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© 2004 Thomson Peterson’s, a part of The Thomson Corporation
Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
Editors: Mandie Rosenberg and Joe Ziegler; Production Editor: Alysha Bullock; Composition Manager:
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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced or used in any
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ISBN 0-7689-1486-8
Printed in the United States of America
10

9

8

7

First Edition

6

5

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04

Petersons.com/publishing
Check out our Web site at www.petersons.com/publishing to see if there is any new information
regarding the test and any revisions or corrections to the content of this book. We’ve made sure
the information in this book is accurate and up-to-date; however, the test format or content may
have changed since the time of publication.

Credits
“The American Renaissance,” by James S. Turner, Humanities, Vol.13, No. 2 (March/April 1992).
Published by The National Endowment for the Humanities.
“Arnold’s Double-Sided Culture,” by John P. Farrell, Humanities, Vol. 12, No. 3 (May/June 1991),
pp. 26–30. Published by The National Endowment for the Humanities.
“The Artful Encounter,” by Richard Wendorf, Humanities, Vol. 14, No. 4 (July/August 1993), pp.
9–12. Published by The National Endowment for the Humanities.
“The Debate Over Mozart’s Music,” by Neal Zaslaw, Humanities, Vol. 14, No. 5 (September/
October 1993), pp. 26–27. Published by The National Endowment for the Humanities.
“ ‘I Am Christina Rossetti,’ ” by Antony H. Harrison, Humanities, Vol. 14, No. 4 (July/August
1993), pp. 33–37. Published by The National Endowment for the Humanities.
“Images of Dorothea Lange,” by Therese Thau Heyman, Humanities, Vol. 14, No. 5 (September/
October 1993), pp. 6, 8–10. Published by The National Endowment for the Humanities.
“Large Format Expands Little Buddha,” by Bob Fisher, American Cinematographer, Vol. 75, No. 5
(May 1994), p. 41. Reprinted by permission of American Cinematographer.

Contents
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ABOUT
THIS TOOL KIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2
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Your
Tools
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About This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 2
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Oh,
the
Sidebars
You’ll
See.
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2
1
PART
I:
EVERYTHING
YOU
EVER
WANTED
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TO
KNOW
ABOUT
THE
GMAT
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2
1
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Chapter
1:
The
GMAT—In
a
Nutshell
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6
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Chapter
2:
The
GMAT—Up
Close
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2
PART
II: ANALYTICAL WRITING
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ASSESSMENT
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Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment . . . . . .
72 2
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1
Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 2
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1
PART
III: QUANTITATIVE ABILITY
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Chapter
4:
Problem
Solving
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Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 2
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2
1
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Chapter 5: Data Sufficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 2
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Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 2
2
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2
1 Chapter 6: Math Review—Number Forms,
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Relationships,
and
Sets
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Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 2
1
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Chapter 7: Math Review—Number Theory and
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Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 2
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Take
It
to
the
Next
Level.
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258
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Chapter 8: Math Review—Geometry . . . . . . . . . . 279 2
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2
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Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 2
2
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PART
IV: VERBAL ABILITY
2
1
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Chapter
9:
Critical
Reasoning
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Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 2
2
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v

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Chapter 10: Sentence Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 2
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Take
It
to
the
Next
Level.
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Chapter
11:
Reading
Comprehension
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429
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Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 2
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2
1
2
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PART
V:
THREE
PRACTICE
TESTS
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Practice
Test
1
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470
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Answers
and
Explanations
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Practice
Test
2
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512
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Answers and Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 2
2
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Practice Test 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 2
2
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1
Answers and Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 2
2
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PART
VI:
APPENDIX
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Determining Your Score . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594 2
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2
1
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2
1
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vi
www.petersons.com

About This Tool Kit
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2
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2
1 Tools
Your
2
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2
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Peterson’s
Ultimate
GMAT
Tool
Kit
provides
the
complete
package
you
2
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need
to
score
your
personal
best
on
the
GMAT
and
get
into
your
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top-choice MBA program. Unlike any book previously published, this tool 2
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kit contains many features that used to be available only to those who 2
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2
1 purchased expensive test-prep classes.
2
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2
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2
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e-Tutoring
2
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Use the CD to go online to register for one-to-one math help from a live 2
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expert when you need it. Tutoring is offered using an online white board 2
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shared by you and the tutor that allows you to communicate with one 2
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1 another in real time. However, if you prefer, you can submit your math 2
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2
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question instead and receive an answer within 24 hours.
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2
1
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The
free
tutoring
offered
with
this
product
is
limited
to
30
minutes,
2
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although you may purchase more time if you need it. A written response to 2
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1 a submitted questions counts as 20 minutes. The tutoring service is 2
2
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available
for
six
months
from
the
date
you
register
online.
The
e-tutoring
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1 service offered to purchasers of this 2005 edition will expire on January 1, 2
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2006.
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This service is available 24 hours a day seven days a week for most of the 2
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year. During the summer it is available from 9 a.m. to 1 a.m. Eastern time. 2
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1 Due to low demand, the service is not available during several holiday 2
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periods including Thanksgiving, Christmas, and Easter, Labor Day, and 2
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Memorial Day.
2
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Remember, to register for this service you will need the CD that 2
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2
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1 accompanies this book. You will also need to refer to this book to provide 2
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2
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2
1 the access code when prompted.
2
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2
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1

About This Tool Kit

2

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2
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Essay Scoring
2
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2
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The
CD
that
accompanies
this
book
allows
you
to
go
online
to
write
2
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practice test essays online and receive a score for each of them that 2
2
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approximates your performance on the essays in the actual GMAT. In 2
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addition to a score, you will also receive constructive feedback on your 2
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essays, including tips to improve your score.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
With this tool kit, you get scoring for 2 practice test essays—one analysis 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of an issue and one analysis of an argument. If you wish, for a fee, you may 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
obtain scoring information and feedback for additional practice essays 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you
write
online.
Please
note:
Your
practice
test
essays
will
be
scored
by
a
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 computer, but for the actual GMAT test, the essays are scored by a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
combination
of
a
computer
program
and
a
human
scorer.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To register for this essay-scoring service you need the CD that accompanies 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this
book.
In
addition,
you
will
need
to
refer
to
this
book
to
provide
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
access code when prompted. The scoring of 2 essays is offered free to 2
2
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1 purchasers of the 2005 edition and this offer will expire on December 31, 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2005.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Computer-Adaptive Tests on CD
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The actual GMAT is a computer-adaptive test (CAT)—the test questions 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you
so
depend
on
your
performance
on
previous
questions.
On
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 CD-ROM that accompanies this book, you will receive 3 practice GMAT 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
CATs
that
carefully
reproduce
the
experience
you
can
expect
on
test
day.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The additional three practice tests in the book can be used for further 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
practice.
2
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2
1
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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About
This
Book
2
1
2
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Of
course,
another
tool
in
your
Ultimate
GMAT
Tool
Kit
is
this
book
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
itself. It is structured so that you gain proven test-taking strategies to do 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your best on the exam, a thorough review of all content on the GMAT, and 2
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2
1 a complete understanding of how to attack the GMAT essays.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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Part
I:
Everything
You
Ever
Wanted
to
Know
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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about the GMAT
2
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2
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Part
I
focuses
on
the
“big
picture.”
Here
you’ll
learn
about
the
overall
2
1
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 structure of the GMAT and what the test sections cover. You’ll also 2
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examine the directions for each type of question and see what typical test 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
questions
look
like.
Then,
you’ll
learn
strategies
for
GMAT
preparation
as
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
well
as
general
test-taking
strategies.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

About This Book

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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Parts II–IV: Study Guides for the GMAT
2
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2
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This
book’s
GMAT
study
guide
is
unique
in
that
it
offers
you
the
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
opportunity to study each part of the exam, and then you can Take It to 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the Next Level—using the section in each chapter that covers advanced 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
topics and concepts you may encounter on the GMAT. Each section covers 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
all four test sections and all general question types and both contain 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
example questions. The unique ability to Take It to the Next Level feature 2
2
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will help you tailor your GMAT prep to your individual needs.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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Should
You
Take
it
to
the
Next
Level?
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 You should start with the general instruction if either of the following 2
2
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2
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describes
you:
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• You’re a GMAT “newbie” and you are just beginning your
2
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2
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GMAT prep.
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• The B-school you want to attend doesn’t require especially high
2
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2
1
GMAT scores for admission.
2
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2
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2
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You
can
go
directly
to
Take
It
to
the
Next
Level
if
you’re
a
repeat
GMAT
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
test-taker whose scores were high the first time around but your 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GMAT goals are now even higher. Of course, regardless of your goals for 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the GMAT and for college admission, you can always work through both 2
2
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2
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levels.
In
fact,
that’s
what
we
recommend
to
anyone
with
enough
study
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 time before exam day.
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Part V: Three Practice GMATs
2
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2
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In Part V, you’ll find three full-length, practice GMATs. Each test covers all 2
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2
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four test sections and includes a mix of easy, moderate, and difficult 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
questions. To accurately measure your performance on the practice tests, 2
2
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2
1 be sure to adhere strictly to the time limits for each and every section.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You can take all three practice tests after completing your self-study (Parts 2
2
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2
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II–IV).
Or,
you
can
take
one
practice
test
beforehand
as
a
diagnostic
tool.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
th
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
your
scores
show
that
you
rank
above
the
80
percentile
on
a
test,
you
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can skip over the basics to Take It to the Next Level for that test. Then,
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
after you’ve completed your self-study, take the remaining two practice 2
2
1
2
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tests to measure your improvement.
2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

3

About This Tool Kit

X-Ref

Tip

Note

Alert!

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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Oh,
the Sidebars You’ll See
2
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2
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Throughout
this
book
you’ll
encounter
four
different
types
of
sidebars.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(Flip through this book, and you’ll see oodles of each one.) Here’s a look at 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
types
of
sidebars
you’ll
see:
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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Warns
you
about
a
common
testing
trick
or
ploy
that
might
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
trip you up during the test if you’re not careful.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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Signals
information
that
may
not
be
a
“need-to-know”
fact,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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but that you might find rounds out your knowledge of the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
topic
at
hand.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Signals a tip, strategy, or fine point related to the topic or
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
example at hand.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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2
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2
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Signals
a
reference
to
a
concept
or
other
information
located
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
elsewhere in the book.
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
1
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2
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2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

4

www.petersons.com

PART

I

Everything You Ever
Wanted to Know about
the GMAT
The GMAT—In a Nutshell
The GMAT—Up Close

6
41

PART I

Chapter

1
The GMAT—In a Nutshell
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2
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2
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Your
GMAT
prep
begins
with
an
overview
of
the
test.
In
this
chapter,
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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you’ll:
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Learn Key acronyms related to the GMAT.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• Look at the overall structure of the GMAT and what each of the
2
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four test sections cover.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Familiarize yourself with the computerized aspects of the test.
2
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2
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• Examine the directions for each for each general question type.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• See what typical test questions look like.
2
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2
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• Find out how the GMAT is scored and evaluated.
2
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2
1
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2
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• Find out how your scores are reported to the business schools.
2
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2
1
• Learn strategies for GMAT preparation.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Learn general GMAT test-taking strategies.
2
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2
1
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Key
Acronyms
2
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1 1. GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test): This standardized 2
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test provides graduate business schools (as well as vocational 2
2
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2
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counselors
and
prospective
applicants)
with
predictors
of
academic
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
performance
in
MBA
programs.
Approximately
850
graduate
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
business schools worldwide require GMAT scores for admission. 2
2
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Another 450 graduate business schools use—but don’t require— 2
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2
1
GMAT scores to access applicants’ qualifications.
2
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2
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2. GMAC (Graduate Management Admission Council): This organiza- 2
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2
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tion develops guidelines, policies, and procedures for the graduate 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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business school admission process, and provides information about 2
1
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the admission process to the schools and to prospective applicants. 2
2
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2
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The
GMAC
consists
of
representatives
from
more
than
100
graduate
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2
1
2
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business
schools.
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6

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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2
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3. CAT (Computer-Adaptive Test): Except for some locations outside of 2
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2
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North America, the GMAT is now offered only by computer. CAT 2
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2
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refers to the computerized version of the GMAT. Taking a computer- 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
adaptive test means that each section of the test starts with a question 2
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of moderate difficulty. If you answer correctly, the computer will 2
2
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2
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follow
it
with
a
more
difficult
question.
If
you
answer
it
incorrectly,
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2
1
2
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the
following
question
will
be
easier.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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The
GMAT
at
a
Glance
2
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2
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The
GMAT
contains
three
parts:
an
Analytical
Writing
Assessment
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2
1
2
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section,
a
Quantitative
Ability
section,
and
a
Verbal
Ability
section.
The
2
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2
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total
testing
time
(excluding
breaks)
is
3
hours,
30
minutes.
Here’s
the
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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basic structure of the test:
2
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ANALYTICAL WRITING ASSESSMENT (Sections 1 and 2)
2
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2
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• Analysis of an Issue (1 writing task, 30-minute time limit)
2
1
2
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2
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Analysis
of
an
Argument
(1
writing
task,
30-minute
time
limit)
2
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Optional break (5-minute time limit)
2
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QUANTITATIVE ABILITY (Section 3)
2
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2
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(37 multiple-choice questions, 75-minute time limit)
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• Problem Solving (22–23 questions)
2
1
2
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2
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• Data Sufficiency (14–15 questions)
2
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2
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Optional break (5-minute time limit)
2
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2
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2
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VERBAL
ABILITY
(Section
4)
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
(41 multiple-choice questions, 75-minute time limit)
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1
• Critical Reasoning (14–15 questions)
2
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2
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• Sentence Correction (14–15 questions)
2
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• Reading Comprehension (12–13 questions, divided among
2
1
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2
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four sets)
2
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1
2
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Sequence of Exam Sections
2
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2
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2
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Sections
1
and
2
(the
two
timed
essay
sections)
always
appear
first
(in
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
either order), before the two timed multiple-choice sections. Section 3 2
2
1
2
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is
always
Quantitative
Ability,
and
section
4
is
always
Verbal
Ability.
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

7

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

8

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2
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2
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Sequence of Questions in Quantitative and Verbal
2
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2
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In
each
of
the
two
multiple-choice
sections,
question
types
are
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interspersed. Here’s a typical sequence for each section (on your 2
2
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2
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GMAT, the sequence might be different):
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
Quantitative
Ability
(Typical
Sequence
of
Questions)
1
2
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2
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Questions
1–2
Problem
Solving
2
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2
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Questions
3–7
Data
Sufficiency
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2
1
2
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2
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Questions 8–13
Problem Solving
2
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2
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Question
14
Data
Sufficiency
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2
1
2
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Question 15
Problem Solving
2
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2
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2
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Question 16
Data Sufficiency
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2
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Questions 17–21
Problem Solving
2
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2
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Questions
22–27
Data
Sufficiency
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2
1
Questions 28–34
Problem Solving
2
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2
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Question
35
Data
Sufficiency
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Questions 36–37
Problem Solving
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Verbal Ability (Typical Sequence of Questions)
2
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2
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Questions 1–3
Sentence Correction
2
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2
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Questions 4–5
Critical Reasoning
2
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2
1
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2
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Questions 6–8
Reading Comprehension
2
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2
1
Question
9
Sentence
Correction
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2
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2
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Questions 10–11
Critical Reasoning
2
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2
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Questions
12–14
Sentence
Correction
2
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2
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Questions
15–17
Reading
Comprehension
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
Questions 18–21
Critical Reasoning
2
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2
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Questions
22–24
Sentence
Correction
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Questions 25–26
Critical Reasoning
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
Question 27
Sentence Correction
2
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2
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Questions
28–30
Reading
Comprehension
2
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2
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Questions 31–33
Critical Reasoning
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Questions 34–35
Sentence Correction
2
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2
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Questions
36
Critical
Reasoning
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Questions 37–39
Reading Comprehension
2
1
2
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2
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Question
40
Critical
Reasoning
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
Question 41
Sentence Correction
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

X-Ref

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2
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2
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Ground Rules
2
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2
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Here
are
some
basic
procedural
rules
for
the
GMAT
(later
in
this
chapter
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
we’ll cover test-taking procedures in greater detail):
2
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2
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2
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• Once the timed test begins, you cannot stop the testing clock.
2
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2
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If
you
finish
any
section
before
the
time
limit
expires,
you
have
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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option of proceeding immediately to the next section.
2
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2
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2
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Once
you
exit
a
section,
you
can’t
return
to
it.
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2
1
2
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2
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Pencils
and
“scratch”
paper
are
provided
for
all
exam
sections.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
• You select a multiple-choice answer by clicking on an oval next to
2
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2
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the choice. (All multiple-choice questions include five answer
2
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choices.)
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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• You compose both essays using the word processor built into the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GMAT
testing
system.
(Handwritten
essays
are
not
permitted.)
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
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2
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2
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The
Four
Timed
GMAT
Sections
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Here’s a quick look at what each of the four timed test sections covers.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
1 Later in this chapter, you’ll see example questions in all of the formats
2
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described here.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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2
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2
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Analysis
of
an
Issue
(1
Essay,
30
Minutes)
2
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2
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This
30-minute
section
tests
your
ability
to
present
a
position
on
an
issue
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 effectively and persuasively. Your task is to compose an essay in which you 2
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respond to a brief (1–2 sentence) opinion about an issue of general 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
intellectual interest. You should consider various perspectives, and take a 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
position
on
the
issue
and
argue
for
that
position.
Your
essay
will
be
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 evaluated based on content, organization, writing style, and mechanics
2
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2
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(grammar, syntax, word usage, etc.).
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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Analysis of an Argument (1 Essay, 30 Minutes)
2
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2
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This
30-minute
section
is
designed
to
test
your
critical-reasoning
and
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1 analytical-writing skills. Your task is to compose an essay in which you 2
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critique a paragraph-length argument based on the strength of the 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
evidence
presented
in
support
of
it
and
on
the
argument’s
logic
(line
of
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reasoning).
You
can
also
indicate
what
additional
evidence
would
help
you
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

9

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

10

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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evaluate the argument and how the argument could be improved. Like 2
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2
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your Issue-Analysis essay, your Argument-Analysis essay will be evaluated 2
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2
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based on content, organization, writing style, and mechanics.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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Quantitative
Ability
(37
Questions,
75
Minutes)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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This
75-minute
section
consists
of
37
multiple-choice
questions
designed
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to
measure
your
basic
mathematical
skills;
understanding
of
basic
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 mathematical concepts; and ability to reason quantitatively, solve quanti- 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tative
problems,
and
interpret
graphical
data.
The
Quantitative
Ability
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
section
covers
the
following
topics:
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2
1
2
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2
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• Arithmetical operations
2
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2
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Integers,
factors,
and
multiples
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• The number line and ordering
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Decimals, percentages, ratios, and proportion
2
1
2
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2
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• Exponents and square roots
2
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2
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• Descriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, range, standard
2
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2
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deviation)
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Basic probability, permutations, and combinations
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Operations with variables
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Algebraic equations and inequalities
2
1
2
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• Geometry, including coordinate geometry
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
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1 Algebraic concepts on the GMAT are those normally covered in a 2
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first-year high school algebra course. The GMAT does not cover more 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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advanced areas such as trigonometry and calculus.
2
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2
1
2
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Each
Quantitative
question
appears
in
one
of
two
formats
(any
of
the
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2
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topics listed above is fair game for either format):
2
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PROBLEM SOLVING questions require you to solve a mathematical 2
2
1
problem and then select the correct answer from among five answer 2
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2
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choices. Some of these questions will be “story” problems—cast in a 2
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2
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real-world setting.
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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DATA SUFFICIENCY problems each consist of a question followed 2
2
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2
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by
two
statements
labeled
(1)
and
(2).
Your
task
is
to
analyze
each
of
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the two statements to determine whether it provides sufficient data to 2
2
1
2
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answer
the
question
and,
if
neither
suffices
alone,
whether
both
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statements together suffice. Every Data Sufficiency question includes 2
2
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2
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the
same
five
answer
choices.
As
with
certain
Problem
Solving
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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questions, some of these questions will be so-called “story” problems— 2
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2
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cast in a real-world setting.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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Verbal
Ability
(41
Questions,
75
Minutes)
2
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2
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This
75-minute
section
consists
of
41
multiple-choice
questions.
Each
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2
1
2
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question
will
be
one
of
the
following
three
types
(each
type
covers
a
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
distinct
set
of
verbal
and
verbal-reasoning
skills):
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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CRITICAL REASONING questions measure your ability to under- 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
stand, criticize, and draw reasonable conclusions from arguments. 2
2
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2
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Each argument consists of a brief one-paragraph passage.
2
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2
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SENTENCE CORRECTION questions measure your command of 2
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2
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the English language and of the conventions of Standard Written 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
English. Areas tested include grammar, diction, usage, and effective 2
2
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2
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expression
(but
not
punctuation).
In
each
question,
part
(or
all)
of
a
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sentence is underlined. Your task is to determine which is correct—the 2
2
1
2
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original
underlined
part
or
one
of
four
alternatives.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
READING COMPREHENSION questions measure your ability to 2
2
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2
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read
carefully
and
accurately,
to
determine
the
relationships
among
the
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
various parts of the passage, and to draw reasonable inferences from
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the material in the passage. You’ll encounter four sets of questions; all 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
questions in a set pertain to the same passage. The passages are drawn
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
from for a variety of subjects, including the humanities, the social 2
2
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sciences, the physical sciences, ethics, philosophy, and law.
2
1
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2
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2
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2
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2
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Your
GMAT
Scores
2
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2
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You’ll
receive
four
scores
for
the
GMAT:
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
1. A scaled Quantitative score on a 0–60 scale
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2. A scaled Verbal score on a 0–60 scale
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3. A total score, on a 200–800 scale, based on both your
2
1
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2
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Quantitative and Verbal scores
2
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2
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4. An AWA score on a 0–6 scale, which averages (to the nearest 2
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2
1
one-half point) the final scores for each of your two GMAT 2
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2
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essays
2
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2
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2
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For
each
of
these
four
scores
you’ll
also
receive
a
percentile
rank
(0–99%).
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 A percentile rank of 60%, for example, indicates that you scored higher
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
than
60%
(and
lower
than
40%)
of
all
other
test-takers.
Percentile
ranks
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 11
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

Note

www.petersons.com

X-Ref

12

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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reflect your performance relative to the entire GMAT test-taking 2
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2
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population during the most recent three-year period.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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2
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2
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In
Part
IV,
you’ll
find
tables
that
convert
scaled
scores
to
percentile
ranks.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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How
the
Quantitative
and
Verbal
Sections
2
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2
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Are
Scored
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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The scoring system for the Quantitative and Verbal sections is a bit tricky. 2
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2
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Your score for each of these two sections is based on three factors:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• The number of questions you answer correctly
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• The difficulty level of the questions you answer correctly
2
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2
1
2
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The
range
of
question
types
and
topics
among
the
questions
you
2
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2
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answer correctly
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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So, even if you don’t respond to all 37 Quantitative (or 41 Verbal) 2
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2
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questions, you can still attain a high score for the section if a high 2
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2
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percentage of your responses are correct—especially if you respond 2
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2
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correctly to a wide variety of question types. The CAT system’s scoring 2
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1 algorithms are well-guarded ETS secrets; however, knowing exactly how 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the system works wouldn’t affect your exam preparation or test-taking 2
2
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2
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strategy,
anyway.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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1 Some questions on each of your two multiple-choice sections won’t be 2
2
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2
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scored.
The
test-makers
include
unscored,
“pre-test”
questions
on
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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1 GMAT in order to assess their integrity, fairness, and difficulty. Some of 2
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these questions might show up as scored questions on the GMAT in the 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
future. Pre-test questions are mixed in with scored questions, and you 2
2
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2
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won’t
be
able
to
tell
them
apart—so
don’t
risk
trying.
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2
1
2
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2
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How
the
GMAT
Essays
Are
Scored
2
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2
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The
evaluation
and
scoring
system
for
GMAT
essays
is
also
a
bit
tricky.
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Initially, one person will read and evaluate your Issue-Analysis essay, while 2
2
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2
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a
different
person
reads
and
evaluates
your
Argument-Analysis
essay.
Each
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1 reader will award a single score on a scale of 0–6 in whole-point intervals 2
2
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2
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(6
is
highest).
2
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Readers apply a holistic scoring approach, meaning that a reader will base 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
his or her evaluation on the overall quality of your writing. In other words, 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Note

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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instead of awarding separate sub-scores for content, organization, writing 2
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2
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style, and mechanics, the reader will consider how effective your essay is as 2
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2
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a whole—accounting for all of these factors.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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All GMAT readers are college or university faculty; most teach in the field
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 of either English or Communications. Each reader evaluates your writing
2
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independently of other readers, and no reader is informed of other
2
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2
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readers’ scores.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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Scoring Criteria for the GMAT Essays
2
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All
readers
are
trained
by
ETS
in
applying
the
same
scoring
criteria.
Here
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are the essential requirements for a top-scoring (“6”) Issue-Analysis essay 2
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2
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(note that you can attain a top score of 6 even if your essay contains minor 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
errors in grammar, word usage, spelling, and punctuation):
2
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1. The essay develops a position on the issue through the use of 2
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2
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incisive reasons and persuasive examples.
2
1
2
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2
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2.
The
essay’s
ideas
are
conveyed
clearly
and
articulately.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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3. The essay maintains proper focus on the issue and is well
2
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organized.
2
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4. The essay demonstrates proficiency, fluency, and maturity in its 2
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2
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use of sentence structure, vocabulary, and idiom.
2
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2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5. The essay demonstrates an excellent command of the elements of 2
2
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2
1
Standard
Written
English,
including
grammar,
word
usage,
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
spelling, and punctuation—but may contain minor flaws in these 2
2
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2
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areas.
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Here are the essential requirements for a top-scoring (“6”) Argument- 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
Analysis essay (notice that the last two requirements are the same as for a
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2
1 top-scoring Issue-Analysis essay):
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1. The essay identifies the key features of the argument and analyzes 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
each
one
in
a
thoughtful
manner.
2
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2. The essay supports each point of critique with insightful reasons 2
2
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2
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and
examples.
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1
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3. The essay develops its ideas in a clear, organized manner, with 2
2
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2
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appropriate transitions to help connect ideas.
2
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2
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4.
The
essay
demonstrates
proficiency,
fluency,
and
maturity
in
its
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
use of sentence structure, vocabulary, and idiom.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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5. The essay demonstrates an excellent command of the elements of 2
2
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2
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Standard
Written
English,
including
grammar,
word
usage,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 13

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

Note

www.petersons.com

Note

14

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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spelling, and punctuation—but may contain minor flaws in these 2
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2
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areas.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The criteria for lower scores are the same as the ones above; the only 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
difference
is
that
the
standard
for
quality
decreases
for
successively
lower
2
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2
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scores.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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The
scoring
criteria
for
all
six
score
levels
are
published
in
the
official
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GMAT Bulletin as well as directly at the official GMAT Web site.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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Computerized
Rating
of
Your
Two
Essays
2
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2
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While
two
human
readers
evaluate
your
GMAT
essays
(one
reader
per
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
essay), a computer program called E-Rater® will evaluate your essays in 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
terms
of
grammar,
syntax
(sentence
structure),
repetitiveness
(overuse
of
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 the same phrases), sentence length, and spelling. Like human readers, 2
2
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E-Rater awards a score of 0–6 for each essay.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In many respects, E-Rater is similar to the grammar- and spell-checkers 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
built into popular word-processing programs such as Word and 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
WordPerfect. However, E-Rater is custom-designed for ETS to weigh 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
certain criteria more heavily than others. For instance, very little weight is 2
2
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given to minor mechanical errors (e.g., in punctuation and spelling). Also, 2
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1 E-Rater overlooks so-called “gray” areas of grammar (e.g., use of the 2
2
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2
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passive voice), and flags certain problems (e.g., repetitiveness) that 2
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2
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off-the-shelf checkers might not. Of course, E-Rater is only useful to a 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
point. It cannot evaluate your ideas or how persuasively you have 2
2
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1 presented and supported those ideas. That’s what human readers are for. 2
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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1 According to the testing service, the human readers’ and E-Rater’s 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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combined evaluation takes into account more than 50 structural and 2
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2
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linguistic criteria altogether.
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Computation of Your AWA Score
2
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2
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Here
are
the
specific
steps
involved
in
calculating
your
AWA
score:
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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1. As mentioned above, one reader will read and score your 2
2
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2
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Issue-Analysis
essay,
and
a
different
reader
will
read
and
score
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your Argument-Analysis essay. Each reader will award a single 2
2
1
2
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score
on
a
scale
of
0–6
in
whole-point
intervals
(6
is
highest).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. E-Rater will also evaluate and award a score of 0–6 for each 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
essay.
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

Note

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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3. For either essay, if the human reader’s score differs from E-Rater’s 2
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2
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score by more than one point, a second human reader will read 2
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2
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and score the essay (and E-Rater’s score will be disregarded).
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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4.
For
each
essay,
your
final
score
is
the
average
of
the
scores
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
awarded
by
the
human
reader
and
E-Rater
(or
by
the
second
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
human reader).
2
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2
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2
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5.
You
final
AWA
score
is
the
average
of
your
final
scores
for
each
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
essay; AWA scores are rounded up to the nearest half-point.
2
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2
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2
Here’s an example showing how the AWA scoring system works:
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
4
Reader A’s evaluation of the Issue-Analysis essay
2
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2
E-Rater’s evaluation of the Issue-Analysis essay
2
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2
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3
Reader B’s evaluation of the Issue-Analysis essay
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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3.5 Final score for the Issue-Analysis essay
2
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2
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3
Reader C’s evaluation of the Argument-Analysis essay
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
E-Rater’s
evaluation
of
the
Argument-Analysis
essay
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
3
Final score for the Argument-Analysis essay
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3.5
AWA
score
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Notice in this example that a second human reader evaluated the Issue 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Analysis essay, and that the average of the two final scores (3.25) has been 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rounded up (to 3.5).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
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Score
Reporting
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Once the GMAT readers have read and scored your two essays, ETS will 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mail you an official score report for all four sections. (Expect your score 2
2
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1 report within ten days after testing.) At the same time, ETS will transmit a 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
score report to each B-school you’ve designated to receive your score 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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report. (You can direct reports to as many as five schools without charge.) 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
At
this
time,
score
reports
don’t
include
the
GMAT
essays
themselves,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
although ETS is working on it. Eventually, the CAT system will provide 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
disclosure
of
each
test-taker’s
complete
exam
(including
the
questions).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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GMAT
absences
and
cancellations
also
appear
on
your
official
report,
but
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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will not adversely affect your chances of admission.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 15
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

www.petersons.com

Note

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
How
B-Schools Evaluate GMAT Scores
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Each
business
school
develops
and
implements
its
own
policies
for
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
evaluating GMAT scores. Some schools place equal weight on GMAT 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
scores
and
GPA,
others
weigh
GMAT
scores
more
heavily,
whereas
others
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
weigh
GPA
more
heavily.
ETS
reports
your
three
most
recent
GMAT
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 scores to each business school receiving your scores and transcripts. Most 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
schools
simply
average
reported
scores.
(Quantitative,
Verbal,
Total,
and
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
AWA
scores
are
each
averaged
separately
for
this
purpose.)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A minority of schools have refined this approach by disregarding a score 2
2
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that is sufficiently lower than another score for the same ability—on the 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 basis that the low score unfairly distorts the test-taker’s ability in this area. 2
2
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2
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Other schools disregard all but your highest score of each type in any 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
event. (This approach is increasingly uncommon, since it discriminates in 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
favor of test-takers who can afford to take the GMAT repeatedly.)
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1 Any B-school will gladly tell you which method it uses among the three 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mentioned above. But don’t expect any school to tell you exactly how 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
much weight it places on each exam section or on different admission 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
criteria
(such
as
GMAT
scores,
GPA,
work
experience,
and
personal
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statements).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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How
the Computer-Adaptive GMAT Works
2
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2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A “computer-adaptive” feature of the GMAT CAT makes it an entirely 2
2
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1 different animal than convention paper-based tests. The following are five 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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key features that set the CAT apart.
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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1.
During
the
two
multiple-choice
sections,
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 GMAT CAT will continually adapt to your ability
2
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level.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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The “A” in CAT stands for “Adaptive,” which means that during each of 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the two multiple-choice sections the testing system tailors its difficulty 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 level to your level of ability. How? The initial few questions of each type 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are average in difficulty level. As you respond correctly to questions, the 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
CAT
system
steps
you
up
to
more
difficult
questions.
Conversely,
as
you
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
respond incorrectly to questions, the CAT steps you down to easier ones. 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Thus,
the
CAT
builds
a
customized
test
for
you,
drawing
on
its
very
large
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 pool of multiple-choice questions.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
16
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Note

Alert!

