNationalCongresswhenitcametopower.WithinthreeorfourdaysIreceivedreportsofa
certaincaseofinjusticesufferedbyIndianChristiansinsomevillages.Iwenttothevillagesandfound
outthatthechargesweretrue'.IplacedbeforePanditNehrutheinformationwhichIgatheredandin
sevendays'timethewholematterwassettled.Inthatwayourreligiouslibertieswererestored.
MayIinthisconnectionmentionanotheroccasionwhenwereceivedprompthelpfromtheCongress?
WhenIwasinMadras,thePrincipalofthePhysicalEducationCollegeatSaidapet,Dr.Beck,toldme
thathehadimmensedifficultiesingettinglandfortheMadrasCollegeofPhysicalEducation.Assoonas
Rajajicametopowerhegrantedusevenmorelandthanwehadwantedwithinashorttime.Theseare
theservices
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thatwehavereceivedfromtheCongress.Thisnotonlybecauseweareinsympathywiththeobjectives
oftheCongressbutalsobecauseofgoodtreatmentwehaveidentifiedourselveswiththeCongress.Once
moreI,repeatthattheIndianChristiansoweallegiancetotheNationalFlag.
Mr.R.K.IISidhwa:Mr.President,Sir,theHonourableMoverofthismotionPanditNehru,saidthathe
feltitaproudprivilegetomovethisMotionandpresentthisFlagtothisHouse.Sir,itisnotheproud
privilegeofonlyHon'blePanditNehrutoday,butitistheproudprivilegeofthewholeNationtoseethis
Flagroundwhichthepeoplehavestruggledhardtowinfreedomhasbecomeanaccomplishedfact,that
theNationalFlaghereaftershallbeanofficiallyrecognisedFlag.Whileouryoungandoldmenand
womenandchildrenhoistedthisFlagonprivatehousesandpublicbuildings,theBritishbureaucracyin
Indiapulleditdownandtrampleditundertheirfeet.Notwithstandingthat,ourcountrymentookup,that
veryFlagandhoisteditontheverybuildingfromwhichithadbeenpulleddown.Whiledoingso,they
strictlyfollowedthedoctrinegiventousbyMahatmaGandhitocarryonthestruggleinanonviolent
way.MahatmaGandhienjoineduponustobenonviolentinword,thoughtanddeed.Imustadmit,Sir.
whileithasnotbeenpossibletofollownonviolenceinwordandthought,Ialong,withmillionsof
Indianshavestrictlyfollowedtheprincipleofnon,violencewhilefightingthebattleagainsttheBritish
bureaucracyinIndia.Throughthatnonviolentstrugglewehavebeenabletoachieveourcherishedgoal
today.OntheFlagproblem,apopularsloganwentround,"Up,upwiththeNationalFlagdown,down
withtheUnionJack'.WedonotmeandisrespecttoanyNation'sFlag,butweconsideredthehoistingof
theBritishFlaghere,asymbolofslavery.On15thAugustthisFlagwhichhasbeenpresentedtoustoday
willbehoistedonthisAugustAssembly,onthegreatmagnificentSecretariatBuildingsandImayalso
say,Sir,ontheViceregalLodge.(Cheers).AndtheUnionJackwillberespectfully,slowlyandsolemnly
broughtdown.Undoubtedly,onthatday,theNationalFlagwillbehoistedalloverIndiaanditwillbe
salutedbyeveryone.
Sir,thefirstNationalFlag,IshouldsaytheSwarajFlag,washoistedin1911attheIndianNational
CongressSessionheldatCalcuttabythatgreatPresident,bythatgreatcongressman,bythatgreatIndian
PatriotwhowasoneofthefoundersoftheIndianNationalCongressand,mayIsay,theprimemoverfor
the,formationoftheCongress,thelateDadabhaiNaoroji.ThatflagIhaveseeninthepictureIhavegot
itinmyhouse.ItisnotthesameFlagasweseeheretoday.Inowrememberwhatthatgreatleadersaid
ontheoccasionofhoistingthatFlaginCalcuttain1911.
Mr.President:Ididnotwanttointerruptthespeaker.Butheismistakeninregardtotheyear.Itwas
1906andnot1911.
Mr.R.K.Sidhwa:Thankyou,Sir.WhilehoistingtheFlaghesaid:'IpresentthisFlag,UnderthisFlag
weshouldfightourbattles.'Sir,thisFlaghassincechangedindesignandnowithasbeenofficially
recognisedastheFlagoftheNation.Weshallallsaluteit.Itwillremainfirmlyandsolidlytilleternnity
whereveritisflown.
TheHonourableMr.JaipalSingh(Bihar:General):Mr.PresidentasIlistenedtoPanditJawaharlal
Nehru,Ithoughtnospeechwouldbenecessary,butsincevariousgroupsinthisHousehaveseverally
triedtoacknowledgetheiracceptanceofandallegiancetotheFlagwhichwearegoingtoadoptasthe
NationalFlagofthiscountry.IthoughtIwouldalsosayafewwordsonbehalfofthe30million
Adibasis,therealownersofthiscountry,theoriginalsonsofthesoil,themostancientaristocracyof
India,whohavebeenfightingforfreedomforthelast'sixthousandyears.Onbehalfofthesemypeople,
IhavegreatpleasureinacknowledgingthisFlagastheFlagofourcountryinfuture.Sir,mostofthe
membersofthisHouseareinclined
tothinkthatflaghoistingistheprivilegeoftheAryancivilised.Sir,theAdibasishadbeenthefirstto
hoistflagsandtofightfortheirflags.MemberswhocomefromthesocalledprovinceofBihar,will
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supportmewhenIsaythat,yearafteryear,inthemelas,jatrasandfestivalsinChotaNagpur,whenever
varioustribeswiththeirflagsenterthearena,eachtribemustcomeintojatrabyadefiniteroutebyonly
onerouteandnoothertribemayenterthemelabythesameroute.Eachvillagehasitsownflagandthat
flagcannotbe,copiedbyanyothertribe.Ifanyonedaredchallengethatflag,Sir,Icanassureyouthat
thatparticulartribewouldsheditslastdropofbloodindefendingthehonourofthatflag.Hereafter,there
willbetwoFlags,oneFlagwhichhasbeenhereforthepastsixthousandyears,andtheotherwillbethis
NationalFlagwhichisthesymbolofourfreedomasPanditJawaharlalNehruhasputit.ThisNational
FlagwillgiveanewmessagetotheAdibasisof'Indiathattheirstruggleforfreedomforthelastsix
thousandyearsisatlastover,thattheywillnowbeasfreeasanyotherinthiscountry.Ihavegreat
pleasure.Sir,inacceptingandacknowledgingonbehalfoftheAdibasisofIndiatheFlagthathasbeen
presentedtousbyPanditJawaharlalNehru.
