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December 15, 2009 [MUSLIM PRAYER GUIDE PART I & II]

Islam, New York, USA


Muslim Prayer
Partby:I & II
Akm Fakhrul

2009
Guide
Compiled and Edited

This is the book


just
Easy and Popular
Guide

for the New


Muslims,
Youths of all Ages
Al-Qur'an Research Foundation-
USA [AQRF-USA]
and for the
161 Park Ave # 1
Brooklyn, NY 11205 Entire Muslim
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December 15, 2009 [MUSLIM PRAYER GUIDE PART I & II]

Muslim Prayer Guide


Part I & II
Allah bless on the Scholars:
Allama Ustadh Sayyid Saabiq Al-Azhari
Allama Syyid Abul A’la Mawdudi
Dr. Suhaib Hasan
Sheik Abdullah Ibn Jibreen
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
Ash-Shaikh 'Abdul-'Azeez bin 'Abdullaah bin Baaz
Muhammad Al-Shareef, LL.B. Shari’ah & Other
Scholars

Allah is the Creator


Muhammad is the Messenger
Salah differentiate the Muslim and Kaafir
Compiled and Edited by:
Akm Fakhrul Islam
New York, USA

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December 15, 2009 [MUSLIM PRAYER GUIDE PART I & II]

Al-Qur'an Research Foundation-USA[AQRF-USA]

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
All Praises and Thanks be to Allah,
the Lord of Al-Aa'lamin (all that exists) and
Peace and Blessings be upon
the Prophet Muhammad(saws),
his family and all his companions.
I would like to give my gratitude to all of the brothers and sisters
who volunteered their time, effort, and funds to put together this
book that the entire human being will be benefitted from.
I ask Allah Subhanahu wa ta Aa'la, the Exalted,
the Most Merciful to accept this efforts as an ongoing charity.
May Allah give us sincerity in all of our sayings and actions and
reward us all with the best in this world and the Hereafter.
Ameen! Ameen!! Summa Ameen!!!
Akm Fakhrul Islam, New York, USA

Requesting Donations
for this Book: US$ 20.00 only
for "The Muslim Ummah of North America(MUNA)"
in the following Address by check or money order:
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Tel: 718-277-7900, Fax: 718-277-7901
www.muslimummah.net
Compiled and Edited by:
Akm Fakhrul Islam, New York, USA
Al-Qur'an Research Foundation-USA[AQRF-USA]
email: islamakm@yahoo.com
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December 15, 2009 [MUSLIM PRAYER GUIDE PART I & II]

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Important Notes on
Fiqh-us-Sunnah
by: Allama Ustadh Sayyid Saabiq Al-Azhari
[From which I have taken lot of information]

Fiqh-us-Sunnah was written by Sayyid Saabiq (1915-2000 C.E.), may Allaah have mercy
on him. The following information is taken from his obituary in the March 2, 2000 Daily
News of IANA Radionet.

"...Sabiq's most famous book was the three-volume Fiqh As-Sunnah, which in the first
writing of its kind brought the four major madhahib together, in a comprehensive
treatment of Fiqh matters. The book has since been translated into dozens of languages
and is used by Muslims throughout the world. Sabiq wrote Fiqh As-Sunnah in the 1940s
when he was only 30 years old.

He wrote the book at the request of Ustadh Hassan al-Banna, the founder of the
Muslim Brotherhood. Every Fiqh ruling in the book goes back to the Qur'an and Sunnah
and Sabiq dealt with all four madhahib objectively, with no preferential treatment to any.
Sabiq also wrote the book, "Islamic Theology," along the same lines: simplification and
avoidance of overphilosophization or getting involved in disputes on arcane topics.
Besides his academic work, Sabiq was a noted Islamic activist. After writing Fiqh As-
Sunnah, Sabiq spent some time fighting along with the Mujahideen in Palestine in the
late 1940's and he later visited most countries in the world and lectured in their mosques.
He was the first graduate of Azhar to visit the Soviet Union and check on the conditions
of Muslims there.

Sabiq was born in 1915 in the Egyptian village, Istanha. He received his education at Al-
Azhar and after his graduation worked as the Director of Mosques and Islamic Education
in the Egyptian Islamic Affairs Ministry.

He also taught at Al-Azhar, and later moved to Saudi Arabia, where he headed the Shari'a
Graduate Studies Department in Um Al-Qura University.

After moving back to Egypt, he spent years teaching students in a Mosque in Cairo..."
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In the early 1990's, Fiqh-us-Sunnah was translated into English by a group of people
commissioned by American Trust Publications.
The translators included:

1. Muhammad Sa'eed Dabas,

2. Jamal al-Din M. Zarabozo,

3. Abdul-Majid Khokhar, and

4. M. S. Kayani.

This group published Fiqh-us-Sunnah in five volumes which form the basis for this
online edition.

MSA-USC(University of South California) obtained the "raw" electronic data from the
Al Muhaddith project, and converted this data into Web-ready format.

A similar effort may be found at Islamic Resources Repository (IRR) by the DEED group
at the International Islamic University, Malaysia.

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The Holy Ka'bah is the Qibla for the Muslims allover the world.
The Muslims have to make Salah(Prayer) towards the direction of the Ka'bah.

Muslim Prayer Guide Part I


Contents
Sl.No. Subjects Page
01.00.00: Why We Pray
01.01.00: What is Salah?
01.02.00: How Salah became a binding duty?
01.03.00: The Importance of Prayer(Salah)
01.04.00: Real Object of Prayer(Salah)
01.05.00: Salah is the proof of our faith
in Allah and Islam

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01.06.00: Establish Salah on yourself


and on the memebers of your family
02.00.00: Prayer(Salah): Next to Shahadah,
the most important Pillar of Islam
02.01.00: Allah explains how to pray
during fear, safety or wartime
02.02.00: Allah also strongly warns those who
tamper with their prayers or are heedless
02.03.00: Prayer is one of the most important acts in Islam
02.04.00: One Who Ignores His Prayers
02.05.00: Who Must Pray
02.06.00: The Number of Obligatory Prayers
02.07.00: The Times of the(Salah) Prayers
02.08.01: The Time of the Morning Prayer (Fajr)
02.08.02: The Time for the Noon Prayer (Zhuhr)
02.08.03: The Time for the Afternoon Prayer ('Asr)
02.08.04: The Time for the Sunset Prayer (Maghrib)
03.00.00: Daily Five Obligatory Prayers
is the Basic duties of a Muslim
04.00.00: Salatul Jumu'ah (the Friday Prayer)
04.01.00: Performing One Rak'ah
During the Time of Prayer
04.02.00: Sleeping Through or Forgetting the Prayer
04.03.00: The Times in Which the Prayers are Prohibited

Contents
Sl.No. Subjects Page
04.04.00: Opinions of the Jurists Concerning
Prayer After the Morning and Night Prayers
05.00.00: About Praying at Sunrise, Sunset
and While the Sun is at its Meridian
06.00.00: Voluntary Prayer at Dawn Before the Morning Prayer
06.01.00: Voluntary Prayers while
the Iqamah Is Being Made
07.00.00: Prerequisites of the Prayer

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08.00.00: Salatul Jumu'ah and


Salatul-E'id Occurring on the same day
08.01.00: Eid and Jumu'ah Coinciding on the Same Day
08.02.00: What to do when Eid Coincides with Friday
08.03.00: The following Hadiths regarding
Coinsidence of Eid and Jumu'ah Prayer
08.04.00: Muslim jurists differed on this issue
and have four opinions:
09.00.00: Eid prayers (Salatul E'idain)
10.00.00: Every Muslim must be Cautious about the
following rules regarding Salah(Prayer)
11.00.00: Actions which invalidate the Salah
12.00.00: Making (Qada') for missed Salah
13.00.00 : The prayer of a person who is ill (Salatul Marid)
15.00.00: The Prayer of a Traveler
16.00.00: Combining Two Prayers
17.00.00: Preparation to Perform Salah
17.01.00: Purification
17.02.00: How to Purify Things
17.03.00: Minor Hadath and Major Hadath
18.00.00 : How to Perform Wudhu(Ablution) Method I

Contents
Sl.No. Subjects Page
18.01.00: Wudu (Ablution): How to Perform Method II
18.02.00: Ablution (Wudu'): What the Qur'an and Sunnah Say
18.03.00: Matters which Invalidate the Wudhu
18.04.00: Wudu: What Invalidates It
18.05.00: Wudu: What Doesn't Invalidate It

19.00.00: At-Tayammum
19.01.00: Instances when At-Tayammum is Permitted

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19.02.00: How to Perform At-Tayammum


19.03.00: Tayammum, the dry ablution

20.00.00: Ghusl (Taking shower)


20.01.00: Occasions when Ghusl(Taking Shower)
is Required as an obligatory Act
20.02.00:Occasions for which Ghusl is preferred
20.03.00: Ghusl, menstruating women
20.04.00: Occasions for which Ghusl is preferred
20.05.00: How to Perform Ghusl(Showering)

21.00.00: Adhan (call to prayer)


21.01.00: Dua After Adhan

22.00.00: Iqamah

23.00.00: Summary of the Lessons, Rewards and Benefits of Prayer


24.00.00: Significance of Physical Postures in Prayer
25.00.00: The Fourth Major Sin Not Praying
26.00.00: Has the Prayer Lost its Power?
27.00.00: Go back and Pray, for you have not Prayed!
28.00.00: Why are we not able to wake up for Fajr?
29.00.00: Why does man need to Pray?
30.00.00: Some important matters about Salah-I
31.00.00: Istikharah

Contents
Sl.No. Subjects Page
32.00.00: Straightening The Rows and
Joining The Feet In Congregational Prayer
33.00.00: Sutrah
34.00.00: Important Masala regarding Salah(Prayer)-II
35.00.00: Congregational Prayer and its Excellence
35.01.00: Some Questions on Congregational Prayer
35.02.00: Jama'ah (Congregation)a great benefits do occur

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35.03.00: Women and Congregational Prayers


35.04.00: Women's Congregational Prayer in the Hanafi School
36.00.00: Salat Al-Jama'ah Obligatory or Sunnah
36.01.00: Evidence of Those Saying It Is Obligatory
36.02.00: Evidence of Those Saying It Is Sunnah
And A Discussion Of That Evidence
37.00.00: Difference in Salah between man and women
37.01.00: The Salah as offered by women differs
from that of men in the following aspects.
38.00.00: Twenty One Hadith from Sahih Al-Bukhari
Regarding Adhan and Salah

Muslim Prayer Guide Part II


39.00.00: The Right Way to Pray Method I
40.00.00: How to Perform Salaat,
the Islamic Ritual Prayer Method II
41.00.00: Prayer Guide Method III
42.00.00: How to Pray Salat? Method IV
43.00.00: How to Pray In Islam
and what to say in Salah(Prayer) Method V
44.00.00: How a New MuslimPrayes
[By: Muslimconverts.com] Method VI
45.00.00: The Salah [muttaqun.com] Method VII

In the Name of Allah The Compassionate, The Merciful

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Muslim Prayer guide Part I


Islamic Ritual Prayer
01.00.00
Why We Pray Salah?
Prayy or Ṣalāt (Arabic

: ‫ ;صلة‬pl. ṣalawāt) is the name given to the formal prayer of Islam.

The prayer is one of the obligatory rites of the religion, to be performed five times a day
by a practising Muslim. Its supreme importance for Muslims is indicated by its status as
one of the Five Pillars.

The Two Sahihs (Bukhari and Muslim) recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger
of Allah said:

‫لُم‬
َ‫س‬ْ‫ل‬
ِْ ‫عَلى ا‬ َ ‫س‬
ٍ ‫خْم‬َ : ‫شَهاَدِة‬
َ ‫نا‬ْ ‫ل َأ‬َ ‫ل ِإلَه‬ّ ‫ل ِإ‬
ُ ‫نا‬
ّ ‫حّمًدا َوَأ‬
َ ‫ل ُم‬ُ ‫سو‬ُ ‫ َر‬،‫ل‬ ِ
َ ‫ُبِن‬
‫ي‬
‫ َوِإَقاِم‬،‫لِة‬
َ‫ص‬ّ ‫ َوِإيَتاِء ال‬،‫صْوِم الّزَكاِة‬َ ‫ َو‬،‫ن‬ َ ‫ضا‬ َ ‫ج َرَم‬ّ‫ح‬ َ ‫اْلَبْيت َو‬
Islam is built upon five (pillars): Testifying that there is no deity worthy of worship
except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishing the prayer,
giving Zakat, fasting Ramadan and Hajj to the House.

In the Arabic language, the basic meaning of Salah is supplication.

