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WIRE APPLICATION PROTOCOL REPORT
WIRE APPLICATION PROTOCOL REPORT

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Wireless Application Protocol 201 0

Seminar Report On
Wireless application protocol(WAP)
Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of degree of Master of technology in specialization in SACA

By ,

K.RAGHAVENDRA

RAGHU K

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Wireless Application Protocol 201 0
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that PG seminar report entitled “WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL”, Submitted by Reg. No 09SY06F for the partial K.Raghavendra

fulfillment of the requirements for the award of M.Tech degree in System Analysis and Computer Applications under the Department of MACS.

Guides: Name: Name:

RAGHU K

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Wireless Application Protocol 201 0

WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL(WAP)
BRIEF CONTENTS:

S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Topic AN INTRODUCTION TO WAP DEFINITION OF WAP WAP FORUM MOTIVATION THE NEED FOR WAP WAP ARCHITECTURE OVER VIEW WAP PROTOCOL STACK ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WAP CONCLUSON BIBILOGRAPHY

Page No 4 4 5 6 7 8 12 13 14 15

RAGHU K

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1.

An introduction to WAP:
Here we will compose a description of the WAP concept. We aim to give an overview of the relevant technology aspects and do not focus on explaining how to specifically use the different parts of the WAP technology.

Barely a decade ago, when Internet was in its infancy, the mere thought that a person could access a global database of information right from his/hers room was thought to be science fiction. In the late nineties when Internet had spawned into a behemoth that we so greatly depend upon, human race was faced with another such awe inspiring thought. Could a person chat with his wife, bid at the stock exchange, keep in touch with the latest in sports and business, catch up on some research, all while commuting to and from his office? The technology that will make this feasible is WAP. WAP bridges the gap between the mobile world and the Internet as well as corporate intranets and offers the ability to deliver an unlimited range of mobile value-added services to subscribers—independent of their network, bearer, and terminal. Mobile subscribers can access the same wealth of information from a pocket-sized device as they can from the desktop.

2. What is the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)?
The WAP standard specifies a set of protocols and an application environment for the delivery of interactive and real-time information services over a mobile network to conforming hand-held digital devices. Examples of such devices are PDAs and mobile telephones with displays. WAP aims to integrate Internet, wireless data, and telephony. WAP works with all types of wireless networks including GSM, TDMA, CDMA, and the upcoming 3G networks. WAP is the wireless counterpart of the Internet protocol HTTP and the Web markup language HTML. WAP addresses issues relating to wireless interaction, which is characterized by low bandwidth and devices with small displays, limited processing power and memory, and batteries that can operate only for limited periods without being recharged.

RAGHU K

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Although WAP follows the client-server Web model of interaction, WAP is incompatible with HTTP and HTML. Consequently, WAP gateways (proxies) are needed to sit between the client (WAP device) and the Web servers. Incidentally, the newer version of WAP, WAP 2.0, supports HTTP, but a gateway is still required for reasons such as WML compression, dynamic conversion of HTML to WML, etc. WAP gateways intercept and handle user requests to Web servers and process the responses. A Web server may generate WML content for WAP devices or it may simply dish out HTML (or XML). In case the Web server generates HTML (XML), the WAP gateways must convert the HTML (XML) to WML. Before sending the WML to the WAP device, the gateway compresses it to WMLC (the C in WMLC is for compressed). If the WML generated by the Web sever is already WMLC, then the compression step is skipped and the server response passed on to the WAP device.

3.(WAP) Forum:
Ericsson, Nokia and Unwired Planet (now known as Phone.com) founded WAP Forum in June 1997 and since then a lot of new members have entered. WAP Forum has over 500 members consisting of some of the world’s premier service developers, handset manufactures, infrastructure providers and software developers. This forum has developed a de facto world standard for wireless information and telephony services on digital mobile phones and other wireless terminals called Wireless Application Protocol – WAP. WAP is an open global specification that introduces the concept of providing access and interact with information as well as services to the mobile users with wireless devices. This information may reside on the Internet or the Intranet of an organization. WAP can be seen as integration and defragmentation of wireless communication and the Internet towards a completely new market of information telecommunication. Technically, WAP can roughly be described as a set of protocols that has inherited its characteristics and functionality from existing Internet technologies and technologies for wireless communication. The delivery of a set of specifications in order to enable potential suppliers to develop WAP enabled products and services for early deployment has been the initial thrust for the WAP Forum. In April 1998 this goal was achieved as the WAP version 1.0 specifications were approved and made public.