Mr.FrankR.Anthony(C.P.andBerar:General):Mr.President,Sir,aslistenedtotheveryeloquent
speechofPanditJawaharlalNehruinintroducingandcommendingthisFlag,Ithoughtthatitwasa
sufficientsealtothesolemnityoftheoccasion.Butsincetheunderstandablefeelingsandenthusiasmsof
membershaveledtothemakingofseveralspeeches,IfeltthatIshouldsayafewwords.Ihadthe
privilegeofservingintheCommitteewhichfinalisedtheformandshapeofthisFlag.Itwasmadeclear
therethatthisFlagdidnotcontainanycommunalmotivesorsignificance.Whilewehaveretained
essentiallythebannerunderwhichthefightforIndia'sfreedomwasfoughtandbroughtto
consummation,theFlagashoistedtodayhascertainqualitiesandmotiveswhichshouldbecherishedby
everynationthattreadsthepathofprogressandfreedom.Ibelievesincerelythatthisisreallyabeautiful
Flaginitsphysicalaspectandalsoinitsmotives.TodaythisFlagistheFlagoftheNation.Itisnot:the
Flagofanyparticularcommunity,itistheFlagofallIndians.Ibelievethatwhilethisisasymbolofour
pastitinspiresusforthefuture.ThisFlagfliestodayastheFlagoftheNation,itshouldbethedutyand
privilegeofeveryIndiannotonlytocherishandandliveunderitbutifnecessary,todieforit.
GianiGurmukhSinghMusafar(EastPunjab:Sikh):*[Mr.President,Ifeelthatafterthespeechofsuch
greatmenasPanditJawaharlalNehruandSirRadhakrishnan,whohavesobrilliantlyinterpretedthe
coloursoftheflagIneednotsaymuch.Ihavestooduponlywiththeideaofassociatingmyselfwith
thosesentiments.Thesacrificesmadeforthisflagandinthecauseofthecountry'sfreedomhavebeen
patheticallynarratedbyPanditNehruinhisowninimitablestyle.UnderthisFlag,mycommunity
musteredaroundtheIndianNationalCongressandcontributeditsutmosttothosesacrifices,Ithinkno
oneshallbehappierthantheSikhstoseethosesacrificesfloweringandbearingfruittoday.Butthereis
onethingandthatisunavoidablethatflowersareneverwithoutthorns.,Atthishourofhappiness,Ifeel
thatmanyofmybrethren.whowereonewithusatthetimeofmakingsacrificescouldnotnowbehere
withustoshareourhappiness.Itmayhappensometimesthatathornisusefulinheighteningthebeauty
andcharmoftheflower.Iamonlytryingtogiveventtoemotionswhichfillmyheartatthethoughasto
howmanysacrificeswehadtomaketoseethisflagupintheair.Wehavereachedthepositiontoday
thatwecaninstallourflagwhereverwelike,Nowitisequallyincumbentuponustomaintainthe
dignityofthisflutteringFlag.Perhapsattimeswemayhavetomakethesame
sacrificestokeepitaloftaswehavehadtoachieveit.Therefore,IpromiseonbehalfofmySikh
communitythattheyshallcontinuetomakesacrificesforupholdingthehonouranddignityoftheflag
withthesameVigour,daringandfearlessness,astheyhaveshowninthecauseofthecountry'sfreedom.
Withthesewords,IsupporttheResolutionmovedbyPanditji.]*
Mr.H.J.Khandekar(C.P.&Berar:General):[Mr.President,IsupporttheResolutiononthisflagas
movedbytheHonourablePanditJawaharlalNehru.YouknowwhatgreatSacrificeshavebeenmadeby
ustomaintainthehonourofthisFlaginthiscountryandhowmanysacrificedtheirlives,gottheir
childrentrampledwerekilledanddestroyed.TheBritishEmpireusedalltheirpowertodestroythisFlag
butwetheinhabitantsofthiscountryalwayscherishedandadoreditThisFlag,underwhichwefindFree
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Indiaandwhichwewishtohoist,overFreeIndia,istheSameFlagwhicheventodaygiver,usstrength
tofreeourselves.
ThisFlag,hasthreecolours.OneissaffronwhichisrelatedtoourOwncommunity,Ibelongtothe
depressedclassesandIWishtoremindyouthatwhereShivajiwasinpowerandwhenachanceof
freeingthisCountryandestablishingaHinduRajaroseourcommunitysacrificedlacsof

*[EnglishtranslationofHindustanispeechends.
personsunderthissaffronbanner.Forexample,theIronPillarofSidhanathMaharinKoragaon.reminds
usofthatageeventoday.
HereistheFlag.Ithasthreecolours.Thefirstoneisrelatedtomycommunity.Thesecondcolourwhich
iswhitedenotespeaceandtranquillityandindicatesunityamongstallthecommunitiesinthiscountry
andforthisreasonthisFlagrepresentseveryreligionandeverylanguageinthecountry.AsthePresident
oftheAllIndiaDepressedClassesUnion,IwishtogivethisassurancebeforetheHousethatmy
communityshallalwaysfollowtheFlagwhichweareadoptingtoday.Withthesewords,Isupportthe
ResolutionontheFlagonbehalfofmyownselfandcommunityasawhole.IfthehonouroftheFlag,
maintainedbyusevenuptothisdayisabesmirchedanytime,myCommunityalongwithother
inhabitantsofthecountrywillsacrificethemselvestosavethehonouroftheFlag.WiththesewordsI
begtosupporttheResolution.]*
ShriBalkrishnaSharma:+[Mr.President,Sir,whenmyleaderPonditJawaharlalNehruhasexpressed
suchloftysentimentstodayonthisoccasion,Imyselfthoughtnospeechshouldbedeliveredafterthat.
Buttheconventionsprevailedandmembersofeverygrouphaveexpressedtheirideas,here.Onthe
suggestionofmyelders,IalsosubmittedmynametothePresidentandwishtoexpressmyselfbriefly
beforeyoutoday.