The Muslim observes his Prayers to show devotion and obedience to Allah, because
Prayer is one of the greatest forms of worship that Allah likes His servants to offer.

To thank Him for creating us in the best form of creation.

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Because He has guided us to the Deen (Complete way of Life, Religion) of Islam.
Prayer is a chance for a Muslim to express to his Lord whatever he feels and needs
through Divine Words of Allah i.e. the Qur'an.

To remember his Lord and not forget His commands amid life's pre-occupations.
To ask Allah, The Exalted, to give him aid and continuous guidance in the darkness of
life.

To strengthen love and fear of Allah in the Muslim's heart so that he might remain
sticking to the Right Path of Islam, and its laws and manners.
Gaining good rewards from Allah and having our sins forgiven.

To rejoice when he finds himself on the Last Day pleased with the great reward allotted
to him in the Gardens of Bliss.

Prayer is a unique training and developmental program which, if well and devotedly
performed, can achieve for Muslims many valuable physical, ethical and spiritual gains
such as cleanliness, health, order, punctuality, brotherhood, equality, social consolidation,
… etc.

Prophet Mohammad(saws)
is the Last and Final Messenger

01.01.00
What is Salah?

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Salah in Islam is a special prayer which is informed to the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W.)
through revelation and its boundaries and form are determined. Any change in its form
nullifies it. Salah is a discipline which is set as a binding duty for all Muslims as it is
formal. Islam targeted to discipline its members and saved the endless conscious of the
existence of Allah by setting it as a binding duty for Muslims. Salah train a Muslim for a
healthy and well-organized life by dividing the day into intervals. It is accepted as
refreshing and cleaning practice with abdast (ritual ablution) performed by clean water.

It works as a work-out for body as well by the postural changes between standing,
kneeling, prostrating and sitting. Salah brings physical and psychological serenity and
spiritual pleasure with itself. It is taking the mind from the daily works to concentrate
Allah, his decrees and his existence, and raise you to the absolute and universal
sovereignty. The one who worship comes out to face with this life and its problems more
ready than before. The true nature of Salah, the ideas coming with the religious sentence,
makes the person eager; it directs the one to beneficial works; it strengthens its
determination to avoid wickedness and to fill the world with goodness. And finally, when
it is performed together with a community, it induces Muslims, at the same lines, for
equality, universality, brotherhood and to care about one’s brothers/sister (*).

All creatures in the universe, including the sun, meadow, grass, trees, perform dhikr all
the time. The nature of birds flying as a flock, mountains, stones serve for Allah in a way
that is unknown for us. They all perform their prayers in their way, the plants in standing,
animals in bowing, and the inorganic objects in prostrating. The sky domestics are in the
same situation.

Some part of the angels performs it in bowing while some others in prostrating or telling
his name (tespih) and Tehlil… However, Salah, as a prayer, is prayer having all worships
in its structure. Therefore, the real performers of Salah carry out a worship containing all
worships of the creatures in the ground and the sky.

The Prophet (S.A.W) ordered that: Salah gives consent of Allah who is sublime and
great. It provides the love of angels. It is the way of the Prophet. It is the light of talent
and the basis of faith. It is an instrument for acceptance of prayer. It makes actions
accepted. It provides fruitfulness for foods and relaxation for body. It is a weapon on
enemies. It keeps the Satan away. It is an interceder between the death and the Angel of
Death. It is a light and a ground cloth in the grave. It is the answer for the questions of
Munker and Nekir. It is like a congenial companion in the grave till the Apocalypse. It is
a shady spot on the ones who performed Salah in the Apocalypse. It is a crown for one’s
head. It is a dress for one’s body. It is the light going in front of the one. It is a curtain put

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between the human beings. It is the evident of believers in the presence of their Lord. It is
heaviness in the divine balance. It is a passage to the Sirat. It is a key to the Heaven.
Because Salah is tespih, praise, respect, reading, and prayer. Consequently, all of the
good performances are contained in Salah performed on its time. [Tenbîhü'l-Gafilîn, 293]

Our Prophet (saas) stated that the first act of worship that people will give an account
of in the Hereafter is the prayer (salat) and the servant will be saved if he has fulfilled
them and that he will be among the lost if he failed. [al-Tirmidhi]

In a hadith al-sharif related by Umar (ra), people asked Allah's Messenger (saas)
which act of worship was most pleasing to Allah (swt). The Prophet (saas) answered: "To
offer prayer at the right time. Whoever abandons his prayer, he has no religion. The
prayer is the pillar of the religion." (al-Bayhaqi)

In one verse, Allah (swt) reveals the following:

Recite what has been revealed to you of the Book and establish salat. Salat precludes
indecency and wrongdoing. And remembrance of Allah is greater still. Allah knows
what you do. (Surat al-'Ankabut, 45)

Prayer may be performed either alone or in congregation in the mosque led by an imam.
However, the Friday and eid prayers are performed in congregation. Muslims relay their
desires by praying alone to Almighty Allah (swt). They seek forgiveness of their sins
directly from Allah (swt), for there is no intermediary between the believer and Him.

The Prophet (saas) was very conscientious about his prayers and continued to pray until
he was so exhausted that he could no longer stand. One of the Companions asked him
why he exhausted himself so much though he was given the good news of the Garden. He
(saas) replied: "Should I not be a grateful servant?" (Ahmad)

Some of the hadiths of our Prophet (saas) about prayer are the following:

"The similitude of five prayers is like an overflowing river passing by the gate of one of
you in which he washes five times daily." [Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 1411]

"Between a man and disbelief there is only the giving up of prayer." [Sahih Muslim]

"The distinguishing factor between them and us is the prayer. Therefore, the one
abandoning the prayer has resembled an unbeliever." [al-Tirmidhi]

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"To offer prayers with the congregation is twenty-seven times more meritorious than to
offer it alone." [Sahih al-Bukhari]

"If they were to know what excellence lies in the night prayer and morning prayer, they
would have definitely come even if crawling (on their knees)." [Sahih al-Bukhari and
Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 0877]

"... when a servant goes to the mosque, after performing wudu properly, and there is no
other object of his going except (offering) prayer, he is elevated by one rank at each step
and one sin of his forgiven." [Sahih Muslim]

"The most eminent among human beings (as a recipient of) reward (is one) who lives
farthest away (from the mosque), and who has to walk the farthest distance. He who
waits for the prayer, to observe it along with the Imam, his reward is greater than one
who prays (alone) and then goes to sleep." [Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 1401]

"When you see that a person is attached to the mosque and looks after it (devotedly), give
the testimony of faith for him." [al-Tirmidhi and ibn Majah]

"A time will come when the conversation of the people in the mosques will center around
their worldly affairs. You must not sit with such people. Allah has nothing to do with
them." [al-Bayhaqi]

After every fard prayer, Allah's Messenger (saas) used to say: "There is no god but Allah.
He is One and without a partner. Unto Him belongs Sovereignty and unto Him belongs
all praise. In His Hand is all good and He has power over all things. O Allah! No one can
withhold what You bestow, and no one can bestow what You decide to withhold, and the
prosperity of no prosperous one can make him independent of You i.e., even the
wealthiest and most powerful person is a beggar at the door of Your mercy." [Sahih al-
Bukhari and Sahih Muslim]

"If anyone extols Allah (recites Subhan Allah) after every prayer thirty-three times, and
praises Allah (recites Al-hamdu lillaah) thirty-three times, and declares His Greatness
(recites Allah-u-Akbar) thirty-three times, ninety-nine times in all, and says to complete a
hundred: 'La ilaha illa Allah wahdahu la sharikah lahu, lahu al-mulk wa lahu al-hamd, wa
huwa 'ala kulli shay'in qadir' (There is no god but Allah, having no partner with Him, to
Him belongs sovereignty and to Him is praise due, and He is Potent over everything), his
sins will be forgiven even if these are as abundant as the foam of the sea." [Sahih
Muslim, Book 004, Number 1243]

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The most important element in performing the prayer is to be in a spirit of fear filled with
respect. In order to be in this spirit, the Prophet (saas) advised us: "When you pray, pray
like the one who says farewell to his lower self, his desires and his life, and turns to his
Lord." [Ibn Majah]

Aisha (ra) relates how meticulous the Prophet (saas) was about prayers:

"Allah's Messenger (saas) talked to us and we talked to him, we laughed and conversed.
But when the time for prayer came, presumably out of Divine majesty, he became as if he
did not know us and we did not know him."

01.02.00
How Salah became a binding duty?

Duties were informed to Hazrat Mohammad (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa salaam) through


Archangel Gabrail. But Salah five times a day is, apart from all these, given to the Lord
of the Worlds by Allah, Himself, as a present on the night of Miraaj. Salah which was
became a binding duty as 50 times a day at the beginning, was reduced to 5 times a day
finally, with the 5 requisitions and begging of the Prophet of Allah to Allah on the night
of Miraaj, by this advice of Hazrat Moses (Alayhi Salaam) to Hazrat Mohammad
(Sallalahu Alayhi Wa salaam) in the sky:

1. Oh, the Prophet of Allah! I had experienced with the boys of Israel before. Your
community will not be able to perform for fifty times!

After it was finally decided as five times a day, Hazrat Moses again told our Prophet
(Sallalahu Alayhi Wa salaam) that:

2. They cannot be able to perform this.

But our Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa salaam) said that:

3. I am ashamed to require more than this from Allah.

And, He had chosen five times a day as the final. But Allah gave this joyful news
along with the reduction to the Prophet Allah that: “Oh my Prophet! The word is never
changed in my presence. You will take the benefit of fifty times of Salah in return of
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performing five times a day of Salah” (İbn-i Mâce, İkâmetü's salât, 194) on the night, as
the union night.

Hazrat Mohammad (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa salaam) tells His community on the matter of
five times: “Allah ordered that; “I put five times a day of Salah as a binding duty on your
community. There is a promise given in my presence. I will surely put the ones in the
Heaven who performs these Salahs on time. But, there is no promise given in my
presence for the ones who do not protect these salahs.” ” (İbn-i Mâce, İkâmetü's salât,
194)

(*) Islam Cultural Atlas, İsmail Raci ve Luis Lamia el-Faruki p.162., İnkılab Pub.,
İSTANBUL.

01.03.00
The Importance of Prayer(Salah)
We start in the name of Allah, Most Merciful and Forgiving of all those who show mercy
and forgive, All praise is due to Allah, whom everything in the earth and the heavens
glorifies, and all signs in the universe testify to His existence subhanahu wa-ta^ala.
We bear testimony that there is no God except Allah. He is alone and has no partner. And
we bear testimony that our Leader and Master Muhammad sallallahu ^alayhi wasallam is
His servant and Messenger, whose efforts succeeded in raising the banner of Islam, and
who strived to wipe out disastrous misguidance and infidelity. May Allah shower His
peace and blessings on him, and his kind relatives and companions and protect his nation
from that which he feared for them.

Allah ta^ala said:

"They deem their outwardly submission to Allah a favor unto you (Muhammad). Say:
Deem it not a favor unto me and know, if you are sincere and truthful, that Allah did
bestow a great favor of guiding some of you to the true Faith."

So thank Allah, for He has bestowed great endowments upon you and guided you to the
right path, and the greatest endowment of all is the endowment of Islam. Moreover, Allah
has made you the best nation brought to people and ordained upon you clear and great
acts of worship.
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The five prayers are among the best acts of worship that Muslims perform. Performing
them is the best deed after having the correct belief in Allah and His Messenger. Prophet
Muhammad, may Allah raise his rank, was asked what is the best deed and he replied: it
is performing the obligatory prayers at the beginning of their setting times (al-
Bayhaqiyy):

When we say “prayers” we are referring to an act of worship with a specific format that
God revealed to Prophet Muhammad, may Allah raise his rank. All prophets from Adam
to Muhammad, may Allah raise their rank, ordered their followers to pray as per God’s
orders.

Since the prayer is the most important matter of Islam after having the correct belief in
God and His Messenger, one must plan his life around the prayer. It would be a great sin
to neglect praying when at work if a prayer was required at that time. If a believer is
shopping or waiting at the airport and there is no way to get home or to a mosque, he is
still obligated to perform the prayer within its due time instead of purposely leaving it out
or delaying it. This indicates the importance of the obligatory prayer. Performing the
obligatory prayer on time takes priority over other non-obligatory matters.

Allah ta^ala said:

‫صلَوات‬
ّ ‫حافظوا على ال‬
which means: “Keep steadfast to Performing the [five obligatory] prayers” (al-Baqarah,
2:238).

Also The Messenger of Allah said: “There are five prayers that Allah ordained as an
obligation upon the slaves to perform. Allah promised whoever performs them properly
without belittling their obligation, to be admitted into Paradise without prior torture.
Whoever leaves them out does not have that promise and in accordance with Allah’s
Will, that person may be tortured or forgiven”. Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad.