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Early
in
an
exam
section,
the
CAT
can
shift
from
the
easiest
level
to
a
very
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
challenging level (or vice versa) in as few as 3 or 4 successive questions.
2
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2
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But later in the section, when your ability level is well established, the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
difficulty level will not vary as widely.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2.
The GMAT CAT does not let you skip questions.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Given the adaptive nature of the test, this makes sense. The computer- 2
2
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adaptive algorithm cannot determine the appropriate difficulty level for 2
2
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the next question without a response (correct or incorrect) to each 2
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2
1
2
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question presented in sequence.
2
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2
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2
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1
3.
The GMAT CAT does not let you return to any
2
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2
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question
already
presented
(and
answered).
2
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2
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1 Why not? The computer-adaptive algorithm that determines the difficulty 2
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of subsequent questions depends on the correctness of prior responses. For 2
2
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2
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example,
suppose
you
answer
question
5
incorrectly.
The
CAT
responds
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by posing slightly easier questions. Were the CAT to let you return to 2
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question 5 and change your response to the correct one, the questions 2
2
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following question 5 would be easier than they should have been, given 2
2
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2
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your
amended
response.
In
other
words,
the
process
by
which
the
CAT
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1 builds your GMAT and determines your score would be undermined.
2
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2
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2
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4.
The GMAT CAT does not require you to answer
2
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2
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all available questions.
2
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2
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The CAT gives you the opportunity to respond to a total of 37 2
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2
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Quantitative and 41 Verbal questions. But the CAT does not require you to 2
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1 finish either section. The CAT will tabulate a score regardless of the 2
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2
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number of available questions you’ve answered, except if you fail to 2
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2
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respond to at least one question during a section, in which case an “NS” 2
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2
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(no score) will appear on your score report for that section only.
2
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During each of the two essay sections, if you fail to key in (type) at least
2
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2
1 one character using the CAT word processor, you’ll automatically receive
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a score of 0 (on a scale of 0 to 6) for that section; this score will appear on
2
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2
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your
report.
2
1
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1
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 17
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

www.petersons.com

Alert!

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2
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2
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5.
During each section, the GMAT CAT
2
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2
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automatically
warns
you
when
time
is
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2
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running out.
2
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2
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When
5
minutes
remain
during
each
timed
section,
the
on-screen
clock
(in
2
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2
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the
upper
left
corner
of
the
screen)
will
blink
silently
several
times
to
warn
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 you. This 5-minute warning will be your only reminder.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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Beepers
and
alarms
aren’t
allowed
in
the
testing
room,
although
silent
2
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2
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timing devices are permitted.
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
The
GMAT CAT Interface
2
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2
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The
three
simulated
screen
shots
on
pages
19,
21,
and
22
show
the
GMAT
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1 CAT interface for the AWA sections, the Quantitative Ability section, and 2
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the Verbal Ability section. Let’s first examine the features of the interface 2
2
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2
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that
are
common
to
all
exam
sections.
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2
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The CAT Title Bar
2
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A dark title bar will appear across the top of the computer screen at all 2
2
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1 times during all test sections. (You cannot hide this bar.) The CAT title bar 2
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2
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displays three items:
2
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2
1
2
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Left
corner:
The
time
remaining
for
the
current
section
(hours
and
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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minutes)
2
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2
1
2
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Middle:
The
name
of
the
test
(GMAT)
and
current
section
number
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
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• Right corner: The current question number and total number of
2
1
2
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questions in the current section
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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18
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Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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2
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2
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Name and Number
2
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CAT Title Bar
of Text Section
Time elapsed
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
1
The following appeared in a memo from the manager of UpperCuts, a hair salon
2
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located in a suburb of the city of Apton, to the salon's owner:
2
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2
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"According
to
a
nationwide
demographic
study,
more
and
more
people
today
are
2
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AWA Topic
moving
from
suburbs
to
downtown
areas.
So
in
order
to
boost
sagging
profits
at
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2
1
UpperCuts we should relocate the salon from its current location in Apton's
2
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2
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suburban mall to downtown Apton, while retaining the salon's decidedly upscale
2
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approach in terms of services, products and pricing. After all, HairDooz, our chief
2
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competitor at the mall, has just relocated downtown and is popular among
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2
1
2
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2
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The AWA
2
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2
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Editing
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2
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Screen
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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1
2
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?
2
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2
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2
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Next
Confirm
Help
Exit
Quit
Time
2
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button Answer button
Test Selection button
2
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button
button button
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
1The CAT Toolbar
2
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A series of six buttons appear in a toolbar across the bottom of the 2
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computer screen at all times during all test sections. (You cannot hide the 2
2
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2
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toolbar.)
Here’s
a
description
of
each
button’s
function:
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1
QUIT TEST
2
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2
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Click
on
this
button
to
stop
the
test
and
cancel
your
scores
for
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
entire test. (Partial score cancellation is not allowed in any event.) 2
1
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If you click here, a dialog box will appear on the screen, asking you 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to confirm this operation. Stay away from this button unless you’re 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
absolutely sure you wish your GMAT score for the day to vaporize 2
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1
and you’re willing to throw away your GMAT registration fee.
2
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2
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EXIT SECTION
2
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2
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Click
on
this
button
if
you
finish
the
section
before
the
allotted
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
time expires and wish to proceed immediately to the next section. 2
2
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2
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A
dialog
box
will
appear
on
the
screen
asking
you
to
confirm
this
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1
operation. Stay away from this button unless you’ve already 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answered every question in the current section and don’t feel you 2
2
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2
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need
a
breather
before
starting
the
next
one!
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 19
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00:28

Computer-Adaptive GMAT-Section 2:Analytical Writing 2

Beginning

The manager's argument relies on a series of unproven assumptions and is
therefore unconvincing as it stands. To begin with, the argument assumes that
Apton's demographic trend reflects the national trend. Yet, the mere fact that
one hair salon has moved downtown hardly suffices to |

Cut

Paste

Undo

Test

Section

Quit

Exit

Answer

Time

Help

Confirm

Next

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

www.petersons.com

X-Ref

20

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2
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TIME
2
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2
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Click on this button to display the time remaining to the nearest 2
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2
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second. By default, the time remaining is displayed (in the upper 2
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2
1
left corner) in hours and minutes, but not to the nearest second.
2
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2
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2
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HELP
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
Click on this button to access the directions for the current 2
2
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2
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question
type
(for
example,
Data
Sufficiency
or
Sentence
Correc2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tion),
as
well
as
the
general
test
directions
and
the
instructions
for
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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using
the
toolbar
items.
2
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2
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2
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NEXT and CONFIRM ANSWER
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2
1
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Click on the NEXT button when you’re finished with the current 2
2
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question. When you click on NEXT, the current question will 2
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2
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remain on the screen until you click on CONFIRM ANSWER. 2
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2
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Until you confirm, you can change your answer as often as you 2
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2
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wish (by clicking on a different oval). But once you confirm, the 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
question disappears forever and the next one appears in its place. 2
2
1
2
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Whenever
the
NEXT
button
is
enabled
(appearing
dark
gray),
the
2
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2
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CONFIRM
ANSWER
button
is
disabled
(appearing
light
gray),
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
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and vice versa.
2
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2
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The AWA Screen
2
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1 As illustrated in the screen shot on page 19, the AWA prompt appears at 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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1 the top of your screen, and your essay response appears below it as you 2
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type your response. (The screen in the figure includes the first several lines 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of a response.) Notice that you have to scroll down to read the entire topic 2
2
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1 and question. You compose your essays using the CAT word processor. 2
2
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(Just ahead, you’ll look closely at its features and limitations.)
2
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2
1
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2
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The Quantitative and Verbal Screens
2
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2
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To
respond
to
multiple-choice
questions,
click
on
one
of
the
ovals
to
2
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2
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the
left
of
the
answer
choices.
You
can’t
use
the
keyboard
to
select
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answers. Notice that the answer choices are not lettered; you’ll click on 2
2
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2
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blank
ovals.
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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In the sample questions throughout this book, the answer choices are 2
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2
1 lettered for easy reference to corresponding explanations.
2
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2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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2
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Split screens. For some multiple-choice questions, the screen splits 2
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2
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either horizontally or vertically.
2
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2
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Reading
Comprehension:
The
screen
splits
vertically.
The
left
side
2
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2
1
displays the passage; the right side displays the question and 2
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2
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answer choices.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
Quantitative questions that include figures: The screen splits 2
2
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2
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horizontally.
The
figures
appears
at
the
top;
the
question
and
2
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2
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answer
choices
appear
at
the
bottom.
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2
1
2
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Vertical Scrolling. For some multiple-choice questions, you’ll have to 2
2
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scroll up and down (using the vertical scroll bar) to view all the 2
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2
1
2
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material that pertains to the current question.
2
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Reading Comprehension: Passages are too long for you to see on 2
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2
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the screen in their entirety; you’ll need to scroll.
2
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2
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2
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Quantitative
questions
that
include
figures:
Some
figures—
2
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2
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especially
charts
and
graphs—won’t
fit
on
the
screen
in
their
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1
entirety; you might need to scroll.
2
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2
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2
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01:06
Computer-Adaptive
GMAT-Section
3:Quantitative
21
of
37
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1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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1
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2
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2
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2
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2
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Test Section
Answer
?
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1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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1
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 21
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Richard began driving from home on a trip averaging 30 miles per hour. How
many miles per hour must Carla drive on average to catch up to him in exactly
3 hours if she leaves 30 minutes after Richard?
35
55
39
40
60

Quit

Exit

Time

Help

Confirm

Next

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

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2
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2
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01:09
Computer-Adaptive GMAT-Section 4:Verbal
6 of 41
2
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2
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Questions
6
to
8
Beginning
2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
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Test Section
? Answer
2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
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The CAT’s Word Processor
2
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2
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During
the
two
GMAT
essay
sections,
you’ll
use
the
simple
word
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processor built into the CAT system. While the word processor includes 2
2
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2
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some
features
standard
in
programs
like
Word
and
WordPerfect,
it
also
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2
1 lacks many of these programs’ features.
2
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2
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2
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2
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Keyboard Commands for Navigation and Editing
2
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2
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Here
are
the
navigational
and
editing
keys
available
in
the
CAT
word
2
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2
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processor:
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2
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• Backspace removes the character to the left of the cursor.
2
1
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2
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• Delete removes the character to the right of the cursor.
2
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2
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2
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Home
moves
the
cursor
to
the
beginning
of
the
line.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• End moves the cursor to the end of the line.
2
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2
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• Arrow Keys move the cursor up, down, left, or right.
2
1
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2
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• Enter inserts a paragraph break (starts a new line).
2
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2
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• Page Up moves the cursor up one page (screen).
2
1
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2
1
• Page Down moves the cursor down one page (screen).
2
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2
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The Andean cordillera is made up of
many interwoven mountain ranges, which
include high intermountain plateaus,
basins and valleys. The Northern Andes
(5) contain several broad ecosystems falling
into four altitudinal belts. Its northern subregion is distinguished from the rest of the
region by higher relative humidity and
greater climatic symmetry between the
(10) eastern and western flanks of the range.
The Central Andes are characterized by a
succession of agricultural zones with
varied climatic conditions along the
mountains' flanks and by large, high(15) altitude plateaus, variously called puna or
altiplano, which do not occur in the
Northern Andes. The soil fertility of the
northern altiplano is generally good. The
western Central Andean ranges are
(20) relatively arid with desert-like soils,
whereas the eastern ranges are more
humid and have more diverse soils. The
eastern slopes of the Central Andes in
many ways are similar to the wet forests

Quit

22

www.petersons.com

Exit

Time

In the passage, the author's primary concern is
to
describe the climate and topography of
various regions of the Andean cordillera
discuss the factors affecting the climate of
the Andean cordillera
suggest various alternative explanations for
the diversity of climate among the
various regions of the Andean cordillera
examine the effects of topograpy on the
climate and vegetation of the Andean
cordillera
compare and contrast the climate and
topography of the Northern Andes to that
the Central Andes

Help

Confirm

Next

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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2
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Certain often-used features of standard word processing programs are not 2
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2
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available in the CAT word processor. For example, no keyboard 2
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2
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commands are available for:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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TAB—disabled
(does
not
function)
2
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2
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2
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Beginning/end
of
paragraph
(not
available)
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2
1
2
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2
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• Beginning/end of document (not available)
2
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2
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No
key
combinations
(using
the
CTRL,
ALT,
or
SHIFT
key)
or
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2
1
2
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other so-called “macros” are available for editing functions.
2
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2
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(You’ll
use
your
mouse
for
cutting
and
pasting
text.)
2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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Mouse-Driven
Navigation
and
Editing
Functions
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Just as with other word processors, to navigate the editing screen you can 2
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simply point the cursor to the position at which you wish to begin typing, 2
2
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2
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1 then click. The CAT word processor also includes mouse-driven CUT, 2
2
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PASTE, and UNDO.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Selecting text you wish to cut. You select text the same way as with 2
2
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standard word processing programs: either (1) hold down your mouse 2
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2
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button while sweeping the I-beam on the screen over the desired text, or 2
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2
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(2) hold down the SHIFT key and use the navigation keys to select text.
2
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1 The CUT Button. If you wish to delete text but want to save it to a 2
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temporary clipboard for pasting elsewhere, select that text (see above) then 2
2
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2
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click
on
the
CUT
button.
Cutting
text
is
not
the
same
as
deleting
it.
When
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you delete text (using the DELETE key), you cannot paste it elsewhere in 2
2
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2
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your
document
(but
see
UNDO
below).
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2
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The PASTE button. If you wish to move text from one position to another, 2
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1 select and cut the text, then reposition your cursor where you want the text 2
2
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to go and click on the PASTE button.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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The UNDO button. Click on this button to undo the most recent delete, 2
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2
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cut, or paste that you performed.
2
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2
1
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Limitations of CUT and UNDO. The following mouse-driven features are 2
2
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2
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not
available:
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1
2
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• DRAG-AND-DROP cut-and-paste (not available)
2
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2
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2
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• COPY (not available; to copy you need to cut, then paste, in the
2
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same
spot)
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1
2
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• MULTIPLE UNDO (the CAT word processor stores only your
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
most
recent
delete,
cut,
or
paste,
or
keyboard
entry.)
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2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 23
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

www.petersons.com

Note

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2
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The vertical scroll bar. Once you key in ten lines or so, you’ll have to scroll 2
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2
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to view your entire response. A vertical scroll bar also appears to the right 2
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2
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of the AWA prompt. Be sure to scroll all the way down to make sure you’ve 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 read the entire prompt.
2
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2
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2
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Spell-checking,
grammar-checking,
fonts,
attributes,
hyphenation.
The
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 CAT word processor does not include a spell-checker or grammar-checker, 2
2
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2
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nor
does
it
allow
you
to
choose
typeface
or
point
size.
Neither
manual
nor
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
automatic
hyphenation
is
available.
Attributes
such
as
bold,
italics,
and
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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underlining
are
not
available.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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As
for
words
that
you
would
otherwise
italicize
or
underline
(such
as
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
titles
or
non-English
words),
it’s
okay
to
leave
them
as
is.
The
readers
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
understand the limitations of the CAT word processor.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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The
2
1 GMAT CAT Test-Taking Experience
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
When you take a test as important as the GMAT, it’s a good idea to 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
minimize test anxiety by knowing exactly what to expect on exam 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
day—aside from the timed test itself. Let’s walk you through the various 2
2
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pre-test and post-test procedures and describe the physical testing 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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environment.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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2
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When
You
Arrive
at
the
Test
Center
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2
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Here’s what you can expect when you arrive at the test center:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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• The supervisor will show you a roster, which includes the names of 2
2
1
2
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test-takers
scheduled
for
that
day,
and
will
ask
you
to
initial
the
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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roster next to your name, and indicate on the roster your arrival
2
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2
1
time.
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2
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• The supervisor will ask you to read a two-page list of testing
2
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2
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procedures and rules. (I’ll cover all these rules in the pages
2
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2
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immediately
ahead.)
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• The supervisor will give you a “Nondisclosure Statement.” You’re
2
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2
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to
read
the
printed
statement,
then
write
the
statement
(in
the
2
1
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
space provided on the form) and sign it. In the statement, you
2
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2
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agree
to
the
testing
policies
and
rules,
and
you
agree
not
to
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2
1
reproduce or disclose any of the actual test questions. The supervi2
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2
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sor
will
not
permit
you
to
enter
the
exam
room
until
you’ve
2
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2
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written and signed the statement.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
24
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
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2
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• You’ll probably have to sit in a waiting room until the supervisor
2
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2
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calls your name. A 5- to 10-minute wait beyond your scheduled
2
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2
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testing
time
is
not
uncommon.
(Taking
the
GMAT
CAT
is
like
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
going to the dentist—in more than one respect!)
2
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2
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2
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The
supervisor
will
check
your
photo
identification.
(You
won’t
be
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
permitted to take the test unless you have one acceptable form of
2
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2
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photo
identification
with
you.)
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
• The test center will provide a secure locker (free of charge) for
2
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2
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stowing your personal belongings during the test.
2
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2
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To
help
ensure
that
nobody
else
takes
any
part
of
the
exam
in
your
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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place, the supervisor will take a photograph of you.
2
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2
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2
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The
supervisor
might
give
you
some
rudimentary
tips
about
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
managing your time during the exam. Just ignore the supervisor’s
2
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2
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tips,
because
they
might
not
be
good
advice
for
you!
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
• Before you enter the testing room, you must remove everything
2
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2
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from
your
pockets
except
your
photo
I.D.
and
locker
key.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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• The supervisor will provide you with several pieces of scratch
2
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paper (stapled together), along with two pencils. These are the
2
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2
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only
items
you’ll
have
in
hand
as
you
enter
the
testing
room.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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1
2
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Testing Procedures and Rules
2
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2
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If
you
want
to
exit
the
testing
room
for
any
reason,
you
must
raise
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2
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your hand and wait for the supervisor to come in and escort you from
2
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2
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the room. (You won’t be able to pause the testing clock for any
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2
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reason.)
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• No guests are allowed in the waiting room during your test.
2
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2
1 • No food or drink is allowed in the testing room.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
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• No hats are allowed.
2
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2
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You
must
sign
out
whenever
you
exit
the
testing
room.
2
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2
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You
must
sign
in
whenever
you
re-enter
the
testing
room
(the
supervi2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sor will ask to see your photo I.D. each time).
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 • If you need more scratch paper during the exam, just raise your hand
2
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2
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and ask for it. The supervisor will happily replace your bundle with a
2
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2
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fresh one.
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2
1 • The supervisor will replace your tired pencils with fresh, sharp ones
2
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upon
your
request
anytime
during
the
exam
(just
raise
your
hand).
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 25
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

www.petersons.com

Alert!

26

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2
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2
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What You Should Know about the CAT Testing
2
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2
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Environment
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2
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• Individual testing stations are like library carrels; they’re separated by
2
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2
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half-walls.
2
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2
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The
height
of
your
chair’s
seat
will
be
adjustable
and
the
chair
will
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 swivel. Chairs at most testing centers have arms.
2
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2
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Computer
monitors
are
generally
of
the
15-inch
variety.
You
can
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
adjust
contrast.
If
you
notice
any
flickering,
ask
the
supervisor
to
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
move
you
to
another
station.
(You
won’t
be
able
to
tell
if
you
monitor
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
has
color
capability,
because
the
GMAT
is
strictly
a
black-and-white
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 affair.)
2
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2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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You can’t change the size of the font on the screen, unless you specifically 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
request
before
the
exam
begins
that
a
special
ZOOMTEXT
function
be
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
1 made available to you.
2
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2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• If your mouse has two buttons, you can use either button to click your 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
way through the exam (both buttons serve the same function). Don’t
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
expect
that
nifty
wheel
between
buttons
for
easy
scrolling,
because
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you’re not going to get it. For all you gamers and laptop users,
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
trackballs
are
available,
but
only
if
you
request
one
before
you
begin
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the test.
2
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2
1
2
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• Testing rooms are not soundproof. During your test, you might hear
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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talking and other noise from outside the room.
2
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2
1 • Expect the supervisor to escort other test-takers in and out of the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
room
during
your
test.
Do
your
best
to
ignore
this
potential
distrac2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 tion.
2
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If
the
testing
room
is
busy,
expect
to
hear
lots
of
mouse-clicking
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
during your test. Because the room is otherwise fairly quiet, the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
incessant
mouse-clicking
can
become
annoying!
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 • Earplugs are available upon request.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Expect anything in terms of room temperature, so dress in layers.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

You’ll
be
under
continual
audio
and
video
surveillance.
To
guard
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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against cheating, and to record any irregularities or problems in the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
testing
room
as
they
occur,
the
room
is
continually
audiotaped
and
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 videotaped. (Look for the cameras or two-way mirrors, then smile and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
wave!)
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Note

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Before You Begin the Test—The Computer Tutorial 2
2
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2
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Okay,
the
supervisor
has
just
escorted
you
into
the
inner
sanctum
and
to
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your station, and has wished you luck. (Some supervisors have been 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
known to encourage test-takers to “have fun!”) Before you begin the test, 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the CAT System will lead you through a tutorial which includes five 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sections (each section steps you through a series of “screens”):
2
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2
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1. How to use the mouse (6 screens)
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2. How to select and change an answer (6 screens)
2
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2
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2
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3.
How
to
scroll
the
screen
display
up
and
down
(6
screens)
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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4. How to use the toolbars (21 screens); here you’ll learn how to:
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Quit the test.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Exit the current section.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Access the directions.
2
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2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Confirm
your
response
and
move
to
the
next
question.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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5. How to use the AWA word processor features (14 screens)
2
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If you want to see what some of the tutorial screens look like, ETS
2
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2
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provides a variety of samples in its official GMAT Bulletin.
2
1
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1
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Here’s what you need to know about the CAT tutorial:
2
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2
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• You won’t be able to skip any section or any screen during
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the tutorial.
2
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• As you progress, the system requires that you demonstrate
2
1
2
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competency
in
using
the
mouse,
selecting
and
confirming
answer
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choices, and accessing the directions. So you can’t begin taking the 2
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2
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actual
test
unless
you’ve
shown
that
you
know
how
to
use
the
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1
system. (Don’t worry: no test-taker has ever flunked the CAT
2
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2
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system
competency
test.)
2
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2
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2
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• At the end of each tutorial section (series of screens), you can
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repeat that section, at your option. But once you leave a section
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you can’t return to it.
2
1
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1
2
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2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

Tip

www.petersons.com

Alert!

28

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2
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2
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2
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Don’t choose to repeat any tutorial section. Why not? If you do, you’ll be 2
2
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forced to step through the entire sequence of screens in that section again 2
2
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2
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(an aggravating time-waster, especially for the 21-screen section!)
2
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2
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2
1
2
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2
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• The AWA section of the tutorial allows you to practice using the
2
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2
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word
processor.
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2
1
2
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2
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If
you
carefully
read
all
the
information
presented
to
you,
expect
2
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2
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to
spend
about
20
minutes
on
the
tutorial.
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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On
test
day,
you’ll
already
know
how
the
CAT
system
works.
So
step
2
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through the tutorial as quickly as you can, reading as little as possible. 2
2
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2
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You
can
easily
dispense
with
the
tutorial
in
5–10
minutes
this
way.
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Remember: The less time you spend with the tutorial, the less fatigued 2
2
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2
1 you’ll be during the exam itself.
2
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2
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2
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2
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Post-Test GMAT CAT Procedures
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2
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Okay,
it’s
been
about
4
hours
since
you
first
entered
the
testing
center,
and
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you’ve just completed the second of two multiple-choice GMAT sections. 2
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2
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You
may
think
you’ve
finished
the
CAT,
but
the
CAT
has
not
quite
finished
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2
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1 with you yet! There are a few more hoops to jump through before you’re 2
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2
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done.
2
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2
1
2
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1.
Respond
to
a
brief
questionnaire.
The
CAT
will
impose
on
you
a
brief
2
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questionnaire (presented in a series of screens) about your test-taking 2
2
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1
experience (believe it or not, these questions are multiple-choice, just 2
2
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2
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like the exam itself). The questionnaire might ask you, for example:
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• Whether your supervisor was knowledgeable and helpful
2
1
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2
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• Whether the testing environment was comfortable
2
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2
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2
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How
long
you
waited
after
you
arrived
at
the
testing
site
to
2
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2
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begin
the
test
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2
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• Whether you were distracted by noise during your exam
2
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1 2. Cancel your test, at your option. The most important question you’ll 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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answer while seated at your testing station is this next one. The CAT 2
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2
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will ask you to choose whether to:
2
1
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1
• Cancel your scores (no scores are recorded; partial cancellation 2
2
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2
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is
not
provided
for)
or
see
your
scores
immediately.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Tip

Alert!