Thisday,thedayofmovingthisresolutionbyPanditJawaharlalNehru,isadayofcongratulationsour
countryanditshistory.WhenIwaslisteningtothespeechofPanditNehru,Ifeltaswehadfinishedone
partofourJourneyandwerebeginningthenext.Now,whenthefirstpartofourjourneycomestoa
close,wefeelobligedtolookback.Inthehistoryofthelasttwentyyears,agreatman,bornamongstus,
hassomelodiouslyandartisticallyharmonizedourlifethatitwouldbeingratitudeonourpart,itwedo
notbowtohim.Itisnotpossibletoenumerateinthisshorttime,whatMahatmaGandhihasgivenusand
contributedtowardsournationallifeandwhatisbeinggivenbyhimtousevennow.Butifyoutakea
littletroubleandgobacktothecircumstancesprevailing27and28yearsago,youwillfindwhatgreat
progresshasBeenmade,inourcountrythroughtheeffortsoftheworld'sgreatestleader.Therewasa
timewhenCongresswasmerelypassingresolutionsandassemblingforthreedaysduringChristmasand
itconsideredthatitsdutyendedthere.WhenMahatmaGandhisaidthatwewouldnotgetindependence
bypassingresolutions,andthatstrengthwasnecessarytoobtainrights,thenationlookedathimin
bewildermentandthoughtthehehadgonemad.Themessageofgainingstrengthforanationwithout
armsappearedtobeamadideainthehistoryoftheworld.Theworldthoughtofonlyonewayasmeans
ofattainingnationalrightsandthatwasthewayofviolence.Shouldwenotremembertodaythat
developmentofmassconsciousnessinthecountry,whichwascarriedoutbyMahatmaGandhibynon
violentmethods?Itappealedtothepeopleandtheyorganised.Ithinkthatitwasthegreatestgiftof
MahatmaGandhithathechangedamereresolutionpassingCongressintoafightingbody.Hissecond
greatgifttoourcountrywasthattheCongresswhichworkedonlyforthreedays(inayear)waschanged
intoapermanentOrganisation.Histhirdgreatgiftisofanationallanguage.Weusedtoexpress
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ourselvesinaforeignlanguage.MahatmaGandhibyofferingusHindiasaNationallanguage,_gaveus
achancetofeelandawakenournationalsentiments.OneofthoseboonsisthatoftheFlagwhichhas
beenofferedbyhimtothiscountry.Thuscentralisingthecollectivestrengthofourcountryintheform
ofthisflag,heinspiredustoproceedandmarchonthewaytosacrifice.Today,onbehalfofallofus,I
offermyhomageatthefeetofthisgreatman.
WhenPanditJawaharlalNehruwagaddressingus,Ilookedathimandfeltwhathadbeendonebythis
greatmantoourcountry.Howmuchidealismhaveweattainedthroughhimandhowmuchsenseof
service

*[EnglishtranslationofHindustanispeechends.
+[EnglishtranslationofHindustanispeechbegins.
anddevotionhaveweimbibedthroughhim?Onbehalfofyouall,IoffermyrespectstoPandit
JawaharlalNehruandMahatmaji.WhenIwaslisteningtohisspeech,Ifeltthatonepartofthejourneyis
comingtoanend.Anideacreptinmymindthatnowwehavetoseewhatnextwehavetodo.Pandit
JawaharlalNehruinterpretstheChakrainthecentreofourNationalFlagasanindicationofmovement.
ItremindsmeoftheoldmessagewhichIhadreadinBrihadaranyakaUpanished"Remainingasleepis
Kaliyug,openingofeyesisDwapargettingupisTretaandmovingaboutisSatyayug".TodayPandit
Jawaharlalaftergivingusthemessageofmotionintheformofthischakra,isonceagaintakingusto
Satyayug.Upanishadwriterssay:"Charaiveti,Charaivet"BhagwanBuddhahimselfhassaid"Charaiveti
KhihaveCharaiveti"."Goon,endeavouringcontinually,goonagainandagain,thereisnoplacefor
rest."Onbehalfofthecongressmentoday,mayIgivethisassurancetoourleaderPanditJawaharlal
Nehru"DearCaptainUnderyourleadershipweshalltrytofollowyouwithallourstrength."
TodayonthisoccasionIsalutetheNationalFlagandpraytoGodthataneweramaydawnuponthis
country,anewearthandanewskymaybeformedinthiscountrywhichmaybeabletogiveamessage
ofeternalpeacetotheentirehumanworldfromunderthisFlag].*
PanditGovindMalaviya:+[Mr.President,Sir,whenIcameheretodayIhadnottheslightestideathat
wewouldspeakanythingaboutthisFlag.ButwhenPanditJawaharlalNehru,thebelovedleaderofthe
country,madehisspeech,awaveofjoyenthusiasmaroseinourheartsandwefeltadesiretopayour
tributetotheNationalFlagonthissolemnandauspiciousoccasion.Thus,Sir,Ialsosoughtyour
permissiontospeakafewwords.
Theimportanceofanationalflagdoesnotdependonitscolour,itsbandsoritsotherparts.Theflagasa
whole,isimportantandotherthingsthecoloursetc.,thatitcontainsareimmaterial.Theflagmaybeofa
pieceofwhiteclothofanyotherinsignificantmaterialbutwhenitisacceptedasaNationalFlag,it
becomestheemblemofnationalselfrespect.Itbecomesanexpressionofthesenseoffreedomanation.
Itbecomesitsdearestobject.Forthelast27yearsthistricolourflaghasbeenuppermostinourthoughts
andimagination.WehavemadenumeroussacrificesforthefreedomofIndiawiththis
flaginourhands.AsIhavealreadystated,whenaflagoranyotherthingisacceptedbyanationasits
ensign,itbecomesthedearestobjectofthenationandassumesthemostimportantandthehighestplace
inthelifeandhistoryofthatnation.This,ourFlag,hasbeenthesymbolofthehopesanddreamsoffour
hundredmillionsoulsforthelast27years.Forthehonourofthisflagmillionsholdingitdearerthan
theirlives,sufferedtremendously.Numberlesspeoplewenttojailsleavingtheirchildrenstarving.People
hadtheirheadsandbonesbrokenbythelathisofpoliceandthemilitarytokeepitaloft.Unarmed
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youngmenandstudentsofthecountryopenedtheirchestsbeforethebulletsoftheEnglishmilitaryor
policetoprotectthehonourofhisflag.Forgenerationsithasbeenourflagandthegreatfeeling,emotion
andenthusiasmwehaveinourheartsforthisflagisbeyondhumandescription.Weareeagertopayour
tributetothisflag.