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It is obligatory to perform each of these five prayers in its due time. However, it is better
and more reward able to perform each prayer straight after its setting time.
Brothers in Islam,

Prayer is one of the greatest means of securing piece of mind and of eradicating crime. It
is also the most effective means of teaching chastity and virtue. Allah said in Surat-ul-
^Ankabut:

َ ‫ح‬
‫شششاِء‬ ‫ف‬
َ ْ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫عشش‬
َ ‫هششى‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ت‬ َ ‫ة‬ َ
‫ل‬ ‫صشش‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ن‬ ‫إ‬ َ ‫ة‬ ‫ل‬َ ‫صشش‬ ‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫قشش‬ َ ‫وأ‬
ْ ِ ََْ ّ ّ ِ ّ ِ ِ َ
﴾29:45﴿ ِ‫من ْك َر‬ُ ْ ‫َوال‬
And perform the prayer regularly for prayer restrains from unlawful and unjust deeds.
[Surah Al-An-Kabut, 29:45]

Prayer is the gateway to success and prosperity, it is among the first of deeds one is
questioned about on the Day of Judgment. Performing the prayer consistently symbolizes
honesty and truthfulness and maintaining it leads to victory, forgiveness and
enlightenment on the Day of Judgment. On the other hand, neglecting the prayer is a sign
of humiliation, for the one who neglects it will be assembled with Qarun, Pharoah,
Haman and Ubayy Ibn Khalaf because of the magnitude of one’s sin.

Prayer is full of blessings, mercies, and merits; it also raises one’s rank and increases
one’s reward. Prophet Muhammad said: "If one is dwelling next to a running river where
one is bathing five times a day, would one have any dirt left on his body?" the
Companions said: “He wouldn’t”, then the Prophet said: "That is the example of the five
obligatory prayers, whoever performs them wins Allah’s forgiveness of minor sins ".

In the end, we ask Allah to make us among those who properly and regularly perform the
five obligatory prayers in their due time with complete devotion, concentration and
humbleness.

01.04.00
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Real Object of Prayer(Salah)

Salah is the second pillar of Islam. It refers to the compulsory daily prayers.
Salah is offered five times a day individually or in congregation.
We offer Salah to remember Allah and bring us closer to Him. Allah says in the Noble
Qur'an:

﴾20:14﴿ ‫لَة ِلِذْكِري‬


َ‫ص‬ّ ‫عُبْدِني َوَأِقِم ال‬
ْ ‫ل َأَنا َفا‬
ّ ‫ل ِإَلَه ِإ‬
َ ‫ل‬
ُّ ‫ِإّنِني َأَنا ا‬
(20:14) It is Who am Allah: there is no god but Me: so worship Me and establish Salat
to remember Me. *9 [Surah Ta-ha, 20:14, nn.9]
*9 This is the real object of Salat. It has been prescribed to remind people that they
should not become neglectful of Allah by worldly diversions and that they should
remember that man is not an unbridled free being but a servant of Allah. Salat has been
prescribed five times a day to remind man of Allah's presence.
Some people are of the opinion that it means: "Establish Salat, so that I may remember
you."
Incidentally, according to this verse, if one forgets to offer a prayer in time, one should
offer it when one recollects it. This is also supported by a tradition related by Hadrat
Anas: "If one forgets to offer a certain prayer at the proper time, he should offer it
whenever he recollects this; for there is no other expiation for this omission." (Bukhari,
Muslim, Ahmed).
There is another tradition related by Abu Hurairah to the same effect. It was inquired
from the Holy Prophet: "What should we do if we remained asleep during the time of
prayer?" The Holy Prophet said, "There is no sin if one remained asleep. The sin is that
one should neglect one's prayer intentionally while awake. Therefore if one forgets to
offer a prayer or remained asleep one should offer that prayer on remembering it or on
awaking." [Tirmizi, Nasa'i, Abu Da'ud].

01.05.00
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Salah is the proof of our faith


in Allah and Islam
Allah says in the Noble Qur'an:

‫جُنففوِبُكْم َففِإَذا‬
ُ ‫عَلففى‬
َ ‫ل ِقَياًما َوُقُعففوًدا َو‬
َّ ‫لَة َفاْذُكُروا ا‬
َ‫ص‬ّ ‫ضْيُتُم ال‬
َ ‫َفِإَذا َق‬
‫ن ِكَتاًبففا‬
َ ‫عَلففى اْلُمفْؤِمِني‬
َ ‫ت‬ْ ‫لَة َكففاَن‬
َ ‫صف‬ّ ‫ن ال‬ ّ ‫لَة ِإ‬
َ ‫صف‬
ّ ‫طَمْأَننُْتْم َفَأِقيُموا ال‬
ْ ‫ا‬
﴾4:103﴿ ‫وُقوًتا‬ ْ ‫َم‬
When you have finished the Prayer, remember Allah -standing, and sitting, and reclining.
And when you become secure, perform the regular Prayer. The Prayer is enjoined upon
the believers at stated times.[Surah An-Nisa,4:103]

01.06.00
Establish Salah on yourself and on the
memebers of your family
Allah says to establish Pray(Salah) on your family:

َ ُ ‫س شأ َل‬
‫ك رِْزقًششا‬ ْ َ ‫ن‬ َ
‫ل‬ ‫ها‬
َْ ‫ي‬َ ‫ل‬َ ‫ع‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ب‬َ ‫ط‬ ‫ص‬
ِْ ْ َ ِ ّ ِ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ل‬َ ‫ص‬ ‫بال‬ َ
‫ك‬ َ ‫ل‬ْ ‫ه‬َ ‫وأ ْمر أ‬
ْ ُ َ
﴾20:132﴿ ‫وى‬ َ ‫ق‬ ْ ّ ‫ة ِللت‬ُ َ ‫ك َوال َْعاقِب‬ َ ُ‫ن ن َْرُزق‬ ُ ‫ح‬ْ َ‫ن‬
Enjoin Salah on the members of your family114 and yourself also observe it strictly. We
do not ask any provision of you, for it is We Ourself Who give you provision. And the
ultimate good is for piety.115 [Surah Ta-Ha, 20:132]

114That is, "Teach your children also that lawful provision is much better than the
unlawful riches of the wicked people. For this purpose, enjoin them to say their
prescribed Prayers, for this will change their attitude, their standard of values, and
make them contented with pure provisions and virtuous life in preference to the life of
sin and luxury."

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115It implies this: "We do not ask you to offer your Prayers for any benefit of Our own.
We ask you to do that for your own good, because this will create piety in you which
will bring about true success for you in this world and in the Hereafter." [Towards
Understanding the Qur'an: Sayyid Abul A'la Mawdudi]

02.00.00
Prayer(Salah): Next to Shahadah,
the most important Pillar of Islam
[According to Fiqh-us-Sunnah: Sayyid Saabiq (1915-2000 C.E.)]

The prayer is a type of worship consisting of specific statements and actions. It is begun
by pronouncing the greatness of Allah, and is concluded with salutations of peace. As
prayer is the essence of Islam, we will discuss it here in detail.

To state it simply, prayer must exist, for without it Islam can not stand. The Prophet,
upon whom be peace, said, "The head of the matter is Islam, its pillar is the prayer, and
the top of its hump is jihad in the way of Allah." It was the first act of worship that was
made obligatory by Allah. Its obligation was revealed directly to the Prophet, during his
ascension to heaven. Said Anas, "The prayers were made obligatory on the Prophet, upon
whom be peace, the night of his ascension to heaven. At first, they were fifty in number,
but were reduced several times until they were five. Then it was proclaimed, 'O
Muhammad, the order is not changed. These five are (equivalent) to the fifty.''

As to the authenticity of the report, it is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmizhi,


who said it is Sahih.

Salah is the first act that the person will be held accountable for. 'Abdullah ibn Qart
related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said "The first act that the
slave will be accountable for on the Day of Judgement will be prayer. If it is good, then
the rest of his acts will be good. And if it is evil, then the rest of his acts will be evil."
[Related by at-Tabarani]

It is the last thing that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, recommended to his nation
before he died, saying, "Prayer, prayer and what your right hand possesses." It will be the
last thing taken away from the religion. When it perishes, Islam will perish. The
Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "If Islam were stripped away, piece by

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piece, people would hold tight to the next one. The first thing taken would be ruling and
governance, and the last thing would be prayer." [Related by Ibn Hibban from the hadith
of Abu Umamah].

In many verses of the Qur'an, Allah follows up prayer with the remembrance of Allah.

﴾29:45﴿ ‫ل َأْكَبُر‬
ِّ ‫شاِء َواْلُمْنَكِر وََلِذْكُر ا‬
َ‫ح‬ْ ‫ن اْلَف‬
ِ‫ع‬
َ ‫لَة َتْنَهى‬
َ‫ص‬ّ ‫ن ال‬
ّ ‫ِإ‬
"Lo! Worship preserves (one) from lewdness and iniquity, but verily, remembrance of
Allah is more important." [Surah Al-'Ankabut,29:45];

﴾87:15﴿ ‫صّلى‬
َ ‫سَم َرّبِه َف‬
ْ ‫﴾ َوَذَكَر ا‬87:14﴿ ‫ن َتَزّكى‬
ْ ‫َقْد َأْفَلحَ َم‬
"He is successful who grows and remembers the name of his Lord, so pray." (Surah Al-
A'la, 87:14-15);

ِْ ‫صَلة َ ل ِذ ِك‬
‫ري‬ ‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫ق‬َ ‫َفاع ْبدِني وأ‬
﴾20:14﴿ ّ ِ ِ َ ْ ُ
"So serve Me and establish worship for My remembrance" [Surah Ta-Ha,20:14].

Sometimes He mentions prayer along with zakah:

َ ‫صَلة َ وَآ َُتوا الّز‬


َ ‫كاة‬ ‫ال‬ ‫موا‬ ‫قي‬ َ ‫وأ‬
﴾2:110﴿ ّ ُ ِ َ
"Establish prayer and pay zakah" (al-Baqarah,2:110).

And at times, with patience:

﴾2:45﴿ ِ‫صَلة‬
ّ ‫صب ْرِ َوال‬
ّ ‫ست َِعيُنوا ِبال‬
ْ ‫َوا‬
"Seek help in patience and prayer" (Surah Al-Baqarah,2:45),

and with hajj:

﴾108:2﴿ ‫حْر‬
َ ‫ك َواْن‬
َ ‫ل ِلَرّب‬
ّ‫ص‬َ ‫َف‬
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"So pray unto your Lord and sacrifice" [Surah Al-Kauthar,108:2];

‫ب‬ّ ‫مششاِتي ل ِل ّشهِ َر‬ َ ‫م‬ َ َ‫حي َششايَ و‬ ْ ‫م‬


َ َ‫كي و‬ ُ ُ ‫صَلِتي وَن‬
ِ ‫س‬ َ ‫ن‬ ّ ِ‫ل إ‬ ْ ُ‫ق‬
﴾6:162﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫مي‬ِ َ ‫ال َْعال‬
ْ َ ‫ك أ ُم شرت وأ َنششا أ‬
﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫مي‬
ِ ِ ‫ل‬ ‫ش‬ ‫س‬ ‫م‬
ْ ُ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ُ
‫ل‬ ّ ‫و‬ َ َ ُ ْ ِ َ ِ ‫ه وَب ِشذ َل‬ ُ ‫ك ل َش‬
َ ‫ري‬ِ ‫ش‬ َ ‫َل‬
﴾6:163

"Say: Lo! my worship and my sacrifice and my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord
of the Worlds. He has no partner. This am I commanded, and I am the first of those who
surrender (unto Him)" [Surah Al-An'am, 6:162-163].