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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Once you elect to see your scores, you can no longer cancel them—ever! So 2
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2
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you should take a few minutes to think it over. The CAT gives you 5 2
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2
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minutes to choose. If you haven’t decided within 5 minutes, the CAT will 2
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1 automatically show you your scores (and you forfeit your option to 2
2
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2
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cancel).
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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If
you
click
on
the
CANCEL
SCORES
button,
the
CAT
will
then
give
you
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2
1 yet another 5 minutes to think over your decision. So you really have 10
2
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2
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minutes
altogether
to
make
up
your
mind.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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3.
View
and
record
your
scores.
If
you
elect
to
see
your
scores,
you
2
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should write them down on your scratch paper. When you leave the 2
2
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testing room, the supervisor will allow you to transcribe them onto 2
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another sheet of paper (one that you can take home with you), so that
2
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2
1
you don’t have to memorize them.
2
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2
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4.
Direct
your
scores
to
the
schools
of
your
choice.
Once
you’ve
elected
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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to see your scores, the CAT will ask you to select the schools you wish 2
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to receive your score report (the CAT provides a complete list of 2
2
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2
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schools).
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2
1 You can select as many as five schools at this time—without incurring an
2
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additional fee. This is your last chance for a freebie, so you should take
2
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2
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full
advantage
of
it.
Be
sure
to
compile
your
list
of
five
schools
before
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2
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exam day.
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Before You Leave the Testing Center
2
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2
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Upon exiting the testing room for the final time, the following will happen: 2
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2
1
2
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1.
The
supervisor
will
collect
your
pencils
and
scratch
paper,
and
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will count the number of sheets of paper to make sure you aren’t 2
2
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2
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trying
to
sneak
out
with
any.
(Then,
if
you’re
lucky,
you’ll
be
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1
allowed to watch while the supervisor ceremoniously rips up your 2
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2
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scratch paper and drops it in the trash basket!)
2
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2
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2. The supervisor will remind you to collect your belongings from 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your locker (if you used one), and turn in your locker key.
2
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2
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3. The supervisor will provide you with an ETS pamphlet that 2
1
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2
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explains how to interpret your test scores. (You can take this 2
1
2
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home with you.)
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

Alert!

www.petersons.com

Note

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2
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2
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2
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The
supervisor
might
also
provide
you
with
a
postcard-sized
invitation
to
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“blow the whistle” on anybody you suspect of cheating on the exam (the 2
2
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2
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invitation
ends
with
the
assurance:
“Confidentiality
guaranteed”).
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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2
1
Top
10 Tips for GMAT Prep
2
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2
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Regardless of what books, software, or other GMAT-prep resources you’re 2
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2
1
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using, certain time-tested strategies for GMAT prep never go out of style. To 2
2
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attain your optimal GMAT score, and to maximize your chances of getting 2
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2
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into your first-choice B-school, heed the following points of sage advice.
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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1.
Don’t Neglect Your Weaknesses
2
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2
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In
gearing
up
for
the
GMAT,
many
test-takers
make
the
mistake
of
focusing
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on their strengths while neglecting their weaknesses. They tell themselves: 2
2
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1 “I can’t handle this tough stuff right now; so I’ll either face it later or skip 2
2
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2
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it
altogether
and
hope
to
make
some
lucky
guesses
on
the
exam.”
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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But, you can’t hide any of your individual GMAT scores from B-school 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
admissions officers. So, don’t spin your GMAT-prep wheels by spending 2
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more time than you need on any one area of the GMAT, or by rehashing 2
2
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what you already know. Devote more time to improving on your 2
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2
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2
1 weaknesses than basking in your strengths.
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2
1
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2
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2.
Don’t Neglect the Two GMAT Essay Sections
2
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2
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GMAT
“prep
neglect”
is
especially
commonplace
when
it
comes
to
the
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two GMAT essay sections—a bit ironic, considering that it’s impossible to 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
guess, or “fake,” your way through an essay. What’s more, the B-schools 2
2
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1 are focusing more and more on the GMAT essays to help them make tough 2
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decisions among applicants—many of whom appear equally qualified 2
2
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2
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otherwise.
So,
your
AWA
score
might
very
well
make
the
difference
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
between acceptance and rejection, especially for a B-school where you’re a 2
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2
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borderline candidate.
2
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2
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2
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Fast, accurate typists have a clear advantage when it comes to the two 2
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2
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GMAT essay sections—no doubt about it. So if you’re a poor typist, work 2
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2
1 on improving your speed and skill before exam day.
2
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Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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3.
Practice under Exam Conditions
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2
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When
it
comes
to
GMAT
prep,
there’s
simply
no
substitute
for
“putting
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yourself to the test” by taking practice questions under simulated testing 2
2
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conditions. Here are some suggestions:
2
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2
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2
• Adhere to the time limits that each exam section imposes.
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2
1
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• If possible, use a word processor for composing your practice
2
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2
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essays;
use
only
the
features
available
on
the
CAT
word
processor.
2
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2
1
2
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If
possible,
take
at
least
one
computer-based
practice
test.
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2
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2
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Also,
do
not
underestimate
the
role
that
endurance
plays
on
the
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2
1
2
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GMAT. Half the battle is just making it through the half-day ordeal
2
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2
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with your wits intact. Condition yourself by taking at least one full2
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2
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length practice test straight through, with only a few short breaks.
2
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4.
2
1 Take the Real GMAT Once—Just for Practice
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If
you
have
time
and
can
afford
it,
you
should
register
for
and
take
the
real
2
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2
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GMAT
once
as
a
dress
rehearsal—just
to
get
comfortable
with
the
testing
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environment. You’ll rid yourself of a lot of anxiety and nervousness and, if 2
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you’re like most test-takers, you’ll be far more relaxed and focused the 2
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second time around. In fact, ETS statistics show that among repeaters, 2
2
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more
than
90%
improve
their
score
the
second
time
around.
Those
are
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1 great odds!
2
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2
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5.
Keep Practice Scores in Perspective
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2
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If you’re like most GMAT test-takers, you’ve set your sights on two or 2
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2
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three particular colleges or universities as your top choices, and you have a 2
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2
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good idea what GMAT scores you’ll need for getting into those schools. So 2
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1 perhaps you’ve set a goal for your GMAT scores. That’s understandable. 2
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But don’t psyche yourself out by obsessing over your practice-test scores. 2
2
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2
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Gloating
over
high
scores
can
lead
to
complacency
and
overconfidence,
2
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2
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while
brooding
over
low
scores
can
result
in
discouragement
and
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self-doubt. Either way, you’re sabotaging yourself. The bottom line: Try to 2
2
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2
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concern
yourself
not
with
test
scores
themselves
but
rather
with
what
you
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1 can constructively do between now and exam day to improve these scores.
2
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2
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2
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2
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6.
Maintain
the
Right
“GMATitude”
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1
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It’s important to maintain a positive attitude about the GMAT. But, it’s 2
2
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also important to keep your self-confidence from swelling to the point of 2
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1 complacency and overconfidence. Think you can just “wing it” on the 2
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Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

32

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GMAT and still crush the competition? Think again. Even if you were a 2
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2
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curve-raiser in college, there are thousands of others like you who are 2
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2
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taking the GMAT very seriously and who would be more than happy to 2
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2
1 bump you down the GMAT-scoring curve. Enough said?
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
1
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2
1
7.
Be
Realistic
in
Your
Expectations
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You’d
love
perfect
GMAT
scores,
wouldn’t
you?
And
in
theory,
your
2
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1 capable of attaining them. But in reality, you probably won’t score as 2
2
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2
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highly
as
you’d
like
to.
Accept
your
limitations.
With
regular
study
and
2
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2
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practice,
you’ll
perform
as
well
as
you
can
reasonably
expect
to
perform.
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2
1
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Also be realistic about the benefits you expect from this or any other 2
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GMAT preparation book. There’s only so much that you can do in a few 2
2
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2
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weeks—or even several months—to boost your GMAT score.
2
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2
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2
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2
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8.
2
1 Take Steps to Minimize GMAT Anxiety
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Test
anxiety,
whether
before
or
during
a
test,
can
only
hinder
your
2
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2
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performance.
Although
it’s
a
good
idea
to
try
to
keep
a
lid
on
it,
don’t
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expect to eliminate it entirely. If you’re starting to feel the heat, try the 2
2
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2
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following
anxiety-busting
techniques.
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2
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• Practice testing under exam conditions is the best method of
2
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2
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reducing test anxiety. As you become more comfortable in a
2
1
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2
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simulated testing environment, your nerves will begin to settle
2
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2
1
down, and the real test will seem more like “just another day at
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the office.”
2
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2
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• Join (or form) a GMAT study group. Openly discuss your insecuri2
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2
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ties
about
the
GMAT,
and
you’ll
notice
that
they
begin
to
dissipate.
2
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2
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• Before taking practice tests, try simple relaxation techniques such
2
1
2
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as
stretching,
quieting
your
thoughts,
deep
breathing,
or
whatever
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2
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else works for you. Some people find a quick burst of vigorous
2
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2
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exercise
to
be
highly
effective.
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2
1
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• You’ll be anxious about the GMAT only if you’re actually thinking 2
2
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2
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about it. So during the weeks that you’re gearing up for the test,
2
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keep yourself preoccupied with your everyday activities. Try not to 2
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2
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discuss the GMAT with others except during planned study
2
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2
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sessions or classes.
2
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2
1
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2
1
2
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2
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www.petersons.com

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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9.
Know When You’ve Peaked
2
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2
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Preparing
for
the
GMAT
is
a
bit
like
training
for
an
athletic
event.
You
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need to familiarize yourself with the event, learn to be comfortable with 2
2
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it, and build up your skill and endurance. At some point—hopefully 2
2
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around exam day—your motivation, interest, and performance will 2
2
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peak. Sure, it takes some time and effort to get comfortable with the 2
2
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exam, to correct poor test-taking habits, to bone up on whatever math 2
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and grammar you might have forgotten, to develop an instinct for 2
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1 recognizing wrong-answer choices, and to find your optimal pace. But 2
2
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2
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there’s a point beyond which additional study and practice confer little 2
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2
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or no additional benefit. Don’t drag out the process by starting several 2
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months in advance or by postponing the GMAT to give yourself more 2
2
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2
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time
than
you
really
need
for
preparation.
2
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10.
Take the GMAT Early to Allow Yourself the
2
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2
1 Option of Retaking It
2
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2
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Most
graduate
business
schools
admit
new
students
for
the
fall
term
only.
2
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Although application deadlines vary widely among schools, if you take the 2
2
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2
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GMAT
no
later
than
the
November
prior
to
matriculation,
you’ll
meet
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almost any application deadline. Ideally, you should take the GMAT early
2
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enough so that you can take the exam a second time if necessary and still 2
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1 meet application deadlines. In any event, schedule the GMAT so that 2
2
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you’re sure you will have adequate time to prepare beforehand.
2
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2
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2
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Top
10 GMAT Test-Taking Tips
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2
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In Parts II–IV, you’ll learn strategies and tips for specific test sections and 2
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2
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question types. Right now, however, review some general strategies for 2
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2
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the GMAT. Even if you’ve read about these strategies elsewhere, of if 2
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they seem like common sense to you, it’s a good idea to reinforce them in 2
2
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2
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your mind.
2
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1
2
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2
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1.
Know
Your
Optimal
Pace,
and
Stay
on
It
2
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2
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Time
is
definitely
a
factor
on
every
section
of
the
GMAT.
On
the
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multiple-choice sections, expect to work at quicker pace than is 2
2
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comfortable for you. Similarly, the 30-minute time limit for each AWA 2
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1 response requires a lively writing pace, allowing little time for editing,
2
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2
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revising, and fine-tuning.
2
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2
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During
the
multiple-choice
sections,
check
your
pace
after
every
10
2
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1 questions or so (three times during a section), and adjust it accordingly so 2
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Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

34

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2
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that you have time to at least consider every question in the section. 2
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2
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During each essay section be sure to leave yourself enough time to cover all 2
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2
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your main points and to wrap up your essay with a brief concluding 2
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1 paragraph. The best way to avoid the time squeeze is to practice under 2
2
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2
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timed
conditions,
so
that
you
get
a
sense
for
your
optimal
pace.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2.
If
You’re
Not
Sure
What
the
Correct
Answer
Is,
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Don’t Dwell on It . . . Move on
2
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2
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This
tip
is
closely
related
to
the
previous
one.
You
might
find
yourself
2
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2
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reluctant
to
leave
a
question
until
you’re
sure
your
answer
is
correct.
The
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
design
of
the
CAT
contributes
to
this
mind
set,
because
your
reward
for
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
correct
responses
to
difficult
questions
is
greater
than
your
reward
for
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
easier questions. But a stubborn attitude will only defeat you, because it 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reduces the number of questions you may attempt, which in turn can 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
lower your score. Set aside your perfectionist tendencies and remember: 2
2
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1 You can miss quite a few questions and still score high. Develop a sense 2
2
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of your optimal pace—one that results in the greatest number of correct 2
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2
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responses.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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3.
Take Your Time with the First Few Quantitative
2
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2
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and
Verbal
Questions
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 The CAT uses your responses to the first few questions to move you either 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
up
or
down
the
ladder
of
difficulty.
Of
course,
you
want
to
move
up
the
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ladder, not down. So take great care with the initial questions—perhaps 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
moving at a somewhat slower pace. Otherwise, you’ll have to answer 2
2
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1 several questions just to reverse the trend by proving to the CAT that 2
2
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2
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you’re
smarter
than
it
thinks
you
are.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
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2
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4.
Avoid Random Guesswork, If Possible
2
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2
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If you must guess, always try to eliminate obvious wrong-answer choices 2
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2
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first, then go with your hunch. Eliminating even one choice improves your 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
odds. If you’re out of time on a section, there’s no advantage to guessing 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
randomly on the remaining questions. Why? You might luck out and guess 2
2
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1 correctly. However, incorrect responses move you down the ladder of 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
difficulty, and correct responses to easier questions aren’t worth as much 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
as
correct
responses
to
more
difficult
questions.
So
on
balance,
there’s
no
2
1
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 net advantage to guessing randomly.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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2
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2
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5.
Read Each Question in Its Entirety, and Read
2
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2
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Every
Answer
Choice
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You’ll discover in the days ahead that the test-makers love to bait you with 2
2
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2
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tempting
wrong-answer
choices.
This
applies
to
every
type
of
multiple2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
choice
question
on
the
exam.
So
unless
you’re
quickly
running
out
of
time,
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 never confirm an answer until you’ve read all the choices! This blunder is 2
2
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2
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one of the leading causes of incorrect responses on the GMAT.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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6.
Maintain
an
Active
Mind
Set
2
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2
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During
the
GMAT,
it’s
remarkably
easy
to
fall
into
a
passive
mode—one
in
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2
1
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which you let your eyes simply pass over the words while you hope that the 2
2
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2
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correct
response
jumps
out
at
you
as
you
scan
the
answer
choices.
Fight
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this tendency by interacting with the test as you read it. Keep in mind that 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
each
question
on
the
GMAT
is
designed
to
measure
a
specific
ability
or
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
skill. So try to adopt an active, investigative approach to each question, in 2
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2
1 which you ask yourself:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2
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• What skill is the question measuring?
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• What is the most direct thought process to determine the correct
2
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2
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response?
2
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• How might a careless test-taker be tripped up on this type of
2
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2
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question?
2
1
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1 Answering these three questions is, in large part, what the rest of this book 2
2
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is all about.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
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7.
Use Your Pencil and Scratch Paper
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Using pencil and paper helps keep you in an active mode. Making brief 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 notes and drawing diagrams and flow charts will help keep your thought 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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process clear.
2
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2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
8.
Move the Keyboard Aside for the Multiple-Choice 2
2
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2
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Sections
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 You won’t use the keyboard at all for these sections. So put your scratch
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
paper
right
in
front
of
you,
and
get
the
keyboard
out
of
the
way.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 35
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
9.
Know the Test Directions Inside and Out—Before 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You
Take
the
Test
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Just before the first question of each type (e.g., Data Sufficiency or 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Reading
Comprehension)
the
CAT
will
display
the
directions
for
that
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
question
type.
The
clock
will
be
running,
so
dismiss
the
directions
as
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 quickly as possible by clicking on the DISMISS DIRECTIONS button. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
time to read (This advice presupposes that you already know the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
directions—which of course you will!)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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10.
Use
the
5-Minute
Breaks,
but
Keep
an
Eye
on
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the Time
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Remember:
The
GMAT
CAT
clock
is
always
running,
even
during
the
two
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
scheduled 5-minute breaks. By all means, take advantage of these breaks 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to leave the room, perhaps grab a quick snack from your locker, and do 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
some
stretching
or
relaxing.
But
don’t
get
too
relaxed!
Five
minutes
goes
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 by very quickly, and the test will begin after that time has elapsed—with or 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
without
you!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Resources
for GMAT Preparation
2
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2
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How
much
should
you
“invest”
in
your
GMAT
education—in
terms
of
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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1 both time and money? The conventional wisdom is that since the GMAT is 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one of the most important tests you’ll ever take, you should invest as much 2
2
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1 time and money in it as possible. However, the law of diminishing returns 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
applies to GMAT preparation. This book, along with a few other 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
thoughtfully selected resources, can provide virtually all of the potential 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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benefits of a full-blown GMAT prep course.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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GMAT
Books
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The number of available books for GMAT prep is overwhelming. Here are 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
some
suggestions
to
help
you
cut
through
the
glut:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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• Peruse a book carefully before committing to it. Yes, this means
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
visiting
your
local
brick-and-mortar
bookstore.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Look for a book that emphasizes skill development, not just
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
practice questions.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• Rule out any book that emphasizes so-called “secrets” and
2
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2
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“shortcuts,” or makes the test out to be easier than it appears. Do
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you
really
think
the
GMAC
and
ETS
would
devise
a
test
that
can
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
be “cracked” like a cheap safe? If so, think again.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
36
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Limit the number of comprehensive GMAT books you use to two
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or three altogether. Any more any you’ll find yourself reading the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
same
strategies
and
test-taking
tips
again.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Identify
your
weakest
skill
area,
and
supplement
this
book
with
a
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
workbook
targeted
at
that
area.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
you
must
shop
for
GMAT
books
at
an
online
bookstore,
ignore
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
customer
comments
and
ratings,
especially
if
they
are
few
in
number.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Laudatory comments are often submitted anonymously by the publishers 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
themselves, while derogatory comments are often factually inaccurate, 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
unfair, and inflammatory.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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The bottom line: You don’t need to spend more than $40 to $50, on three 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or four books altogether, to be fully prepared for the GMAT.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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Online GMAT Resources
2
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1 The Web is now littered with GMAT advice and practice questions—freely 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
available
for
public
consumption.
To
separate
the
wheat
from
the
chaff,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
limit your GMAT web-surfing to the official GMAC site (www.mba.com) 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
the
sites
of
test-prep
publishers
with
a
time-tested
reputation
for
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
producing high-quality content, such as Peterson’s (www.petersons.com).
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1GMAT-Prep Courses
2
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2
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Would it be worthwhile to enroll in a live GMAT-prep course? Well, here 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are the advantages:
2
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1. The dynamics of a live classroom setting can help you learn 2
1
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difficult concepts by affording different perspectives. (But why 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
not start your own study group? You’re just as likely to gain 2
2
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2
1
useful
insights
from
your
peers
as
from
a
GMAT
instructor.)
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2. Having made a substantial financial investment, you’ll probably 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
be motivated to get your money’s worth out of that investment. 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(But this is an expensive head game, isn’t it? And if you can’t 2
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2
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afford the course, it doesn’t matter anyway.)
2
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3. You’re less likely to procrastinate with a set class schedule. (But if 2
1
2
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you’re disciplined enough this is no advantage.)
2
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2
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2
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4.
All
the
materials
are
provided,
so
you
don’t
need
to
decide
which
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
books and/or software to buy. (But is this really a significant 2
2
1
2
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benefit?)
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 37
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

38

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2
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5. You can commiserate and compare notes with your classmates. In 2
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2
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fact, GMAT prep classes typical morph into de facto pre-MBA 2
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2
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support groups. (But why not start your own GMAT study/ 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
support group?)
2
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2
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2
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Here
are
some
drawbacks
and
caveats
to
keep
in
mind
if
you’re
thinking
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 about taking a GMAT prep-course:
2
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2
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2
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1.
They’re
expensive;
you
can
easily
spend
$1,000.
(If
you’re
near
a
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
university, you might find a course sponsored by the university, 2
2
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perhaps through its extension program, for a fraction of the cost 2
2
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2
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of a private course.)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2. Despite their claims, private test-prep companies pass along no 2
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2
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“secrets” to you—nothing at all that you can’t find for yourself in 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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test-prep books.
2
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3. The popular test-prep services require each of their GMAT 2
2
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instructors to have taken the real GMAT and attained a high 2
2
1
2
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score
(typically
above
the
90th
percentile).
But
this
screen
hardly
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ensures
that
your
instructor
will
be
an
effective
teacher.
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4. During peak times of the year, you might have difficulty 2
2
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scheduling out-of-class time in the computer lab, at least during 2
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2
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reasonable hours.
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2
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5. If you’re not located in a major urban area or near a large college 2
1
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2
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or university, the class location might be too remote for you.
2
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2
1
2
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If
you
decide
to
enroll
in
a
GMAT
prep-course,
keep
in
mind
the
following
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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points of advice:
2
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2
1
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1. Ask about the policy for repeating the course. Insist on an option 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to repeat the course at least once without charge at any time (not 2
2
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2
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just within the next year).
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2
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2. Ask about merit-based or financial-based “scholarships” (fee 2
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2
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reductions).
2
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2
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2
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3.
If
you
repeat
the
course,
be
sure
to
arrange
for
a
different
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
instructor; just as with GMAT books, each GMAT instructor has 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
his
or
her
own
teaching
style.
2
1
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4. The most significant benefit of a GMAT course is the live 2
2
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2
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classroom; so be sure to attend as many classes as you can.
2
1
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2
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5. Take full advantage of the chance to meet other students and set 2
1
2
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up out-of-class study sessions. As we’ve already noted, you can 2
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2
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learn just as much from your peers as from an instructor.
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 1: The GMAT—In a Nutshell

Note

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2
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2
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GMAT
Availability and Registration
2
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2
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The
computer-based
GMAT
is
administered
year-round
at
more
than
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
500 locations, most of which are in North America. Testing centers are 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
located
at
Prometric
Testing
Centers,
Sylvan
Learning
Centers,
certain
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
colleges
and
universities,
and
ETS
(Educational
Testing
Service)
field
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 offices. The official GMAT Bulletin contains a complete list of GMAT 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
computer-based
test
centers;
an
updated
list
is
available
at
the
GMAC
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Web
site
(www.mba.com).
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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Registering
for
the
GMAT
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2
1
2
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To take the computer-based GMAT, you must schedule an appointment by 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
using any of the following four methods:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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1. Make an appointment online, via the GMAC Web site 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(www.mba.com).
2
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1
2. Call the test center of your choice directly. A current test center 2
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2
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list is available at the GMAC Web site (www.mba.com).
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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3. Call a central registration number: 1-800-GMAT-NOW (1-8002
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
462-8669).
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4. Make an appointment by mail. (You’ll need to complete and mail 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the Authorization Voucher Request Form in the official GMAT 2
2
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2
1
Bulletin;
you
should
receive
your
Authorization
Voucher
about
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
four weeks after you mail the request form, and you cannot 2
1
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schedule a test appointment until you’ve received your voucher.) 2
2
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1 You might be able to sit for the GMAT within a few days after scheduling 2
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an appointment. However, keep in mind that popular test centers may 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
experience backlogs of up to several weeks. Also, you might find it more 2
2
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1 difficult to schedule a weekend test date than a weekday test date. So be 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sure to plan ahead and schedule your GMAT early enough to meet your 2
2
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B-school application deadlines.
2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
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In certain areas outside of North America, the computer-based network is
2
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2
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not yet available, and the GMAT is still administered as a paper-based
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 exam. A complete list of international paper-based testing locations and
2
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2
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test dates is available at the GMAC Web site (www.mba.com).
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
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2
1Obtaining Up-to-Date GMAT Information
2
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For
detailed
information
about
GMAT
registration
procedures,
consult
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the official GMAC Web site (www.mba.com), or refer to the printed 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GMAT
Bulletin,
published
annually
by
the
GMAC.
This
free
bulletin
is
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 39

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

40

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2
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available directly from ETS and GMAC, as well as through career- 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
planning offices at most four-year colleges and universities. You can also 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
download the Bulletin from the GMAC Web site. The official GMAC Web 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 site and Bulletin both provide detailed and current information about:
2
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2
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2
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Test
center
locations,
telephone
numbers,
and
hours
of
operation
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Registration
procedures
2
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2
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2
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• Accommodations for disabled test-takers
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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• Requirements for admission to the GMAT
2
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2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Registration
and
reporting
fees,
and
refund
policies
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Repeating
the
test
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• The paper-based GMAT (availability, registration procedures, etc.)
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Official scoring criteria for the AWA essays
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• How GMAT scores should be used by the institutions
2
1
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
GMAT
Bulletin
is
published
only
once
a
year,
so
for
the
most
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
up-to-date official information you should check the GMAC Web site.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Contacting the Testing Service
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 To obtain the Bulletin, or for other information about the GMAT, you can 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
contact ETS using any of the following methods:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
Telephone:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1-609-771-7330
(general
inquiries
and
publications)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1-800-462-8669 (CAT registration only)
2
1
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E-mail:
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
gmat@ets.org
2
1
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
World Wide Web:
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
www.mba.com
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
www.ets.org (the ETS home page)
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Mail:
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GMAT
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
Educational Testing Service
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
P.O.
Box
6103
2
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2
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Princeton,
NJ
08541-6103
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter

2

Note

The GMAT—Up Close
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2
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2
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In
Chapter
1,
you
learned
that
the
GMAT
consists
of
three
parts
and
that
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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test questions come in seven different formats. Here’s a recap:
2
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Test Section
Question Formats
2
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2
1
Analytical Writing Assessment
Analysis of an Issue
2
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2
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(Sections
1
and
2)
Analysis
of
an
Argument
2
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Quantitative Ability
Problem Solving
2
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2
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(Section 3)
Data Sufficiency
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Verbal Ability
Critical Reasoning
2
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2
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(Section
4)
Sentence
Correction
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1
Reading Comprehension
2
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2
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2
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In this chapter, you’ll examine each format in detail. Specifically, you’ll:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Learn what abilities and content areas the format covers
2
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2
1
2
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Examine
the
test
directions
2
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• Look at one or two example questions
2
1
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2
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• Review the format’s key features
2
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2
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2
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2
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For
each
multiple-choice
format,
you’ll
look
at
two
questions—one
a
bit
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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easier than average, the other a bit tougher than average—along with
2
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2
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explanatory
answers.
You
can
use
these
sample
questions
to
help
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 determine if you should Take It to the Next Level.
2
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2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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41

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

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2
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2
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Analytical
Writing Assessment (AWA)
2
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2
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In
Chapter
1,
you
learned
that
the
GMAT
Analytical
Writing
Assessment
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
consists of two separate timed sections: (1) Analysis of an Issue and (2) 2
2
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2
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Analysis
of
an
Argument.
These
two
sections
have
a
lot
in
common.
For
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
each
section:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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• You compose an essay response using the test’s built-in word
2
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2
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processor.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
• Your time limit is 30 minutes.
2
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2
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2
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Your
essay
topic,
or
“prompt,”
is
drawn
randomly
from
a
large
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
pool.
2
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2
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2
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Your
essay
will
be
evaluated
based
on
four
broad
areas:
(1)
2
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2
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content, (2) organization, (3) writing style, and (4) mechanics
2
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2
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(grammar,
syntax,
word
usage,
etc.).
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
1 Here, you’ll take a closer look at each of the two AWA sections.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Analysis of an Issue (1 Writing Task, 30 Minutes)
2
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2
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During
the
Issue-Analysis
section,
your
task
is
to
compose
an
essay
in
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
which you respond to a brief (1–2 sentence) opinion about an issue of 2
2
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2
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general
intellectual
interest.
You
should
consider
various
perspectives,
take
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2
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2
1 a position on the issue, and argue that position.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 What’s Covered
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2
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The Issue-Analysis section is designed to test your ability to present a 2
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2
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position on an issue effectively and persuasively. In scoring your Issue 2
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2
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essay, readers will consider how effectively you do the following:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Recognize and deal with the complexities and implications of the
2
1
2
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issue.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Organize, develop, and express your ideas.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• Support your ideas (with reasons and examples).
2
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2
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• Control the elements of Standard Written English.
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Test Directions
2
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During the pre-test tutorial, as well as at the start of your timed 2
2
1
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Issue-Analysis section, the GMAT will present to you one screen providing 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
directions and guidelines specific to the Issue-Analysis writing task. The 2
2
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screen will describe the task generally, and indicate the four general 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 scoring criteria. Here’s essentially what you’ll see on this screen:
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
42
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www.petersons.com

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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This writing task is designed to test your ability to
2
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2
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present a position on an issue effectively and per2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
suasively. Your task is to analyze the issue pre2
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2
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sented, considering various perspectives, and to de2
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2
velop your own position on the issue. In scoring
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
your Issue essay, readers will consider how effec2
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2
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tively you:
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
• Recognize and deal with the complexities and
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
implications
of
the
issue.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
• Organize, develop, and express your ideas.
2
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2
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2
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• Support your ideas (with reasons and examples).
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Control the elements of Standard Written
2
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2
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English.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
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The screen will also indicate rules and guidelines for the Issue writing task. 2
2
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2
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Here’s
essentially
what
you’ll
see
further
down
the
screen:
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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• Your time limit is 30 minutes.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Writing on any topic other than the one pre2
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sented is unacceptable.
2
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2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• The topic will appear as a brief statement on an
2
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2
1
issue
of
general
interest.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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• You are free to accept, reject, or qualify the state2
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2
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ment.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• You should support your perspective with rea2
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2
1
sons and/or examples from such sources as your
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
experience, observation, reading, and academic
2
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2
studies.
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2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

You
should
take
a
few
minutes
to
plan
your
re12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sponse before you begin typing.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• You should leave time to reread your response
2
1
2
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and make any revisions you think are needed.
2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 43
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

www.petersons.com

Note

44

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You
can
access
the
directions
and
guidelines
at
any
time
during
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Issue-Analysis section by clicking on the HELP button.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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What
Issue-Analysis
Questions
Look
Like
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Each
Issue-Analysis
topic
in
the
official
pool
consists
of
a
statement
of
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 opinion, which appears in quotes, followed by a brief directive (statement 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of
your
task).
Here’s
an
example,
which
is
similar
to
some
of
the
topics
in
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
official
pool—although
you
won’t
see
this
one
on
your
exam
(the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
directive follows the quoted statement):
2
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2
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“People often complain that the introduction of new labor-saving 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
machines costs workers their jobs. However, most new technologies 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
create more jobs than they destroy.”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the foregoing 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statement.
Support
your
perspective
using
reasons
and/or
examples
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
from
your
experience,
observation,
reading,
or
academic
studies.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Although each statement in the official GMAT pool is distinct, many of them 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
cover similar thematic ground. Here are the different themes to look for 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(understandably, more topics involve business issues than any other type):
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Business—organizational structure/behavior, management
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Culture and social mores, attitudes, values
2
1
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Business productivity, efficiency, and teamwork
2
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2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Business—labor and employment issues
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Education—its
overall
role
and
objectives
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• Government’s role in ensuring the welfare of its citizens
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Technology and its impact on business and society
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Keys to individual success
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Business—its overall role and objectives in society
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Business ethics
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Personal qualities and values
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• Government’s role in regulating business, commerce, speech
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• “Global village” issues
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Bureaucracy
and
“the
system”
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Note

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Business—advertising and marketing
2
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2
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2
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Learning
lessons
from
history
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2
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2
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• Individual power and influence
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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These categories are not mutually exclusive; in other words, many Issues
2
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2
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could
fall
into
more
than
one
category.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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Key
Facts
about
GMAT
Issue
Analysis
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2
1
2
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Here
are
some
key
facts
about
the
Issue-Analysis
section
(most
of
these
are
2
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2
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review):
2
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• The CAT will select your topic randomly from a large pool. You
2
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2
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won’t
be
able
to
choose
among
topics.
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1
• All directives in the official pool are not identical. Your directive
2
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2
might differ slightly from the one in the preceding example. For
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2
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example,
your
directive
might
ask
you:
“In
your
opinion,
how
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
accurate is the foregoing statement?” Regardless of how the
2
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2
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directive
is
framed,
however,
you
essential
task
is
always
the
same:
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
adopt a position on the issue, then support it with sound reasons
2
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2
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and
relevant
examples.
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1
2
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• There is no “correct” answer. What’s important is how effectively
2
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2
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you
present
and
support
your
position,
not
what
your
position
is.
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2
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2
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• The Issue-Analysis section is not intended to test your technical
2
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2
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knowledge of any topic. Of course, you’ll need some familiarity
2
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2
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with the topic at hand. But, don’t worry if you’re no expert on the
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subject. The test-makers are far more interested in your ability to
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2
1
assemble a well-organized, cohesive essay under time pressure than 2
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2
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in your knowledge of any specific subject.
2
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2
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2
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GMAT
readers
appreciate
your
time
constraint
and
focus
less
on
2
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2
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minutia
than
on
the
big
picture.
In
evaluating
and
scoring
your
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
essay, the readers will focus primarily on substance and organiza2
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2
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tion.
You
writing
“style”
and
your
mechanics
(grammar,
syntax,
2
1
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2
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word usage, etc.) are secondary factors, which will come into play
2
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2
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only
if
problems
in
these
areas
interfere
with
the
reader’s
under12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
standing of the ideas you’re intending to convey in your essay. You 2
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2
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won’t be penalized for errors in spelling and punctuation—unless
2
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2
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these errors are frequent and egregious. (The CAT word processor
2
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2
1
does not include a grammar- or spell-checker.)
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 45