Sir,thisflagforwhichgreatsacrificeshavebeenmadeandaboutwhichtherearemany'gathas'of
patriotism,heroismandsacrifices,hasbecomethecentreofourthoughts.Therearevariousopinions
todayinourcountryaboutthisflag.Manymembershavegivennoticesofvariousresolutionsaboutthis
flag.Iknoweverymoverhashisownindividualandimportantreasonsformovinghisresolution.Iftheir
Suggestionsarenotacceptedhere,itdoesnotmeanthatwedonotappreciatethethoughtsofany
particularindividualorsection.Wedonotcertaintheideathatbecausesomedifferencesofopinionexist
regardingthisflag,any

*[EnglishtranslationofHindustanispeechends.
+[EnglishtranslationofHindustanispeechbegins.
bodyforfeitshisclaimtoit.Onthecontrary,weholdthathehassimilarclaimstoitaswehave.Iwould
liketoaddressafewwordstothosewhohaveopposedtheadoptionofthisflag,orhavemoved
amendmentsforeffectingsomechangeinit,IwouldliketoaddressafewwordstotheHindumembers
whohaveapprovedoftheflag.Theremaybesomegroundfortheircomplaintbutitshouldnotbe
forgottenthatthisflaghasbeentheemblemofourhighesthopesandnoblestemotionsfor27years.It
hasbeentheadvocate,after27years'struggleandsacrifices.presentingbeforetheHousesomeotherflag
foradoption?ThestruggleforindependencestartedbytheCongresswasnotonbehalfofanyparticular
communityorsection.Underthisflag,theCongressandthekhilafat,theHindusandtheMuslims
togetherinfusedthefireofenthusiasminthepeopleofthiscountryandtheSikhcommunityhasmade
countlesssacrifices.EverycommunityinIndiahassheditsbloodandhassacrificeditsall.Thisflagdoes
notbelongtoanyparticularcommunity.Itbelongstousallasawhole.Thecharacteristicfeatureofthe
flagisthis,thatthoughitbelongstothewholeofIndia,everyindividual,whetherHindu,Muslimor
Christiancanclaimitashisown,behappyoveritandhaverespectforit.
ThegreenportionintheflagmaybetakentorepresentourMuslimfriendsthewhiteonetheChristians
andothercommunitiesandthesaffrontheSikhs.Everycommunityisrepresentedintheflag.Butitdoes
notmeanthatthesecoloursmerelyrepresentthesecommunitiesandtheyhavenoothersignificance.
Theremaybeotherinterpretationsalsoofthesecolours.TheyrepresenttheHindusaswell.AsIhave
saidthecharacteristicfeatureoftheflagprovidesamplescopeforeveryonetothinkitashisown.Inthe
Vedas"Rta"hasnotbeendefinedbutItisallembracingandhasbeenextolledbypoetsandbards.Butno
onecanidentifyitwithanyparticularobject.
Similarlythegreatpoetshaveexpressedmanygoodideasinbeautifulwordsaboutthevariousvirtuesof
mankind,e.g.,truth,beauty,duty,benevolence,kindnessandfilialdevotion,Allwriteonthesame
subjectbutintheirownway.Onthesamevirtue,onewritessomethingandanother
someotherthing.Theyexpressdifferentideasanddifferentemotionsindifferentways.Similarlyinthe
caseofthisflag,everyonecansingachorusinpraiseoftheflagaccordingtohisownsentiments.Every
communitycanthinkofthisflagasitsown.Somepeoplehavecomplainedinthepressthatthereshould
bepredominanceofHinducoloursintheflagandthatthepresentflagShouldbechanged.Theyaskif
alongwithothercommunities,havetheHindusnotshedtheirbloodandsacrificedtheirkinforthisflag?
HowcanweforgetthecallofthoseHindumartyrsthroughwhosesufferingsandsacrifices,these
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disgruntled(Hindus)havehadthechancetoseethedawnofindependence?WillItnotbesheer
ingratitudetothemonourpart?Withduerespect,IwouldliketotelleventhemostorthodoxHindusthat
thisflagamplyrepresentstheHindusentiments.Thisflagisthetrueexpressionofthesentimentsofthe
HindusandHinduism.TheVedassaythatthecolourofaflagshouldbered.Thereforeaccordingtothe
VedastheflagoftheHindusshouldbered.Besidesthis,letusinterpretitinadifferentway.Thered
colouratthetoprepresentsfireandthesun.Thewhiterepresentsthemoon.NowaccordingtotheHindu
mythology,thefirstthingthattheCreator(Brahma)didwastocreatethesunandthemoon.TheHindus,
theAryanshavesincetheirverybeginningbeenworshipingtheSun,FireandtheMoon,Thesunandthe
Moonareworshipfuldeities.Thisflagrepresentsthesevarygodsthefirethesunandthemoon.The
greencolouratthebottom,asIhavesaid,shouldbetakenbyourMuslimfriendstorepresentthem.But
atthesametime,thiscolourinawayrepresentstheHindusaswell.Youknowofallthenineplanets
Budhaissupposedtobethemostimportant.ThisgreencolourrepresentstheBudha.ThisveryBudha
accordingtotheHindumythology,Isthegodofwealth.ThegreencolourofBudhaistheemblemof
prosperityandhappinessofsociety.Thatcolourisgivenintheflag.WhatbetterflagcantheHindus
adoptforthemselves,thanthepresentonewhichrepresentstheFire,thegun,theMoonandBudha?
Apartfromthis,thereisa'Chakra'wheelinthecentreoftheflag.Thisisverysignificant.The,Hindus
attachgreatimportanceto'avatars'.'Whenthereistoomuchofvice,sufferinganddisturbanceonthe
earth,accordingtotheHindumythology,someDivineBeingcomesonthestagetoestablishorderand
guidetheworldtothepathofvirtue.ThisDivineBeingisknownasourAvatar.LordKrishnawasthe
incarnationofGod.SoalsowasLordBuddha."SudarshanChakra"wasthedivineweaponofLord
Krishna,EveryHinduknowsof'SudarshanChakra.'That"chakra"orwheelembodiedintheflag.
HindusconsiderLordBuddhaasanAvatarandtheChakraontheflagrepresentsLordBuddhaaswell.