At other times, Allah begins the acts of piety with prayers and ends with them, as in the
verses about the ma'arij (ascension to heaven):

َ
﴾23:1﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫مُنو‬ ُ ْ ‫ح ال‬
ِ ْ ‫مؤ‬ َ َ ‫قَد ْ أفْل‬
"Successful indeed are the believers who are humble in their prayers," [Surah Al-
Mu'minun, 23:1]

and the verses,

﴾23:11﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫دو‬
ُ ِ ‫خال‬
َ ‫م ِفيَها‬
ْ ُ‫س ه‬ ِ ْ ‫ن ال‬
َ ْ‫فْرد َو‬ َ ‫ن ي َرُِثو‬ ِ ّ ‫ال‬
َ ‫ذي‬
"And who pay heed to their prayers. These are the heirs who will
inherit Paradise. [Surah Al-Mu'minun, 23:11]

‫ن‬ ‫لي‬
ِ ‫ز‬ ‫ن‬‫م‬ْ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ي‬‫خ‬َ ‫ت‬ ‫ن‬َ ‫وأ‬
﴾23:29﴿ َ ِ ْ ُ ُْ َ ْ َ
There will they abide" (Al-Mu'minun,23:2]

The importance of Salah is so great that one is ordered to observe it while travelling or
not, while one is safe or in fear:

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‫مششوا‬ ُ ‫طى وَُقو‬ َ ‫س‬ ْ ُ‫صَلةِ ال ْو‬ ّ ‫ت َوال‬ ِ ‫وا‬َ َ ‫صل‬ ّ ‫ظوا ع ََلى ال‬ ُ ِ‫حاف‬ َ
َ ِ ‫جششاًل أ َوْ ُرك َْبان ًششا فَشإ‬
‫ذا‬ َ ِ‫م فَر‬ ْ ‫فت ُش‬
ْ ‫خ‬ ِ ‫ن‬ ْ ِ ‫﴾ فَإ‬2:238﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ل ِل ّهِ َقان ِِتي‬
‫كون ُششوا‬ُ َ‫م ت‬ ‫ش‬َ ‫ل‬ ‫شا‬
‫ش‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ‫ش‬ُ ‫ك‬ ‫م‬ ّ ‫ل‬َ ‫ع‬ ‫شا‬
‫ش‬ ‫م‬ َ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ش‬ّ ‫ل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫روا‬ ُ ‫ك‬ْ ‫ذ‬‫شا‬‫ش‬َ ‫ف‬ ‫م‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ن‬‫م‬ َ‫أ‬
ْ َ ْ َ َ َ ُ ْ ُ ْ ِ
﴾2:239﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫مو‬ ُ َ ‫ت َعْل‬
"Be guardians of your prayers, and of the mid-most prayer, and stand up with devotion to
Allah. (239)And if you go in fear, then (pray) standing or on horseback. When you are
safe, remember Allah, as He has taught you that which (heretofore) you knew not".
[Surah Al-Baqarah, 238-239].

02.01.00
Allah explains how to pray
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during fear, safety or wartime


[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. I P. 76]

‫خ فُذوا‬ُ ‫ك َوْلَيْأ‬َ ‫طاِئَفٌة ِمْنُهْم َمَع‬ َ ‫لَة َفْلَتُقْم‬َ‫ص‬ ّ ‫ت َلُهُم ال‬ َ ‫ت ِفيِهْم َفَأَقْم‬َ ‫َوِإَذا ُكْن‬
‫خفَرى َلفْم‬ ْ ‫طاِئَففٌة ُأ‬َ ‫ت‬ ِ ‫ن َوَراِئُكْم َوْلَتْأ‬ ْ ‫جُدوا َفْلَيُكوُنوا ِم‬ َ‫س‬ َ ‫حَتُهْم َفِإَذا‬َ ‫سِل‬
ْ ‫َأ‬
‫ن َكَفففُروا‬ َ ‫حَتُهْم َوّد اّلِذي‬
َ ‫سِل‬ْ ‫حْذَرُهْم َوَأ‬ ِ ‫خُذوا‬ ُ ‫ك َوْلَيْأ‬َ ‫صّلوا َمَع‬ َ ‫صّلوا َفْلُي‬ َ ‫ُي‬
َ‫ح فَدًة َول‬ ِ ‫عَلْيُك فْم َمْيَل فًة َوا‬
َ َ‫حِتُكْم َوَأْمِتَعِتُكْم َفَيِميُلون‬ َ ‫سِل‬
ْ ‫ن َأ‬ْ‫ع‬ َ ‫ن‬ َ ‫َلْو َتْغفُُلو‬
‫ضُعوا‬َ ‫ن َت‬ ْ ‫ضى َأ‬ َ ‫طٍر أَْو ُكْنُتْم َمْر‬ َ ‫ن َم‬ ْ ‫ن ِبُكْم َأًذى ِم‬ َ ‫ن َكا‬ ْ ‫عَلْيُكْم ِإ‬
َ ‫ح‬َ ‫جَنا‬ُ
﴾4:102﴿ ‫هيًنا‬ ِ ‫عَذاًبا ُم‬
َ ‫ن‬ َ ‫عّد ِلْلَكاِفِري‬َ ‫ل َأ‬َّ ‫ن ا‬
ّ ‫حْذَرُكْم ِإ‬ ِ ‫خُذوا‬ ُ ‫حتَُكْم َو‬َ ‫سِل‬
ْ ‫َأ‬
‫جُنففوِبُكْم َففِإَذا‬
ُ ‫عَلففى‬
َ ‫ل ِقَياًما َوُقُعففوًدا َو‬
َّ ‫لَة َفاْذُكُروا ا‬
َ‫ص‬ّ ‫ضْيُتُم ال‬
َ ‫َفِإَذا َق‬
‫ن ِكَتاًبففا‬
َ ‫عَلففى اْلُمفْؤِمِني‬
َ ‫ت‬ْ ‫لَة َكففاَن‬
َ ‫صف‬ّ ‫ن ال‬ ّ ‫لَة ِإ‬
َ ‫صف‬
ّ ‫طَمْأَننُْتْم َفَأِقيُموا ال‬
ْ ‫ا‬
﴾4:103﴿ ‫وُقوًتا‬ ْ ‫َم‬
"(102) And when you are among them and arrange their prayers for them, let only a party
of them stand with you (to worship) and let them take their arms. Then, when they have
performed their prostrations, let them fall to the rear and let another party come to pray
with you, and let them take their precautions and arms. They who disbelieve long for you
to neglect your arms and your baggage, that they may attack. It is no sin for you to lay
aside your arms, if rain impedes you or if you are sick. But take your precautions. Lo!
Allah prepares for the disbelievers shameful punishment. (103) When you have
performed your prayer, remember Allah, standing, sitting and reclining. And when you
are in safety, observe your prayer properly. Prayer at fixed hours has been enjoined on
the believers" (Surah, An-Nisa', 4:102-103]

02.02.00
Allah also strongly warns those who
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December 15, 2009 [MUSLIM PRAYER GUIDE PART I & II]

tamper with their prayers or are heedless:


[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. I P.7]

Says Allah in the Qur'an:

َ ‫سففْو‬
‫ف‬ َ ‫شَهَواتِ َف‬
ّ ‫لَة َواّتَبُعوا ال‬
َ‫ص‬ّ ‫عوا ال‬
ُ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ف َأ‬
ٌ ‫خْل‬
َ ‫ن َبْعِدِهْم‬
ْ ‫ف ِم‬
َ ‫خَل‬َ ‫َف‬
﴾19:59﴿ ‫غّيا‬
َ ‫ن‬ َ ‫َيْلَقْو‬
"Now there has succeeded them a later generation who have ruined their prayers and
have followed lusts. But they will meet deception." [Surah Maryam,19:59];

﴾107:5﴿ َ ‫ساُهو‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫لِتِهْم‬
َ‫ص‬َ ‫ن‬
ْ‫ع‬
َ ‫ن ُهْم‬
َ ‫﴾ اّلِذي‬107:4﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫صّلي‬
َ ‫ل ِلْلُم‬
ٌ ‫َفَوْي‬
"Ah, woe unto worshippers who are heedless of their prayers" [Surah Al-Ma'un,107:4-5]

02.03.00
Prayer is one of the

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most important acts in Islam:


[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. I P. 77a]

Prayer is one of the most important acts in Islam, and thus it requires a special guidance.
Ibrahim asked his Lord to give him descendants who abided by their prayers:

ْ ‫قب ّش‬
‫ل‬ َ َ ‫ن ذ ُّري ّت ِششي َرب ّن َششا وَت‬ ِ َ‫صَلةِ و‬
ْ ‫م‬ ّ ‫م ال‬
َ ‫قي‬ ُ ‫جعَل ِْني‬
ِ ‫م‬ ْ ‫با‬
ّ ‫َر‬
﴾14:40﴿ ِ‫عاء‬
َ ُ‫د‬
"My Lord! Cause me and (some) of my offspring to remain constant in prayer. And O our
Lord! Accept my supplication" [Surah Ibrahim, 14:40].

02.04.00
One Who Ignores His Prayers:
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. I P.77b]

Not praying and denying its obligation is seen as disbelief and places the person outside
the religion of Islam. All scholars agree on this piont. They base their opinion on several
hadith, some of which are:

Jabir reports that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Between a person and
disbelief is discarding prayer." [Related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi
and Ibn Majah]

Buraidah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The pact between us
and them is prayer. Whoever abandons it is a disbeliever." [Related by Ahmad, Abu
Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, anNasa'i and Ibn Majah].

'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, one
day mentioned the prayer and said, "Whoever guards and observes his prayer, they will
be a light and a proof and a savior for him on the Day of Resurrection. Whoever does not
guard and obvserve them, they will not be a light or a proof or a savior for him. On the
Day of Resurrection, he will be with Qarun, Fir'aun, Haman and Ubayy ibn Khalf."
[Related by Ahmad, at-Tabarani and Ibn Hibban. Its chain is excellent].

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That one who does not pray will be with the leaders of the unbelievers in the Hereafter
makes it evident that such a person is an unbeliever.

Says Ibn al-Qayyim, "The one who does not pray may be preoccupied with his wealth,
kingdom, position or business. If one is kept away from his prayers by his wealth, he will
be with Qarun. One whose kingdom keeps him away from the prayers will be with
Haman, and one whose business keeps him away from the prayers will be with Ubayy
ibn Khalf."

Says 'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq al-'Aqeely, "The companions of Muhammad, peace be upon
him, did not consider the abandonment of any act, with the exception of prayer, as being
disbelief." [Related by at-Tirmizhi and al-Hakim, who said it met al-Bukahri's and
Muslim's conditions].

Says Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Mirwazi, "I heard Ishaq say, 'It is authentic (that) the
Prophet (said or ruled): One who does not pray is an unbeliever." It is from the Prophet
himself that one who intentionally does not pray until the time for the prayer is over is an
unbeliever."

Says Ibn Hazm, "It has come from 'Umar, 'Abdur Rahman ibn 'Auf, Mu'azh ibn Jabal,
Abu Hurairah and other companions that anyone who skips one obligatory prayer until its
time has finished becomes an apostate. We find no difference of opinion among them on
this point." This was mentioned by al-Munzhiri in at-Targheeb wa atTarheeb. Then he
comments, "A group of companions and those who came after them believed that an
intentional decision to skip one prayer until its time is completely finished makes one an
unbeliever. The people of this opinion incude 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, 'Abdullah ibn
Mas'ud, 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, Mu'azh ibn Jabal, Jabir ibn 'Abdullah and Abu ad-Darda'.
Among the non-companions who shared this view were Ibn Hanbal, Ishaq ibn Rahwaih,
'Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak, an-Nakha'i, al-Hakim ibn 'Utaibah, Abu Ayyub as-Sakhtiyani,
Abu Dawud at-Tayalisi, Abu Bakr ibn Abu Shaibah, Zuhair ibn Harb, and others.

Some hadith make it clear that such a person should be killed. For example:

Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The ties of Islam and
the principles of the religion are three, and whoever leaves one of them becomes an
unbeliever, and his blood becomes lawful: testifying that there is no god except Allah, the
obligatory prayers, and the fast of Ramadan." (Related by Abu Ya'la with a hassan chain.)
Another narration states, "If anyone leaves one of them, by Allah he becomes an
unbeliever and no voluntary deeds or recompense will be accepted from him, and his
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blood and wealth become lawful." This is a clear indication that such a person is to be
killed.

Ibn 'Umar related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "I have been
ordered to kill the people until they testify that there is no god except Allah, and that
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and they establish prayer and pay the zakah. If
they do that, their blood and wealth are protected from me save by the rights of Islam.
Their reckoning will be with Allah." [Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Umm Salamah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "There will be
rulers over you who will do good and evil things. Whoever hates these (latter) acts will
be innocent of them. Whoever denies them will be safe, but (not) one who accepts and
follows them." They asked, "Should we kill them?" He said, "Not if they pray." [Related
by Muslim]. Therefore, he made it unlawful to kill even an unjust ruler who observes his
prayers.

Abu Sa'eed reported that 'Ali, while he was in Yemen, sent the Prophet some gold,
which he then divided among four people. A man said, "O Messenger of Allah, beware of
Allah." The Prophet said, "Woe to you. Of all the people of the earth, am I not the most
dutiful in being aware of Allah?" Khalid ibn al-Walid said, "O Messenger of Allah, shall
I kill him?" He said, "Perhaps he is one of those who pray." Khalid said, "How many
people say with their tongues what is not in their hearts?" The Prophet said, "I have not
been ordered to look into the hearts of people, nor to rip open their bellies." [Abridged
from al-Bukhari and Muslim].