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

46

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2
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Analysis of an Argument (1 Writing Task,
2
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2
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30
Minutes)
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During the Argument-Analysis section, your task is to compose an essay in 2
2
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2
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which
you
critique
a
paragraph-length
argument
based
on
the
strength
of
2
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2
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the
evidence
presented
in
support
of
it
and
on
the
argument’s
logic
(line
of
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 reasoning). You can also indicate what additional evidence would help you 2
2
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2
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evaluate the argument, and how the argument could be improved.
2
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2
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2
1
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What’s
Covered
2
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2
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The
Argument-Analysis
section
is
designed
to
test
your
critical-reasoning
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 and analytical-writing skills. In scoring your Argument essay, the reader 2
2
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2
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will
consider
how
effectively
you:
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Identify and analyze the key elements of the argument.
2
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2
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• Organize, develop, and express your critique.
2
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2
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• Support your ideas (with reasons and examples).
2
1
2
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2
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Control
the
elements
of
Standard
Written
English.
2
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2
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Test Directions
2
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2
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During
the
pre-test
tutorial,
as
well
as
at
the
start
of
your
timed
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2
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Issue-Analysis section, the GMAT will present two screens of directions 2
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2
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1 and guidelines specific to the Argument-Analysis writing task. The first 2
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screen will describe the task generally and indicate the four general scoring 2
2
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2
1 criteria. Here’s essentially what you’ll see on the first screen:
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2
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2
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2
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This writing task is designed to test your critical2
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2
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reasoning
skills
as
well
as
your
writing
skills.
Your
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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task is to critique the stated argument in terms of its
2
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2
1
logical
soundness
and
in
terms
of
the
strength
of
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2
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the evidence offered in support of the argument. In
2
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2
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scoring
your
Argument
essay,
the
reader
will
con2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sider
how
effectively
you:
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Identify and analyze the key elements of the
2
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2
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argument.
2
1
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2
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• Organize, develop, and express your critique.
2
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2
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• Support your ideas (with reasons and
2
1
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2
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examples).
2
1
2
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2
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Control
the
elements
of
Standard
Written
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
English.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Note

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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The screen will then indicate additional rules and guidelines. Here’s 2
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2
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essentially what you’ll see farther down the screen:
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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• Your time limit is 30 minutes.
2
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2
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2
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You
must
critique
the
logical
soundness
of
the
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
argument presented.
2
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2
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2
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A
critique
of
any
other
argument
is
unacceptable.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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• You should take a few minutes to plan your re2
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2
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sponse before you begin typing.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
• You should develop your ideas fully and organize
2
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2
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them in a coherent manner.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• You should leave time to reread your response
2
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2
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and
make
any
revisions
you
think
are
needed.
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1
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The second screen will indicate specific guidelines for critiquing the 2
2
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Argument. Here’s essentially what you’ll see on the second screen:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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• You are not being asked to agree or disagree with
2
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2
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any
of
the
statements
in
the
argument.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• You should analyze the argument’s line of rea2
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2
1
soning.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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1
• You should consider questionable assumptions
2
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2
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underlying
the
argument.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
• You should consider the extent to which the evi2
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2
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dence presented supports the argument’s conclu2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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sion.
2
1
2
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You
may
discuss
what
additional
evidence
would
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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help strengthen or refute the argument.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• You may discuss what additional information, if
2
1
2
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any, would help you to evaluate the argument’s
2
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2
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conclusion.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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1
2
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2
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You can access the two screens of directions and guidelines at any time
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
during
the
Argument-Analysis
section
by
clicking
on
the
HELP
button.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 47
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

48

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2
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What Argument-Analysis Questions Look Like
2
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2
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The Argument on your exam will be drawn randomly from a large pool. 2
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2
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Each Argument in the official pool consists of a paragraph-length passage, 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 which presents the argument itself, followed by a directive (statement of 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your
task).
The
directive
is
the
same
for
every
Argument
in
the
official
2
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2
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pool.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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The
Argument
will
appear
as
a
quotation
from
a
specified
fictitious
source.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Here’s
an
example
similar
to
the
ones
in
the
official
pool—although
you
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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won’t
see
this
one
on
your
exam
(the
directive
follows
the
Argument):
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The following recommendation appeared in a memo from the 2
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2
1
2
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Hillsville City Council to the city’s mayor:
2
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2
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“The
private
firm
Trashco
provides
refuse
pickup
and
disposal
as
well
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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as recycling services for the town of Plattsburg. Trashco’s total fees for 2
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these services are about two thirds what Hillsville pays Ridco for the 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
same
services.
In
order
to
save
enough
money
to
construct
a
refuse
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1
transfer station within our city limits, Hillsville should discontinue 2
2
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2
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using
Ridco’s
services
and
use
Trashco’s
services
instead.”
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion, 2
2
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be sure to analyze the line of reasoning and the use of evidence in the 2
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argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations 2
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1
or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion. You can also 2
2
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discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, 2
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2
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what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, 2
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2
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and what, if anything, would help you to better evaluate its 2
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2
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conclusion.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
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2
1 Key Facts about GMAT Argument Analysis
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Here are some key facts about the Argument-Analysis section (most are 2
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2
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review):
2
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2
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• The CAT will randomly select your Argument-Analysis prompt
2
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2
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from
a
large
pool.
As
in
the
Issue-Analysis
section,
you
won’t
be
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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able to choose among topics.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• All Arguments in the official pool contain the same directive.
2
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2
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Learn
the
directive
that
follows
the
quoted
Argument
before
the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
exam,
and
you
won’t
need
to
read
it
during
the
exam.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• The Argument-Analysis task is much different than the Issue2
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2
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Analysis task. There’s no “correct’ answer to any Issue-Analysis
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
question. But, when it comes to the Argument-Analysis task, it’s a
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
different story. The argument that you critique will contain at least 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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three major problems in the use of evidence, reasoning, and logic;
2
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2
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to score high on your Argument-Analysis essay, you must identify
2
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2
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and
discuss
each
major
problem.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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You
don’t
need
technical
knowledge
or
special
training
in
logic
to
2
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2
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score
high.
GMAT
arguments
are
designed
so
that
you
can
analyze
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
them by applying general reasoning skills and common sense.
2
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2
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2
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GMAT
readers
appreciate
your
time
constraint
and
focus
less
on
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
minutia than on the big picture. Just as with the Issue-Analysis
2
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2
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section, the readers will focus primarily on substance and organi2
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2
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zation. You writing “style” and your mechanics (grammar, syntax,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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word usage, etc.) are secondary factors, and you won’t be penal2
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ized for errors in spelling and punctuation unless these errors are
2
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2
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frequent
and
egregious.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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The
2
1 Quantitative Ability Section
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2
1
(37
Questions, 75 Minutes)
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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Before examining the two question formats—Problem Solving and Data 2
2
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Sufficiency—that the test-makers use for Quantitative Ability questions, 2
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let’s first cover what’s common to both formats.
2
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2
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Both types of questions—Problem Solving and Data Sufficiency—are 2
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2
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2
1 designed to measure the following general skills:
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• Your proficiency in arithmetical operations
2
1
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2
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• Your proficiency at solving algebraic equations
2
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2
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2
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• Your ability to convert verbal information to mathematical terms
2
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2
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Your
ability
to
visualize
geometric
shapes
and
numerical
relation2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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ships
2
1
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2
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• Your ability to devise intuitive and unconventional solutions to
2
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2
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conventional
mathematical
problems
2
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2
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2
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Here’s
a
breakdown
of
the
specific
areas
covered
on
the
Quantitative
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
section, along with their frequency of appearance:
2
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Properties of Numbers and Arithmetical Operations
1
2
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(13–17 Questions)
2
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2
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2
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Linear
ordering
(positive
and
negative
numbers,
absolute
value)
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1
• Properties of integers (factors, multiples, prime numbers)
2
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2
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• Arithmetical operations
2
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2
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• Laws of arithmetic
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 49

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

50

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2
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• Fractions, decimals, and percentages
2
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2
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2
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Ratio
and
proportion
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2
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2
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• Exponents (powers) and roots
2
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2
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2
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Average
(arithmetic
mean),
mode,
and
median
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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• Basic probability
2
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2
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Algebraic
Equations
and
Inequalities
(11–15
Questions)
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Simplifying
linear
and
quadratic
algebraic
expressions
2
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2
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2
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Solving
equations
with
one
variable
(unknown)
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2
1
2
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2
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• Solving equations with two variables (unknowns)
2
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2
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Solving
factorable
quadratic
equations
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2
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• Inequalities
2
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2
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Geometry, Including Coordinate Geometry (5–8 Questions)
2
1
2
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2
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Intersecting
lines
and
angles
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Perpendicular and parallel lines
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2
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• Triangles
2
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2
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• Quadrilaterals (4-sided polygons)
2
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2
1
• Circles
2
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2
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2
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• Rectangular solids (three-dimensional figures)
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2
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• Cylinders
2
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2
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2
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Pyramids
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Coordinate geometry
2
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2
1
2
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Interpreting Statistical Charts, Graphs, and Tables (2–4 Questions)
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Pie charts
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Tables
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Bar graphs
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• Line charts
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Algebraic concepts on the GMAT are those normally covered in a 2
2
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first-year high school algebra course. The Quantitative Ability section 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2
1 does NOT cover these skills and math areas:
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Complex
calculations
involving
large
and/or
unwieldy
numbers
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Advanced
algebra
concepts
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Note

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Formal geometry proofs
2
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2
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2
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Trigonometry
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2
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2
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• Calculus
2
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2
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2
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Statistics
(except
for
simple
probability,
arithmetic
mean,
and
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
median)
2
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2
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2
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The following assumptions apply to all Quantitative questions:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
• All numbers used are real numbers.
2
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2
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2
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All
figures
lie
on
a
plane
unless
otherwise
indicated.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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All
lines
shown
as
straight
are
straight.
Lines
that
appear
“jagged”
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can
be
assumed
to
be
straight
(lines
can
look
somewhat
jagged
on
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the computer screen).
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Additional assumptions about figures (diagrams and graphics) are
2
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2
1 different for Problem Solving questions than for Data Sufficiency
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
questions.
(You’ll
look
at
these
assumptions
when
you
examine
each
of
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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the two formats just ahead.)
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Problem Solving (22–23 questions)
2
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Problem Solving questions require you to work to a solution (a numerical 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
value
or
other
expression),
and
then
find
that
solution
among
the
five
2
1
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer choices.
2
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2
1
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2
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2
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What’s Covered
2
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Any of the Quantitative areas listed on page 49 is fair game for a Problem 2
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2
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Solving question.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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1
2
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Test Directions
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The directions on the following page are essentially what you’ll see during 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the pre-test tutorial and just prior to your first Problem Solving questions 2
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1 (you can access these directions at any time by clicking on the HELP
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
button).
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 51
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

52

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2
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2
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Directions: Solve this problem and indicate the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
best
of
the
answer
choices
given.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Numbers: All numbers used are real numbers.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Figures:
A
figure
accompanying
a
Problem
Solving
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
question is intended to provide information useful
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in
solving
the
problem.
Figures
are
drawn
as
accu2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rately
as
possible
EXCEPT
when
it
is
stated
in
a
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
specific
problem
that
its
figure
is
not
drawn
to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
scale.
Straight
lines
may
sometimes
appear
jagged.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
All figures lie on a plane unless otherwise indicated.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To
review
these
directions
for
subsequent
questions
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of this type, click on HELP.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
1 What Problem Solving Questions Look Like
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Let’s
look
at
two
Problem
Solving
questions
that
are
similar
to
what
you
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
might see on the GMAT. (Answer choices are lettered A–E here. Remember, 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
though, that on the actual GMAT, you’ll select among choices by clicking 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
on one of five blank ovals, not letters.) This first problem is easy to under- 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
stand, and no formulas or tricky math is needed to solve it. Among GMAT 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
test-takers, about 80% would answer this question correctly.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Village A’s population, which is currently 6,800, is decreasing at a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rate
of
120
each
year.
Village
B’s
population,
which
is
currently
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4,200, is decreasing at a rate of 80 each year. At these rates, in how
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
many
years
will
the
population
of
the
two
villages
be
equal?
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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A. 9
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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B. 11
2
1
2
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C. 13
2
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D.
14
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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E. 16
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 The correct answer is C. One way to solve this problem is to subtract 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
120
from
A’s
population
while
adding
80
to
B’s
population—again
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
again
until
the
two
are
equal—keeping
track
of
the
number
of
times
you
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
perform these simultaneous operations. (You’ll find that number to be 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
13.)
But
there’s
a
faster
way
to
solve
the
problem
that
also
helps
you
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 avoid computation errors. The difference between the two populations is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
currently
2,600
(6,800
2
4,200).
Each
year
that
gap
closes
by
200
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(120
1
80).
So
you
can
simply
divide
2,600
by
200
to
determine
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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number of years for the gap to close completely. That’s easy math: 2,600 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4 200 5 13.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Now here’s a more difficult Problem Solving question. To handle it, you 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
need
to
understand
rules
involving
exponents
and
their
effect
on
the
size
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
sign
(positive
or
negative)
of
fractional
numbers.
Among
GMAT
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 test-takers, only about 50% would respond correctly to this question.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
k
2
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1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
If 227 5
, what is the value of k ?
2
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3
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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A. 29
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2
1
2
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B.
23
2
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2
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1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D.
2
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3
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E.
3
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The correct answer is B. This question is asking you to determine the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
power
that
must
be
raised
to
in
order
to
obtain
227.
First,
look
at
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbers
in
the
question.
Note
that
227
5
(23)
.
That’s
a
good
clue
that
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the answer to the question must involve the number 23. If the number we 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 were raising to the power of k were 23, then the value of k would be 3. 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
But,
the
number
we’re
raising
to
the
power
is
k
is
2
,
which
is
the
2
1
3
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reciprocal of 23. (By definition, the product of a number and its reciprocal 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is 1.) So, you need to apply the rule that a negative exponent reciprocates 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
its base. In other words, raising a base number to a negative power is the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
same as raising the base number’s reciprocal to the power’s absolute value. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Therefore:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
23
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
5
(23)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
As you can see, that value of k is 23.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 In the preceding questions, we’ve labeled the answer choices A through E.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Remember that on the actual GMAT CAT screen, you’ll select your
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
choice
by
clicking
on
one
of
five
blank
ovals
(instead
of
choosing
among
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 lettered answer choices).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 53
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

SD

Note

S D

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

Alert!

www.petersons.com

Note

54

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Key Facts about GMAT Problem Solving
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Important features of the Problem Solving format to keep in mind (some of 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
these points are review).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Numerical
answer
choices
are
listed
in
order—from
smallest
in
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
value
to
greatest
in
value.
Notice
in
our
first
sample
question
that
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
the numerical values in the answer choices got larger as you read
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
down
from
A
to
E.
That’s
the
way
it
is
with
every
Problem
Solving
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
question whose answer choices are all numbers.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There
is
one
exception
to
this
pattern.
If
a
question
asks
you
which
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer
choice
is
greatest
(or
smallest)
in
value,
the
answer
choices
will
not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
necessarily be listed in ascending order of value—for obvious reasons.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Some Problem Solving questions will include figures (geometry
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
figures, graphs, and charts). Most of the 528 geometry questions
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
will be accompanied by some type of figure. Also, each Data
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Interpretation question will be accompanied by a chart or graph.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Figures are drawn accurately unless the problem indicates other2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
wise.
Accompanying
figures
are
intended
to
provide
information
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
useful in solving the problems. They’re intended to help you, not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to mislead or trick you by their visual appearance. If a figure is
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
not drawn to scale, you’ll see this warning near the figure:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“Note: Figure not drawn to scale.”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
It’s a whole different ball game when it comes to Data Sufficiency 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
questions, in which figures are not necessarily drawn to scale.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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Data Sufficiency (14–15 questions)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
Data
Sufficiency
format
is
unique
to
the
GMAT;
you
won’t
find
it
on
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
any other standardized test. Each Data Sufficiency consists of a question 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
followed
by
two
statements—labeled
(1)
and
(2).
Your
task
is
to
analyze
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 each of the two statements to determine whether it provides sufficient data 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to
answer
the
question
and,
if
neither
suffices
alone,
whether
both
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statements together suffice.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 What’s Covered
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Data
Sufficiency
problems
cover
the
same
mix
of
arithmetic,
algebra,
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 geometry as Problem Solving questions. (Any of the Quantitative areas 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
listed on page 49 is fair game for a Data Sufficiency question.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Test Directions
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The following directions are essentially what you’ll see during the pre-test 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tutorial and just prior to your first Data Sufficiency question. (You can 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 access these directions at any time by clicking on the HELP button.) Notice 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that
some
of
the
directions
are
new—in
other
words,
they
don’t
apply
to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Problem
Solving
questions.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Directions:
This
Data
Sufficiency
problem
consists
of
a
question
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 two statements, labeled (1) and (2), in which certain data are given.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You have to decide whether the data given in the statements are
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sufficient for answering the question. Using the data given in the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 statements plus your knowledge of mathematics and everyday facts
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(such as the number of days in July or the meaning of counterclock2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
wise),
you
must
indicate
whether:
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Statement 1 ALONE is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sufficient to answer the question asked;
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
Statement 2 ALONE is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sufficient
to
answer
the
question
asked;
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
BOTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the question asked; but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient;
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked;
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer
2
1
the question asked, and additional data specific to the problem are
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
needed.
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Numbers: All numbers used are real numbers.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Figures: A figure accompanying a data sufficiency problem will
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conform
to
the
information
given
in
the
question,
but
will
not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
necessarily conform to the additional information in statements
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 (1 and 2).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Lines shown as straight can be assumed to be straight and lines that
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
appear jagged can also be assumed to be straight.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You
may
assume
that
positions
of
points,
angles,
regions,
etc.,
exist
in
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the order shown and that angle measures are greater than zero.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 All figures lie in a plane unless otherwise indicated.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Note:
In
Data
Sufficiency
problems
that
ask
you
for
the
value
of
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
quantity
the
data
given
in
the
statements
are
sufficient
only
when
it
is
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 possible to determine exactly one numerical value for the quantity.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To review these directions for subsequent questions of this type, click
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
on
HELP.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 55
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

56

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
What Data Sufficiency Questions Look Like
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
As already noted, each Data Sufficiency consists of a question followed by 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
two statements labeled (1) and (2). Let’s look at two examples, similar to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 what you’ll encounter on the GMAT. (Answer choices are lettered A–E 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
here.
Remember,
though,
that
on
the
actual
GMAT,
you’ll
select
among
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
choices
by
clicking
on
one
of
five
blank
ovals,
not
letters.)
This
first
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
question
is
a
bit
easier
than
average.
Of
all
GMAT
test-takers,
about
85%
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
would
respond
correctly
to
it.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
How many quarts of oil will a car burn during a 3,600 mile trip?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(1)
The
car
burns
half
a
quart
of
oil
every
1,000
miles.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(2)
At
a
price
of
$1.50
per
quart,
the
car
uses
$2.70
worth
of
oil
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
during
the
trip.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. Statement 1 ALONE is sufficient, but statement 2 alone is not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sufficient
to
answer
the
question
asked.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
B. Statement 2 ALONE is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sufficient
to
answer
the
question
asked.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. BOTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer the question asked; but NEITHER statement ALONE
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is sufficient.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
asked.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
E.
Statements
(1)
and
(2)
TOGETHER
are
NOT
sufficient
to
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer the question asked, and additional data specific to the
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem
are
needed.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 The correct answer is D. To answer the question, you need to know the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rate (the number of miles per quart) at which the car burns oil. Statement 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(1) provides the information you need. A half quart of oil is burned per 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 1,000 miles; therefore, the car will burn 3.6 that amount over 3,600 miles. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Although you don’t need to do the math, the answer to the question is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(3.6)(.5)
5
1.8.
You’ve
narrowed
the
answer
choices
to
(A)
and
(D).
But,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can you see that statement (2) alone also provides the information you 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
need to determine the rate? The amount of oil used 5 $2.70 4 $1.50. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Again, although you don’t need to do the math, the quotient (and the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer to the question) is 1.8. Since either statement alone suffices to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer the question, the correct answer choice is (D).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 This next Data Sufficiency question is a bit more difficult than average. 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Only about 55% of all GMAT test-takers would respond correctly to it. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
What is the absolute value of the sum of two numbers?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(1)
The
product
of
the
two
numbers
is
6.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(2) One number is 5 less than the other number.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A.
Statement
1
ALONE
is
sufficient,
but
statement
2
alone
is
not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
sufficient to answer the question asked.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. Statement 2 ALONE is sufficient, but statement 1 alone is not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sufficient to answer the question asked.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. BOTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
answer the question asked; but NEITHER statement ALONE
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is
sufficient.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
asked.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer
the
question
asked,
and
additional
data
specific
to
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem are needed.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
correct
answer
is
C.
Calling
one
number
x
and
the
other
number
y,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statement
(1)
alone
tells
us
only
that
xy
5
6,
but
gives
no
information
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
about their sum. This narrows the answer choice options to (B), (C), and 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(E). Statement (2) alone tells us that the relationship between the two 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbers can be written as y 5 x25, but gives no information about their 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sum. The correct answer choice must be either (C) or (E). By considering 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 statements (1) and (2) together, you can substitute x25 for y in the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
equation xy 5 6:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x(x 2 5) 5 6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
x 2 5x 5 6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
2
5x
2
6
5
0
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 You can factor the quadratic expression into two binomial factors, then
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
find the roots of the equation—that is, the possible values of x:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
2
6
5
0
or
x
1
1
5
0
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x 5 6 or 21
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Hence, either x 5 6 and y 5 1, with sum 7, or x 5 21 and y 5 26, with 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 sum 27. In either case, the absolute value of their sum is the same: 7. Since 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
both statements together provide one and only one answer to the question, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the correct answer choice is (C).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 You can also analyze this problem less formally. Based on statement (1)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
alone,
try
to
think
of
some
possibilities
for
the
values
of
the
two
numbers
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 that satisfy statement (1). Just using integers, the following four pairs 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 57
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

www.petersons.com

Alert!

58

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
should occur to you: 1 and 6, 2 and 3, 21 and 26, or 22 and 23. Since 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
there’s more than one possibility, you can rule out answer choices (A) and 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(D). Statement (2) alone presents an infinite number of possibilities, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 doesn’t it? So you can also rule out choice (B). Together, statements (1) and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(2)
seem
to
rule
out
all
integer
pairs
except
(1,
6)
and
(21,
26).
In
either
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
case,
the
absolute
value
of
their
sum
is
7.
But
what
about
non-integers?
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Answering
this
question
is
where
a
bit
of
intuition
or
trial-and-error
is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
required.
You
may
try
a
few
non-integer
number
pairs,
to
satisfy
you
that
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 none work.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Key
Facts
about
GMAT
Data
Sufficiency
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Keep in mind the following important features of the Data Sufficiency 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
format (some of these points are review):
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• The answer choices are the same for all Data Sufficiency questions. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
One
feature
that
makes
Data
Sufficiency
questions
unique
among
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
other types of GMAT questions is that the answer choices are
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
exactly
the
same
for
all
Data
Sufficiency
questions.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Data Sufficiency questions can vary widely in difficulty level.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Assuming you’re familiar with their unique format, these questions 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are neither inherently easier nor more difficult than Problem
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Solving questions. The level of difficulty and complexity can vary
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
widely (depending on the correctness of your responses to earlier
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
questions).
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• A Data Sufficiency question that asks for a specific numerical
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
value
is
answerable
only
if
one
and
only
one
value
results.
Some,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
but not all, Data Sufficiency questions will ask for a particular
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numerical
value.
For
example:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• What is the area of the circle?
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• What is the value of x?
2
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2
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• What is the area of triangle ABC?
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

How
much
did
Sam
pay
for
his
book?
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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1 You must keep in mind that in any Data Sufficiency question, if the 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer choices consist of numerical values only (no variables), then the 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
question
is
answerable
only
if
one
and
only
one
value
results—not
a
range
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 of numbers, not a positive or negative number, not an expression that 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
includes
a
variable.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

Tip

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• The two statements (1 and 2) will not conflict with each other.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Perhaps you’re wondering which response you should choose—(D) 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or (E)—if you can answer the question with either statement alone, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
but get two conflicting answers. Don’t worry; this won’t happen.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
you
can
answer
the
question
using
either
statement
alone,
the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer
will
be
the
same
in
both
cases.
In
other
words,
statements
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
and
2
will
never
conflict
with
one
another.
Why?
The
test2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
makers
design
Data
Sufficiency
questions
to
avoid
the
“D
vs.
E”
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
conundrum.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Figures
are
not
necessarily
drawn
to
scale,
unless
noted
otherwise.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
Any figure accompanying a Data Sufficiency question will conform 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to the information in the question itself, but will not necessarily
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conform to either statement 1 or 2. So although the figures are not 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
designed to mislead you, they are not necessarily drawn to scale.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 In Data Sufficiency questions, just like in Problem Solving questions, rely
2
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on the information in the question and statements, not on a figure’s
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
appearance.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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• Calculating is not what Data Sufficiency is primarily about. Expect
2
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2
to do far less number crunching and equation solving for Data
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Sufficiency questions than for Problem Solving questions. What’s
2
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2
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being
tested
here
is
your
ability
to
recognize
and
understand
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
principles, not to work step-by-step toward a solution. (That’s
2
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2
1
what
Problem
Solving
is
about.)
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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The
Verbal Ability Section
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(41
Questions, 75 Minutes)
2
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2
1
2
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The Verbal Ability section contains questions in three distinct formats:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Critical Reasoning (14–15 questions)
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Sentence Correction (14–15 questions)
2
1
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Reading
Comprehension
(12–13
questions)
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Regardless of the format, each and every question in the Verbal Ability 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
section is five-choice multiple-choice. Otherwise, each of the three formats
2
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is quite distinct. In the pages ahead, you examine each one up close.
2
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2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 59
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

60

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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Critical Reasoning (14–15 questions)
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Critical
Reasoning
questions
are
designed
to
measure
your
ability
to
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
understand, criticize, and draw reasonable conclusions from arguments.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2
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What’s
Covered
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 GMAT Critical Reasoning questions cover various aspects of reasoning 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
evaluating
arguments.
Here
are
the
three
basic
aspects
on
which
most
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of
the
exam’s
14–15
Critical
Reasoning
questions
are
based:
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2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Identifying
assumptions
underlying
an
argument
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
• Understanding the effect of additional evidence on an argument
2
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2
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• Drawing strong inferences from stated premises
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Some GMAT Critical Reasoning questions will involve specific forms of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reasoning
or
argument
evaluation.
Look
for
any
of
the
following
forms
on
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your exam:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Recognizing
a
hypothesis
that
provides
a
good
explanation
for
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
set of observations
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Recognizing an effective strategy, based on a set of premises and a
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
stated objective
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Making valid deductions from stated premises, or recognizing an
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
additional
premise
needed
to
validate
a
stated
conclusion
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Recognizing similarities in reasoning between different arguments
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Test Directions
2
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2
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There are no special instructions for GMAT Critical Reasoning. The 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
following simple directions are essentially what you’ll see during the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
pre-test
tutorial
and
just
prior
to
your
first
Critical
Reasoning
question
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(you can access these directions at any time by clicking on the HELP 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
button):
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
Directions: For this question, select the best of the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer
choices
given.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
What Critical Reasoning Questions Look Like
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Each
Critical
Reasoning
question
consists
of
a
paragraph-length
passage,
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 followed by a question about the passage and five answer choices. Let’s 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
look at two Critical Reasoning questions that are similar to what you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
might
see
on
the
GMAT.
(Answer
choices
are
lettered
A–E
here.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Remember, though, that on the actual GMAT you’ll select among choices 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
by clicking on one of five blank ovals, not letters.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This first question is a bit easier than average; among GMAT test-takers, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
about
80%
would
answer
it
correctly.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Ten
years
ago,
Brand
1
was
the
most
popular
beer
among
consumers.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Today,
however,
consumers
spend
twice
the
amount
on
Brand
2,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
another
brand
of
beer,
than
on
Brand
1,
even
though
Brand
2
is
nearly
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
twice as expensive as Brand 1.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Which
of
the
following,
if
true,
would
best
explain
the
apparent
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
discrepancy described above?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A.
Consumers
of
beer
as
a
group
consider
a
beer’s
taste
more
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
important than its price.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B.
Brand
2
beer
has
decreased
in
price
over
the
last
ten
years.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. Over the last ten years, wine has become a more popular
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
beverage
among
consumers
than
beer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D.
Brand
2
beer
is
more
readily
available
to
consumers
today
than
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Brand 1 beer.
2
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2
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E. The minimum age at which a person can legally drink beer is
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
lower today than ten years ago.
2
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2
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The correct answer is D. The best answer choice must explain why 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Brand 2 beer is more popular than Brand 1 beer despite its higher price. 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Only choice (D) provides an adequate explanation. If Brand 1 beer is not 2
2
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1 available, while Brand 2 is, then obviously a consumer will purchase Brand 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 and not Brand 1. Choice (A) might explain the discrepancy if consumers 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
prefer
the
taste
of
Brand
2
beer
over
that
of
Brand
1
beer;
however,
we
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
don’t know whether this is the case. Choice (B) might explain an increase 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in sales of Brand 2 beer; however, it fails to explain why Brand 2 is more 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 popular today than Brand 1. Choice (C) might explain declining beer 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
consumption generally; however, the popularity of wine is irrelevant to the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
popularity
of
one
brand
of
beer
compared
to
another
brand
of
beer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Choice (E) might explain an increase in beer sales generally, but it does not 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
explain why consumers buy more Brand 2 beer than Brand 1 beer.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This next Critical Reasoning question is a bit more difficult than average. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Only about 50% of all GMAT test-takers would respond correctly to it.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Company
Spokesperson:
Charges
that
our
corporation
has
discrimi2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
nated
against
women
in
its
hiring
and
promotion
practices
are
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
demonstrably untrue. In fact, statistics show that greater than sixty 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
percent of our corporation’s employees are women.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 61
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