RAGHU K

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4. Motivation for WAP
WAP is positioned at the convergence of two rapidly evolving network technologies, wireless data and the Internet. Both the wireless data market and the Internet are growing very quickly and are continuously reaching new customers. The explosive growth of the Internet has fuelled the creation of new and exciting information services. Most of the technology developed for the Internet has been designed for desktop and larger computers and medium to high bandwidth, generally reliable data networks. Mass-market, hand-held wireless devices present a more constrained computing environment compared to desktop computers. Because of fundamental limitations of power and form-factor, massmarket handheld devices tend to have:  Less powerful CPUs,  Less memory (ROM and RAM),  Restricted power consumption,  Smaller displays, and  Different input devices (e.g. a phone keypad). Wireless devices are, as a rule not equipped with amounts of memory and computational power comparable to desktop computers. Even though the trend shows that more powerful hardware will be included in wireless devices, the relative difference between handheld devices and desktop computer will most likely be sustained. Wireless communication of today suffers from the restricted operating time due to battery power consumption. Even though batteries are being developed to last longer and the radio interfaces are tuned to consume less power, there is still more to ask for in this area. There has been a strive to make wireless hand-held devices as small as possible in order to make them convenient when the user is on the move and thus provide large portability. This need for portability set the constraints on the size of the display used for service interaction on a wireless hand-held device. Similarly, wireless data networks present a more constrained communication environment compared to wired networks. Because of fundamental limitations of power, available spectrum, and mobility, wireless data networks tend to have:  Less bandwidth,  More latency,  Less connection stability, and

RAGHU K

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Wireless Application Protocol 201 0
 Less predictable availability. A WAP service must not consume much bandwidth when transmitted in order to be suitable for wireless access. Compared to wired networks, the wireless networks have high latency. This restriction is addressed in WAP by minimizing the roundtrips between the wireless device and the wireless network. Wired network access provide a connection which can be unstable and unpredictable for shorter or longer periods due to for example lost radio coverage and deficient capacity.Mobile networks are growing in complexity and the cost of all aspects for provisioning of more value added services is increasing. In order to meet the requirements of mobile network operators, solutions must be:
 Interoperable – terminals from different manufacturers communicate with services in

the mobile network;  Scaleable – mobile network operators are able to scale services to customer needs;
 Efficient – provides quality of service suited to the behavior and characteristics of the

mobile network;  Reliable – provides a consistent and predictable platform for deploying services;  Secure – enables services to be extended over potentially unprotected mobile networks while still preserving the integrity of user data; protects the devices and services from security problems such as denial of service. Many of the current mobile networks include advanced services that can be offered to endusers. Mobile network operators strive to provide advanced services in a useable and attractive way in order to promote increased usage of the mobile network services and to decrease the turnover rate of subscribers. Standard features, like call control, can be enhanced by using WAP technology to provide customized user interfaces. For example, services such as call forwarding may provide a user interface that prompts the user to make a choice between accepting a call, forwarding to another person, forwarding it to voice mail, etc. The WAP specifications address mobile network characteristics and operator needs by adapting existing network technology to the special requirements of massmarket, hand-held wireless data devices and by introducing new technology where appropriate.