In this hadith also, prayer is given as the reason for not killing a person. It is understood,
therefore, that not praying would have resulted in the person's killing.

Even though the preceding hadith clearly rule that one who discards salah becomes an
unbeliever and should be killed, many early and later scholars (excluding Abu Hanifah,
Malik and ash-Shafi) believe that such people become evildoers who must repent. If such
a person does not repent, he is to be killed, that being the prescribed punishment,
according to Malik, ash-Shai'i and others. Abu Hanifah maintains that such a person is
not to be killed, but must be given a minor punishment and confined until he prays. They
say the hadith that calls such people unbelievers refer to those who deny the prayers, and
so on. They say that any other interpretation is contradicted by other texts. For example,
Allah says:

﴾4:116﴿ ‫شاُء‬
َ ‫ن َي‬
ْ ‫ك ِلَم‬
َ ‫ن َذِل‬
َ ‫ك ِبِه َوَيْغِفُر َما ُدو‬
َ ‫شَر‬
ْ ‫ن ُي‬
ْ ‫ل َيْغِفُر َأ‬
َ ‫ل‬
َّ ‫ن ا‬
ّ ‫ِإ‬
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"Lo! Allah does not pardon one who gives Him partners. He pardons all save whom He
wills" [Surah An-Nisa', 4:116).

There is also a hadith related by Abu Hurairah and recorded by Ahmad and Muslim in
which the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Every prophet has a special supplication
that is answered. Every prophet hastened to make his supplication, but I concealed mine
and will use it for my nation on the Day of Resurrection. It will be granted--Allah
willing--to whoever dies without associating any partners with Allah."

Al-Bukhari also recorded that Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be
peace, said, "The person who will be the happiest due to my intercession is the one who
says, 'There is no god but Allah' sincerely from his heart."

Says Ash-Shaukani: "The truth of the matter is that he becomes an unbeliever who is to
be killed for his unbelief. The hadith authenticates that Islamic law calls one who does
not pray an unbeliever. It has also put the performance as the barrier between a believer
and an unbeliever. Abandoning prayer means he may be called an unbeliever. We need
not concern ourselves with arguments presented by those of the opposing opinion. We
can say to them: It is not impossible that some types of unbelievers may obtain
forgiveness or may have a right to intercession, such as the unbelief of those who pray to
( our) qiblah. Nevertheless, the fact remains that they commit some sins which the
Islamic law views as unbelief. To turn to the other narrow interpretations is just
redundant."

02.05.00
Who Must Pray:
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. I P.80]

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Prayer is obligatory upon every sane, adult Muslim. Hadrat 'Aishah(ra) related that the
Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "The pen is raised for three (meaning:
there is no obligation upon three): one who is sleeping until he wakens, the child until he
becomes an adult, and one who is insane until he becomes sane."

As to the authenticity of this report, it is recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi,


an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim, who grades it sahih according to the criterion of
al-Bukhari and Muslim. At-Tirmizhi classifies it as hassan.

Although it is not obligatory for a child to pray, it is a must that his guardian order him to
do so when he is seven, and he should beat him if he does not pray after he reaches the
age of ten. A minor should practice praying until he reaches puberty. 'Amr ibn Shu'aib
related from his father on the authority of his grandfather that the Prophet, peace be upon
him, said, "Order your children to pray when they reach the age of seven. Beat them (if
they don't pray) when they reach the age of ten. And have them sleep separately."

The hadith is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and al-Hakim. The latter grades it sahih
according to Muslim's criteria.

02.06.00
The Number of Obligatory Prayers
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. I P. 81]

The number of prayers prescribed by Allah is five. Ibn Mahyraiz narrated that al-
Makhdaji, from the tribe of Kananah, heard Abu Muhammad--a man in ash-Shams--
saying, "The witr prayer is obligatory." He said he went to 'Ubadah ibn as-Samit and
informed him of this. 'Ubadah corrected him, saying, "Abu Muhammad is mistaken. I
heard the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, say 'Allah has laid five prayers
upon His slaves. Whoever fulfills them and does not miss any of them will have a pact
with Allah that He will let him enter Paradise. Whoever does not come with them will
have no pact with Allah. If He wishes, He may punish him, and if He wishes, He may
forgive him." [Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah].

In one version it states, "Or one who comes with a deficiency in them or who degrades their duties."
Talhah ibn 'Ubaidullah narrated that a bedouin with unkempt hair came to the Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, and said, "O Messenger of Allah, inform me of what Allah has made obligatory
on me as regards praying." He said, "Five prayers, unless you do others voluntarily." He asked the
Prophet to inform him about fasting, and he said, "The fast of Ramadan, unless you do others
voluntarily." Then he asked him about charity...and the Messenger of Allah informed him of the Islamic
legislations. The bedouin then said, "By the One who has honored you, I shall not voluntarily add

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anything to it, nor shall I be deficient in what Allah has ordered me to do." The Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, then said, "He will enter Paradise if he is truthful (to what he said)." [Related by
al-Bukhari and Muslim].

02.07.00
The Times of the(Salah) Prayers
Referring from the following Fiqh and Tafseer:
1. Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. I P. 82: Sayyid Saaqib &
2. Towards Understanding the Qur'an: Sayyid Abul A'la Mawdudi]

Diagrams showing Timings of Daily Prayers

Each prayer has its own particular time at which it must be performed. Says Allah:

﴾4:103﴿ ‫ن ِكَتاًبا َمْوُقوًتا‬


َ ‫عَلى اْلُمْؤِمِني‬
َ ‫ت‬
ْ ‫لَة َكاَن‬
َ‫ص‬ّ ‫ن ال‬
ّ ‫ِإ‬

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"Prayer at fixed hours has been enjoined upon the believers" [Surah An-Nisa', 4:103].

The Qur'an itself points to these different times, Allah says:

َ ‫ت ُيفْذِهْب‬
‫ن‬ ِ ‫سفَنا‬
َ‫ح‬َ ‫ن اْل‬
ّ ‫ل ِإ‬
ِ ‫ن الّلْيف‬
َ ‫ي الّنَهففاِر َوُزَلًفففا ِمف‬
ِ ‫طَرَف‬
َ ‫لَة‬
َ‫ص‬ ّ ‫َوَأِقِم ال‬
﴾11:114﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ك ِذْكَرى ِللّذاِكِري‬
َ ‫ت َذِل‬
ِ ‫سّيَئا‬
ّ ‫ال‬
"Pray at the two ends of the day and in some watches of the night. Lo! Good deeds annul
evil deeds. This is a reminder for the mindful" [Surah Hud,11:114]. and

َ ‫ك قَب ْش‬
‫ل‬ َ ‫مشد ِ َرب ّش‬ ْ ‫ح‬ َ ِ‫ح ب‬ْ ّ ‫سشب‬
َ َ‫ن و‬َ ‫قول ُششو‬ ُ َ ‫مششا ي‬َ ‫صب ِْر ع َل َششى‬
ْ ‫َفا‬
ّ َ ‫من آ‬ ّ ‫ط ُُلوِع ال‬
‫ح‬ َ َ‫ل ف‬
ْ ّ ‫سب‬ ِ ْ ‫ي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ال‬ ِ ‫ء‬ ‫نا‬
َ ْ ِ َ‫ل غ ُُروب َِها و‬َ ْ ‫س وَقَب‬ ِ ‫م‬ ْ ‫ش‬
﴾20:130﴿ ‫ضى‬ َ ‫ك ت َْر‬َ ّ ‫ف الن َّهارِ ل َعَل‬َ ‫وَأ َط َْرا‬
"Celebrate the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting.
Glorify Him some hours of the night and at the two ends of the day, that you may find
acceptance" (Surah Ta-ha,20:130].

111This is to comfort and console the Holy Prophet, as if to say, "Allah does not intend to
destroy them yet, for He has appointed for them a term of respite, so you should endure
with patience whatever they do against you and hear their harsh talk and go on performing
the obligations of your Mission. For this purpose you should offer Salat in accordance with
the prescribed times because it will create in you necessary forbearance and fortitude".

Incidentally in this verse (130) the times of Salat have been prescribed:

(1) Fajr Prayer before sunrise,

(2) `Asr Prayer before sunset,

(3) `Isha and Tahajjud Prayers during the hours of night.

(4) Morning and Afternoon (Dhuhr) and Evening (Maghrib) Prayers "at the extremes of the
day." [See also E.N.'s. 91 to 97 of Surah Bani Israi'l, 17:78-79]

Surah al-Isra' states:

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‫ل‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ي‬ّ ‫ل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ش‬ ‫س‬ َ ‫غ‬ ‫شى‬‫ش‬ َ ‫ل‬ ‫إ‬ ‫س‬ ‫م‬ ‫ش‬ ّ
‫ش‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ك‬ ُ
‫لو‬ ‫د‬ ‫ش‬ ِ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ة‬ َ
‫ل‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ق‬َ‫أ‬
ِ ْ ِ َ ِ ِ ْ ِ ُ ّ ِ ِ
﴾17:78﴿ ‫دا‬ ً ‫شُهو‬ ْ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬َ َ
‫كا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ج‬
ْ ‫ف‬
َ ْ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬
َ َ ‫ن قُرآ‬ ّ ‫إ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ج‬
ْ ‫ف‬
َ ْ ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ن‬
َ َ ‫وقُرآ‬
َ ِ ْ ِ ِ ْ َ
"Establish prayer*91 at the setting of the sun*92 until the dark of the night,*93 and (the
recital) of the Qur'an *94 at dawn. Lo! The recital of the Qur'an at dawn is ever
witnessed"*95 [Surah Bani Isra'il or Isra',17:78]

91The Muslims have been commanded to establish Salat immediately after the mention
of obstacles and adversities. This implies that the perseverance required to face adverse
circumstances is obtained by the establishment of Salat.

92We have translated the words of the Arabic Text into "the declining of the sun."
Though some of the Companions and their followers are of the opinion that it means
"the sunset", the majority of them are of the opinion that it means "the declining of the
sun from its zenith." Caliph 'Umar, Ibn `Umar, Anas bin Malik, Abu Barza-tal-Aslami,
Hasan Basri, Sha'abi, Ata', Mujahid and, according to a Tradition, Ibn `Abbas (Allah
be pleased with them all) are of this opinion and Imam Muhammad Baqir and Imam
Ja`afar Sadiq also are of the same opinion. Besides this, there are some Traditions from
the Holy Prophet to the same effect, though they are not so authentic.

93According to some, the original words of the Arabic text mean "complete darkness of
the night", while others take it to mean "midnight" If the first opinion is accepted, it
will imply the beginning of the time of the 'Isha' Prayer and according to the other it
will mean "the last limit of the time of "Isha."

94The literal meaning of the word fajr is "dawn", that is, "the beginning of the morning
after the darkness of night."

Here the "recital of the Qur'an in the morning" stands for the Morning Prayer. At some
places the Quran has used the word Salat for 'Prayer' and at other places a particular
part of Salat for Prayer as a whole, e.g., tasbih, hamd, zikr, qayam, ruku', sajud etc.
Likewise, here "recital of the Qur'an at dawn" does not mean the mere recital of the
Qur'an but its recital during the Prayer. Thus, the Qur'an has also incidentally referred
to the different parts of which Salat is composed and these guided the Holy Prophet to
prescribe the definite form of Salat in which it is performed by the Muslims to-day.

95The recital of the Qur'an at dawn is witnessed by the angels of Allah to testify it, as has
been explained in the Traditions. Though the angels witness each prayer and each good

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deed the special mention of their being witnesses at the time of the recital of the Qur'an
during the Morning Prayer gives it a particular Importance. That is why the Holy
Prophet used to recite long passages from the Qur'an during the Morning Prayer. His
example was followed by the Companions, and the succeeding Muslim scholars held it
to be a desirable thing.

In this verse, it has been briefly stated how to establish Salat which was made
obligatory on the occasion of Mi `raj at the prescribed timings. It has been ordained
that the first Prayer is to be offered before the sunrise and the remaining four after the
declining of the sun till the darkness of the night. Afterwards Angel Jibril was sent to
the Holy Prophet to define the limits of the timings of each Prayer. According to a
Tradition of Abu Da'ud and Tirmizi related by Ibn 'Abbas, the Holy Prophet said,
"Jibril led me in the five Prayers twice near the Ka`abah. On the first day, he offered
the Dhuhr Prayer just after the declining of the sun, when the shadow of everything
was the shortest. Then he offered the 'Asr Prayer when the shadow of each thing was
equal to its own length; then the Maghrib Prayer at the time when one breaks one's
fast, and the 'Isha' Prayer was offered just at the time when twilight had disappeared,
and Fajr Prayer at the time when it becomes unlawful to eat and drink anything for the
one who intends to observe a Fast. The next day he offered the Dhuhr Prayer at the
time when the shadow of each thing became equal to its own length and the 'Asr
Prayer when the shadow had doubled. The Maghrib Prayer was offered as on the
previous day and the Isha' Prayer when one-third of the night had passed away, and the
Morning Prayer when light had spread all over. After this Jibril turned towards me and
said. 'O Muhammad, these are the timings of Salat of the Prophets and the right
tunings are between these two extreme limits."