And,iftheHindubeliefsarecorrectthefinalincarnationordivinebeingasalreadyappearedontheearth
toridhumanityofthepresentterribleturmoilandvices,andtoreestablishpeace,justiceandorderinthe
world.ThatDivineBeingisamongstus.ItisMahatmaGandhi.Wemaynotacknowledgehimtoday,as
such,butaftersometime,theHinduswillconsiderhimasthelatestAvatar.Hisdearcharkhais
embodiedontheflag.SoIcansaythateveryonehasgotapleasingfeatureinthelagandparticularlythe
Hindus.AsIhaveexplained,everypartoftheflagisconsistentwiththereligioussentimentofthe
Hindus.Therefore.farfromopposingit,Hindusshouldadoreitandshouldbepreparedtosacrificetheir
alltoprotectitshonour.Iamfullysatisfiedwiththeflag,butas,somepeoplewantedsomeadditionand
alterationinitIthoughtitadvisabletosatisfythemwithoutmakinganychangeintheflagandforthisI
havemadeanattemptIwouldliketoassurethemthatdueconsiderationwasgiven.totheirproposals
andfeelingsbutfinallyitwasdecidedthattheflagunderwhichthewholecountry,includingthosewho
areopposingittodayfoughtforfreedom,shouldbeadoptedasthe
nationalflag.Afterthechangethathasbeenmadeintheflag,noHindushouldhaveanygroundforany
dissatisfaction.
Sir,itisourcountrythathasalwaysguidedtheworld.IthasbroughttheWorldfromdarknesstolight.
Asinthepast,thiscountryhasfortunatelyfortheworldproducedthegreatestmanofthetime,who
amidstallthecrowdingmiseriesofmankindandundertheshadow,ofthedarkcloudsofthethirdworld
war,precededbytwogreatwarsthatdestroyedtheworld,isstillstandingsolidlikearockandabeacon
forthe,world.Heisproclaimingthatmadnessshouldbegivenup.Iftheworldfollowshim,therewould
bePeaceandProsperity.ThisflagbearsthedearemblemofMahatmaGandhi.
IpraytoGodtobestowonusthestrengthandthewisdomtoleadourselvesandthewholeworldtoits
desireddestination.ItisIndiaandhealonethatcanguidetheworldtoitsgoal.itisIndiaalonethatcan
beexpectedtodogoodtotheworld.]*
Mr.TajamulHusain:Iwanttospeakafewwords.MynameisnotonthelistbutIwillnotexceedtwoor
threeminutes.HaveIyourpermission?
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Mr.President:NoIhavegotmorethan25namesonthelist.
Mr.TaJamulHusain:IhopeIwillhaveyourpermissionafterwards.
Mr.President:,Iwouldrequestthespeakersnowtoshortentheirspeechesaswehavegotonlyforty
minutesmore,sothatImaybeabletogiveanopportunitytoasmanyspeakersasmay'wishtospeak.I
suggesttwominutesforeachspeaker.*[]*EnglishtranslationHindustanispeechends.
IcalluponDr.JosephAlbanD'Souzatospeak.
Dr.JosephAlbanD'Souba(Bombay:General):Mr.President:Igiveyou,SirandtheHouseaguarantee
thatIamnotgoingtoexceedmorethan2or3minutes.IstandhereatthisAssemblyrostrumfirstasan
IndianandthenonlyasanIndianChristian(Hear,hear)becauseSir,onthisdaywhentheNationalFlag
hasbeenintroducedandplantedthereisjubillationandjoyallovertheNation,firstineveryIndian
HomeandalongwiththatinthehomeofeveryIndianChristian.Sir,themoverofthisResolution,the
greatPanditJawaharlalNehru,hasinaneloquentandbrilliantmannertoldushowthisFlag,represents,
inthefirstplacethebrilliantandgreattraditionsofthepastandequallybrillianthistoricconditionsofthe
past.ThenSir,hewentontotilluswhatitrepresentsatpresent.Atpresenthetoldusitrepresentsthe
upsanddownsthathaveoccurredintheprogresstowardsfreedomandaboveall,hetoldusthatit
representsthetriumphantconclusionofourfightforfreedom.Sir,itisonlymeetandproperthatthe
moverofthisResolutionshouldthegreatPanditJawaharlalNehruandwhy?Becauseofhisgreat
personality.Sir,whatdoImeanbyhisgreatpersonality?IfIamtoexpressitasbrieflyasIcanandat
thesametimegiveitallthesignificance,Ican,itisthis.Hispersonality,Sir,isbasedonallsacrificing
andallselflesscharacter,andbecauseitisallsacrificingandallselfless,itisallpervading,all
permeatingandallconquering.Ineednotsayawordmoreonthis.Itisrotnecessarybecausethewhole
ofIndia,nay,Sir,theworldknowshowthisgreatsonofmotherIndiahasimmolatedhimselfonthehigh
altaroftheIndianNationSir,Ithinkmytimeiscomingtoaclose.Ishallexpressmyheartfeltdesirefor
theprogressofIndiaundertheaegisoftheFlagthathasbeenacceptedtoday,byasmallLatinquotation:
"Vivat,Crescat,floreatIndia"
whichrenderedinEnglishmeansMayIndiaundertheaegisofthisFlag'live,growandflourish,tothe
lastingadvantageandglorynotonlyofteemingmillionsofcitizensofIndiabutmayIadd,Sir,tothe
lastinggloryandadvantageoftheworldatlargeThisSir.istheprayerofthishumbleIndianChristian.
(Cheers.)
Mr.JaiNarainVyas(JodhpurState):*[Sir,IneednotsaymuchinpraiseoftheNationalFlag.Iwantto
associatemyselfonbehalfofthepoliticallybackwardpeopleoftheStates,withthechorusoftributepaid
tothe
flag.UnderthisflagnotonlythepeopleoftheprovincesbuttheStatespeopletoohavefoughtfor
freedom,economicandsocial,andforliberationfromforeignyoke.OurstruggleintheStatehasbeen
associatedwiththisflagandwiththemoveroftheResolutionrelatingtoTheflag,PanditJawaharlal
Nehru.WithouthisguidancethemovementoftheStatespeopleandtheirprogresswouldnothave
attainedthemomentumithas.TodayPanditNehru'snameisassociatedwiththeflag.Ourfeelingsand
sentimentsarethesamea,,thoseofPanditNehru.PreviouslytherewasaCharkhaontheflagandnowa
Chakrahasbeensubstitutedforit.ThisCharkhaisthesymbolofactivity.UndertheCharkhaflagthe
peopleoftenprovinceshavealreadyattainedfreedombutthepeopleoftheStateshaveyettoattainitin
certainrespects.ImeanwehavetoattainresponsiblegovernmentinStates..Wedonotmeantoremove
ourrulingprincesbutwewanttohavefullresponsiblegovernmentunderthem.Thereisnodoubtthat
wewillattainourobjectiveunderthisflag.Thisisournationalflag.Itbelongstoallthecommunitiesof
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IndiaHindus,Muslims,SikhsandParsis.LetitflyeverywhereinIndiaandontheViceregalLodge,on
thehamletsofthepeasantsandonthepalacesoftheprinces.Withthesesentiment,Ipaymyhomageto
theFlag.]**[]*EnglishtranslationofHinduatanisPeech.