62

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The answer to which of the following questions would be most
2
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2
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relevant in evaluating the argument above?
2
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2
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A. What is the average tenure, or length of employment, among
2
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2
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the
company’s
women
employees?
2
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2
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B.
What
percentage
of
the
company’s
employees
in
higher-level
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
management positions are women?
2
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2
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C.
What
percentage
of
employees
in
competing
companies
are
2
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2
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women?
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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D.
How
has
the
percentage
of
women
employees
at
the
company
2
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2
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changed
over
time?
2
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2
1
E. Is the chief executive officer of the company a man or a
2
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2
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woman?
2
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2
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The
correct
answer
is
B.
What
makes
this
question
difficult
is
that
some
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2
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of the incorrect answer choices are somewhat relevant to the argument; 2
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2
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but their relevance is neither as clear nor as direct as choice (B). Let’s start 2
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2
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1 with the correct answer. Although a large percentage of the company’s 2
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employees are women, it is entirely possible that these women generally 2
2
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2
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occupy
low-level
positions
while
male
employees
generally
hold
higher2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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level jobs. One possible explanation for such a discrepancy would be that, 2
2
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2
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when
deciding
whom
to
promote,
the
company
discriminates
against
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women. Hence, the answer to the question in choice (B) is highly relevant 2
2
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2
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to
evaluating
the
spokesperson’s
denial
that
the
company
engages
in
this
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1 type of discrimination. The issue raised in choice (A) would be relevant to 2
2
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2
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whether
the
company’s
employee-termination
practices
are
discrimina12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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tory, especially if the average tenure for women turned out to be 2
2
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significantly briefer than for men. However, the issue of tenure is not 2
2
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1 directly relevant to the company’s hiring or promotion practices. Nor is 2
2
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the issue raised in choice (C) directly relevant to the argument. For 2
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2
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example, assume that the percentage of the company’s employees that are 2
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1 women is typical among firms in its industry. So what? Perhaps all of the 2
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2
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firms discriminate against women, or perhaps none do. As for choice (D), 2
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2
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the company’s practices in the past are not directly relevant to its current 2
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practices. Choice (E) focuses on only one high-level employee, hardly a 2
2
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sufficient statistical sampling to prove a pattern of discrimination. Also, 2
2
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2
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even
with
a
female
CEO,
a
company
could
very
well
engage
in
hiring
and
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2
1 promotion practices that are unfair to women.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
1
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

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2
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Key Facts about GMAT Critical Reasoning
2
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2
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Keep in mind the following important features of Critical Reasoning 2
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2
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questions:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Your
knowledge
of
the
topic
at
hand
is
not
important
in
answering
2
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2
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Critical
Reasoning
questions.
The
test-makers
design
Critical
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
Reasoning questions so that you can analyze and answer them
2
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2
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without
regard
to
what
is
factual
(or
not)
in
the
real
world.
Also,
2
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2
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whatever
your
personal
opinions
or
viewpoints
about
the
issue
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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that
an
argument
raises,
they
are
irrelevant
to
analyzing
the
2
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2
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argument
and
answering
the
question.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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• Distinctions in quality between answer choices can be subtle.
2
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GMAT Critical Reasoning is not a “black-and-white” affair in
2
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2
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which
one
answer
is
perfect
while
each
of
the
others
is
completely
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
wrong. A typical Critical Reasoning question stem contains a word 2
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2
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such as “best” or “most.” That’s because more than one answer
2
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2
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choice usually has merit—it’s just that the correct answer choice is
2
1
2
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the
strongest
among
the
bunch.
(To
master
GMAT
Critical
2
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2
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Reasoning,
you’ll
need
to
become
comfortable
with
these
shades
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of gray.)
2
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• Each piece of information in the paragraph is usually important in
2
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2
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answering
the
question.
Occasionally,
a
Critical
Reasoning
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
paragraph will include superfluous information, which does not
2
1
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2
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come into play at all in analyzing the argument and answering the
2
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2
1
question. But this is the exceptional case.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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2
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2
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Sentence
Correction
(14–15
questions)
2
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2
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Sentence
Correction
questions
are
designed
to
measure
your
command
of
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1 the English language and of the conventions of Standard Written English. 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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What’s Covered
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GMAT Sentence Correction covers two areas of English language 2
2
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proficiency:
2
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2
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2
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1.
Correct
expression,
measured
by
your
ability
to
recognize
errors
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in
grammar,
diction,
and
word
usage
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2. Effective expression, measured by your ability to improve 2
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2
1
sentences that are poorly worded or structured
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 63
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

64

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2
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GMAT Sentence Correction does NOT cover these other areas of English 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
language proficiency:
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1. Punctuation (except that comma placement can come into play if 2
2
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2
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it
affects
the
meaning
of
a
sentence)
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. Vocabulary (you won’t have to memorize long lists of obscure 2
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2
1
2
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words just for GMAT Sentence Correction)
2
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2
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3.
Slang
and
colloquialisms
(informal
expressions
don’t
appear
at
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
all in Sentence Correction questions)
2
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2
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2
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2
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Test Directions
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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The following set of directions are essentially what you’ll see during the 2
2
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pre-test tutorial and just prior to your first Sentence Correction question (you 2
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2
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can access these directions at any time by clicking on the HELP button):
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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Directions: This question presents a sentence, all
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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or part of which is underlined. Beneath the sen2
1
2
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tence you will find five ways of phrasing the under2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
lined
part.
The
first
of
these
repeats
the
original;
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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other four are different. If you think the original is
2
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2
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best,
choose
the
first
answer;
otherwise,
choose
one
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2
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of the other answers.
2
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2
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This question tests correctness and effectiveness of
2
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2
1
expression.
In
choosing
your
answer,
follow
the
re2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
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quirements of Standard Written English; that is,
2
1
2
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pay
attention
to
grammar,
choice
of
words,
and
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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sentence construction. Choose the answer that pro2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
duces
the
most
effective
sentence;
this
answer
2
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2
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should be clear and exact, without awkwardness,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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ambiguity, redundancy, or grammatical error.
2
1
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2
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2
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What
Sentence
Correction
Questions
Look
Like
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In each Sentence Correction question, part of a sentence (or the whole 2
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sentence) will be underlined. The first answer choice will simply restate the 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
underlined part “as is.” The other four choices present alternatives to the 2
2
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2
original underlined phrase.
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Let’s look at two questions that are similar to what you might see on the 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 GMAT. (Answer choices are lettered A–E here. Remember, though, that on 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1 the actual GMAT you’ll select among choices by clicking on one of five 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
blank ovals, not letters.) This first question is a bit easier than average; 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
among
GMAT
test-takers,
about
80%
would
answer
this
question
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
correctly.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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A thesaurus can be a useful tool for writers, providing he knows
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
how to use it correctly.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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A. writers, providing he knows how to use it
2
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2
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B.
writers,
providing
he
knows
how
to
use
such
a
book
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C.
a
writer,
providing
he
knows
how
to
use
them
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
D. writers, providing she knows how to use it
2
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2
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E.
writers,
providing
they
know
how
to
use
it
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 The correct answer is E. A pronoun and the noun to which it refers 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(called the antecedent) should be consistent; both should be either singular 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or plural. In the original sentence, however, the singular pronoun he is 2
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2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
inconsistent with its plural antecedent writers. Among the four alterna- 2
2
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tives, only choices (C) and (E) fix this problem. In choice (C), both are 2
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2
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singular, while in choice (E) both are plural; either is acceptable. Choice 2
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2
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(C), however, creates another pronoun-antecedent error. Notice that it 2
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2
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replaces the singular pronoun it with the plural them. Since the intended 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1 antecedent is thesaurus, which is singular, the plural pronoun them is 2
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incorrect, and you can eliminate choice (C). Choice (E) is the best version 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of
the
underlined
part;
it
fixes
the
problem
with
the
original
version
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
without creating any new errors.
2
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Here’s a Sentence Correction question that’s a bit more difficult than 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
average. Of all GMAT test-takers, only about 55% would respond 2
2
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2
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correctly to it.
2
1
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Frank Lloyd Wright was a preeminent architect of the twentieth
2
1
2
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century,
and
there
have
been
many
less
talented
people
who,
both
in
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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the past and today, have imitated his style.
2
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2
1
2
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A.
there
have
been
many
less
talented
people
who,
both
in
the
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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past and today, have
2
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2
1
B.
a
great
number
of
less
talented
people
of
today,
as
well
as
in
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2
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the past, have
2
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2
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C.
many
less
talented
people,
both
in
the
past
and
today,
have
2
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2
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D. there are many less talented people, today as well as in the
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2
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past, who
2
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E. many people less talented than Wright who, today as well as in 2
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the past, have
1
2
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2
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The correct answer is C. The original version contains no grammatical 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
errors. However, the phrase there have been many less talented people who 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1 is wordy. Choice (C) provides a more concise and graceful version, 2
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without introducing any new errors. In choice (B), a great number of is 2
2
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2
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wordy;
also,
the
two
phrases
of
today
and
in
the
past
lack
grammatical
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
parallelism.
Choice
(D)
provides
a
less
wordy
version
than
the
original,
but
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 65

Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

66

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2
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is still not as effective as choice (C). As for choice (E), it too is unnecessarily 2
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2
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wordy; what’s more, within the construction of choice (E), the word who 2
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2
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creates an incomplete sentence and should be omitted.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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Key
Facts
about
GMAT
Sentence
Correction
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Keep in mind the following important features of Sentence Correction 2
2
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2
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questions (some of these points are review):
2
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2
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Any
part
of
the
sentence
might
be
underlined.
The
underlined
part
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2
1
2
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may appear at the beginning, middle, or end of the sentence. Also,
2
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2
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in
some
cases,
the
entire
sentence
will
be
underlined.
Expect
all
of
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
these variations on your exam.
2
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2
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2
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The
first
answer
choice
simply
restates
the
underlined
part
“as
is.”
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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The other four choices present alternatives to the original under2
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2
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lined
phrase.
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2
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• The best answer choice isn’t always perfect. The best choice
2
1
2
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among the five will not contain any grammatical errors. However,
2
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it may make for a less-than-ideal sentence, at least in your opinion. 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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But remember: You’re looking for the best version of the five, not
2
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the perfect version.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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• More than one answer choice may be grammatically correct. These 2
2
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2
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questions
cover
not
just
grammar,
but
also
effective
expression.
So
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2
1
don’t select an answer choice just because it results in a grammati2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
cally
correct
sentence.
Another
answer
choice
may
be
clearer,
more
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2
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concise, or less awkward—and therefore better.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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• A single Sentence Correction item can cover a lot of ground. Don’t 2
2
1
2
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expect each Sentence Correction item to isolate and test you on
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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one, and only one, rule of grammar or aspect of written expres2
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1
sion. Typically, by the time you’ve read all five choices, you’ve seen 2
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2
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a variety of grammatical errors and other problems—at least
2
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among the four incorrect choices.
2
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2
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2
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Punctuation
doesn’t
matter.
You
won’t
find
errors
in
punctuation
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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in these sentences (except as part of larger errors involving
2
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2
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sentence
structure).
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2
1
2
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• You won’t need any knowledge of the topic at hand in order to
2
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2
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handle
a
question.
You’re
at
no
disadvantage
if
you
know
little
or
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
nothing
about
the
topic
of
any
particular
sentence.
For
instance,
in
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
handling the second question above, experts on Frank Lloyd
2
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2
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Wright would not have any advantage over other test-takers,
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
would they?
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

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2
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2
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Reading Comprehension (12–13 questions)
2
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2
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GMAT
Reading
Comprehension
questions
are
designed
to
measure
your
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ability to read carefully and accurately, to determine the relationships 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
among the various parts of the passage, and to draw reasonable inferences 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
from the material in the passage. On the GMAT, you’ll encounter four sets 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of Reading Comprehension questions; all questions in a set pertain to the 2
2
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2
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same passage and are presented in sequence.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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What’s
Covered
2
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2
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GMAT
Reading
Comprehension
tests
on
the
following
reading
skills
(you
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 can think of these skills as question types):
2
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2
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2
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• Recognizing the main point or primary purpose of the passage
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Recalling information explicitly stated in the passage
2
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• Making inferences from specific information stated in the passage
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
• Recognizing the purpose of specific passage information
2
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2
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2
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• Applying and extrapolating from the ideas presented in the
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
passage
2
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Test Directions
2
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2
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The
following
set
of
directions
are
essentially
what
you’ll
see
during
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 pre-test tutorial and just prior to your first group of Reading Comprehen2
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2
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sion
questions
(you
can
access
these
directions
at
any
time
by
clicking
on
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the HELP button):
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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1
Directions: The questions in this group are based
2
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2
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on
the
content
of
a
passage.
After
reading
the
pas2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sage, choose the best answer to each question. An2
1
2
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swer
all
questions
on
the
basis
of
what
is
stated
or
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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implied in the passage.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
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What Reading Comprehension Sets Look Like
2
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2
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Each
Reading
Comprehension
set
consists
of
a
reading
passage
along
with
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
series
of
3–4
questions
about
the
passage.
Here’s
a
typical
passage.
Go
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ahead and read it now.
2
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2
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Line Urodeles, a class of vertebrates that includes small, lizard-like
2
1
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2
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creatures such as newts and salamanders, have an enviable
2
1
2
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ability to regenerate arms, legs, tails, heart muscle, jaws, spinal 2
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2
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cords, and other organs that are injured or destroyed by
2
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2
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accidents or those who prey on them. Planaria, which are a
(5)
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 67
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Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

68

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2
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type of simple worm, have their own form of regenerative
2
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2
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power. A single worm can be sliced and diced into hundreds of 2
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2
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pieces, each piece giving rise to a completely new animal.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
However, while both urodeles and planaria have the capacity
2
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2
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to
regenerate,
they
use
different
means
to
accomplish
this
feat.
(10)
2
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2
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In
effect,
urodeles
turn
back
the
biological
clock.
First,
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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animal
heals
the
wound
at
the
site
of
the
missing
limb.
Then,
2
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2
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various
specialized
cells
at
the
site,
such
as
bone,
skin,
and
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
blood cells, lose their identity and revert to cells as unspecial2
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2
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ized
as
those
in
the
embryonic
limb
bud.
This
process
is
called
(15)
2
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2
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dedifferentiation,
and
the
resulting
blastema,
a
mass
of
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
unspecialized
cells,
proliferates
rapidly
to
form
a
limb
bud.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Ultimately,
when
the
new
limb
takes
shape,
the
cells
take
on
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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the specialized roles they had previously cast off.
2
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In contrast, planaria regenerate using cells called neoblasts. 2
(20)
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2
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Scattered within the planarian body, these neoblasts remain in
2
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1
an unspecialized, stem-cell state, which enables them at need to 2
2
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differentiate into any cell type. Whenever planaria are cut, the
2
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2
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neoblasts
migrate
to
the
site
and
form
a
blastema
by
them2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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(25) selves. It is interesting to note that this mechanism is similar to
2
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2
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that
following
reproductive
fission
in
these
animals,
and
that
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2
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species incapable of this form of asexual reproduction have
2
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2
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poorly
developed
regenerative
capacities.
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2
1
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Now, look at two questions based on the preceding passage. (Answer 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
choices
are
lettered
A–E
here.
Remember,
though,
that
on
the
actual
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GMAT you’ll select among choices by clicking on one of five blank ovals, 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
not
letters.)
This
first
question
is
a
bit
easier
than
average;
among
GMAT
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
test-takers, about 80% would answer this question correctly.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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The author’s primary purpose in the passage is to
2
1
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2
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A. describe the roles of blastema in regenerating urodeles and
2
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2
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planaria.
2
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2
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B.
describe
how
urodeles
use
the
process
of
dedifferentiation
to
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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regenerate.
2
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2
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C.
contrast
the
mechanisms
by
which
urodeles
and
planaria
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2
1
accomplish regeneration.
2
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2
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D. show how methods of cellular regeneration have evolved in
2
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2
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different animal species.
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2
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E. explain the link between reproductive fission and regeneration
2
1
2
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in simple worms.
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 2: The GMAT—Up Close

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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The correct answer is C. The last sentence of the first paragraph sets 2
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2
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forth this central theme: that urodeles and planaria differ in the means they 2
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2
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use to regenerate. The paragraphs that follow provide the details that 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 reveal those differences. The second paragraph discusses how urodeles 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
regenerate,
while
the
third
paragraph
discusses
how
planaria
regenerate.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(Notice
the
phase
“In
contrast,”
which
begins
the
third
paragraph.)
Each
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of
the
incorrect
choices
distorts
the
author’s
central
focus
in
the
passage.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Here’s
a
question
that’s
a
bit
more
difficult
than
average.
Of
all
GMAT
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
test-takers,
only
about
50%
would
respond
correctly
to
it.
2
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2
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2
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In
the
final
sentence
of
the
passage
(lines
25–28),
the
author
implies
that
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2
1
2
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2
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A.
reproductive
fission
and
regeneration
in
certain
planaria
differ
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
solely
in
the
quantity
of
new
planaria
produced.
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B. planaria that reproduce sexually use the process of dedifferen2
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2
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tiation
to
regenerate
entirely
new
animals.
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C. asexual reproduction is related to regeneration in planaria but
2
1
2
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not
in
urodeles.
2
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2
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D.
the
genetic
makeup
of
planaria
created
through
regeneration
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
would be the same as in those created through reproductive
2
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2
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fission.
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E. those planaria that reproduce by splitting themselves in two
2
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2
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are more likely to regenerate using the same mechanism.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 The correct answer is E. The idea in the final sentence of this passage is
2
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2
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difficult to grasp, making this question difficult to answer. The sentence 2
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2
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says essentially that those species of planaria that do not engage in 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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reproductive fission (i.e., splitting) are more likely to regenerate them- 2
2
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1 selves in this way than those species of planaria that do. Choice (E) 2
2
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2
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expresses
the
same
essential
idea
conversely:
species
of
planaria
that
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 reproduce asexually (by fission, or splitting) are the ones that are more 2
2
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likely to be able to regenerate in the same way.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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Key Facts about GMAT Reading Comprehension
2
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1 Keep in mind the following important features of GMAT Reading 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Comprehension (some of these points are review):
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
• Passages appear on the left side of the computer screen, and
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
questions
appear
(one
at
a
time)
on
the
right
side.
You’ll
have
to
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
scroll
vertically
to
read
each
entire
passage,
even
the
short
ones
(as
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in the simulated screen shot on page 21).
2
1
2
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2
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• Reading Comprehension questions are designed to test a lot more
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
than just your short-term memory and your knack for finding in2
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2
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formation quickly. Although your ability to recall what you’ve
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Part I: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about the GMAT

70

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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read is part of what’s being tested, all but the easiest questions also 2
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2
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gauge your ability to assimilate, interpret, and apply the ideas
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
presented.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Some
questions
require
that
you
focus
on
an
isolated
sentence
or
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
two;
others
require
that
you
assimilate
information
from
various
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
parts of the passage. Understandably, questions that cover dispar2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ate
parts
of
a
passage
tend
to
be
tougher
than
ones
that
you
can
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer
just
by
reading
a
particular
sentence
or
two.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Questions about information appearing early in the passage tend
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to come before other questions. However, this isn’t a hard-and-fast 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rule; don’t assume you can simply scroll down the passage to
2
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answer each question in turn.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Tougher questions include not only a “best” response but also a
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tempting
second-best
response.
Recognizing
the
difference
in
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
quality between the two most viable responses is the key to
2
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2
1
answering
the
questions
correctly.
2
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2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Reading
Comprehension
questions
are
not
designed
to
test
your
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
vocabulary. Sure, you’ll find the occasional advanced, technical, or 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
obscure word. But the test-makers don’t intentionally load the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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passages with tough vocabulary. Also, if a reading passage
2
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2
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introduces a technical term, don’t worry—the passage will supply
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
all you need to know about the term to respond to the questions.
2
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2
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• Reading Comprehension passages are condensed from larger
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
works
in
the
humanities,
social
sciences,
and
physical
sciences.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Specific sources include professional journals, dissertations, and
2
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2
1
periodicals
of
intellectual
interest.
The
test-makers
edit
the
source
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
material
in
order
to
pack
it
with
test-worthy
material.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• All reading passages are not created equal—that is, equally
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
difficult.
Comparatively
tough
passages
are
typically
written
in
a
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
dryer, more “academic” style than easier ones. Syntax is more
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
complex, and vocabulary more advanced. The passage’s topic
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
might deal with ideas and concepts that are more difficult to grasp, 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or it might be written, organized, or edited in a way that makes it
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
more difficult to assimilate.
1
2
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2
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• Prior knowledge of a passage’s subject matter is not important. All 2
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2
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questions are answerable based solely on information in the
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
passage. The exam includes passages from a variety of disciplines,
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
so
it
is
unlikely
that
any
particular
test-taker
knows
enough
about
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
two or more of the areas included on the test to hold a significant
2
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2
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advantage
over
other
test-takers.
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www.petersons.com

PART

II
Analytical Writing
Assessment
Analytical Writing Assessment

72

PART II

Chapter

3
Analytical Writing
Assessment

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2
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2
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Welcome
to
Analytical
Writing
Assessment.
At
this
point,
you’ll
learn
the
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
basics about writing effective GMAT Issue-Analysis and Argument- 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Analysis essays—ones that will earn you a better-than-average Analytical 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Writing
Assessment
score
of
at
least
4
on
the
0–6
scale.
Specifically,
you
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 will learn the following:
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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A
step-by-step
approach
to
brainstorming,
organizing,
composing,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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and proofreading your essays, all comfortably within the 302
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
minute time limit for each writing task
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Success keys to scoring higher with your essays than most GMAT
2
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test-takers
2
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2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Useful tips for writing mechanics and for developing a writing
2
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2
1
style
that’s
appropriate
for
the
GMAT
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2
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2
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2
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2
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Issue
Analysis—Your 7-Step Game Plan
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
For a high-scoring Issue essay, you need to accomplish these four basic 2
2
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2
1 tasks:
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1. Recognize and deal with the complexities and implications of the 2
2
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2
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Issue.
2
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2
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2.
Organize,
develop,
and
express
your
ideas
in
a
coherent
and
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
persuasive manner.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
3. Support your ideas with sound reasons and relevant examples.
2
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2
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2
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4.
Demonstrate
adequate
control
of
the
elements
of
Standard
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Written
English
(grammar,
syntax,
and
usage).
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2
1
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The 30 minutes you’re allowed to write your Issue essay isn’t much time, 2
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so you will need to use the time wisely. This does not mean using every one 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of your 30 minutes to peck away at the keyboard like mad. You should 2
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72

Note

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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spend some time up front thinking about what you should write and how 2
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2
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you should organize your ideas. And you should save some time at the end 2
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2
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to proofread and fine-tune your essay. Here’s a 7-step game plan to help 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 you budget your time so you can accomplish all four tasks listed above 2
2
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2
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within
your
30-minute
time
limit
(suggested
times
are
parenthesized):
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
1. Brainstorm and make notes (3 min.).
2
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2
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2
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2.
Review
your
notes,
and
decide
on
a
viewpoint
(1
min.).
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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3. Organize your ideas into a logical sequence (1 min.).
2
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2
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4.
Compose
a
brief
introductory
paragraph
(2
min.).
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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5.
Compose
the
body
of
your
response
(16
min.).
2
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2
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2
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6.
Compose
a
brief
concluding
or
summary
paragraph
(2
min.).
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7. Proofread for significant mechanical problems (5 min.).
2
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2
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Notice
that,
by
following
the
suggested
times
for
each
step,
you’ll
spend
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 about 5 minutes planning your essay, 20 minutes writing it, and 5 minutes
2
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2
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proofreading
it.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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These suggested time limits for each step are merely guidelines, not
2
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hard-and-fast rules. As you practice composing your own Issue essays
2
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2
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under timed conditions, start with these guidelines; then, adjust to a pace
2
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2
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that
works
best
for
you.
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 In the following pages, you’ll walk through each step in turn, applying the
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2
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following Issue statement, which is similar to some of the statements in the 2
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2
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official pool
2
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2
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2
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Issue
Statement
1
(and
directive)
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
“Schools should be responsible not only for teaching academic 2
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2
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skills but also for teaching ethical and social values.”
2
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2
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Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the 2
2
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foregoing statement. Support your perspective using reasons 2
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2
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and/or examples from your experience, observation, reading, or 2
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2
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academic studies.
2
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2
1
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1.
2
1 Brainstorm and Make Notes (3 min.)
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Your first step in developing your Issue essay is to brainstorm for ideas that 2
2
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2
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are
relevant
to
the
topic.
Try
to
think
of
some
reasons
and
examples
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supporting not just one side, but both sides, of the issue. As you conjure up 2
2
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2
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ideas,
don’t
commit
to
a
position
on
the
issue,
and
don’t
try
to
filter
out
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 73

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

www.petersons.com

Alert!