The Qur'an has also pointed to these five times of Salat on different occasions:

(1) "And listen; establish Salat at the two ends of the day and in the early parts of the
night..." (Surah Hud:114).

(2) "...And glorify your Lord with His praise before the sunrise (Fajr) and before sunset
('Asr) and then glorify Him during the night (`Isha') and then at the ends of the day
(Fajr, Dhuhr and Maghrib)..." [Surah Ta-ha, 20:130].

(3) "So glorify Allah when it is evening for you (Maghrib), and when it is morning (Fajr).
praise is only for Him in the heavens and the earth and glorify him in the later part of
the afternoon ( 'Asr) and in the afternoon (Dhuhr)." (Surah Ar-Rum, 30.17-18).

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There is great wisdom in this system of the timings of Salat. One of these is to avoid the
timings of the worship of the sun-worshipers. This is because the sun has always been
in every age one of the greatest deities of the mushriks, who worshiped it especially at
the time of sunrise and sunset. Therefore, these two times have totally been forbidden
for Salat. Besides this, they worshiped the sun at the time of its zenith. That is why
Islam has ordained that the Muslims should offer their two Prayers during the day-time
after the sun has declined and the Fajr Prayer before the sunrise. The Holy Prophet
himself has stated this wisdom of the timings of Prayer in several Traditions. For
instance, in the Tradition related by 'Amar bin `Abasah, the Holy Prophet is reported to
have replied to a qua"soon to this effect: "Offer your Morning Prayer, but refrain from
it when the sun is about to rise until it has risen high. For the sun rises between the
horns of Satan and the unbelievers fall prostrate before it at that time.

Then after mentioning the `Asr Prayer, he said:

"After `Asr Prayer, refrain from any Prayer until the sunset, for during that time the sun
sets between the horns of Satan and the unbelievers fall prostrate before it."

The rising and the setting of the sun between the horns of Satan is a symbolic expression
that has been used in this Tradition. This implies that both these times are used by
Satan as temptations for the people. This is, as if to say, that Satan is so pleased with
the worship of the unbelievers at the time of sunrise and sunset that he appears to carry
the sun on his head as a mark of approval. This interpretation of the Tradition is based
on this remark of the Holy Prophet: "The unbelievers fall prostrate before it."

﴿ ‫حُموًدا‬
ْ ‫ك َمَقاًما َم‬
َ ‫ك َرّب‬
َ ‫ن َيْبَعَث‬
ْ ‫سى َأ‬
َ‫ع‬َ ‫ك‬
َ ‫جْد ِبِه َناِفَلًة َل‬
ّ ‫ل َفَتَه‬
ِ ‫ن الّلْي‬
َ ‫َوِم‬
﴾17:79

Besides this, offer Tahajjud Prayer96 at night: this is an additional prayer for you.97 That
time is not far when your Lord may exalt you to a laudable position.98

96The literal meaning of "Tahajjud" is to rise up by breaking sleep. Therefore, the


sentence has been translated into "Offer Tahajjud Prayer", which means "Rise up from
sleep after the passing of a part of night and then offer your Prayer."

97"Nafl" literally means "something done in addition to an obligatory duty". This shows
that the Tahajjud Prayer is in addition to the five prescribed Prayers.

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This verse specifically refers to the dawn prayer and the afternoon prayer, as it is
recorded in the two Sahihs. Jarir ibn 'Abdullah al-Bajali reported, We were sitting with
the Messenger of Allah and we looked at the moon on a clear night. The Prophet said,
'You will see your Lord as you see this moon, and you will not be harmed by seeing Him.
So, if you can, do not let yourselves be overpowered in the case of prayer before the
rising of the sun and its setting,' and he recited the above verse." [Towards Understanding
the Qur'an: Sayyid Abul A'la Mawdudi]

Those are the times of the prayers that the Qur'an mentions. From the Sunnah, we have
the following:

'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said,
"The time of the noon prayer is when the sun passes the meridian and a man's shadow is
the same length as his height. It lasts until the time of the afternoon prayer. The time of
the afternoon prayer is until the yellowing of the sun (during its setting). The time of the
evening prayer is as long as twilight. The time of the night prayer is to the middle of a
night of medium duration. And the time of the morning prayer is from the appearance of
the dawn until the time of sunrise. When the sun rises, abstain from praying, as it rises
between the horns of Satan." [Related by Muslim].

Jarir ibn 'Abdullah narrated that the angel Gabriel came to the Messenger of Allah and
said to him, "Stand and pray," and they prayed the noon prayer when the sun had passed
its meridian. He then came to him for the afternoon prayer and said,"Stand and pray," and
they prayed the afternoon prayer while the length of a shadow of something was similar
to the length of the object. Then he came a t sunset and said, "Stand and pray," and they
prayed the sunset prayer when the sun had just disappeared. Then he came at night and
said, "Stand and pray," and they prayed the night prayer when the twilight had
disappeared. He cameagain when dawn broke (and they prayed the morning prayer).
Then Gabriel came on the next day at noon and said (to the Messenger of Allah), "Stand
and pray," and they prayed the noon prayer when the length of the shadow of something
was close to the length of the object. Then he came for the afternoon prayer and said,
"Stand and pray," and they prayed when the shadow of something was twice as long as
the length of the object. Then he came at the same time (as the previous day) for the
sunset prayer, without any change. Then he came for the night prayer after half of the
night had passed ("or," he said, "one-third of the night"). Then he came when the sky was
very yellow and said, "Stand and pray," and they prayed the morning prayer. Then
Gabriel said, "Between these times are the times for the prayers."

As to the authenticity of the report, it is recorded by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmizhi.


Al-Bukhari observes, "It is the most authentic report concerning the prayer times."

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02.08.01
The Time of the Morning Prayer (Fajr):
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 88a]

The time of the morning prayer begins with the true dawn and lasts until sunrise. It is
preferred to pray it early in its permissible time.

Abu Mas'ud al-Ansari reported that the Messenger of Allah prayed the morning prayer
in the darkness (of the dawn). Another time, he prayed it when the dawn was shining (or
glowing). Then after that, he always prayed in the darkness (of the dawn) until he died."
[Related by Abu Dawud and al-Baihaqi. Its chain is sahih.]

Said 'Aishah, "Believing women would pray the morning prayer with the Prophet, upon
whom be peace, being enveloped in their clothing. They would return to their homes after
the prayer and no one could recognize them due to the darkness (of the dawn)." [Related
by "the group]

Rafa' ibn Khadeej related a hadith in which the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said,
"Make the morning prayer at daybreak, as your reward will be greater."

In another version it states, "Make the morning prayer at the shining (time of the dawn),
as your reward will be greater." [Related by "the five." At-Tirmizhi and Ibn Hibban grade
it as sahih.]

It refers to the time that one finishes the prayer, not the time when one begins it. That is,
one should make the recital long so that one is in prayer until the dawn becomes "shiny."
This is what the Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to do, for he would recite between
60 and 100 verses. It also means to make sure that the dawn has come.

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02.08.02
The Time for the Noon Prayer (Zhuhr):
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 83]

The previous two hadith make it clear that the noon prayer begins when the sun passes its
meridian and it continues until an object's shadow is approximately the same length as
the object itself. If it is extremely hot, it is preferred to delay the noon prayer until it is
cooler. This is done in order to retain the humility and awe of the prayer. If this is not the
case, it should be prayed early in its time. This opinion is based on the following hadith:
Reported Anas, "If it was extremely cold, the Prophet, upon whom be peace, would pray
early. If it was extremely hot, he would wait for it to cool down." [Related by al-
Bukhari].

Abu Zharr relates, "We were with the Prophet, upon whom be peace, on a journey. When
the caller to prayer wanted to give the azhan, the Prophet said 'Let it cool down.' This
happened two or three times, until we saw the shadows of the hills. Then the Prophet
said, 'The extreme heat is from the fragrance of Hell. If the heat becomes extreme, delay
the prayer until it becomes cool." [Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim].

However, this delay does have a limit. According to Ibn Hajr's Fath al-Bari, "The
scholars differ over how long one may wait to let the temperature cool. Some say, 'Until
the shadow of an object becomes an arm's length,' or 'Until the shadow becomes one-
fourth of one's height.' Others say one-third or one-half, and so on. Its ruling is according
to its basic principle, and it changes with different circumstances, provided that the
prayer is not delayed until the end of its time."

02.08.03
The Time for the Afternoon Prayer ('Asr):
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 84]

This prayer begins in the afternoon when the shadow of an object is of the same length as
the object itself, and continues until the sun sets.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Whoever catches
one rak'ah of the afternoon prayer before the sun sets and then prays the remainder of the
prayer after the sun has set has not missed the afternoon prayer."

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The best and most preferred time to pray the afternoon prayer ends when the sun
becomes yellowish on the horizon. This is implied by the preceding hadith of Jabir and
'Abdullah ibn 'Umar.

To delay the prayer until the sun becomes yellowish, although it is permissiable, is
greatly disliked, unless there is some need to do so.

Anas reported that he heard the Prophet, upon whom be peace, say, "The following is
the prayer of the hypocrite: he waits until the sun is between the horns of Satan, then he
gets up and prays four quick rak'ah, and he does not remember Allah therein save a little
bit." [Related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari and Ibn Majah].

Says an-Nawawi in his commentary on Sahih Muslim, "Our companions (the


Shafiyyah) hold that the afternoon prayer time can be divided into five categories: the
most virtuous time, the preferred time, the allowable time in which there is no disliked
aspect, the allowable time that contains some aspect of dislike, and the time that is due to
some excuse or necessity. The most virtuous time is at the beginning of the permissible
time. The preferred time is until the shadow of an object is twice the length of the object
itself. The permissible time without any aspect of dislike is from the time the sun
becomes yellowish. The permissible time with some aspect of dislike is from the time the
sun becomes yellowish until the setting of the sun. The time of excuse or necessity
begins, in fact, at the time of the noon prayer for one who is to combine the noon and
afternoon prayers, due to travelling or rain. If the afternoon prayer is made during any of
those times, it has been fulfilled properly. If all of those times pass and the sun has set,
then one must make up the prayer."

On a cloudy day, it should be prayed earlier in its time. Buraidah al-Aslami reported,
"We were with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, during a battle and he said,
"Hasten in praying on a cloudy day, for one who misses the afternoon prayer has
destroyed all of his works." [Related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah].

Of the subject, Ibn al-Qayyim says, "Leaving the prayer is of two types: leaving it
completely and never praying it (which destroys all of one's deeds), and leaving it during
a particular day, which destroys all of the deeds of that day."

The Afternoon Prayer is the "Mid-most" Prayer:


[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 85]

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Says Allah in the Qur'an, "Observe and guard the prayers and the mid-most prayer, and
stand with total submission to Allah. Authentic hadith have made it clear that the
afternoon prayers is the "mid-most" prayer.

'Ali reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said on the day of al-Ahzab (the
battle of the clans), "May Allah fill their graves and houses with fire, as they kept us pre-
occupied from the "mid-most" prayer until the sun had set." [Related by al-Bukhari and
Muslim. Muslim, Abu Dawud and Ahmad have "the afternoon prayer" inserted after "the
mid-most" prayer."]

Explaining the context of this hadith, Ibn Mas'ud said, "The idol-worshippers kept the
Prophet from the afternoon prayer until the sun had become reddish and yellowish. The
Messenger of Allah said, "They kept us preoccupied from the "mid-most" prayer, the
afternoon prayer--may Allah fill their bellies and graves with fire."' [Related by Ahmad,
Muslim, and Ibn Majah].

02.08.04
The Time for the Sunset Prayer (Maghrib)
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 85a]

The time for the sunset prayer begins with the disappearance of the sun and lasts until the
red twilight ends. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
said, "The time for the sunset prayer is when the sun has disappeared and the twilight has
not gone." [Related by Muslim.]

Abu Musa related that a man asked the Prophet about the prayer times, and he
mentioned the hadith which states that he ordered the sunset prayer when the sun had set
and, on the next day, he prayed it when the red twilight was ending and he said, "The
time (for the sunset prayer) is between these two times."