5. The Need For WAP

RAGHU K

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In this chapter we’ve explored a variety of converging technologies and forces. The time is right to deliver data to mobile devices. A question remains: What technologies are most appropriate for delivering that data? The most obvious answer is to simply use existing Internet technologies. Before WAP, people were able to get Internet access from wireless devices. Unfortunately, the standard Internet technologies have several flaws making them unsuitable for wireless access: ➣ Web pages as we currently know them are fine for desktop and laptop computers with large, color screens, gobs of processing power, and bandwidth 5 to 1000 times higher than a typical wireless connection. Smart phones and handheld devices have small screens, modest processing power, low speed wireless connections, and limited input abilities. Typical web pages just don’t work with those types of devices. ➣ HTML, the language used to create web pages, is a text-based language which wastes a significant amount of bandwidth. It takes more time and bandwidth to send data with HTML than with binary-encoded, compressed information. The same is true of TCP/IP, the protocol used to deliver web pages to desktop computers. It wastes bandwidth. ➣ Current Internet technology uses TCP/IP, which does not have robust technology for handling the interference and lost signals commonly found in the wireless world. ➣ TCP/IP is not inherently secure. Transmissions can be intercepted and read by others. ➣ TCP/IP is not supported by all wireless networks. The WAP specification was designed to accommodate all of the features, advantages, and disadvantages of Internet access through a wireless connection. WAP is: Tailored for small devices. As we explore in a later chapter, you can easily create WAP applications that accommodate a wide range of devices. Binary encoded. The connection between a smart phone and a WAP gateway is encoded and compressed to maximize throughput on low bandwidth networks. Robust.WAP’s design accounts for the challenges of wireless connections. Secure. Data to and from the WAP device is encrypted, preventing eavesdropping. Independent.WAP’s design makes it device and network independent. WAP operates across a wide range of devices and wireless networks.

6. WAP Architectural Overview RAGHU K Page 8

Wireless Application Protocol 201 0
This chapter gives an overview of what the WAP architectural model is and how closely it’s related to the World Wide Web model. For this purpose a comparison of the two models is presented. An example of a WAP network is provided.

6.1 The World Wide Web model

Figure 2.1
The Internet World Wide Web (WWW) architecture provides a very flexible and powerful programming model (Figure 2.1). Applications and content are presented in standard data formats, and are browsed by applications known as web browsers. The web browser is a networked application, i.e. it sends requests for named data objects to a network server and the network server responds with the data encoded using the standard formats. The WWW standards specify many of the mechanisms necessary to build a generalpurpose application environment, including:
 Standard naming model – All servers and content on the WWW are named with an

Internet-standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL).
 Content typing – All content on the WWW is given a specific type thereby allowing

web browsers to correctly process the content based on its type.
 Standard content formats – All web browsers support a set of standard content

formats. These include the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the JavaScript scripting language, and a large number of other formats.

RAGHU K

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 Standard Protocols – Standard networking protocols allow any web browser to

communicate with any web server. The most commonly used protocol on the WWW is the HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP). This infrastructure allows users to easily reach a large number of third-party applications and content services. It also allows application developers to easily create applications and content services for a large community of clients. The WWW protocols define three classes of servers:
 Origin server – The server on which a given resource (content) resides or is to be

created.
 Proxy – An intermediary program that acts as both a server and a client for the

purpose of making requests on behalf of other clients. The proxy typically resides between clients and servers that have no means of direct communication, e.g. across a firewall. Requests are either serviced by the proxy program or passed on, with possible translation, to other servers. A proxy must implement both the client and server requirements of the WWW specifications.
 Gateway – A server, which acts as an intermediary for some other server. Unlike a

proxy, a gateway receives requests as if it were the origin server for the requested resource. The requesting client may not be aware that it is communicating with a gateway.

6.2 The WAP Model

Figure 2.2 RAGHU K Page 10

Wireless Application Protocol 201 0
The WAP programming model (Figure 2.2) is similar to the WWW programming model. This provides several benefits to the application developer community, including a familiar programming model, a proven architecture, and the ability to leverage existing tools (e.g., Web servers, XML tools, etc.). Optimizations and extensions have been made in order to match the characteristics of the wireless environment. Wherever possible, existing standards have been adopted or have been used as the starting point for the WAP technology. WAP content and applications are specified in a set of well-known content formats based on the familiar WWW content formats. Content is transported using a set of standard communication protocols based on the WWW communication protocols. A micro browser in the wireless terminal co-ordinates the user interface and is analogous to a standard web browser. WAP defines a set of standard components that enable communication between mobile terminals and network servers, including:
 Standard naming model – WWW-standard URLs are used to identify WAP content on