74

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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what you think might be unconvincing reasons or weak examples. Just let 2
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2
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all your ideas flow onto your scratch paper, in no particular order. (You 2
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2
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can sort through them during steps 2 and 3.) Here’s what a test-taker’s 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 notes for Issue statement 1 on page 73 might look like after a few minutes 2
2
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2
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of
brainstorming:
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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Whose
values?
2
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2
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Amish
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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suburbanites
2
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2
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yuppies
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Southern Baptists
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
pluralism
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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schools need focus
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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sex education
2
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2
1
classroom
cooperation
vs.
competition
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
teachers
set
examples—indirectly
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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drugs & violence
2
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Notice that the first several lines reflect one train of thought (If schools 2
2
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2
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were
to
teach
ethical
values,
whose
values
would
they
teach?)
while
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 other notes reflect other random ideas. The notes are somewhat of a 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
hodgepodge,
but
that’s
okay.
The
point
of
brainstorming
is
just
to
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
generates a bunch of ideas—the raw material for your Issue essay. Let your 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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ideas flow freely, and you’ll have plenty of fodder for that essay.
2
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2
1
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2.
Review Your Notes, and Decide on a Viewpoint
2
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2
1 (1 min.)
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Decide on the basic point of view (either “pro” or “con”) you want to 2
2
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defend in your essay. In other words, decide whether you are going to 2
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2
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basically agree or disagree with the statement. Your notes from step 1 should 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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help you decide. Review the ideas you jotted down, and then ask yourself 2
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2
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whether you can make a stronger case for or against the statement.
2
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2
1
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Keep in mind: There is no “correct” viewpoint or position on any GMAT 2
2
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1 issue. So don’t waste time debating over what viewpoint you should 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 defend. Just go with the flow—choose whatever viewpoint seems easiest 2
2
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2
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or
most
“natural”
for
you
to
defend.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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X-Ref

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

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2
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Next, pick the three or four ideas from your notes that best support your 2
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2
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viewpoint. These should be ideas that you think make sense, that support 2
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2
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your viewpoint reasonably well, and that you know enough about to write 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 at least a few sentences on. Put a checkmark next to these ideas, to signify 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that
they
are
the
ones
you’re
certain
you
want
to
use
in
your
essay.
If
there
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
aren’t
enough
ideas,
take
one
or
two
of
the
ideas
you
like
and
elaborate
on
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
them.
Think
of
related
ideas,
add
details
or
examples,
and
use
these
to
fill
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
out
your
list.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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It’s
perfectly
acceptable
to
strongly
agree
or
disagree
with
the
Issue
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statement.
But
it’s
also
okay
to
qualify
the
statement,
which
means
that
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 your agreement (or disagreement) with it is less than complete.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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3.
Organize Your Ideas into A Logical Sequence
2
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2
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(1
min.)
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Next, decide on a sequence for the ideas. The best sequence might be 2
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1 obvious. One idea may lead logically to another. Your ideas might involve 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
historical
examples,
which
lead
chronologically
from
one
to
another.
Or,
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your ideas might range from the personal level to the family or community 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
level,
then
to
the
societal
or
global
level.
Any
of
these
schemes
suggests
a
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
certain natural sequence for your Issue essay.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If there’s no obvious sequence, one effective approach is to decide which 2
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1 two ideas you like best—the two you consider most convincing or that you 2
2
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2
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happen
to
know
the
most
about
and
can
develop
most
fully—and
earmark
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
these ideas to discuss first and last (in either order) in the body of your 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
essay. Then sequence the remaining ideas in any order, but between your 2
2
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1 two best ideas. Why sequence your ideas this way? The most emphatic and 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
memorable parts of any essay are its beginning and end. It makes sense 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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that your best material should go there, where it will have the greatest 2
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2
1 possible impact on the reader.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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2
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The suggested sequence on page 76 is a basic one that works well in many
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
cases.
But
there
are
a
myriad
of
other
effective
ways
to
organize
ideas
for
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your Issue essay. At the Next Level, you’ll explore some of these
2
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2
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alternatives.
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 75
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Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

76

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2
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Once you’ve decided on a sequence for your ideas, number them 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
accordingly in your notes. Here’s an example of how a test-taker might 2
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2
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turn the notes on statement 1 into a simple outline:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2.
U
Whose
values?
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Amish
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
suburbanites
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
yuppies
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Southern
Baptists
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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1.
U
pluralism
2
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2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3.
U
schools
need
focus
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sex education
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
classroom cooperation vs. competition
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
teachers
set
examples-indirectly
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
drugs & violence
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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4. U U.S. Schools lag
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Notice that this test-taker has decided to essentially disagree with the 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statement—that
is,
to
take
the
position
that
schools
should
teach
2
1
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academics only and not ethical values. The first three points in his notes all 2
2
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1 fit nicely into an argument for this viewpoint. He also thought of a fourth 2
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idea that he thought might make a good ending—that U.S. schools lag 2
2
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2
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behind
most
other
countries
in
academic
standards,
and
so
time
must
not
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be taken away from teaching academic subjects to teach ethics. So he made 2
2
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2
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a note of that idea, and checked it off as well.
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1 He decided to start with the idea that America is pluralistic. From this 2
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2
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idea, it makes sense to ask, “Whose values would be taught in schools?” 2
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2
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and use the examples listed. This leads nicely into the point about focusing 2
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2
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on academics and, finally, the argument about how U.S. students lag 2
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2
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behind others.
2
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2
1
2
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2
1
4.
Compose
a
Brief
Introductory
Paragraph
(2
min.)
2
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2
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Now
that
you’ve
spent
about
five
minutes
planning
your
essay,
its
time
to
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1 compose it. You’ll begin with a brief introductory paragraph, in which you 2
2
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should accomplish the following:
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
1. Demonstrate that you understand the issue that the statement 2
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raises.
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

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2
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2. Let the reader know that you have a clear viewpoint on the issue. 2
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2
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2
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3.
Anticipate
the
ideas
you
intend
to
present
in
your
essay’s
body
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2
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paragraphs.
2
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2
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2
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You
can
probably
accomplish
all
three
tasks
in
2–3
sentences.
In
your
2
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2
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introductory
paragraph,
don’t
go
into
detail
about
your
reasoning,
and
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2
1
2
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don’t
provide
specific
examples.
This
is
what
the
body
paragraphs
of
the
2
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2
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essay
are
for.
Also,
don’t
begin
your
introductory
paragraph
by
repeating
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 the statement verbatim. This amounts to wasted time, since the reader is 2
2
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already familiar with the topic. Instead, show the reader from the very first 2
2
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2
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sentence that you’re thinking for yourself.
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2
1
2
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Here’s an introductory paragraph for statement 1—based on the test- 2
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2
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taker’s outline on page 76:
2
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Introductory paragraph (Issue Statement 1)
2
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Schools, especially in a pluralistic nation such as the United States, 2
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1
should limit what they teach to academic subjects—leaving it to 2
2
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2
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parents
and
clergy
to
teach
ethics.
To
do
otherwise,
as
the
statement
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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suggests, is to invite trouble, as this essay will show.
2
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5.
Compose the Body of Your Essay (16 min.)
2
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2
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During step 4, your chief ambition is to get your main points—and 2
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1 supporting reasons and examples—from your brain and your scratch 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
paper onto the computer screen! Here’s what you need to keep in mind as 2
2
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2
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you
compose
your
body
paragraphs:
2
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• Be sure the first sentence of each paragraph begins a distinct train
2
1
2
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of
thought
and
clearly
conveys
to
the
reader
the
essence
of
the
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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paragraph.
2
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2
1
2
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• Arrange your paragraphs so that your essay flows logically and
2
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persuasively
from
one
point
to
the
next.
Stick
to
your
outline,
but
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be flexible.
2
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1
• Try to devote at least two, but no more than three or four,
2
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2
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sentences
to
each
main
point
in
your
outline.
2
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2
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2
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Don’t
worry
if
you
don’t
have
time
to
include
every
single
point
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
from your outline. The readers understand that time constraints
2
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2
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prevent
most
test-takers
from
covering
every
point
they
want
2
1
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2
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to make.
2
1
2
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2
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• Don’t stray from the issue at hand, or from the points you seek to
2
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make.
Be
sure
to
stay
well
focused
on
both.
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2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 77
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Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

78

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2
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Now, here are the body paragraphs of a response to statement 1—based on 2
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2
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the outline on page 76:
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Four-paragraph body (Issue Statement 1)
2
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2
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2
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If
our
schools
are
to
teach
values,
the
most
important
question
to
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer
is:
Whose
values
would
they
teach?
After
all,
not
all
ethical
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2
1
2
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values
are
the
same.
The
Amish
have
a
way
of
life
that
stresses
2
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2
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simplicity
and
austerity;
they
shun
modern
conveniences
and
even
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
such activities as dancing. By contrast, the typical young urban 2
2
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family—“yuppies,” as they’re often called—enjoys buying the 2
2
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latest electronic gadgets and going on expensive vacations. Either 2
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2
1
2
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group might be offended by the values of the other.
2
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2
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True,
Amish
and
yuppie
children
aren’t
likely
to
attend
the
same
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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schools; but what about children from Jewish and fundamentalist 2
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Christian households? These two religious groups may live in the 2
2
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2
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same
town
or
neighborhood,
and
either
one
might
very
well
be
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1
incensed if the other group’s moral teachings were imposed on 2
2
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2
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them.
2
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The only way to avoid the inevitable conflicts that teaching ethics 2
2
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would bring to our schools is by allowing teachers to focus on 2
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what they’re paid to do: teach academics. We send children to 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
school to learn math, English, history, and science. How would we 2
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1
feel if our kids came home ignorant about geometry but 2
2
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indoctrinated with someone else’s religious or ethical ideas? Justly 2
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2
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annoyed, I think.
2
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2
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Moreover, consider that schoolchildren in the U.S. lag behind 2
2
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2
1
those
in
most
other
nations
in
academic
achievement.
In
light
of
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this
fact,
it
would
seem
foolish
for
us
to
divert
classroom
time
from
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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teaching academics to teaching “morality.”
2
1
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Notice the following features of these body paragraphs, which show that 2
2
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2
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the
test-taker
tried
to
stick
to
his
outline,
while
at
the
same
time
remaining
2
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2
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flexible as new ideas for content or organization occurred to him:
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2
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• Point 2 in the outline (“Whose values?”) became the basis for two
2
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2
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paragraphs (the second and third ones), not just one.
2
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2
1
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2
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• After writing about the Amish and yuppies, the test-taker seemed
2
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2
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to
realize
that
the
contrast
between
them,
while
illustrating
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
point, was a bit exaggerated. Rather than replacing the entire
2
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2
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paragraph
with
a
more
realistic
pairing,
which
would
have
meant
2
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2
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substantial
time
wasted,
the
test-taker
added
the
third
paragraph
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
to provide a more down-to-earth pairing.
2
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www.petersons.com

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

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2
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• The suburbanites got left out of the essay altogether, possibly
2
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2
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because they seemed unnecessary. (Or, perhaps the test-taker
2
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2
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realized
that
he
was
running
short
on
time.)
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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6.
Compose
a
Brief
Concluding
or
Summary
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2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Paragraph
(2
min.)
2
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2
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Unless
your
essay
has
a
clear
ending,
the
reader
might
think
you
didn’t
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 finish in time. That’s not the impression you want to make; so be sure to 2
2
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2
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make
time
to
wrap
up
your
discussion.
Convey
the
main
thrust
of
your
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
essay
in
a
clear,
concise,
and
assertive
way.
Two
or
three
sentences
should
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2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
suffice.
If
an
especially
insightful
concluding
point
occurs
to
you,
the
final
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sentence
of
your
essay
is
a
good
place
for
it.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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Here’s a brief but effective concluding paragraph for the essay on Issue
2
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statement 1. Notice that it assures the reader that the test-taker has 2
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2
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organized his time well and finished the writing task. Also, notice that this 2
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1 brief summary does not introduce any new reasons or examples; it’s just a 2
2
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2
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quick
recapitulation.
2
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Final paragraph (Issue Statement 1)
2
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Ironically, what is most ethical for our schools to do in the interest 2
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of educating our children is to avoid becoming entangled in ethical 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
issues. Stick to academics, and let families and clergy teach 2
2
1
2
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morality in their own way and on their own time.
2
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2
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2
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7.
Proofread for Glaring Mechanical Problems
2
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2
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(5
min.)
2
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2
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To
score
high
on
your
Issue
essay,
you
don’t
need
to
compose
a
flawless
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 work of art. The readers won’t reduce your score for the occasional 2
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awkward sentence and minor error in punctuation, spelling, grammar, or 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
diction (word choice and usage). Don’t get hung up on whether each 2
2
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2
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sentence
is
something
your
English
composition
professor
would
be
proud
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1 of. Instead, use whatever time remains to read your essay from start to
2
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2
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finish
and
fix
the
most
glaring
mechanical
problems.
Here
are
some
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
suggestions
for
what
you
should
and,
just
as
importantly,
what
you
should
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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not, try to accomplish during this final step:
2
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• Find and rework awkward sentences, especially ones where the
2
1
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2
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point you’re trying to make is not clear.
2
1
2
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• Find and correct accidentally omissions of words, garbled phrases,
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
grammatical
errors,
and
typographical
errors.
It
doesn’t
take
much
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2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

www.petersons.com

X-Ref

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2
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time to fix these kinds of errors, and the time spent will go a long
2
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2
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way toward making a positive impression on the reader.
2
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2
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• Correct spelling errors only when they might prevent the reader
2
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2
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from
understanding
the
point
at
hand.
2
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2
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2
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Don’t
spend
any
of
your
valuable
time
correcting
punctuation
or
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
removing
extra
character
spaces
between
words.
2
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2
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2
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• Don’t get drawn into drastic rewriting. Accept that your essay is
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2
1
2
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what it is and that you don’t have time to reshape it substantially.
2
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2
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From
beginning
to
end
(including
the
introductory,
body,
and
concluding
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 paragraphs), the preceding sample essay runs just over 300 words in 2
2
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2
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length.
It
is
neither
lengthy
nor
a
literary
masterpiece.
Nevertheless,
it
2
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2
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expresses
a
clear
viewpoint,
it’s
smartly
organized,
it
employs
relevant
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reasons and examples, and it’s crisp and effective in style. In short, it 2
2
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2
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contains
all
the
elements
of
a
high-scoring
GMAT
Issue
essay.
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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Success
Keys
for
Writing
a
GMAT
Issue2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
1
Analysis
Essay
2
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2
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Here’s
our
very
best
advice
for
GMAT
Issue
Analysis,
parsed
out
into
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
bite-size pieces. Some of these tips reiterate suggestions made earlier in this 2
2
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2
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lesson—suggestions
that
are
well
worth
underscoring.
Others
are
new
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 here. Apply these points of advice to Part V’s practice tests, and then 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
review
them
again,
just
before
exam
day.
You’ll
be
glad
you
did!
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2
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2
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2
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2
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Adopt a Viewpoint . . . Any Viewpoint
2
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It’s perfectly acceptable to strongly agree or disagree with an Issue 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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1 statement. Don’t worry that your position may appear somewhat 2
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“right-wing” or “left-wing,” or even outside the mainstream altogether. 2
2
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Just be sure to provide sound reasons and relevant examples to justify your 2
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2
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strong viewpoint. It’s also perfectly okay to qualify the statement—in 2
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2
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1 other words, to accept (or reject) it only in part or to a limited extent. 2
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2
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Again, just be sure to justify your “middle-ground” position with sound 2
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2
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reasoning and relevant examples.
2
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2
1
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2
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1 At the Next Level, you’ll explore the various ways you can “qualify” 2
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2
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1 Issue statements, and you’ll learn how to develop an essay that accounts 2
2
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for “pros” and “cons” of both sides of an issue.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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80
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Tip

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

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2
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2
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Explain How Your Examples Support Your
2
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2
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Viewpoint
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Anyone can simply list a long string of examples and claim that they 2
2
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2
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illustrate
a
point.
But
GMAT
readers
are
looking
for
incisive
analysis,
not
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
fast
typing.
For
each
example
you
cite,
be
sure
to
tell
the
reader
how
it
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 supports the point you’re trying to make. Otherwise, you argument will be 2
2
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2
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unconvincing, and your score might suffer as a result.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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Appeal
to
Reason,
Not
Emotion
2
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2
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Avoid
inflammatory
statements,
and
don’t
preach
or
proselytize.
Ap2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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proach the Issue writing task as an intellectual exercise in which you 2
2
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2
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dispassionately
argue
for
a
certain
viewpoint.
Do
not
use
it
as
a
forum
for
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sharing your personal belief system. It’s perfectly appropriate to criticize 2
2
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2
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particular
behavior,
policies,
or
viewpoints
as
operating
against
the
best
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
interest of a business or of a society. But refrain from either condemning or 2
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1 extolling based on personal moral grounds. Also avoid demagoguery 2
2
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2
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(appeal
to
prejudice
or
emotion)
and
jingoism
(excessive
patriotism).
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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Spare the Reader Rote Facts and Technical
2
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2
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Details
2
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1 The Issue essay is not like a game of Jeopardy! or Trivial Pursuit. You will 2
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not score points simply by recounting statistics, compiling long lists, or 2
2
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conjuring up little-known facts. And, don’t try to impress the reader with 2
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2
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your technical knowledge of any particular subject. Resist the temptation 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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to use the Issue essay as a forum to recapitulate your senior-year thesis. 2
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1 This is not the place to convince the reader of your firm grasp of the finest 2
2
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2
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points
of
foreign
policy,
macroeconomic
theory,
or
market
analysis.
That’s
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2
1 what your GPA and undergraduate transcripts are for.
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2
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2
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2
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Avoid
Obvious
and
Hackneyed
Examples
2
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2
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Many
GMAT
test-takers
will
rely
heavily
on
today’s
headlines
and
on
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
history’s most illustrious and notorious figures. If you can, avoid relying
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
on these all-too-obvious examples. Try to dig a bit deeper, showing the 2
2
1
2
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reader a broader, more literate perspective.
2
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2
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2
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2
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Most GMAT readers reside in the United States. If you reside elsewhere,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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1 cite examples from your own region of the world. You’re more likely to
2
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2
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pique the reader’s interest, which can only operate in your favor.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 81
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Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

82

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2
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2
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Don’t Dwell on One Point; But Don’t Try to Cover
2
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2
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Everything,
Either
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Avoid harping on one point you believe to be the most convincing one, or 2
2
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2
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on
one
example
that
you
know
a
lot
about
or
you
feel
best
illustrates
your
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
point.
Instead,
try
to
cover
as
many
points
in
your
outline
as
you
have
time
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 for, devoting no more than one paragraph to each one.
2
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2
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At the same time, if you try to cover everything you can think of about the 2
2
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issue at hand, you’re likely to become frustrated, and you might even panic 2
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2
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as the testing clock ticks away your 30 minutes. The readers understand 2
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2
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your time constraints. So don’t worry if you’re forced to leave the 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 secondary and more tangential points on your scratch paper. Stick to your 2
2
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2
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outline,
ration
your
time,
and
you’ll
be
fine.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
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Keep It Simple; the Reader Will Reward You for It
2
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2
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1 Don’t make the Issue writing task more onerous than it needs to be for you 2
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to attain a solid score. Keep your sentences clear and simple. Use a 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
straightforward structure for your essay. Avoid using “fancy” words just 2
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to impress the reader. Don’t waste time ruminating over how you can 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
come across as ultra-brilliant, mega-insightful, or super-eloquent. Finally, 2
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don’t waste brain-power or keystrokes trying to be clever, creative, or 2
2
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humorous. Be forewarned: Dazzling the reader with your amazing wit and 2
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2
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2
1 wisdom is not the way to score points.
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2
1
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2
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Look Organized and in Control of the Task
2
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2
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Use
every
tool
at
your
disposal
to
show
the
reader
that
you
can
write
well
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
under pressure. Use logical paragraph breaks—one after your introduc- 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tion, one between each of your main points, and one before your 2
2
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1 concluding paragraph. Be sure to present your main points in a logical, 2
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easy-to-follow sequence. (If you don’t get it right the first time, you can use 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
word
processor’s
cut-and-paste
features
to
rearrange
your
ideas.)
Your
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
essay’s “bookends”—the introductory and concluding paragraph—are 2
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especially key to looking organized and in control. First of all, make sure 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
they’re there! Then, make sure they’re consistent with each other, and that 2
2
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2
they reveal your viewpoint and recap your reasons for your viewpoint.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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2
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2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

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2
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2
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It’s Quality, Not Quantity, That Counts
2
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2
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The
only
limitation
on
your
essay’s
length
is
the
practical
one
that
the
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30-minute time limit imposes. But, do the readers prefer brief or longer 2
2
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Issue essays? Well, it all depends on the essay’s quality. A lengthy essay 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that’s articulate and that includes many insightful ideas that are well 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
supported by examples will score higher than a briefer essay that lacks 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
substance. On the other hand, an essay that’s concise and to the point can 2
2
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be more effective than a long-winded, rambling one.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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Don’t worry about the word length of your essay. GMAT readers don’t 2
2
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2
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count
words.
As
long
as
you
incorporate
into
your
essay
all
the
suggested
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 elements you learned about in this lesson, you don’t need to worry about 2
2
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2
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length.
Just
keep
in
mind
that
it’s
quality,
not
quantity,
that
counts.
2
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2
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Don’t Lose Sight of Your Primary Objectives
2
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2
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1 The official scoring criteria for the Issue essay boil down to four broad 2
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objectives. Never lose sight of them during the 30-minute Issue section. 2
2
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After brainstorming and making notes, but before you start typing, ask 2
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yourself:
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1. Do I have a clear viewpoint on the issue?
2
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2. Do I support my viewpoint with sound reasons and relevant 2
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2
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examples?
2
1
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3. Do I have in mind a clear, logical structure for presenting my 2
1
2
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ideas?
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Once you can confidently answer “Yes” to each question, start composing 2
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1 your essay. Then, once you’re finished your draft, ask yourself the same 2
2
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2
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three
questions
again,
as
well
as
this
fourth
one:
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
4. Have I demonstrated good grammar, diction (word choice and 2
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2
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usage), and syntax (sentence structure)?
2
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2
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2
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Once
you
can
answer
“Yes”
to
all
four
questions,
rest
assured
that
you’ve
2
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2
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produced
a
solid,
high-scoring
Issue
essay.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 83
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

www.petersons.com

Note

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2
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2
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Argument
Analysis—Your 7-Step Game Plan
2
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2
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For
a
high-scoring
Argument
essay,
you
need
to
accomplish
these
four
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
basic tasks:
2
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2
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2
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1.
Identify
and
analyze
the
Argument’s
key
elements.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2. Organize, develop, and express your critique in a coherent and 2
2
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2
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logically convincing manner.
2
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2
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3.
Support
your
ideas
with
sound
reasons
and
supporting
examples.
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2
1
2
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2
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4.
Demonstrate
adequate
control
of
the
elements
of
Standard
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Written
English
(grammar,
syntax,
and
usage).
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2
1
2
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2
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Just
as
for
the
Issue
Analysis,
you
should
spend
some
time
up
front
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
thinking about what you will write and how you will organize your ideas. 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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Again, save some time at the end to proofread and fine-tune your essay. 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Here’s a 7-step game plan to help you budget your time so you can 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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1 accomplish all four tasks listed above within your 30-minute time limit 2
2
(suggested times are parenthesized):
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2
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2
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1.
Read
the
Argument,
and
identify
its
conclusions
(1
min.).
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2. Examine the Argument’s evidence to determine how strongly it 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
supports
the
Argument’s
conclusion(s).
(3
min.).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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3. Organize and prioritize your points of critique (1 min.).
2
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2
1
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2
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4. Compose a brief introduction (2 min.).
2
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2
1
5. Compose the body of your response (16 min.).
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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6. Compose a concluding paragraph (2 min.).
2
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2
1
2
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7.
Proofread
for
significant
mechanical
problems
(5
min.).
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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Notice that, by following the suggested time limits for each step, you’ll 2
2
1
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spend about 5 minutes planning your essay, 20 minutes writing it, and 5 2
2
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minutes proofreading it.
2
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2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
These time limits for each step are merely guidelines, not hard-and-fast 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rules. As you practice composing your own Argument essays under timed 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conditions, start with these guidelines, then adjust to a pace that works 2
2
1
2
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best for you.
2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
84
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Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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In the following pages, you’ll walk through each step in turn, applying the 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
following Argument statement, which is similar to some of the statements 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in the official pool:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Argument
1
(and
directive)
2
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2
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2
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The
following
appeared
in
a
memo
from
the
manager
of
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
UpperCuts
hair
salon:
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“According to a nationwide demographic study, more and more 2
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2
1
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people today are moving from suburbs to downtown areas. In 2
2
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order to boost sagging profits at UpperCuts, we should take 2
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2
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advantage of this trend by relocating the salon from its current 2
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2
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location in Apton’s suburban mall to downtown Apton, while 2
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2
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retaining the salon’s decidedly upscale ambiance. Besides, Hair- 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Dooz, our chief competitor at the mall, has just relocated 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
downtown and is thriving at its new location, and the most 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
prosperous
hair
salon
in
nearby
Brainard
is
located
in
that
city’s
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
downtown area. By emulating the locations of these two successful 2
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2
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salons, UpperCuts is certain to attract more customers.”
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
discussion be sure to analyze the line of reasoning and the use of 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conclusion. You can also discuss what sort of evidence would 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument 2
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2
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would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
help you better evaluate its conclusion.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 Read The Argument, and Identify Its
1.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Conclusion(s) (1 Min.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Every
GMAT
Argument
consists
of
the
following
basic
elements:
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1.
Evidence
(stated
premises
that
the
Argument
does
not
dispute)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. Assumptions (unstated premises needed to justify a conclusion)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
3.
Conclusions
(inferences
drawn
from
evidence
and
assumptions)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
As you read an Argument for the first time, identify its final conclusion as 2
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1 well as its intermediate conclusion (if any). Why is this first step so 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
important?
Unless
you
are
clear
about
the
Argument’s
conclusions,
it’s
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
impossible
to
evaluate
the
author’s
reasoning
or
the
strength
of
the
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 85
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Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

86

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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evidence offered in support of them. And that’s what the Argument 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
writing task is all about!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You’ll probably find the final conclusion in the Argument’s first or last 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sentence.
The
Argument
might
refer
to
it
as
a
“claim,”
a
“recommenda2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tion,”
or
a
“prediction.”
An
intermediate
conclusion,
upon
which
the
final
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 conclusion depends, might appear anywhere in the Argument. Not every 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argument
contains
an
intermediate
conclusion.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Did you identify and distinguish between the intermediate and final 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conclusions in the Argument involving UpperCuts? Here they are:
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Intermediate
conclusion:
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“By
emulating
the
locations
of
these
two
successful
salons,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
UpperCuts
is
certain
to
attract
more
customers.”
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Final conclusion:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“In order to boost sagging profits at UpperCuts, we should . . . 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
relocat[e] the salon from its current location in Apton’s suburban 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mall to downtown Apton, while retaining the salon’s decidedly 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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upscale ambiance.”
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Notice that the Argument’s final conclusion relies on its intermediate 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conclusions. Here’s the essential line of reasoning:
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
UC will gain customers if it moves downtown. (Intermediate 2
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conclusion)
2
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2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Therefore, UC will boost its profits simply by moving downtown. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(Final conclusion)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Always jot down an Argument’s intermediate conclusion (if any) and its 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
final conclusion—in shorthand like we’ve provided above. You’ll need to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
refer to them time and again as you develop your points of critique and 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
compose your essay.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 Identify and Examine the Argument’s Evidence
2.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to
Determine
How
Strongly
It
Supports
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argument’s
Conclusion(s)
(3
Min.)
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Most Arguments contain at least two or three items of information, or 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
evidence,
that
are
used
in
support
of
its
conclusion(s).
Identify
them,
label
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 them, and jot them down in shorthand on your scratch paper. Argument 1 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
contains
three
distinct
items
of
evidence:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

X-Ref

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Evidence (item 1):
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“According
to
a
nationwide
demographic
study,
more
and
more
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
people today are moving from suburbs to downtown areas.”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Evidence
(item
2):
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
“Hair-Dooz, our chief competitor at the mall, has just relocated 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
downtown and is thriving at its new location.”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Evidence
(item
3):
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“.
.
.
the
most
prosperous
hair
salon
in
nearby
Brainard
is
located
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in
that
city’s
downtown
area.”
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Next,
analyze
each
item
as
to
how
much
support
it
lends
to
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argument’s
intermediate
and
final
conclusions.
For
the
most
part,
what
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you should look for are any unsubstantiated or unreasonable assumptions 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
upon which the Argument’s conclusions depend. For example, an 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Argument might rely on one of these assumptions, yet fail to provide 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
evidence to support it.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

An
event
that
occurs
after
another
was
caused
by
the
other
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(a false-cause problem).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Two things that are similar in one way are similar in other ways
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(a
false-analogy
problem).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
• A statistical sample of a group is representative of the group as a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
whole.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Also check for problems with the Argument’s internal logic (for example, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
self-contradictions or circular reasoning). These types of problems don’t 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
occur commonly in GMAT Arguments; but you should be on the lookout 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
for them, anyway.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Just
as
for
your
Issue
essay,
don’t
filter
your
ideas
during
this
crucial
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
brainstorming step! Let them all flow onto your scratch paper. (You’ll sort 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
them
out
in
step
3.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Without exception, each Argument in the official pool contains at least
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
three
or
four
discrete
assumptions
or
other
problems—that’s
how
the
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
test-makers design them. When you Take It to the Next Level, you’ll
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
examine
in
detail
the
most
common
flaws
in
GMAT
Arguments.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 87
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Below is an example of what a test-taker’s notes for Argument 1 might 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
look like after a few minutes of brainstorming:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
inter.
concl.—UC
will
gain
customers
downtown
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
final
concl.—UC
will
improve
profits
downtown
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
demog. study—is Apton typical? no trend
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
reverse trend
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
success
of
HD—is
location
key?
marketing
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
key stylist
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
success of B salon—downtown location key?
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
—is Apton like Brainard?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(demog.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
other problems
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
—relocation
expenses
offset
revenues
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
—UC must establish new clientele
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
—competition from HD
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(suff.
demand
for
both
salons?)
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
—demand for “upscale” salon downtown?
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3.
Organize and Prioritize Your Points of Critique
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(1
Min.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Using
your
notes
from
step
2
as
a
guide,
arrange
your
ideas
into
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 paragraphs (probably three or four, depending on the number of problems 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
built into the Argument). Take a minute to consider whether any of the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
flaws you identified overlap and whether any can be separated into two 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
distinct problems. In many cases, the best sequence in which to organize 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 your points of critique is the same order in which reasoning problems arise 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in the Argument.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Just
as
you
would
for
your
Issue
essay,
try
to
use
your
notes
as
an
outline,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbering points according to their logical sequence. The next page 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
shows
an
example
of
what
the
test-taker’s
notes
for
Argument
1
look
like
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 after organizing them (arrows indicate where he intend to discuss a point; 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“[FC]”
refers
to
final
conclusion):
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

.
.
.
.

88

www.petersons.com

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
inter.
concl.
UC
will
gain
customers
downtown
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
final concl. UC will improve profits downtown
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
no trend
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
demog. study is Apton typical?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reverse
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
trend
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
marketing
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
success of HD is location key?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
key
stylist
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
1
success
of
B
salon
downtown
location
key?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
is Apton like Brainard?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(demog.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
other problems
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
1
[FC]
relocation
expenses
offset
revenues
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
UC must establish new clientele
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
competition from HD
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(suff.
demand
for
both
salons?)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
demand for upscale salon downtown?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4.
Compose a Brief Introductory Paragraph (2 Min.) 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Now that you’ve spent about five minutes planning your essay, its time to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
compose it. Don’t waste time repeating the quoted Argument; the reader, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
whom you can assume is already well familiar with the Argument, is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
interested in your critique—not in your transcription skills. Here’s what 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you should try to accomplish in your initial paragraph:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1.
Identify
the
Argument’s
final
conclusion.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. Describe briefly the Argument’s line of reasoning and evidence in 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
support of its conclusion.
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3. Allude generally to the problems with the Argument’s line of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reasoning and use of evidence.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You can probably accomplish all three task in 2–3 sentences. Here’s a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
concise
introductory
paragraph
of
a
response
to
Argument
1:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Citing a general demographic trend and certain evidence about two 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
other
hair
salons,
the
manager
of
UpperCuts
(UC)
concludes
here
that
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
UC should relocate from suburban to downtown Apton in order to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
attract more customers and, in turn, improve its profitability. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 89
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

.

.
..