ShriS.Nagappa(Madras:General):Mr.President,Sir,IrisetosupporttheResolutionbeforetheHouse,
movedbyourreveredleaderPanditJawaharlalNehru.Sir,thisistheFlagunderwhichwehaveduring
thelastsixtyyearsmarchedonandhaveatlastreachedvictory.WeareproudofthisFlag.Initthereare
threecoloursandthesethreecoloursrepresentthethreecommunitiesinourCountrywhoareunitedinto
one.TheFlagdenotesalsowhatthecountrydesires.Wedonotdesiretocaptureothercountries,wedo
notwanttobeimperialistic,wedonotwanttoseeothercountriesbowingtous.Allthatwewantisthat
ourFlagshouldflyallovertheworldastheFlagsymbolisingpeace,progressandprosperity.Thatisthe
aimofourcountry.
MahatmaGandhiwaskindenoughtointroduceintheFlagtheemblemofthepoormantheindustryby
whichthepoormanekesoutalivelihoodtheCharkha.Sir,IcomefromtheHarijanCommunitywhich
dependsverymuchonspinningandMahatmaGandhihasrightlyputtheCharkhaontheFlag.Pandit
Nehruwaskindenoughtosaythatthisemblemshouldbeontheothersidealso,ifitisnutononeside.
ButtheChakrarepresentsnotonlytheCharkhabutithappilyrepresentstheprogressofthecountryand
itrepresentstherisingSun,therisingSunoftheindependenceofourcountry.Wehavebeenlivingfor
twohundredyearsinslavery,andnowweareatlastseeingtheSunofindependencerisinginour
country.
ThisChakrarepresentsalsothegreatVishnuChakrathewheeloftheworldthatwasabletotakethe
wholeworldtopeace,progressandprosperity.
Sir,itisveryeasytohaveaFlag,tohoisttheFlagandseeitflyoverbuildings.Buteverymanmust
knowhowtokeepthehonouroftheFlag.ThenmanwhokeepsthehonouroftheFlagkeepsthehonour
ofthewholeNation.ThehighertheFlagflies,thegreateristhehonouroftheNation.
Hitherto,thisFlagwascalledtheCongressFlag.NowitcannotbecalledtheCongressFlag,itwillbe
calledtheIndianNationalFlag.Everyone,whetherhebeaMuslim,HinduorChristian,willownthis
Flag.Hehastodefenditandstakeevenhislife,ifneedbethenalonewillthehonourofourcountrybe
highintheevesoftheworld.
Mr.LakshminarayanSahu(Orissa:General):Sir,IwholeheartedlysupporttheResolutionthathasbeen
soably,wonderfully,andmayIadd,magicallymovedbyPanditJawaharlalNehru.TheFlagthathas
beenpresentedtousremindsmeofmyownplaceinOrissa.ThereisthetempleofJagnnathinOrissa
overwhichforoverathousandyearstheEternalWheelcalledtheNeelaChakrahasbeenstandingand
withitis
associatedtheFlagcalled"PatitaPavanVana",thatis,theflagwhichrepresentsthepoorpeople,the
untouchables.Iwishthatonthisoccasionallourleaderswouldmakeanefforttothrowopenthetemple
ofJagannathtothesocalleduntouchableswhoaredeniedadmissionintoittoday.
ThiswheelonthisFlagremindsmealsoofmanyassociationsconnectedwithKalingaandMagadhato
whichlatterplaceyou.Mr.President,belong.AsokafromMagadhawentovertoKalingaandfoughta
greatbattle.Afterveryheavycarnage,hewasturnedintoagentlebeingthegentleAsokaanditisthere
thattheKalingasinawayconqueredAsoka.WhenIseethisFlaghere,associatedwiththenameof
AsokaandalsowithBuddha,IamremindedthatourcountryKalingaafteragreatbattletaughtagood
lessontoAsokaanonviolentone.TherearetwoplacesinOrissaeventodaywheretheedictsofAsoka
arestanding,totelltheworldthatwemustserveallcountriesandallhumanity,irrespectiveofcaste,
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creed,colourandsoon.Infact,IfeelthatthisFlagofoursisnotonlyNational,butitisinaway
Internationalbecausethewheelrepresentsthewheelofeternity.Therefore,allofus,Isay,eventhoseof
uswhowerenotwiththeCongresstillyesterdaywillrespectthisFlag.ThisistheFlagwhichhas
becomeentirelyNational,completelyNationaltodaywhentheResolutionaboutthisNationalFlagwas
movedsoablybyPanditJawaharlalNehru.
WhenIseethethreecoloursonthisFlag,Iamremindedalsoofthethreeimagesinsidethetempleof
Jagannath.LordJagannathrepresentsthebluecolour,BalaramrepresentsthewhiteandSubhadraDevi
representstheyellowcolour,withLordJagannathandBalaramoneithersideofSubhadraDevi,inaway
defendingtheWomenfolk.ThissymbolIworshipbecauseinawayitisthesymbolofmycountrythe
placefromwhereIcometositinthisConstituentAssemblyasamember.
Itherefore,wholeheartedlysupporttheResolutionsoablymovedbyPanditJawaharlalNehru.
Rev.JeromeD'Souza(Madras:General):Mr.President,IthankyouSir,forgivingmetheopportunityto
joininthechorusoftheexpressionofhappinessonthisveryauspiciousoccasion,whenIndia,without
distinctionofreligionorcasteorcreed,provinceorsectionacceptsaNational.emblemthatwill
representherinthecouncilsoftheworld.Sir,someofuswhohaveseenpublicdemonstrationsand
pageantsinforeigncountries,havefelthumiliationatseeingourowngreatland,itsvastpeoples,its
ancientheritageandcultureanditsincomparablebeautyunrepresented.inthesepageants.Andwhen
thesestrangerslookedatuswehadtobowourheadinhumiliationknowingthatinthisComitywehad
noindependentrepresentation.Sir,todaythishumiliationendsandifsuchapageantshouldtakeplace,
thechildrenofIndiawhomaybepresenttherewillsharethepridewithwhichothernationsgreetand
honourthesymbolsoftheircountryflutteringintheairandtheirheartswillrejoiceastheirFlagwillrise
inthebreeze.That,Sir,isoneaspectofitwhich,Ithink,willcomehometoallofuswithpeculiar
satisfaction.