origin servers. WWW-standard URLs are used to identify local resources in a device, e.g. call control functions.
 Content typing – All WAP content is given a specific type consistent with WWW

typing. This allows WAP user agents to correctly process the content based on its type.
 Standard content formats – WAP content formats are based on WWW technology and

include display markup, calendar information, electronic business card objects, images and scripting language.
 Standard communication protocols – WAP communication protocols enable the

communication of browser requests from the mobile terminal to the network web server. The WAP content types and protocols have been optimized for mass market, handheld wireless devices. WAP utilizes proxy technology to connect between the wireless domain and the WWW. The WAP proxy typically is comprised of the following functionality:
 Protocol Gateway – The protocol gateway translates requests from the WAP protocol

stack (WSP, WTP, WTLS, and WDP) to the WWW protocol stack (HTTP and TCP/IP).
 Content Encoders and Decoders – The content encoders translate WAP content into

compact encoded formats to reduce the size of data over the network.

RAGHU K

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Wireless Application Protocol 201 0
This infrastructure ensures that mobile terminal users can browse a wide variety of WAP content and applications, and that the application author is able to build content services and applications that run on a large base of mobile terminals. The WAP proxy allows content and applications to be hosted on standard WWW servers and to be developed using proven WWW technologies such as CGI scripting. While the nominal use of WAP will include a web server, WAP proxy and WAP client, the WAP architecture can quite easily support other configurations. It is possible to create an origin server that includes the WAP proxy functionality. Such a server might be used to facilitate end-to-end security solutions, or applications that require better access control or a guarantee of responsiveness, e.g. WTA.

7. The WAP Protocol Stack
This chapter introduces the components of WAP architecture. The WAP architecture provides a generic protocol stack, which ensures that all the requirements of the WAP forum are fulfilled. The WAP architecture provides a scaleable and extensible environment for application development for mobile communication devices. This is achieved through a layered design of the entire protocol stack (Figure 3.1). Each of the layers of the architecture is accessible by the layers above, as well as by other services and applications.

RAGHU K

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The WAP layered architecture enables other services and applications to utilize the features of the WAP stack through a set of well-defined interfaces. External applications may access the session, transaction, security and transport layers directly. The following sections provide a description of the various elements of the protocol stack architecture.

8.Advantages of WAP:
Using WAP, which is a global and open standard, has the following advantages:

Portability: A WAP application on one network should be easily portable to a different environment with little or no change. The alternative to using WAP is to write applications using proprietary protocols. Such applications will require substantial code rewriting when porting to a
o o

different type of network (examples of network types are GSM and CDMA), different bearer protocol (examples of bearer protocols are SMS, short message service or CSD, circuit switched data), or a new device type.

o •

User Experience: WAP aims to enhance the user experience by addressing characteristics of wireless environment:
o o

Narrow bandwidth connection. Devices with small screens, limited battery use without recharging, limited memory, and limited processing power.

Cost and Application Development Time Reduction: New services can be added quickly and at a lower cost using WAP. This is made possible by the easy availability of standardized WAP tools and platforms such as WAP software development tool kits, WAP gateways, and WAP devices.

DISADVANTAGES OF WAP
 Expensive.     Did not have a packet-based service for long time. Limited size of RAM and ROM. Limited power supply. Low bandwidth.

RAGHU K

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 Difficult to keep the phones up-to-date with new WAP services.

9.Conclusion
In conclusion, WAP is suitable for the creation of mobile learning training course material. The optimisation of WAP and the handling of the design challenges makes it feasible to use mobile handheld devices for distance learning in real-time. The application developer must always be aware of the user and take into account the usability issues if the application is to be a success.

RAGHU K

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10.BIBILOGRAPHY: 1) Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) architecture ILHO LEE - WAP Forum magazine, 2002 - crystal.uta.edu 2) Wireless Application Protocol Dave Singel´ee and Bart Preneel, International Journal of Network Security, Vol.1, No.3, PP.161–165, Nov. 2005 (http://isrc.nchu.edu.tw/ijns/) 161. 3) WAP- the wireless application protocol C Erlandson, P Ocklind - ERICSSON REV(ENGL ED), 1998 - wireless-location.com

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