(

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

90

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
However, the manager’s argument relies on a series of unproven 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
assumptions and is therefore unconvincing as it stands.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Your introductory paragraph is the least important component of your 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
essay.
So,
you
might
consider
waiting
until
you’ve
completed
your
critique
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of
the
Argument
before
composing
your
introduction.
If
you’re
running
2
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1 out of time for your introduction, begin your essay with a sentence like one 2
2
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2
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of
the
following
two,
then
delve
right
into
your
first
point
of
critique—
2
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2
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without
a
paragraph
break:
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2
1
2
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This argument suffers from numerous flaws which, considered 2
2
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together, render untenable the conclusion that UpperCuts should 2
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2
1
2
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relocate to downtown Apton. One such flaw involves . . .
2
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2
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I
find
the
argument
for
moving
UpperCuts
salon
downtown
specious
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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at best, because it relies on a series of unproven and doubtful 2
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2
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assumptions. One such assumption is that . . .
2
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2
1
2
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2
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5.
Compose
the
Body
of
Your
Response
(16
Min.)
2
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As in the Issue essay, your chief aim during this step is to peck madly at 2
2
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2
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your
keyboard
in
order
to
get
your
ideas
onto
the
screen!
Here’s
what
you
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2
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need to keep in mind as you compose your body paragraphs:
2
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2
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• Try to devote a separate paragraph to each major point of your
2
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2
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critique—but be flexible. Sometimes it makes more sense to discuss 2
1
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2
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related points in the same paragraph.
2
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2
1
2
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Be
sure
the
first
sentence
of
each
paragraph
conveys
to
the
reader
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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the essence of the problem you’re dealing with in that paragraph.
2
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2
1
2
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For
each
of
the
Argument’s
assumptions,
try
to
provide
at
least
2
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2
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one example or counterexample (a hypothetical scenario) that, if
2
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2
1
true, would undermine the assumption.
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2
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• Try to devote no more than three or four sentences to any one
2
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2
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point in your outline. Otherwise, you risk running out of time
2
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2
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without
discussing
all
of
the
Argument’s
major
problems.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Arrange your paragraphs so that your essay flows logically from
2
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2
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one
point
of
critique
to
the
next.
2
1
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• Don’t worry if you don’t have time to discuss each and every point 2
2
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2
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of
critique
or
example
that
you
noted
during
step
2.
The
readers
2
1
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2
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understand your time constraint.
2
1
2
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2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Tip

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

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2
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2
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Try to stick to your outline, but be flexible. Start with whichever points of
2
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2
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critique
strike
you
as
the
most
important,
are
clearest
in
your
mind,
and
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 are easiest to articulate. (You can always rearrange your points later,
2
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2
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during step 6, using the word processor’s cut-and-paste feature.)
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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Here’s the body of a test-taker’s response to Argument 1. As you read 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
these four paragraphs, notice that each paragraph addresses a distinct, 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
critical assumption—a certain condition that must be true to justify one of 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the Argument’s conclusions. Also notice that each paragraph describes at 2
2
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least one scenario that, if true, would serve to undermine an assumption. 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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One such assumption is that Apton reflects the cited demographic 2
2
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2
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trend.
The
mere
fact
that
one
hair
salon
has
moved
downtown
hardly
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
suffices to show that the national trend applies to Apton specifically. 2
2
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2
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For
all
we
know,
in
Apton
there
is
no
such
trend,
or
perhaps
the
trend
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is in the opposite direction, in which event the manager’s recommen- 2
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2
1
dation would amount to especially poor advice.
2
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2
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Even assuming that downtown Apton is attracting more residents, 2
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relocating downtown might not result in more customers for UC,
2
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especially if downtown residents are not interested in UC’s upscale 2
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style and prices. Besides, Hair-Dooz might draw potential customers
2
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away from UC, just as it might have at the mall. Without ruling out 2
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2
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these and other reasons why UC might not benefit from the trend, the 2
1
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2
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manager can’t convince me that UC would attract more customers by 2
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2
1
moving downtown.
2
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2
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Even if there was a high demand for UC’s service in downtown Apton, 2
2
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2
1
an
increase
in
the
number
of
patrons
would
not
necessarily
improve
2
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2
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UC’s
profitability.
UC’s
expenses
might
be
higher
downtown,
in
which
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case it might be no more, or perhaps even less, profitable downtown 2
1
2
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than at the mall.
2
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As for the Brainard salon, its success might be due to particular factors
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that don’t apply to UC. For example, perhaps the Brainard salon
2
1
thrives only because it is long-established in downtown Brainard. Or 2
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2
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perhaps hair salons generally fare better in downtown Brainard than 2
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2
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downtown Apton, due to demographic differences between the two 2
1
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2
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areas. In short, the manager simply cannot justify his proposal on the 2
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2
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basis of the Brainard salon’s success.
2
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2
1
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1
2
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2
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Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

www.petersons.com

Tip

92

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2
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2
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6.
Compose a Concluding Paragraph (2 Min.)
2
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2
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Unless
your
essay
has
a
clear
ending,
the
reader
might
think
you
didn’t
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
finish on time; so be sure to make time for a final paragraph that clearly 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“wraps up” your essay. Your final paragraph is not the place to introduce 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
any new points of critique. Instead, recapitulate the Argument’s problems— 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
e.g., a series of unproven assumptions—in two or three sentences. Here’s a 2
2
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2
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final paragraph in response to Argument 1:
2
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2
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In
sum,
the
argument
relies
on
what
might
amount
to
two
poor
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2
1
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analogies between UC and two other salons, as well as a sweeping 2
2
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2
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generalization
about
demographic
trends,
which
may
or
may
not
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
apply to Apton. Thus, even though the manager has provided some 2
2
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2
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scant
evidence
to
support
the
recommendation,
on
balance
I
find
the
2
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2
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argument
unconvincing
at
best.
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Notice that this paragraph does not introduce any new points of critique. 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
It’s just a brief recap of the argument’s major problems, along with a 2
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2
1 reiteration of why the Argument is weak.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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Another tack for your concluding paragraph is to recap in terms of how 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the argument could be strengthened and/or how additional information 2
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might be needed to evaluate it. Although these two elements are optional, 2
2
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2
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incorporating one or both into your essay can boost your score.
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2
1
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From beginning to end (including the introductory, body, and concluding 2
2
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paragraphs), the preceding sample essay runs just under 400 words in 2
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2
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length—brief enough to plan and write in 30 minutes. It’s well organized; 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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it articulates the Argument’s major problems; it supports each point of 2
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1 critique with relevant examples; and it’s crisp, clear, and convincing. In 2
2
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2
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short,
it
contains
all
the
elements
of
a
high-scoring
GMAT
Argument
essay.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
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2
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7.
Review for Coherence and Proofread for
2
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2
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Significant
Mechanical
Problems
(5
Min.)
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Be
sure
to
reserve
time
to
check
the
flow
of
your
essay,
paying
particular
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
attention to the first sentence of each paragraph. Check to see if you should 2
2
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2
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rearrange
paragraphs
so
that
they
appear
in
a
more
logical
sequence.
Also,
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
proofread for glaring mechanical problems. Your Argument essay, like your 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Issue essay, need not be flawless in order to earn a high score. The readers 2
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1 won’t mark you down for the occasional awkward sentence and minor 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
error in punctuation, spelling, grammar, or diction (word choice and us- 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
age). Use whatever time remains to fix the most glaring mechanical prob- 2
2
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lems. Correct spelling and punctuation errors only when they’re likely to 2
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2
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interfere with the reader’s understanding of the point at hand.
2
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Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

Alert!

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2
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2
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Success
Keys for Writing a GMAT Argument2
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2
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Analysis
Essay
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2
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In the following pages, we’ve distilled our very best advice for GMAT 2
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2
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Argument-Analysis down to bite-sized nuggets that you can easily digest. 2
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2
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Many of them reiterate suggestions we’ve already made—suggestions that 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 are well worth underscoring. Others are new here. Apply these points of 2
2
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2
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advice
to
Part
III’s
practice
tests,
and
then
review
them
again
just
before
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
exam
day.
You’ll
be
glad
you
did!
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1Ferreting Out the Flaws Is Half the Battle
2
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2
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Built
into
each
and
every
GMAT
Argument
are
at
least
three
or
four
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
distinct reasoning problems. That’s how the test-makers design them. To 2
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earn a high score, first and foremost, your essay must identify these
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problems. After brainstorming and making notes, if you haven’t isolated at 2
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1 least three major flaws, then you can be sure that you’ve missed at least 2
one. Read the Argument again—very carefully. (Even a few overlooked 2
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2
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words can be key.)
2
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Ration your time to be sure the reader knows you’ve recognized each and 2
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every problem listed in your notes. Don’t worry if 30 minutes isn’t enough 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
time for you to discuss each problem in detail. When it comes to analyzing 2
2
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2
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GMAT
Arguments,
remember
that
breadth
is
better
than
depth.
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1
2
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2
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GMAT
Arguments
are
not
all
created
equal.
Some
are
flawed
in
more
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2
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ways than others. The greater the number of distinct flaws, the more
2
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2
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forgiving the reader will be. So if an Argument contains as many as five or
2
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2
1 six distinct problems, and you overlook one or two of them, you can still
2
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2
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attain
a
high
score—perhaps
even
a
top
score
of
6
assuming
your
essay
is
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2
1 outstanding in all other respects.
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2
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Viewpoints and Opinions Don’t Matter—At All
2
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2
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In
sharp
contrast
to
the
Issue
essay,
your
Argument
essay
is
not
the
place
to
2
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2
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present
viewpoints
or
opinions
about
an
issue
that
the
Argument
might
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touch up on. Your analysis must focus strictly on the Argument’s logical 2
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2
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2
1 features and on how strongly its evidence supports its conclusions.
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For instance, consider an Argument for electing a certain political 2
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2
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1 candidate because she has a record of being tough on crime. In an Issue 2
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2
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1 essay involving the problem of violent crime, it would be perfectly 2
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appropriate to present various viewpoints on this social issue—weighing 2
2
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alternative approaches to the problem in general. But these viewpoints are 2
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2
1 irrelevant to the Argument writing task.
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Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

94

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2
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2
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Don’t Leave Any Point of Critique Without Support
2
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2
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Don’t
neglect
to
support
each
point
of
your
critique
with
at
least
one
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example or counterexample that helps the reader understand the 2
2
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particular flaw you’re pointing out. Keep your examples and counter- 2
2
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examples hypothetical (“What if . . . ,” “Suppose that . . . ,” or It’s possible 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that . . .” or “Perhaps . . .” ) You don’t need to go into great detail; one or 2
2
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two for each point of critique will suffice. Unless you provide some 2
2
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support for each point of critique, your score might suffer.
2
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2
1
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But what if you think you won’t have enough time to provide supporting 2
2
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2
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detail
for
each
and
every
point
of
critique
in
your
notes?
Don’t
despair.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Look for two or three points that are related to the same item of evidence 2
2
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2
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(for
example,
points
that
all
involve
the
same
statistical
survey).
Then,
2
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2
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plan
to
touch
briefly
on
each
one
in
the
same
paragraph.
Grouping
them
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together this way will make sense to the reader, who might not notice 2
2
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2
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what’s
missing
as
much
as
the
fact
that
you’re
very
organized!
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2
1
2
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2
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Don’t Look for the “Fatal Flaw”; Instead, Treat
2
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2
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Every Problem as a Contributing Cause of Death
2
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2
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Avoid
dwelling
on
one
particular
flaw
that
you
think
is
the
most
serious
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one—or on one realistic example or counterexample that you think, if true, 2
2
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would spell certain death for the entire Argument. Otherwise, you risk 2
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2
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1 running out of time to identify all the problems you’ve listed in your notes. 2
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2
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Also, don’t try to rank any flaw as “more serious” or “less serious” than 2
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1 another. True, one particular flaw might be more damaging to an 2
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Argument than others. But by identifying it as “the most serious problem 2
2
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with the Argument,” you’re committing yourself to defend this claim, by 2
2
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2
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weighing
that
problem
against
all
the
others.
Do
you
really
have
time
for
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this kind of analysis? No! Nor do the GMAT readers expect or want this 2
2
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1 from you. In short, you’re best off applying equal treatment to each of the 2
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2
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Argument’s problems.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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There’s No Need to Impress with Technical
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2
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Terminology
2
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2
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Scholars
in
the
academic
fields
of
Critical
Reasoning
and
Logic
rely
on
all
2
1
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sorts of formal terminology (much of which comes from the Latin 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
language), for the kinds of reasoning flaws that you’ll find in GMAT 2
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1 Arguments. For example, post hoc reasoning refers to faulty “After this, 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
therefore because of this” reasoning. But you won’t score any points with 2
2
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GMAT readers by tossing around such terminology in your Argument 2
2
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essay. Besides, if you refer a technical term, you’ll then need to define it for 2
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2
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the reader, which will only consume your precious time. So don’t bother! 2
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www.petersons.com

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

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2
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2
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Go with the Logical Flow
2
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2
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Try
to
organize
your
points
of
critique
to
reflect
the
Argument’s
line
of
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reasoning—from its evidence and assumptions to its intermediate conclu- 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sion (if any), then to its final conclusion. Fortunately, most GMAT 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Arguments are already organized this way—so that your points of critique 2
2
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2
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can simply follow the quoted Argument from beginning to end.
2
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2
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But don’t assume that this sequence will be the most logical one. 2
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2
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Regardless of the sequence of ideas in the quoted Argument, try to group 2
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together all your points of critique that involve the same item of evidence 2
2
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2
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(for
example,
a
statistical
survey
or
study).
Also,
it
makes
logical
sense
to
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 address problems involving the Argument’s intermediate conclusion 2
2
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2
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before
those
involving
its
final
conclusion.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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Look Organized and in Control
2
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2
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1 As with the Issue essay, use every means at your disposal to show that 2
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reader that, even under significant time pressure, you know how to 2
2
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organize your ideas and convey them in writing. Use logical paragraph 2
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breaks, present your points of critique in a logical sequence, and try to save
2
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time for brief introductory and concluding paragraphs.
2
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2
1Don’t Lose Sight of Your Primary Objectives
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The official scoring criteria for the Argument essay boil down to four 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
broad
objectives.
Never
lose
sight
of
them
during
your
30-minute
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argument section. After brainstorming and making notes, but before you 2
2
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2
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start
typing,
ask
yourself:
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1. Have I clearly identified each of the Argument’s major problems? 2
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2. Can I support each point of my critique with at least one relevant 2
1
2
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example or counter-example?
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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3. Do I have in mind a clear, logical structure for presenting my 2
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2
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points of critique?
2
1
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Once you can confidently answer “Yes” to each question, start composing 2
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2
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1 your essay. Then, once you’re finished your draft, ask yourself the same 2
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2
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three questions, as well as this fourth one:
2
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4. Have I demonstrated good grammar, diction (word choice and
2
1
usage), and syntax (sentence structure)?
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2
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2
1
2
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Once
you
can
answer
“Yes”
to
all
four
questions,
rest
assured
that
you’ve
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2
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produced a solid, high-scoring Argument essay.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 95
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Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

www.petersons.com

X-Ref

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2
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2
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Writing
Style and Mechanics
2
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2
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The
testing
service
instructs
GMAT
readers
to
place
less
weight
on
writing
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
style and mechanics than on content and organization. But, this doesn’t 2
2
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2
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mean
that
the
first
two
factors
won’t
influence
the
reader
or
affect
your
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Analytical
Writing
Assessment
score.
Indeed,
they
might!
If
the
way
you
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 write interferes with the reader’s understanding of your ideas, then be 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
prepared
for
a
disappointing
score.
And,
in
any
event,
poor
writing
will
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
predispose
the
reader
to
award
a
lower
score,
regardless
of
your
ideas
or
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
how you organize them. To ensure yourself a high Analytical Writing 2
2
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2
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Assessment score, strive for writing that is:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
• Appropriate in tone and “voice” for graduate-level, academic
2
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2
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writing
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Varied in sentence length and structure (to add interest and variety
2
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2
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as
well
as
to
demonstrate
maturity
and
sophistication
in
writing
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2
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style)
2
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2
1
2
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Clear
and
concise
(easy
to
follow
and
direct
rather
than
wordy
or
2
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2
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verbose)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
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• Correct in grammar, mechanics, and usage (conforming to the
2
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2
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requirements of Standard Written English)
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Persuasive in style (using rhetorical devices effectively)
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 All of this is easier said than done, of course. Don’t worry if you’re not a 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
natural
when
it
comes
to
writing
effective
prose.
You
can
improve
your
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
writing for your exam, even if your time is short. Start by reading the 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
suggestions and guidelines in the following pages. But, keep in mind: 2
2
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1 improvement in writing comes mainly with practice. So you’ll also need to 2
2
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2
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apply what you learn here to the practice tests in Part III of this book.
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2
1
2
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This
section
covers
all
writing
aspects
listed
above
except
grammar
and
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
persuasiveness (the last item). The rules of grammar you reviewed in the 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Sentence Correction lessons of this book are the same ones you should 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 keep in mind as you compose and proofread your essays. And, if you 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
advance to the Next Level that’s where you’ll pick up ideas for developing 2
2
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a persuasive writing style.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Overall Tone and Voice
2
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1 In general, you should try to maintain a somewhat formal tone throughout 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 both your essays. An essay that comes across as conversational is probably 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a bit too informal for the GMAT. Here’s a brief list of additional 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
guidelines:
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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96
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Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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1. The overall tone should be critical, but not inflammatory or 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
emotional. Don’t try to overstate your position by using extreme 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or harsh language. Don’t attempt to elicit a visceral or emotional 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
response from the reader. Appeal instead to the reader’s intellect. 2
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2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2.
When
it
comes
to
your
main
points,
a
very
direct,
even
forceful
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
voice is perfectly acceptable. But don’t overdo it; when it comes 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to
the
details,
use
a
more
dispassionate
approach.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
3. Don’t try to make your point with “cutesy” or humorous 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
remarks. Avoid puns, double-meanings, plays on words, and 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
other forms of humor. Not that GMAT readers don’t have a sense 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of humor; it’s just that they leave it at the door when they go to 2
2
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work for ETS. (That sentence exhibits just the sort of “humor” 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you should avoid in your essays.)
2
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2
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2
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4.
Sarcasm
is
entirely
inappropriate
for
your
GMAT
essays.
Besides,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
reader
might
not
realize
that
you’re
being
sarcastic,
in
which
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
case your remark will only serve to confuse the reader.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Sentence Length and Variety
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To ensure a high Analytical Writing Assessment score, strive for sentences 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that are varied in length and structured in a manner that helps convey their
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
intended meaning, rather than obscuring or distorting it. Here are some 2
2
1
2
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specific warnings and suggestions:
2
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2
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• Sentences that vary in length make for a more interesting and
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
persuasive
essay.
For
rhetorical
emphasis,
try
using
an
abrupt
short
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sentence for a crucial point, either before or after longer sentences
2
1
2
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that
elucidate
that
point.
For
additional
variety,
use
a
semicolon
to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
transform two sentences involving the same train of thought into
2
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2
1
one;
and
use
the
word
“and”
to
connect
your
two
independent
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
clauses (just as in this sentence).
2
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2
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2
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• Sentences that use the same essential structure can help convey
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your line of reasoning to the reader. Try using the same structure
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
for a list of reasons or examples.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Sentences that essentially repeat (verbatim) throughout your essay
2
1
2
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suggest an immature, unsophisticated writing style. Try to avoid
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
using
so-called
“template”
sentences
over
and
over—especially
for
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
first
(or
last)
sentence
of
each
body
paragraph.
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1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 97
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

www.petersons.com

Alert!

98

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To speed up the writing process, some GMAT test-takers copy and paste 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
certain
phrases
and
sentences,
then
“tweak”
them
to
avoid
the
template
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 look. There’s nothing wrong per se with this strategy. But you’ll probably 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
find that it takes more time than it’s worth. You’re better off composing 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
each sentence from scratch.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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Clear
and
Concise
Writing
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 You’re more likely to score high on your GMAT essays with writing that is 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
clear
and
concise.
Frequent
occurrences
of
awkward,
wordy,
or
redundant
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
phrases
can
lower
your
Analytical
Writing
Assessment
score
by
a
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
notch—especially
if
these
problems
interfere
with
the
reader’s
understand2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ing
of
your
essay.
And,
although
punctuation
is
the
least
important
aspect
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of your GMAT essays, the habitual overuse, underuse, or misuse of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
commas can also contribute to lowering your score.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 Wordy and awkward phrases
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
With
enough
words,
anyone
can
make
the
point;
but
it
requires
skill
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
effort to make your point with concise phrases. As you proofread your 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
essay,
if
a
sentence
seems
clumsy
or
too
long,
check
for
a
wordy,
awkward
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
phrase that you can replace with a clearer, more concise one. Here are two 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
examples
(replace
italicize
phrases
with
the
ones
in
parentheses):
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
Discipline is crucial to the attainment of one’s objectives. (attain)
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To indicate the fact that they are in opposition to a bill, legislators 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sometimes engage in filibusters. (To show their)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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1 Look for the opportunity to change prepositional phrases into one-word 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
modifiers:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The employee with ambition . . .
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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The ambitious employee . . .
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You can often rework clauses with relative pronouns (that, who, which, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
etc.), omitting the pronoun:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The system, which is most efficient and accurate . . .
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
The most efficient and accurate system . . .
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In your Argument essay, you can replace wordy phrases that signal a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
premise with a single word:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
Wordier: the reason for, for the reason that, due to the fact that, in light 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of the fact that, on the grounds that
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
More
concise:
because,
since,
considering
that
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Redundant words and phrases
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
As you proofread your essays, check for words and phrases that express 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the same essential idea twice.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Both
unemployment
levels
as
well
as
interest
rates
can
affect
stock
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
prices.
(Replace
as
well
as
with
and,
or
omit
both.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
reason
science
is
being
blamed
for
threats
to
the
natural
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
environment
is
because
scientists
fail
to
see
that
technology
is
only
as
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
useful, or as harmful, as those who decide how to use it. (Replace 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
because with that, or omit the reason and is.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Using
too
few
(or
too
many)
commas
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Although
punctuation
is
the
least
important
aspect
of
your
GMAT
essays,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
too few or too many commas might interfere with the reader’s 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
understanding
of
a
sentence.
Too
few
commas
might
confuse
the
reader,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
while too many can unduly interrupt the sentence’s flow. Here’s the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 guideline: Use the minimum number of commas needed to ensure that the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reader
will
understand
your
point.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Your Facility with the English Language
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To ensure yourself top scores on your essays, strive to convince the readers 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that you possess a strong command of the English language—in other 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 words, that you can use the language correctly, clearly, and persuasively in 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
writing. To show the reader the requisite linguistic prowess, try to:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Demonstrate a solid vocabulary.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Use
proper
idioms
(especially
prepositional
phrases).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
• Use proper diction (word usage and choice).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Demonstrating a solid vocabulary
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
By
all
means,
show
the
reader
that
you
possess
the
vocabulary
of
a
broadly
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
educated
individual,
and
that
you
know
how
to
use
it.
But
keep
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
following caveats in mind:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Don’t overuse SAT-style words just to make an impression. Doing
2
1
so will only serve to warn the reader that you’re trying to mask
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
poor content with window dressing.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
• Avoid obscure or archaic words that few readers are likely to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
know.
The
readers
will
not
take
time
while
reading
essays
to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
consult
their
unabridged
dictionaries.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 99
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

www.petersons.com

Note

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Avoid technical terminology that only specialists and scholars in a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
specific field understand. GMAT readers are typically English2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
language
generalists
from
the
academic
fields
of
English
and
2
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2
1
Communications, not economic-policy analysts.
2
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2
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2
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Use
Latin
and
other
non-English
terms
very
sparingly.
After
all,
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
one of the primary skills being tested through the GMAT essays is
2
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2
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your
facility
with
the
English
language.
However,
the
occasional
2
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2
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use
of
Latin
terms
and
acronyms—for
example,
per
se,
de
facto,
ad
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2
1
2
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hoc,
and
especially
i.e.,
and
e.g.,—are
perfectly
acceptable.
2
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2
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Non-English
words
used
commonly
in
academic
writing—such
as
2
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2
1
vis-à-vis, caveat, and laissez faire—are acceptable as well. Again,
2
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2
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just don’t overdo it.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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The rules for Standard Written English require that Latin and other 2
2
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non-English terms be italicized (or underlined). However, the GMAT 2
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2
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1 word processor does not allow you to incorporate these attributes or 2
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special diacritical marks (as in vis-à-vis). So leave words such as these as 2
2
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is, but be sure they are terms that most educated people are familiar with. 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
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• Avoid colloquialisms (slang and vernacular). Otherwise, instead of
2
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2
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hitting
a
home
run
with
your
essay,
your
essay
will
turn
out
lousy,
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2
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and you’ll be out of luck and need to snake your way into a
2
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2
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bottom-barrel
B-school.
(Did
you
catch
the
five
colloquialisms
in
2
1
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2
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the preceding sentence?)
2
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2
1
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2
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2
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Your diction and use of idioms
2
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In evaluating your essays, GMAT readers also take into account your 2
2
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diction and use of idioms—again, especially when problems in these areas 2
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interfere with the readers’ understanding of your essays. Here you’ll learn 2
1 tips for avoiding, or at least minimizing, diction and idiom errors in 2
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2
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your essays.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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Diction
(word
choice
and
usage)
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Diction refers to word choice as well as to the manner in which a word is 2
2
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used. For instance, you might confuse one word with another because the 2
2
1
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two words look or sound similar. Or you may choose a word that doesn’t 2
2
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accurately convey your idea. Here’s an example of each type of diction error: 2
2
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2
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One
type
of
diction
error:
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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The
best
way
to
impede
employees
to
improve
their
productivity
is
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to allow them to determine for themselves the most efficient way of 2
2
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2
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performing
their
individual
job
tasks.
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2
100 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

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2
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(The word impede means “to hinder or hamper”; in the context of 2
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2
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this sentence impede should be replaced with a word such as impel, 2
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2
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which means “propel or drive.” The test-taker might have 2
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2
1
confused these two words.)
2
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2
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2
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Another
type
of
diction
error:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Unless
the
department
can
supply
a
comparative
cost-benefit
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2
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analysis
for
the
two
alternative
courses
of
action,
I
would
remain
2
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2
1
diffident about following the department’s recommendation.
2
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2
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(The word diffident means “reluctant, unwilling, or shy.” A more 2
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2
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appropriate word here would be ambivalent, which means 2
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2
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“undecided or indecisive.” Or perhaps the test-taker meant to use 2
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2
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the word indifferent (thereby committing the first type of diction 2
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2
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error).
2
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What appear to be diction errors might in many instances be mere clerical 2
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2
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1 (typing) errors. Accordingly, problems with your word choice and usage 2
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will adversely affect your scores only if they are obvious and occur 2
2
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2
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frequently.
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Idiom
2
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An idiom is a distinctive (idiosyncratic) phrase that is considered proper or 2
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2
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improper
based
upon
whether
it
has
become
acceptable
over
time—
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1 through repeated and common use. Here are two sentences, each of which
2
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2
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contain
an
idiomatic
prepositional
phrase
as
well
as
another
idiom.
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2
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Example (from a typical Issue essay):
2
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2
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The speaker’s contention flies in the face of the empirical evidence 2
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2
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and, in any event, runs contrary to common sense.
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Example (from a typical Argument essay):
2
1
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For all we know, last year was the only year in which the company 2
2
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2
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earned
a
profit,
in
which
case
the
vice
president’s
advice
might
turn
2
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2
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out
especially
poor
in
retrospect.
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Tips for avoiding diction and idiom errors
2
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1 Idioms don’t rely on any particular rules of grammar; hence, they are 2
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learned over time by experience. As you might suspect, the English 2
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2
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1 language contains more idiomatic expressions than you can shake a 2
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2
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1 thesaurus at. Moreover, the number of possible diction errors isn’t even 2
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limited to the number of entries in a comprehensive unabridged English 2
2
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2
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dictionary.
Although
it
is
impossible
in
these
pages
to
provide
an
adequate
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2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 101
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

www.petersons.com

Tip

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2
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diction or idiom review, here are some guidelines to keep you on the 2
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2
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straight and narrow when it comes to these aspects of your writing.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• If you’re the least bit unsure about the meaning of a word you
2
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2
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intend
to
use
in
your
essay,
don’t
use
it.
Why
risk
committing
a
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
diction
blunder
just
to
impress
the
reader
with
an
erudite
vocabu2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
lary? (And if you’re not sure what “erudite” means, either find out 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or
don’t
use
it
in
your
essays!)
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
• If a phrase sounds wrong to your ear, change it until it sounds
2
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2
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correct to you.
2
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2
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The
fewer
words
you
use,
the
less
likely
you’ll
commit
an
error
in
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2
1
2
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diction or idiom. So when in doubt, go with a relatively brief
2
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2
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phrase
that
you
still
think
conveys
your
point.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• If English is your second language, take heart: In evaluating and
2
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2
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scoring
your
essays,
GMAT
readers
take
into
account
diction
or
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2
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idiom problems only to the extent that those problems interfere
2
1
2
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with
a
reader’s
understanding
of
your
sentence’s
intended
mean2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ing.
So
as
long
as
your
writing
is
understandable
to
your
EFL
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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(English-as-first-language) friends, you don’t need to worry.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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If you have ample time before your exam, and you think your diction and 2
2
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2
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use
of
idioms
could
stand
considerable
improvement,
check
for
errors
in
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1 your practice essays by consulting a reputable guide to English usage—or 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a trusted professor, colleague, or acquaintance who has a firm grasp of 2
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2
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the conventions of Standard Written English.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
1
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
1
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2
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2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
102 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Take It to
the Next Level
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2
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2
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Welcome
to
the
Next
Level
of
Analytical
Writing
Assessment.
At
this
level,
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2
1
2
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you’ll learn advanced skills and techniques that will help you attain not 2
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2
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only a solid Analytical Writing Assessment score, but no less than a top 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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score of 6.
2
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1
What’s
New at the Next Level
2
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2
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For
the
Issue-Analysis
writing
task,
at
the
Next
Level
you’ll
learn
to:
2
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• Recognize and deal with the kinds of complexities inherent in
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2
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GMAT
Issues
but
that
many
test-takers
overlook.
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• Acknowledge and respond effectively to ostensible weaknesses of
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2
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your viewpoint on an Issue.
2
1
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2
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• Acknowledge and respond effectively to the merits of viewpoints
2
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2
1
that are contrary to yours.
2
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2
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For the Argument-Analysis writing task, at the Next Level you’ll learn to: 2
2
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2
1
2
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Recognize
each
of
the
typical
types
of
flaws
you’ll
find
in
GMAT
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Arguments.
2
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2
1
2
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• Compose a concise and effective one-paragraph analysis of each
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type
of
flaw.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Incorporate optional elements into your essay.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Here at the Next Level, you’ll also learn to develop an especially mature 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
persuasive
writing
style—one
that
will
leave
a
distinctively
positive
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 impression on any GMAT reader.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Issue
Analysis—“Qualifying” Your Viewpoint
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Most
GMAT
test-takers
will
essentially
accept
(agree
with)
or
reject
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(disagree with) the Issue statement that the test presents to them. And 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that’s okay. As long as you provide sound reasons and relevant examples 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
103