Betterthanmostpeople,Itakeitthatourpeopleunderstandthemeaningofsymbolism,ofritualismthe
significanceofthehoistingofthisFlag,andallthatitstandsfor.Suchisourloveofritual,suchisthe
imaginativewealthwithwhichwesurroundsymbolsandsigns.Oursisaveryhappyandsingularlywell
conceivedsymbolwithitsharmonyofcolourandwithitsuniqueideaofacircleinthecentreintowhich
suchawealthofmeaningcanbeconcentrated.Sir,Iamsuremanyofthosewhowerepresentwillrecall
thehistoricaloccasionwhenthisverynoblebuildinginwhichwehavegatheredwasinaugurated.On
thatdaytheViceroyoftheday,LordIrwin,referredtothecircularconstructionofthisbuildingand
alludingtooneofthenoblestofCristianEnglishpoets,quotedhislines.thathehadseen"eternityasa
circleofwhitelight."Sir,thiscircle.this
wheel,whichrepresentssomanythingstimeanditsrevenges.industryandallitsachievements
representsforusalsoternityandthevaluesofeternallife.
PanditJawaharlalNehrureferredtothesespiritualvaluesbywhichanationlivesandwhichshouldbe
representedbythisFlag.Nothingcouldbemoreappropriateandadmirablethanthiscircletorepresent
thosespiritualvalues.ThisisthesymbolwithwhichIndiawillcontinueitsfightMayIbepermittedto
saythatIndiawillcontinueitsstrugglealsoforpeace,andthatjustashersoldierswillbeencouragedand
upliftedbythesightofthisFlaginallrighteouswarfareagainstunjustenemies,soalsothisFlagwill
standasareminderofourloveofpeace.Mayithelpustogoforwardinallrighteousworkandseethat
allsocialwrongsarerighted.Aboveall,ineverycaseoffraticidalwarfare,ofstrifeamongourselves,
wheninjusticeisdone,whentempersrise,whencommunalpeaceisbrokenup,maythesightofthisFlag
helptosoftentheharshanddiscordantvoices,andhelpustostandtogether,aswehavegatheredtodayin
unanimity,inhappinessisbrotherlyfeelingtosalutethis,ourNationalFlag.
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Mr.President:ThereareyetanumberofspeakersonthelistbutIhadpromisedearlierthatIwillcall
Mrs.Naidutomakethefinalspeech.SoIrequesthertoaddresstheHouse.
Mrs.SarojiniNaidu(Bihar:General):Mr.President,theHouseknowsthatIhadrefusedoverandover
againthismorningtospeak.IthoughtthatthespeechofJawaharlalNehrusoepicinitsqualityof
beauty,dignityandappropriatenesswassufficienttoexpresstheaspirations,emotionsandtheidealsof
thisHouse.ButIwashappywhenIsawtherepresentativesofthevariouscommunitiesthatconstitute
thisHouseriseupandpledgetheirallegiancetothisFlag.Iwasespeciallyremindedbythepeoplethat
sitbehindmefromtheProvinceofBiharthatitwasattheriskofmylifeandseatintheirprovince,
shouldIforgettomentionthatthisFlag,sowillinglyandproudlyacceptedtodaybytheHouse.hasfor
itssymboltheDharmaChakraofAsoka,whomtheyclaim(Idonotknowwithwhathistoricalveracity)
tobeaBihariButifIamspeakingheretoday,itisnotanbehalfofanycommunity,oranycreedorany
sex,thoughwomenmembersofthisHouseareveryinsistentthatawomanshouldspeak.Ithinkthatthe
timehascomeintheonwardmarchoftheworldcivilisationwhenthereshouldbenolongeranysex
consciousnessorsexseparationintheserviceofthecountry.Ithereforespeakonbehalfofthatancient
rebornMotherwithherundividedheartandindivisiblespirit,whoseloveisequalforallherchildren,no
matterwhatcornertheycomefrominwhattemplesormosquestheyworship,whatlanguagetheyspeak
orwhatculturetheyprofess.
Manymanytimesinthecourseofmylonglife,inmytravelsabroadforIamvagabondbynatureandby
destinyIhavesufferedthemostterriblemomentsofanguishinfreecountries,becauseIndiapossessedno
flagAfewofthosemomentIwouldliketorecall.
OnthedaywhenpeacewassignedatVersaillesafterthelastwar.IhappenedtobeinParis.Therewas
greatrejoicingeverywhereandflagsofallnationsdecoratedtheOperaHouse.Therecameonthe
platformafamousactresswithabeautifulvoice.forwhomtheproceedingswereinterruptedwhileshe
wrappedroundherselftheflagofFrance.Theentireaudienceroseasonemanandsangwithherthe
NationalAnthemofFrancetheMarseillaise.AnIndiannearmewithtearsinhiseyesturnedtomeand
said"WhenshallwehaveourownFlag?""Thetimewillsooncome,"Ianswered,'Whenweshallhave
ourownFlagandourownAnthem."
IwasaskedtospeakatapeacecelebrationinNewYorksoonafterthepeacehadbeensigned.Fortyfour
NationsandtheirFlagsflutteringinthegreathallinwhichtheAssemblymet.IlookedattheFlagsofall
theNationsandwhenIspokeIcriedthatthoughIdidnotseeinthatgreatAssemblyofFreeNationsthe
Flagof
FreeIndia,itwouldbecomethemosthistoricFlagoftheIworldinthenotdistantfuture.
ItwasalsoamomentofanguishformewhenafewmonthslaterfortytwoNationssenttheirwomento
anInternationalConferenceinBerlin.Theretheywereplanningtohave,onemorning,aFlagparadeof
theNations.Indiahadnoofficialflag.ButatmysuggestionsomeofthewomenIndiandelegatestore
stripsfromtheirsarissittinguptillthesmallhoursofthemorningtomaketheTricolournag,sothatour
countryshouldnotbehumiliatedforthelackofaNationalBanner.
