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The surface area of single entity with stoichiometry Na8[GaSiO4]6(ClO4)2 was fou

nd to be ...... The Canning handbook surface finishing technology. (23rd ed.).


Bright chromium

Chromium sulphate
Chromium chloride
Boric acid

- 220-260g/l
- 40-60g/l
- 30-40g/l

Dull chromium

Chromium chloride
Boric acid
Ammonium sulphate

- 19g/l
- 10g/l
- 14g/l

Sulphamate chromium

Chromium sulphamate
Chromium chloride
Boric acid

- 470g/l
- 5g/l
- 35g/l

Chemical preparation
The PP tank after being washed out, should be filled to approximately to two thi
rd of its capacity with clean distilled water. The temperature of the water is r
aised to approximately 600 C and the required weights of the respective chemical
s slowly added, the mixture being agitated and well stirred until all the chemic
als have dissolved. When dissolution is complete, the bath can be diluted with c
lean distilled water to the final required volume.
Allow the insoluble particles to settle down at the bottom of the tank. After th
at, pour the mixed solution from the first tank to the second tank through a con
ical shaped funnel. Filter the solution from the second tank to the chromium pla
ting tank using filter machine. Heat the solution to a temperature of 600 C usin
g electric immersion silica heater. The recommended pH value of each solution is
given below.
Sl.No Type of solution
Recommended pH range
Bright chromium
4.5 to 4.8
Dull chromium 3.5 to 4.5
Chromium Sulphamate
4.0 to 4.5
Adjust the pH value of the solution by adding chromium hydroxide slurry whilst t
he solution is agitated until the pH is raised to the recommended value or just
above. The chromium hydroxide slurry is prepared by adding 10% sodium hydroxide
solution to an equal volume of chromium solution. Add hydrogen peroxide solution
or potassium permanganate solution previously dissolved in water 0.5g/L to the
Safety measures for preparing chromium plating solutions
Care should be taken while handling acids and other corrosive chemicals. Wear gl
oves , aprons, boots and goggles while preparing solutions. Any corrosive soluti
on splashed on top the skin should be immediately washed off with plenty of wate