An-Nawawi says in his commentary on Sahih Muslim, "It is the opinion of the
research scholars of our companions (the Shaf'iyyah) that ... it is allowed to delay it as
long as it is twilight. It is allowed to begin the prayer at any time during that period.
There is no sin in delaying it from its earliest time." Concerning the earlier quoted hadith
in which Gabriel led the prayers and prayed the sunset prayer at the same time on both
days, it only shows that it is greatly preferred to perform the sunset prayer as early as
possible. This point is made clear by some other hadith:

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As-Sa'ib ibn Yazid related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said,
"My nation will always be along the natural path as long as they pray the sunset prayer
before the stars appear." [Related by Ahmad and At-Tabarani].

In Ahmad's Musnad it is related from Abu Ayyub al-Ansari that the Prophet said,
"Pray the sunset prayer when the fasting person breaks his fast and when the stars are
about to appear."

In Sahih Muslim it is related from Rafa' ibn Khadeej that "We prayed the sunset
prayer with the Messenger of Allah, and one of us would leave (afterwards) and would
still be able to see where he shot his arrow, (because there was still so much light left in
the sky)."

In Sahih Muslim it is recorded from Salamah ibn al-Aku' that the Messenger of
Allah, upon whom be peace, would pray the sunset prayer when the sun had set and
disappeared ( behind the horizon).

02.08.05
The Time of the Night Prayer ('Isha):
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 86]

This prayer begins when the red twilight disappears and continues up to half of the night.
Reported Hadrat 'Aishah(ra), "They used to pray the night prayer between the
disappearance of the twilight and the final third of the night's beginning." [Related by al-
Bukhari.]

Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "If it
were not to be a hardship upon my nation, I would order them to delay the night prayer
until a third or a half of the night had passed." [Related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah and at-
Tirmizhi, who said it is sahih.]

Reported Abu Sa'eed, "Once, we waited for the Messenger of Allah to lead the night
prayer until half the night had passed, at which time he came and prayed with us. He said,
'Stay in your places of sitting while the people have gone to their places of lying down
(for sleep), for you are in prayer as long as you are waiting for the prayer. If it were not
for the weakness of the weak, the illness of the ill and the need of those who have needs,
I would have delayed the time of this prayer to a half of the night."

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As to the authenticity of this report, (it is recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn
Majah, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Khuzaimah. Its chain is sahih). The hadith describes the
best time to pray. As for the allowable time and the time due to need, it lasts until dawn.

Abu Qatadah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "There
is no negligence in sleeping, but the negligence lies in not praying a prayer until the time
of the next prayer has come." [Related by Muslim.]

This hadith shows that the time of every prayer continues until the beginning of the time
for the next prayer, except for the morning prayer, as all scholars agree that its time lasts
only until sunrise.

Delay is Preferred in the Isha Prayer:


[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 87]

It is most virtuous to delay the night prayer until the end of the preferred time for it,
which is half the night.

Reported 'Aishah, "One night the Prophet, upon whom be peace, prayed the night
prayer after most of the night had gone and most of the people in the mosque had fallen
aleep. Then he came out, prayed, and said, "This would be the proper time if it were not a
hardship on my nation."' [Related by Muslim and an-Nasa'i].

The Prophet, upon whom be peace, did not do this on a regular basis, as he heard that it
would be a hardship on his nation. He would take into consideration the situation of those
in the mosque. Sometimes he would hasten in performing the prayer and at other times he
would delay it.

Said Jabir, "The Messenger of Allah would pray the noon prayer during the hottest time
of noon, the afternoon prayer when the sun was clear, the sunset prayer when the sun had
gone down, and the night prayer he would sometimes delay and sometimes hasten if he
found people gathered (in the mosque). If he noticed that they were lingering, he would
delay it. He would pray the morning prayer while it was still dark." [Related by al-
Bukhari and Muslim.]

Sleeping Before the Night Prayer Is Forbidden:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 88]

One should not sleep before the night prayer, nor have discussions after it.

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Abu Barza al-Aslami related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, loved to delay the
night prayer (which was called darkness, al-'atmah) and he hated sleeping before it and
talking or discussions after it." (Related by "the group.") In another saying by Ibn Mas'ud,
it is reported, "The Messenger of Allah ordered us not to talk after the night prayer."
[Related by Ibn Majah.]

The reasons behind this are: sleep may make a person miss the night prayer in its best
time, or it may cause him to miss the congregational prayer, and talking and socializing
afterwards would cause one to misappropriate a time from which he could greatly benefit.
If one wants to sleep and has someone to wake him up, or he is discussing a beneficial
matter, then it is not disliked.

Said Ibn 'Umar, "The Prophet would discuss with Abu Bakr some of the affairs of the
Muslims during the night, and I was with him." [Related by Ahmad and at-Tirmizhi, who
said it is hassan.]

Reported Ibn 'Abbas, "I slept in the home of Maimunah one night when the Prophet,
upon whom be peace, was there. I watched to see how the Prophet prayed during the
night. He talked with his wife for a while and then slept." [Related by Muslim.]

03.00.00
Daily Five Obligatory Prayers
is the Basic duties of a Muslim
Basic duties have been declared to the Prophet (pbuh) through the Archangel Gabriel.
However, the five compulsory daily prayers were directly presented to the Prophet (pbuh)
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on the night of Mir’aj, the miraculous journey of the Prophet (pbuh) to the heavens. At
first, it was fifty daily prayers, but when Prophet Moses (pbuh) told Prophet Muhammad
(pbuh) that:

“ – O Messenger of Allah! I unsuccessfully tried this on the Sons of Israel before you.
Your people cannot bear that responsibility either!”

The Prophet (pbuh), that night, appealed to Allah five times to reduce it to five daily
prayers.

Prophet Moses (pbuh), again, told Prophet Muhammad (pbuh): “ – They cannot bear the
five daily ones either!” The Prophet answered: “ – I have no face to appeal to Allah
anymore!” And it was, then, determined to be five times a day.

However, Allah showed Mercy due to the appeal of the Prophet (pbuh), and also
announced good news to the Prophet (pbuh) as well as reducing it to five daily ones:
“O the Prophet! Allah (pbuh) abides by His word. You will get reward of fifty for the
five.” (Ibn Maja, Ikametu’s-Salah, 194).

The Prophet tells his people about the five daily prayers:

“Allah said: ‘I enjoined the five daily prayers on your people. There is a pledge by Me. I
will surely place those who perform the five daily prayers in time into the paradise. And
there is no pledge by Me to those who do not keep these prayers.’” (Ibn Maja, Ikametu’s-
Salah, 194).

It is stated in another saying of the Prophet (pbuh):

“Allah enjoined the five daily prayers on His servants. Allah assures those who faithfully
do these prayers of paradise on the Day of Judgment. Yet, Allah does not assure those
who do these prayers lightly, without care and have defects in the manner of its
performance; Allah deals with them as He wishes, either punishes them, or forgives
them.” (Ibn Maja, Ikametu’s-Salah, 194).

The Prophet (pbuh) asked the following question to the companions to explain to them
the importance of the five daily prayers: “ – If one of you has a river next to his door,
and he washed himself five times a day in this river, do you think that person can have a
scrap of dirt on his body?” The Companions answered: “ – No dirt will remain on that
person.” The Prophet went on: “Five daily prayers function in the same way. Allah
deletes sins through five daily prayers.” (Bukhari, Mawaqit, 6).

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The Prophet (pbuh) announced the following good news in several sayings as well:
“If deadly sins are avoided, the five daily prayers and the Friday congregational prayers
are considered to be redemptions for minor sins committed between them. And this is
valid for all times.” [Muslim, Taharat, 14].

“If a Muslim makes ablution when the time for prayer is due, and does the prayer in pious
reverence, this prayer redeems his previous sins. And this is valid for all times.” [Muslim,
Taharat, 7]

It must be stated here that the five daily prayers are all-important. There is a wisdom
behind their being at different times of the day. The way they are divided is good for
humans both bodily and spiritually. Therefore, one should be serious about performing
each one of them with sincerity. Allah says in the Qur’an:

﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫حو‬ُ ِ ‫صششب‬
ْ ُ‫ن ت‬ َ ‫حيشش‬ ِ َ‫ن و‬
َ ‫سششو‬ ُ ‫م‬ْ ُ‫ن ت‬
َ ‫حيشش‬ ِ ِ‫ن الّلششه‬ َ ‫حا‬ ُ َ‫ف‬
َ ْ ‫سششب‬
‫ش شّيا‬
ِ َ ‫ض وَع‬ ‫ر‬ َ ‫ت واْل‬ ِ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ش‬ ‫س‬ ‫ال‬ ‫شي‬ ‫ش‬ِ ‫ف‬ ُ ‫د‬ ‫ش‬ ‫م‬ ‫ح‬
َ ْ ‫ه ال‬ ‫ش‬َ ‫﴾ وَل‬30:17
ِ ْ َ َ َ ّ ْ ُ
﴾30:18﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ن ت ُظ ْهُِرو‬ َ ‫حي‬ِ َ‫و‬
“So (give) glory to Allah, when you reach eventide and when you rise in the morning; To
him be praise, in the heavens and on earth; and in the late-afternoon and when the day
begins to decline.” (Ar-Rum 30:17-18).

Abdullah ibn Abbas regards these verses as covering the five daily prayers and says:
“The words ‘when you rise in the morning’ refers to the morning prayer;
The words ‘in the late afternoon’ refers to the noon-prayer;
The words ‘the day begins to decline’ refers to the late-noon prayer;
The words ‘when you reach eventide’ refers to the evening and late-night prayer.”

There are other verses in the Qur’an referring to the obligatory prayers.

Saphiri attachs great importance to the five daily prayers and describes the condition of
those who do not offer them as follows:
“The angels call to those who give up the morning prayer as ‘O the great sinner!’;
‘Those who give up the noon-prayer as ‘O deprived one!’
‘Those who give up the late-noon prayer as ‘O rebel’
‘Those who give up the evening prayer as ‘O ungrateful one!’
‘Those who give up the late-evening prayer as ‘O loser!’...”

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01. Fard (compulsory) Salah


A Muslim must pray five times a day. The compulsory prayers are called Fard in
Arabic.

Each unit of a prayer is called a Rak'ah. The Fard prayers are:

Fajr 2 Rak'ahs

Dhuhr 4 Rak'ahs

Asr 4 Rak'ahs

Maghrib 3 Rak'ahs

Isha' 4 Rak'ahs

Friday Jumu'ah 2 Rak'ahs (in place of Dhuhr on Fridays)

02. Shortening Prayers:


If you are traveling, then you should shorten the 4 Rak'ah prayer to a 2 Rak'ah prayer
(Dhuhr, Asr, and Isha'). Also Dhuhr and Asr can be prayed right after each other, as well
as, Maghrib and Isha'. [See details in Chapter: 01.09.00]

03. Sunnah Salah(Prayers) before or after Fard:


On the other hand, the ways and regulations of prayer, and also the additional prayers
(sunnah ) that the Prophet (pbuh) always performed or the ones he usually did, should be
attentively observed. These are essential parts of the five daily prayers besides the
optional ones throughout the day.There are many narratives attributed to the Prophet
(pbuh) in this regard:

03a. Sunnah Muakkadah


(2 raka'hs sunnah before 2 raka'hs fard of Salatul Fajr)
“The two units(raka'hs) of Sunnah of morning prayer (Salatul Fajr) is more
beneficial than the world and also all the creation in the world.” [Muslim, Salat al-
Musafirin, 96]

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03b. Sunnah Muakkadah


(4 raka'hs before and 2 raka'hs after the 4 raka'hs fard of Salatul Zuhr):
“The Prophet used to pray four units before the obligatory four units(raka'hs) of the
noon-prayer(Salatul Zuhr), and he also used to pray two units after that.” [Tirmizi,
Cuma, 66]

03c. Sunnah Ghair Muakkadah


(4 raka'hs Sunna before 4 raka'hs fard of Salatul Asr):
“May Allah show mercy to those who pray four units before the obligatory units of
the late-afternoon prayer(Salatul Asr).” [Tirmizi, Salat, 201]

03d. Sunnah Muakkadah


(2 raka'hs Sunnah after 3 raka'hs fard of Salatul Maghrib):
“Hurry up to pray the two units of sunnah prayer after the three obligatory units of
evening prayer(Salatul Maghrib) as it is uplifted together with the obligatory units.”
[Rezin]

03e. Sunnah Ghair Muakkadah


(4 raka'hs Sunnah before 4 raka'hs fard of Salatul Isha):
The following narrative is said to refer to the four extra units(raka'hs) before the
late-night(Salatul Isha) prayer:
“There is a prayer between the call to prayer(adhan) and the call for the beginning of
the obligatory units(iqamat).” [Bukhari, Azan, 16]

03f. Sunnah Muakkadah


And the two extra units(2 raka'hs) after the obligatory units of the late evening
prayer(Salatul Isha) is known to have been done by the Prophet routinely.