Buttheworstanguishofallwasonlyafewmonthsago,whenontheinspirationofJawaharlalNehruthe
NationsofAsiametinDelhiandaffirmedtheunityofAsia.Onthewallbehindtheplatformtherewas
theflagofeverynationofAsia.Iranwasthere,Chinawasthere,AfghanistanwasthereasalsoSiam.Big
countriesandlittlecountrieswereallrepresentedbutwehadexercisedaselfdenyingordinance,sothat
wemightscrupulouslykeeporpledgethatnopartypoliticswouldbepermittedattheconference.Can
younotunderstandandsharewithmetheanguishofthatdecisionwhichexcludedtheTricolourthe
CongressFlagfromtheAsianConference?Butheretodayweretrievethatsorrowandthatshame:we
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attainourownFlag,theFlagofFreeIndia.Todaywejustify,wevindicateandwesalutethisFlagunder
whichsomanyhundredsandthousandsofushavefoughtandsuffered.Menandwomen,oldandyoung,
princesandpeasants,HindusandMuslims,Sikhs,Jains,Christians,Zorostrians,allofthemhavefought
underthisFlag.WhenmyfriendKhaliquazzamanwasspeaking,Isawbeforemethegreatpatriots,my
friendsandcomradesoftheMuslimcommunitywhohadsufferedunderthisFlag.IthoughtofMahomed
Ali,ofShaukatAli,ofAnsariandofAjmalKhan.IcouldmentionthesmallestcommunityinIndia,the
Parsicommunity,thecommunityofthatgrandoldmanDadabhaiNaoroji,whosegranddaughterstoo
foughtsidebysidewiththeothers,sufferedimprisonmentandmadesacrificesforthefreedomofIndia.I
wasaskedbyamanwhoWasblindwithprejudice:'HowcanyouspeakofthisflagastheflagofIndia?
Indiaisdivided.'Itoldhimthatthisismerelyatemporarygeographicalseparation.Thereisnospiritof
separationintheheartofIndia.(Hear,hear).TodayIaskoneandalltohonourthisFlag.Thatwheel,
whatdoesitrepresent?ItrepresentstheDharmaChakraofAsokatheMagnificentwhosenthismessage
ofpeaceandbrotherhoodallovertheworld.Didhenotanticipatethemodernidealoffellowshipand
brotherhoodandcooperation?Doesnotthatwheelstandasasymbolforeverynationalinterestand
nationalactivity?DoesitnotrepresenttheChakraofmyillustrationsadbelovedleader,Mahatma
Gandhiandthewheeloftimethatmarchesandmarchesandmarcheswithouthesitationandwithout
halt?DoesitnotrepresenttheraysoftheSun?Doesitnotrepresenteternity?Doesitnotrepresentthe
humanmind?WhoshaltliveunderthatFlagwithoutthinkingofthecommonIndia?Whoshalllimitits
functions?Whoshalllimititsinheritance?TowhomdoesAbelong?ItbelongstoIndia.Itbelongstoan
India.PanditJawaharlalNehrutoldusthatIndiahasneverbeenexclusive.Iwishhehadadded'India
welcomesallknowledgefromfriendandtoealikeDidshenot?Havenotalltheculturesoftheworld
contributedtotheoceanofherculture?HasIslamnotbroughttoIndiatheidealsofdemocratic
brotherhoodtheZorostrianhissteadfastcourage,whofledfromlranwithablazinglogfromtheirfire
temple,whoseflamehasnotperishedthesethousandyears?HavenottheChristiansbroughttousthe
lesson.ofservicetothehumblestoftheland?HasnottheimmemorialHinducreedtaughtusuniversal
loveofmankindandhasitnottaughtusthatweshallnotjudgemerelybyourownnarrowstandardbut
that'weshouldjudgebytheuniversalstandardofhumanity?
ManyofmyfriendshavespokenofthisFlagwiththepoetryoftheir
ownhearts.Iasapoetandasawoman,IamspeakingprosetoyouwhenIsaythatwewomenstandfor
theunityofIndia.RememberthisFlagthereisnoprinceandthereisnopeasant,thereisnorichand
thereisnopoor.Thereisnoprivilegethereisonlydutyandresibilityandsacrifice.Whetherwebe
HindusorMuslims,Christians,SikhsorZorostriansandothers,ourMotherIndiahasoneundivided
heartandoneindivisiblespirit.MenandwomenofrebornIndia.riseandsalutethisFlagIbidyou,rise
andsalutetheFlag.(Loudcheers).
Mr.President:IwouldaskMemberstoexpresstheirassenttotheResolutionwhichhasbeenplaced
beforethemandshowtheirrespecttotheFlagbygettingupandstandingintheirplacesforhalfa
minute.
Themotionwasadopted,thewholeAssemblystanding.
Mr.President:Ihavetomakeoneannouncementbeforeweadjourn.Aquestionwasputtomeyesterday
aboutthefutureprogramme.IhavehadconsultationswithsomeoftheMembersandwiththestaffofthe
ConstituentAssemblyIaminapositiontostatethatitispossibletocompletethediscussionofthe
ReportoftheUnionConstitutionCommitteewithinthismonthand,ifwedothat,saybythe30thor31st
ofthismonth,wemightadjournthissession.Weshallberequiredtobehereagainonthe15thofthe
nextmonthwhenpowerwillbeactuallytransferredtothepeople'srepresentativesbytheRepresentative
oftheBritishGovernment.WhenMemberscomehereforthatfunctionIsuggestthatwemightcontinue
oursittingsafterthe15thAugustandtakeuptheReportoftheUnionPowersCommittee.Ifthisis
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acceptabletotheHouse(Hon'bleMembers:'yes')wemayalsohavetheReportoftheMinorities
Committeeandwemayhopetodisposeofthatalsoduringthenextsession.
TheHonourablePanditJawaharLalNehru:Mr.President,Sir,mayIrespectfullysuggestthatthetwo
Flagswhichhavebeendisplayedthismorningmaybespeciallypreservedandsubsequentlydepositedin
theNationalMuseum(Applause.)
Mr.President:Iacceptthatsuggestion.
AnHonourableMember:IrequestyouonbehalfoftheHousetoconveyourhomagetoMahatma
Gandhiandtellhimthatweareobservingthedayverymagnificently.
Mr.President:Iwilldothatwiththegreatestpleasure.
TheAssemblythenadjournedtillTenoftheClock,onWednesday,the23rdJuly1947.

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