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in support of your position, you’ll earn a solid score on your essay. But 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you’re more likely to receive a top score of 6 if you demonstrate additional 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
insight into the issue at hand.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
One
way
to
accomplish
this
is
to
think
of
ways
that
you
can
qualify
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statement—or
your
viewpoint
on
it.
What
this
means
is
that
you
agree
(or
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 disagree) with the statement only in part or to a certain extent. In other 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
words,
you
neither
completely
agree
nor
completely
disagree
with
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statement.
Here
are
two
Issue
statements,
which
are
typical
of
the
ones
in
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
official
pool,
each
followed
by
a
viewpoint
that
expresses
how
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
test-taker
might
qualify
it:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Issue Statement 1:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“To
truly
succeed
in
life,
a
person
must
assert
his
or
her
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
individuality rather than conforming to the expectations of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
others.”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Viewpoint: Asserting individuality is important only to an extent. The 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
key
is
to
strike
the
optimal
balance
between
individuality
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conformity—a
balance
that
varies
depending
on
the
particular
activity
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or goal involved.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Issue Statement 2:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“The greatest responsibility of a leader—whether in politics, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
business, or the military—is to serve the interests of his or her 2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
followers.”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Viewpoint:
The
statement’s
accuracy
depends
on
the
category.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Legitimate political leadership must, by definition, serve the citizenry, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
but
the
same
can’t
be
said
for
either
business
or
military
leadership.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You might be wondering: By qualifying the statement, wouldn’t I appear 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 wishy-washy or indecisive? To the contrary! By “hedging your position” 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
on the Issue, you’ll impress the reader as thoughtful and insightful! Just be 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sure to persuade the reader (with sound reasons and relevant examples) 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that your qualified agreement (or disagreement) is justifiable.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
On your exam, look especially for any of the following types of qualifiable 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Issue
statements:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• A statement whose accuracy depends on various factors
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• A statement that might be generally true (or untrue) but that fails
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to account for significant exceptional cases
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• A statement that is unclear or vague in some way (in other words,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
statement’s
accuracy
depends
on
the
meaning
of
key
terms
or
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
how you interpret the statement as a whole)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
104 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

Take It to the Next Level

Tip

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• A statement that raises two distinct but related issues (one might
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
be a threshold issue, which the statement ignores but that should
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
be
addressed
before
analyzing
the
main
issue)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

A
statement
that
has
merit
but
overlooks
legitimate
competing
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
interests
or
contributing
factors—e.g.,
Issue
Statement
1
above
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

A
statement
that
lists,
or
otherwise
embraces,
two
or
more
distinct
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
categories—e.g.,
Issue
Statement
2
above
(different
categories
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
often lend differing degrees of support to the statement)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
you
have
time
before
exam
day,
select
one
or
two
dozen
Issue
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statements
from
the
official
pool.
Try
to
qualify
each
one
using
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
preceding list to help you brainstorm ideas. Jot down your viewpoint in
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one or two sentences that could serve as an introduction to an essay.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Issue
Analysis—Debating a Statement’s
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
“Pros”
and “Cons”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Earlier in the chapter, we suggested that you take a few minutes up front to 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
brainstorm and jot down ideas, listing points both for and against the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statement as you think of them. As an advanced test-taker, you should 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
think more consciously about “pros” and “cons” during this step. Think 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of this process as a debate, in which you formulate points and supporting 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 examples to bolster one side of the issue. Then respond with counterpoints 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and counterexamples. (You can even go a step further, to rebut a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 counterpoint or counterexample.)
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To organize the points of your debate, try creating two columns, one for 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
points
that
support
the
statement
(the
“pro”
column)
and
the
other
for
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
opposing
points
(the
“con”
column).
To
help
you
see
how
this
might
work,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 here’s what a test-taker’s notes might look like after a few minutes of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
brainstorming “pros” and “cons” of Issue Statement 3.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
Issue Statement 3:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“The best way to ensure protection and preservation of our natural 2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
environment is through government regulatory measures. We 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
cannot
rely
on
the
voluntary
efforts
of
individuals
and
private
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
businesses
to
achieve
these
objectives.”
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 105
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
PRO
CON
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
self-interest rules ind.
lawmakers pander
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
but
accountable
to
&
bus.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
e.g.
auto
emissions
voters
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
but
nations
too
enforcement problems
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
environ problems too widee.g. bus. relocate
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
spread
for
ind.
&
bus.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
bureaucratic
problems
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
but
nations
must
coop2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
e.g. delays
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
erate
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
e.g.
compromises
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
e.g. admin. expense
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
but must put up with
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problems to save
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
environ.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Notice that the test-taker supports each main point (indicated by a bullet) 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
with one or more examples (“e.g.”) and/or a counterpoint (“but”).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 Don’t worry if you don’t quite understand what each of the preceding 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
notes means. You’ll find out what the test-taker had in mind as you a read 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
complete essay based on these notes later in this chapter.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Issue
Analysis—Developing
Rhetorical
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
Arguments
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The word “rhetoric” refers to the art of persuasive argumentation. A 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rhetorically effective Issue essay does more than just itemize the best 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reasons and examples in support of one viewpoint on the issue. It also:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Acknowledges possible problems with the writer’s viewpoint, then
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
defends
that
viewpoint
by
responding
to
those
problems
head-on
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• Acknowledges at least one other position or viewpoint, then
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
challenges that viewpoint directly
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Hopefully,
as
you
take
notes
on
your
Issue
statement,
ideas
for
responding
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 to (or “countering”) other viewpoints, and to possible problems with your 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
own
viewpoint
will
occur
to
you
naturally.
But
if
you
do
get
stuck
for
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
106 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

X-Ref

www.petersons.com

..
..
..

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

Take It to the Next Level

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ideas, draw upon the five tried-and-true techniques discussed in the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
following pages to get your rhetorical ideas flowing.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To illustrate each technique, we’ll use examples based upon the following 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
two
Issue
statements,
the
first
of
which
you’ve
already
encountered
in
this
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
lesson:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Issue
Statement
3:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“The best way to ensure protection and preservation of our natural 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
environment is through government regulatory measures. We 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
cannot rely on the voluntary efforts of individuals and private 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
businesses to achieve these objectives.”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Issue
Statement
4:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“Large businesses should focus on teamwork as the primary means 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of
achieving
success.”
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Turn it Around (Look for the “Silver Lining”)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argue that an apparent weakness (or strength) is actually not, or perhaps 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
even just the opposite, if you view it from a different perspective. The 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
notes/outline for Issue Statement 3 provide a good example. The writer 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
might first cite evidence that lends apparent support to the opposing 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
position.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Admittedly, businesses often attempt to avoid compliance by conceal- 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
ing
their
activities,
or
calculate
the
cost
of
polluting,
in
terms
of
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
punishment, then budget in advance for anticipated penalties and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
openly
violate
the
law.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Then the writer might indicate how this point actually undermines that 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 position.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
.
.
.
However,
this
behavior
only
serves
to
underscore
the
need
for
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
government intervention, because, left unfettered, this type of behavior 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
would only exacerbate environmental problems.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1Trivialize it (“Explain it Away”)
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argue that an apparent weakness of your position (or strength of a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
different
position)
is
trivial,
minor,
or
insignificant.
Issue
Statement
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
provides
a
good
opportunity
to
use
this
technique.
The
writer
might
first
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 cite two examples that lend apparent support to those who might disagree
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
with the statement:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 107
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Detractors might cite the heavy manufacturing and natural-resource 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
industries, where the value of tangible assets—raw materials and 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
capital equipment—are often the most significant determinant of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
business success.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Then
the
writer
might
explain
away
these
examples.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
.
.
.
However,
such
industries
are
diminishing
in
significance
as
we
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
move
from
an
industrial
society
to
an
information
age.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Appeal
to
Broader
Considerations
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Argue that any minor problems with your position seem trivial in light of 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the broad, and serious, implications that the Issue raises. The notes/outline 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
for Issue Statement 3 provide a good example. The writer might first 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
acknowledge a certain problem with her position.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Delays
typically
associated
with
bureaucratic
regulation
can
thwart
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
the purpose of the regulations, because environmental problems can 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
quickly
become
grave
indeed.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Then the writer might point out the broad societal consideration that puts 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this minor drawback in its proper perspective.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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. . . But such delays seem trivial when we consider that many 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
environmental problems carry not only a real threat to public health 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
but also a potential threat to the very survival of the human species.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The “Lesser of Two Evils” Method
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argue
that
an
opposing
position
is
not
stronger,
but
perhaps
even
weaker,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in
a
certain
respect.
The
notes/outline
for
Issue
Statement
1
provides
a
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 good example. The writer might first acknowledge a certain weakness in 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
his position.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Delays typically associated with bureaucratic regulation can thwart 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the purpose of the regulations, because environmental problems can 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
quickly become grave indeed.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Then,
the
writer
would
point
out
an
even
greater
weakness
in
the
opposing
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
position.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
. . . However, given that unjustifiable reliance on volunteerism is the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
only
alternative,
government
regulation
seems
necessary.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
108 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

.
.

.
.
.

..
..
..

(

.
.
.

Take It to the Next Level

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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The “Greater of Two Virtues” Method
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argue
that
a
certain
merit
of
the
opposing
position
is
overshadowed
by
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one or more virtues of your position. Issue Statement 4 provides a good 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
opportunity to employ this rhetorical device. The writer might first admit 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that the opposing position is not without merit.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
No reasonable observer of the corporate business world could disagree 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that the leadership and vision of a company’s key executives is of great 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
importance to the organization’s success.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
writer
would
then
assert
that
the
contrary
position
has
even
greater
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
merit.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
.
.
.
Yet
chief
executives
of
our
most
successful
corporations
would
no
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
doubt admit that without the cooperative efforts of their subordinates, 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
their personal vision would never become reality.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
Issue
Analysis—How to Put It All Together
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Here again are the notes on Issue Statement 3. The test-taker has now 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbered his notes to indicate how he plans to organize his essay.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
PRO
CON
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
1 self-interest rules
12
lawmakers pander
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
but accountable
ind. & bus.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
e.g. auto emissions
to voters
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
but nations too
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
enforcement
problems
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
1
environ
problems
too
e.g.
bus.
relocate
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
widespread for
13 bureaucratic problems
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ind.
&
bus.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
e.g. delays
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
but nations must
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
e.g. compromises
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
cooperate
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
e.g. admin. expense
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
but
must
put
up
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
with problems to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
save
environ.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Notice that the test-taker has decided to begin and end the body of the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
essay with “pro” points, possibly because he weighed the evidence—the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
pros and cons—and thinks the “pro” points are the strongest arguments. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
He probably intends to agree, at least on balance, with the statement. Also 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 109
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
notice that he plans to discuss two distinct “cons” both in the same 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
paragraph (2), possibly because he doesn’t have enough to say about them 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to justify devoting an entire paragraph to either one alone.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Now
here’s
a
full
length
essay
on
Issue
Statement
3,
which
pulls
together
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
techniques
you
have
learned
about
up
to
this
point
in
the
lesson.
It
runs
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 about 430 words in length—a bit longer than average, but still realistic 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
given
a
30-minute
time
limit.
Certain
words
and
phrases
that
you
might
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
use
in
almost
any
Issue
essay
are
underlined—just
to
help
you
see
how
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ideas
flow
naturally
and
persuasively
from
one
to
the
next.
(The
test’s
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
built-in
word
processor
does
not
provide
for
underlining.)
Notice
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 following features of the essay, which together boost the essay to the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
highest score level:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

The
essay
expresses
overall
but
qualified
agreement
with
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statement, a thoughtful viewpoint that shows the writer recognizes 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the issue’s complexity.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
• The body of the essay begins and ends with “pro” arguments for
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rhetorical
impact.
The
“con”
arguments
are
positioned
between
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
them.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• For each of the “con” arguments (third and fourth paragraphs),
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the writer immediately responds with persuasive counterpoints.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Notice also that the writer tried to follow his outline, while at the same 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 time remaining flexible as new ideas for content or organization occurred 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to him. (Notice, for instance, that he repositioned certain points from the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
outline.) Also notice that the writer didn’t incorporate every single point 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
from his outline, perhaps because he simply didn’t have time in 30 minutes 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 to cover every point.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Essay (Issue Statement 3)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In asserting that government regulation is the “best” way to ensure 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
environmental protection, the speaker fails to acknowledge certain 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problems inherent with government regulation. Nevertheless, I 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
agree with the statement to the extent that exclusive reliance on 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
individual or business volunteerism would be naive and impru- 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
dent, especially considering the stakes involved.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Experience tells us that individuals and private corporations tend 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to
act
in
their
own
short-term
economic
and
political
interest,
not
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
on behalf of the environment or the public at large. For example, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
current
technology
makes
possible
the
complete
elimination
of
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
polluting
emissions
from
automobiles.
Nevertheless,
neither
auto2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
mobile manufacturers nor consumers are willing or able to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
110 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

Take It to the Next Level

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
voluntarily make the short-term sacrifices necessary to accomplish 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this goal. Only the government holds the regulatory and enforce- 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ment power to impose the necessary standards and to ensure that 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
we achieve these goals.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Admittedly,
government
penalties
do
not
guarantee
compliance
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
with environmental regulations. Businesses often attempt to avoid 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
compliance
by
concealing
their
activities,
lobbying
legislators
to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
modify
regulations,
or
moving
operations
to
jurisdictions
that
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
allow
their
environmentally
harmful
activities.
Others
calculate
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
cost
of
polluting,
in
terms
of
punishment,
then
budget
in
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
advance for anticipated penalties and openly violate the law. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
However, this behavior only serves to underscore the need for 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
government intervention, because left unfettered this type of 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
behavior would only exacerbate environmental problems.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
One
must
admit
as
well
that
government
regulation,
environmen12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tal or otherwise, is fraught with bureaucratic and enforcement 2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problems. Regulatory systems inherently call for legislative com- 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mittees,
investigations,
and
enforcement
agencies,
all
of
which
add
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to the tax burden on the citizens whom these regulations are 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
designed to protect. Also, delays typically associated with bureau- 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
cratic regulation can thwart the purpose of the regulations, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
because
environmental
problems
can
quickly
become
grave
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
indeed. However, given that unjustifiable reliance on volunteerism 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is the only alternative, government regulation seems necessary. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Moreover, such delays seem trivial when we consider that many 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
environmental problems carry not only a real threat to public 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
health but also a potential threat to the very survival of the human 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
species.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Finally, environmental issues inherently involve public health and 2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are far too pandemic in nature for individuals or even businesses to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
solve on their own. Many of the most egregious environmental 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
violations
traverse
state
and
sometimes
national
borders.
Individu12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
als and businesses have neither the power nor the resources to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
address these widespread hazards.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In
the
final
analysis,
only
the
authority
and
scope
of
power
that
a
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
government possesses can ensure the attainment of agreed-upon
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
environmental goals. Since individuals are unable and businesses 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are by nature unwilling to assume this responsibility, government 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
must do so.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 111
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

www.petersons.com

Note

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Issue
Analysis—Rhetorical Effectiveness and 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Your
Essay’s Structure
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
How
you
arrange
your
ideas
into
paragraphs
can
make
a
big
difference
in
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your essay’s persuasiveness. Chapter 2 introduced the basic strategy of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
starting the body of your essay with your best argument and finishing it 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 with your second-best argument, sandwiching your other arguments 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
between
these
two.
And,
you
just
saw
in
the
preceding
essay
how
you
can
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
adapt
this
strategy
to
a
two-column
list
of
“pros”
and
“cons”—
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sandwiching
the
“cons”
in
between
the
“pros.”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
As
an
advanced
test-taker,
you
should
consider
alternative
structures
as
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
well.
Although
the
ways
in
which
you
can
organize
an
Issue
essay
are
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
limitless,
five
basic
structures
cover
most
situations.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In the following templates, the term “counterpoint” refers to a reason or 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
example
supporting
a
contrary
position,
and
“rebuttal”
refers
to
a
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 response (reason or example) to a counterpoint (and in further support of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
other
position).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Try this first structure if your agreement or disagreement with the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statement
is
nearly
unqualified.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1st Paragraph: Main reason for your position → counterpoint → 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
rebuttal
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2nd Paragraph: Second reason for your position → counterpoint → 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rebuttal
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3rd Paragraph: Third reason for your position → counterpoint → 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rebuttal
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 You can use the same structure to discuss two or more examples (or 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
distinct areas) that lend support to your position:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1st Paragraph: One example (or area) that supports your position → 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
counterpoint → rebuttal
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2nd Paragraph: Another example (or area) that supports your position 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

counterpoint

rebuttal
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3rd Paragraph: Another example (or area) that supports your position 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

counterpoint

rebuttal
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Try this next structure to acknowledge one strong argument against your 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
position, but where you have more reasons or examples in support of your 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
position.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
112 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

Take It to the Next Level

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1st Paragraph: One reason (and/or example) in support of your 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
position
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2nd Paragraph: Another reason (and/or example) in support of your 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
position
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3rd
Paragraph:
Another
reason
(and/or
example)
in
support
of
your
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
position
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Final Paragraph: Chief counter-argument → rebuttal
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Try this next structure to acknowledge one or more strong arguments 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
against your position, but where you have better reasons and/or examples 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 in support of your position.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1st
Paragraph:
Chief
counter-argument
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Next Paragraph: Another counter-argument
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Next Paragraph: One reason and/or example in support of your
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
position
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Next
Paragraph:
Another
reason
and/or
example
in
support
of
your
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
position
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If the arguments for and against the statement’s position are equally strong 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(e.g., if it all depends on the area under consideration), try the following 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
structure
for
a
balanced
essay:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1st Paragraph (or 1st and 2nd Paragraphs): Area(s) or examples 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
supporting one position
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2nd Paragraph (or 3rd and 4th Paragraphs): Area(s) or examples 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
supporting a contrary position
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Finally,
try
the
following
structure
to
address
two
or
more
reasons
in
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 support of an opposing position, each one in turn:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1st Paragraph (or 1st and 2nd Paragraphs): Counter-argument → 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rebuttal
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2nd Paragraph (or 3rd and 4th Paragraphs): Counter-argument → 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rebuttal
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Next Paragraph: Counter-argument → rebuttal
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 113
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

Alert!

www.petersons.com

Alert!

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You
need
not
adhere
strictly
to
one
of
these
structures
in
order
to
write
an
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effective Issue essay. Try to be flexible. The particular ideas you’ve jotted 2
2
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down might come together best in some other, idiosyncratic format. In 2
2
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2
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short, let your ideas drive your essay’s structure, not vice versa.
2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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Argument
Analysis—Common
Reasoning
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
Flaws
and How to Handle Them
2
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2
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In this section, you’ll turn your attention from the Issue-Analysis writing 2
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2
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task to the Argument-Analysis task. The test-maker intentionally incorpo- 2
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rates into each Argument numerous reasoning flaws that render the 2
2
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2
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Argument
vulnerable
to
criticism.
In
a
typical
Argument,
you
can
find
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
three or four distinct areas for critique. The following are the most 2
2
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2
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common
types
of
problems
with
GMAT
Arguments
(memorize
this
list
to
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
help you brainstorm and ferret out flaws in any GMAT Argument):
2
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2
1
2
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Confusing
cause-and-effect
with
mere
correlation
or
time
sequence
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Drawing a weak analogy between two things
2
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2
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• Relying on a potentially unrepresentative statistical sample
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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• Relying on a potentially unreliable survey or poll
2
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• Assuming that a certain condition is necessary and/or sufficient for 2
2
1
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2
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a certain outcome
2
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2
1
2
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• Assuming that characteristics of a group apply to each group
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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member (or vice-versa)
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2
1
• Assuming that all things remain unchanged over time
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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• Assuming that two courses of action are mutually exclusive
2
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2
1
2
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Relying
on
undefined,
vague,
or
ambiguous
terms
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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In the following pages, you’ll learn more about each type of flaw, and 2
2
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2
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you’ll learn how to address each one in your Argument-Analysis essay.
2
1
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2
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1 The sample Arguments you’ll read in this section are each designed to 2
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2
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focus on one particular reasoning flaw. Keep in mind: Most Arguments in 2
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2
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the official pool are a bit longer and more involved.
2
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2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
114 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

Take It to the Next Level

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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Confusing Cause-and-Effect with Mere Correlation 2
2
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2
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or
Time
Sequence
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Many GMAT Arguments rely on the claim that certain events cause other 2
2
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2
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certain
events.
A
cause-and-effect
claim
might
be
based
on:
2
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2
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1. A significant correlation between the occurrence of two phenom- 2
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2
1
2
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ena (both phenomena generally occur together)
2
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2
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2.
A
temporal
relationship
between
the
two
(one
event
occurred
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
after another)
2
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2
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2
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A
significant
correlation
or
a
temporal
relationship
between
two
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 phenomena is one indication of a cause-and-effect relationship between 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
them.
However,
neither
in
itself
suffices
to
prove
such
a
relationship.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Unless
the
Argument
also
considers
and
eliminates
all
other
plausible
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
causes of the presumed “result” (by the way, it won’t), the Argument is 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
vulnerable to criticism. To show the reader you understand this sort of 2
2
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2
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1 false-cause problem, you need to accomplish all three of the following 2
2
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tasks:
2
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2
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1.
Identify
the
false-cause
problem
(e.g.,
as
one
of
the
Argument’s
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
crucial assumptions).
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. Elucidate by providing at least one or two examples of other 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
possible causes.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
3. Explain how the false-cause problem undermines the Argument. 2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Here’s an Argument that confuses causation with mere temporal sequence, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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followed by a succinct and effective critique.
2
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2
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Argument:
2
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2
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2
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The
following
appeared
in
the
editorial
section
of
a
newspaper:
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1
“Two years ago State X enacted a law prohibiting environmental 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
emissions of certain nitrocarbon byproducts, on the basis that 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
these
byproducts
have
been
shown
to
cause
Urkin’s
disease
in
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
humans. Last year fewer State X residents reported symptoms of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Urkin’s disease than in any prior year. Since the law is clearly 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
effective in preventing the disease, in the interest of public health 2
2
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2
this state should adopt a similar law.”
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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Response:
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
The editorial infers that State X’s new law is responsible for the 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
apparent decline in the incidence of Urkin’s disease (UD) symp- 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
toms.
However,
the
editorial’s
author
ignores
other
possible
causes
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
of the decline—for example, a new UD cure or new treatment for 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 115
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

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2
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UD symptoms. Without eliminating alternative explanations such 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
as these, the author cannot justify either the inference or the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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additional assertion that a similar law would be similarly effective 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
in the author’s state.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Drawing
a
Weak
Analogy
Between
Two
Things
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A
GMAT
Argument
might
draw
a
conclusion
about
one
thing
(perhaps
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 city, school, or company) on the basis of an observation about a similar 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
thing.
However,
in
doing
so,
the
Argument
assumes
that
because
the
two
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
things
are
similar
in
certain
respects,
they
are
similar
in
all
respects,
at
least
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
as far as the Argument is concerned. Unless the Argument provides 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sufficient evidence to substantiate this assumption (by the way, it won’t), 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the Argument is vulnerable to criticism. The Argument cannot rely on 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
these claims to support its recommendation.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To
show
the
reader
you
understand
the
weak-analogy
problem,
you
need
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 to accomplish all three of the following tasks:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1.
Identify
the
analogy
(e.g.,
as
one
of
the
Argument’s
crucial
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
assumptions).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. Elucidate by providing at least one or two significant ways in 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
which the two things might differ.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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3. Explain how those differences, which render the analogy weak, 2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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undermine the Argument’s conclusion.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Here’s
an
Argument
that
contains
a
questionable
analogy,
followed
by
an
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
effective 3-sentence analysis.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argument:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The following was part of a speech made by the principal of Valley 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
High School:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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“Every year Dunston High School wins the school district’s 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
student Math SuperBowl competition. The average salary of 2
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1
teachers at Dunston is greater than at any other school in the 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
district.
Hence
in
order
for
Valley
High
students
to
improve
their
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
scores
on
the
state’s
standardized
achievement
exams,
Valley
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
should begin awarding bonuses to Valley teachers whenever Valley 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
defeats
Dunston
in
the
Math
SuperBowl.”
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
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Response:
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The principal’s recommendation relies on what might be a poor 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
analogy between Dunston and Valley. Valley teachers might be less 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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responsive than Dunston teachers when it comes to monetary 2
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2
116 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
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2
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incentives, or Valley students might be less gifted than Dunston 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
students when it comes to math. In short, what might have helped 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Dunston perform well at the Math SuperBowl would not 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
necessarily help Valley perform better either at the SuperBowl or 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
on the state exams.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Some GMAT Arguments actually rest on more than one weak analogy.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Earlier
in
the
chapter,
you
saw
a
simulated
example—Argument
1
(page
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 85) relied on two distinct analogies. The second and fourth body
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
paragraphs
of
the
Argument’s
response
(page
91)
addressed
each
one,
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
respectively.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Relying
on
a
Potentially
Unrepresentative
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Statistical Sample
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A GMAT Argument might cite statistical evidence from a study, survey, or
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
poll involving a “sample” group, then draw a conclusion about a larger 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 group or population which the sample supposedly represents. But in order 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
for
a
statistical
sample
to
accurately
reflect
a
larger
population,
the
sample
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
must meet two requirements:
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1. The sample must be significant in size (number) as a portion of 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the overall population.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. The sample must be representative of the overall population in 2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
terms of relevant characteristics.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Arguments that cite statistics from studies, surveys, and polls often fail to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
establish either of these two requirements. Of course this failure is by 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
design of the test-maker, who is inviting you to call into question the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reliability of the evidence. To show the reader you understand this 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statistical problem, you need to accomplish all three of the following tasks: 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1.
Identify
the
problem
(e.g.,
as
one
of
the
Argument’s
crucial
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
assumptions).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. Elucidate by providing at least one or two respects in which key
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
characteristics of a sample group might differ from those of the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
larger population.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
3. Explain how those differences would undermine the Argument’s 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conclusion.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Here’s
an
Argument
that
relies
on
two
potentially
unrepresentative
sample
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 groups: (1) new graduates from a certain state’s undergraduate programs
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
(2)
new
graduates
from
the
state’s
graduate-level
programs.
The
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 response that follows it provides a brief but effective critique.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 117
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Take It to the Next Level

X-Ref

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argument:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
following
was
part
of
an
article
appearing
in
a
national
magazine:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“Our nation’s new college graduates will have better success 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
obtaining
jobs
if
they
do
not
pursue
advanced
degrees
after
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
graduation.
After
all,
more
than
ninety
percent
of
State
X’s
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
undergraduate
students
are
employed
full-time
within
one
year
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
after
they
graduate,
while
less
than
half
of
State
X’s
graduate-level
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
students find employment within one year after receiving their 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
graduate degrees.”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Response:
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
argument
fails
to
consider
that
State
X’s
new
graduates
might
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
not
be
representative
of
the
nation’s
as
a
whole,
especially
if
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
former group constitutes only a small percentage of the latter 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
group.
If
it
turns
out,
for
example,
that
State
X’s
undergraduate
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
students are less motivated than the nation’s average college 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
student
to
pursue
graduate-level
study,
then
the
argument’s
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
recommendation
for
all
undergraduate
students
would
be
unwar2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ranted.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Relying on Tainted Results from a Survey or Poll
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 As you just learned, a GMAT Argument might draw some conclusion 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
involving a group based on statistical data about an insufficient or 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 unrepresentative sample. However, this is not the only potential problem 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
with statistical data. The process of collecting the data (i.e., the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
methodology) might be flawed in a way that calls into question the quality 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of
the
data,
rendering
the
data
“tainted”
and
therefore
unreliable
for
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
purpose of drawing any conclusions. In order for survey or poll results to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 be reliable in quality:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• The survey or poll responses must be credible (truthful and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
accurate). If respondents have reason to provide incomplete or
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
false responses, the results are tainted (and therefore unreliable).
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• The method of collecting the data must be unbiased. If responses
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are
not
mandatory,
or
if
the
survey’s
form
predisposes
subjects
to
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
respond in certain ways, then the results are tainted (and therefore
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
unreliable).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
• To show the reader that you recognize and understand this
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statistical
problem,
you
need
to
accomplish
all
three
of
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
following tasks:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
118 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

Chapter 3: Analytical Writing Assessment

Take It to the Next Level

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1. Identify the problem (e.g., as one of the Argument’s crucial 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
assumptions).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. Elucidate by providing at least one or two reasons, based on 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
Argument’s
information,
why
the
statistical
data
might
be
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tainted
(and
therefore
unreliable).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3.
Explain
how
the
potentially
tainted
data
might
undermine
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
Argument’s
conclusion.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The following Argument relies on a survey that poses a potential bias as 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
well as a credibility problem. The response contains all three elements 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
required to address each problem, in a single paragraph.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argument:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The following appeared in a memo from the director of human 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
resources
at
Webco:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
“Among Webco employees participating in our department’s most
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
recent survey, about half indicated that they are happy with our 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
current four-day work week. These survey results show that the 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
most effective way to improve overall productivity at Webco is to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
allow each employee to choose for himself or herself either a 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
four-day or five-day work week.”
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Response:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The survey methodology might be problematic in two respects. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
First,
we
are
not
informed
whether
the
survey
required
that
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
respondents choose their work week preference between alterna- 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tives.
If
it
did,
then
the
results
might
distort
the
preferences
of
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
respondents, who might very well prefer a work schedule choice 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
not provided for in the survey. Secondly, we are not informed 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
whether survey responses were anonymous, or even confidential. If 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
they were not, then respondents might have provided responses 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that they believed their superiors would approve of, regardless of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
whether the responses were truthful. In either event, the survey 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
results would be unreliable for the purpose of drawing any 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conclusions about Webco employee preferences, let alone about 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
how to improve overall productivity at Webco.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 119
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Part II: Analytical Writing Assessment

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Assuming That a Certain Condition is Necessary
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and/or
Sufficient
for
a
Certain
Outcome
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A GMAT Argument might recommend a certain course of action, based on 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one
or
both
of
the
following
claims:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1. The course of action is necessary to achieve a desired result.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. The course of action is sufficient to achieve the desired result.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
With
respect
to
claim
1,
the
Argument
must
provide
evidence
that
no
other
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
means
of
achieving
the
same
result
are
available
(by
the
way,
it
won’t).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
With
respect
to
claim
2,
the
Argument
must
provide
strong
evidence
that
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 the proposed course of action by itself would be sufficient to bring about 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
desired
result
(by
the
way,
it
won’t).
Lacking
this
sort
of
evidence,
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Argument
cannot
rely
on
these
claims
to
support
its
recommendation.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To show the reader you understand necessary-condition and sufficient- 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
condition problems, you need to accomplish all three of the following 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 tasks:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1.
Identify
the
problem
(e.g.,
as
one
of
the
Argument’s
crucial
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2