04. Sunnah (optional) Salah:


Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) performed extra prayers voluntarily in addition to Fard
prayers. These prayers are called Sunnah prayers. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) always
prayed two Rak'ahs before the Fard of Fajr and three Rak'ahs after the Fard of Isha even
when on a journey. The one, three, five, seven, or nine Rak'ahs after Isha are called Witr
(odd number).

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The Sunnah prayers are as follows:


Fajr 2 Rak'ahs before Fard.
Dhuhr 4 Rak'ahs before Fard and 2 Rak'ahs after.
Asr 4 Rak'ahs (less recommended) before Fard.
Maghrib 2 Rak'ahs after Fard.
Isha' 4 Rak'ahs (less recommended) before Fard
2 Rak'ahs after Fard.

The Sunnah prayers are normally offered individually and no Adhan or Iqamah is
needed for those extra prayers.

Witr Prayer: Wajib


Wajib: 1, 3,5,7, or 9 Rak'ahs of Witr. [This is related by Imam Tirmizi]

The witr prayer consists of three rak'ahs and is performed after the night prayer's final
sunnah. Its time ends with the end of the night prayer's time and the beginning of the
morning prayer's time.

The witr prayer commences with the statement of intention: "I intend to offer today's witr
prayer for the sake of Allah." It is normally performed in two rak'ahs. After the pause in a
sitting position at the end of the two rak'ahs and reciting the tahiyyat, one rises for a third
rak'ah. After reciting the Bismillah, Surat al-Fatiha, and several Qur'anic verses, the
Takbir position is assumed, "Allahu akbar" is said with the hands folded together, and
then the du'ah qunut are offered. The words "Allahu akbar" are spoken while moving on
to the ruku' and sajdah positions. One then sits down, recites the tahiyyat, salli-barik, and
rabbana du'ahs, and then turns his or her head to the right and then to the left. [Ibn
Abidin, Radd al-Mukhtar, [Egypt: 1966], 2:5]

The witr prayer is not mentioned in the Qur'an; however, it does appear in various
hadiths, some of which are as follows:

"Allah is single and loves what is single, so observe the witr, O you who follow the
Qur'an." [Sahih al-Bukhari; Sahih Muslim; al-Tirmidhi; and Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 8,
Number 1411]

"Allah the Exalted has given you an extra prayer that is better for you then the red camels
(i.e., high breed camels). This is the witr, which Allah has appointed for you between the
night prayer and the daybreak." [Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 8, Number 1413]

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05. Prayer(Salah) in Time:


One of the most important aspects of prayer is to do it in time. Whenever the Prophet
(pbuh) was asked: “What is the most virtuous worship?” He answered: “The prayer that
is performed in time.” [Bukhari, Mawakitu’s-Salah, 5]

So it is preferable to offer prayers as soon as their time is due. The Prophet (pbuh) says in
this regard: “Allah is pleased with those who offer prayers in their due time, but He
forgives those who do them towards the end of the time.” (Cam’u’l-Fawaid, I, 163).

06. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) performed


Sunnah Prayers before or after the Fard Salah
[Has taken from Prophet's Prayer: Allama Hafez Ibnul Qayyim]

(01) How many raka'hs he performed before or after the Fard?

Prophet (pbuh) at the time of Muqim performed regularly 10 Raka'hs of Sunnah Salah.
"Abdullah Ibn Umr(ra) relates that these 10 Raka'hs Sunnah before and after the Fard I
memorized in my heart. He (Prophet saws) performed:

2 Raka'hs Sunnah before Salatul Zuhr;

2 Raka'hs Sunnah after Salatul Zuhr;

2 Raka'hs Sunnah after Salatul Maghrib

2 Raka'hs Sunnah after Salatul Isha

2 Raka'hs Sunnah beforer Salatul Fajr." [Bukhari and Muslim]

Without in Travels Prophet(saws) always performed these Sunnah Salah.

Imam Muslim relates in his Sahih from the narration of Ummul Mu'minin Umme
Habiba. Umme Habiba(ra) said: "I heard to Prophet's(saws) saying: A building will be
made for him, who performed the extra 12 Raka'hs daily other than the Obligatory Fard
Salah."[This is related by Imam Tirmizi], and he added these words also:

4 Raka'hs Sunnah before Salatul Zuhr;

2 Raka'hs Sunnah after Salatul Zuhr;

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2 Raka'hs Sunnah after Salatul Maghrib

2 Raka'hs Sunnah after Salatul Isha

2 Raka'hs Sunnah beforer Salatul Fajr."

"Abdullah Ibn Shakik said, I asked Ummul Mu'minin A'isha regarding the Nafl of
Prophet(saws), in response she said: Prophet(saws) performed 4 Raka'hs Sunnah before
Salatul Zuhr at my place; Then went to the mosque and performed Fard Salah with the
people, then he returned at my place and performed 2 Raka'hs Sunnah; He performed
2 Raka'hs Sunnah at my place after performed Salatul Maghrib with the people at the
mosque; He performed 2 Raka'hs Sunnah at my place after performed Salatul Isha with
the people in the mosque; And performed 2 Raka'hs Sunnah at my place beforer Salatul
Fajr."

Prophet(saws) gave importance of performing 2 Raka'hs Sunnah beforer Salatul Fajr and
importance of Salatul-witr other than all nafl(sunnah).

07. 4 Raka'hs or 2 Raka'hs Sunnah


before Salatul Zuhr?
[Has taken from Prophet's Prayer: Allama Hafez Ibnul Qayyim]

It has been found two kinds of informations regarding numbers of Raka'hs before Salatul
Zuhr. We have been confirmed from the narration of Abdullah Ibn 'Umar, Prophet(saws)
performed 2 Raka'hs Sunnah before Salatul Zuhr; and from the narration of Hadrat A'isha
and Umme Habiba(ra), he performed 4 Raka'hs Sunnah before Salatul Zuhr.

Prophet(saws) performed both of these kinds of Raka'hs, so both informations are correct
and Sahih.

It may be fact that these 4 Raka'hs are not Sunnah of Zuhr but extra Salah and He
performed these 4 Raka'hs after the sun became little bit down from the orbit. It has been
found the same opinion regarding this from different Hadiths. i.e.

In Musnade Ahmad, Abdullah Ibn Sayeb narrated. He said, "Prophet(saws)


performed 4 Raka'hs Salah after the sun became little bit down from the orbit." He said,
the time after the sun became little bit down from the orbit is like this, All the doors of
the Sky being opened at that time, this is why I like that some of my good deeds(best
A'mal) must be flowed up."

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In all the Books of Sunane it has been mentioned from Hadrat A'isha that, If by any
means Propeht(saws) missed the 4 Raka'hs Sunnah before Salatul Zuhr, then he
performed it after Salatul Zuhr.

Related in in Ibn Mazah, if he mised missed the 4 Raka'hs Sunnah before Salatul Zuhr,
then he performed it after Salatul Asr.

In Tirmizi, narrated form Hadrat Ali(ra), it has been mentioned regarding the 4
Raka'hs Sunnah before Salatul Zuhr and 2 Raka'hs Sunnah after Salatul Zuhr.

In Ibn Majah, narrated from Hadrat A'isha(ra), "Prophet(saws) performed 4 Raka'hs


Sunnah before Salatul Zuhr. He performed Qiyam long time and deed the Ruku-Sijdah
perfectly(for long time)."

Abdullah Ibn 'Umr(ra) Said, "Sunnah of Salatul Zuhr actually 2 Raka'hs."

There is a similarity of this 2 Raka'hs with other 2 Raka'hs Sunnah.

Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud performed 8 Raka'hs after the sun becoming little bit down from
the Orbit. he said, The value of this Salah is equivalent to the Salatul Tahajjud.

Allah knows best.

08. Is there any Salah before Maghrib?


[Has taken from Prophet's Prayer: Allama Hafez Ibnul Qayyim]

Anas(ra) narrated that When Muazzin Give Adhan for Salatul Maghrib in Madina,
people started to go to the pole of the mosque and performed 2 Raka'hs Sunnah. So
many people have been performing Salah that suddenly if anyone would come, he think
that Salatul Jama'at may finished.[Sahih Muslim]

Marshad Ibn Abdullah(ra) has related. He said, Once I came to Ukba Ibn A'mer Al-
Juhani(ra). I asked him,can I tell you a strange talk about Abu Tamim? That was, he
performed 2 Raka'hs before Salatul Maghrib.' Hearing my talk, Ukba said, we performed
this 2 Raka'hs at the time of Prophet(saws). I asked, why not performed now? He said,
because I'm busy now."[Sahih Al-Bukhari]

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04.00.00
Salatul Jumu'ah (the Friday Prayer)
The Friday Prayer (Jumu^ah)

Friday is the best day of the week.

The Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said:

Khayru yawmin tala^at ^alayhish-shamsu yawmul-jumu^ah. Fihi khuliqa Adam, wa fihi


udkhilal-jannah, wa fihi ukhrija minha.

Which means: “Friday is the best day on which the Sun ever rose. In it Adam was
created, admitted into Paradise, and taken out of it.” (Narrated by Muslim.)

Allah, ta^ala, made it obligatory to pray the Friday prayer (Jumu^ah) during this day. As
a result, the Muslims in all the different countries gather in the main masjid of their town
to pray this prayer.

The Friday Prayer (Jumu^ah) is a personal obligation upon the free, residing, pubescent,
and unexcused males. (Among what is considered an Islamic excuse is for the person to
be sick in a way that going to the mosque is a serious hardship on him.)

It is an obligation to pray the Friday Prayer (Jumu^ah) in congregation (jama^ah) if the


free, pubescent, and unexcused male inhabitants are forty (40) in number and living in
buildings, not in tents.

The Friday Prayer is also obligatory upon the men who intend to stay in the town of
Jumu^ah for four whole days, excluding the day of entry and the day of exit, and upon
those who reside out of the town, but can hear the resounding call of a person who is
standing at its edge closest to them.

The Friday Prayer is two rak^ahs instead of the Dhuhr prayer. It is performed in
congregation and preceded by two speeches that the imam gives. The Friday Prayer has
other conditions that must be satisfied to be valid. Similarly, the two speeches have
integrals and conditions.

The Conditions of the Friday Prayer:

1- The setting in of Dhuhr prayer time.


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2- The two speeches must be heard by the forty men.

3- The prayer has to have been performed in congregation by the forty inhabitants.

4- Another Jumu^ah Prayer must not be performed simultaneously in the same town. If
the opening Allahu akbar of one prayer preceded that of another, the former would be
valid and the latter would be invalid. However, if it was hard for the people to meet in
one place, then in as many places as was needed, the Prayers, both earlier and later,
would be valid.

Integrals of the Two Speeches:

1- To say al-hamdulillah in both speeches.

2- To perform the Salah ^alan-Nabiyy, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, in both speeches

3- To command the audience to be God-fearing (to have taqwa) in both speeches.

4- To recite an ayah that has a complete meaning in either of the two speeches (it is better
for this ayah to be in the first speech).

5- To say a supplication (du^a’ ) for the believers in the second speech.

The conditions of the two speeches:

1- Purification from both states of ritual impurity and from najas-filth on the body,
clothes, place, and what is carried by the speaker.

2- To cover the unlawful nakedness.

3- To stand up.

4- To sit between the two speeches.

5- To observe the succession without lengthy interruption between the integrals of the
two speeches, and between the two speeches and the prayer.

6- To say the integrals of the two speeches in Arabic. So if the speaker says the integrals
in Arabic and the rest in another language, the speeches are valid.

Apart from the five daily prayers there is also the obligatory Friday (Jumu’ah) prayer.
It is offered in congregation with a sermon on Fridays in place of the noon prayer. All

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adult male Muslims must take part except for travellers. It is not a must for women, but
they can join. It is said in the Qur’an about the importance of Friday prayer:

‫سفَعْوا ِإَلففى‬
ْ ‫جُمَعفِة َفا‬
ُ ‫ن َيفْوِم اْل‬ ْ ‫لِة ِم‬
َ‫ص‬ ّ ‫ي ِلل‬ َ ‫ن َآَمُنوا ِإَذا ُنوِد‬
َ ‫َيا َأّيَها اّلِذي‬
﴾62:9﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫ن ُكْنُتْم َتْعَلُمو‬ْ ‫خْيٌر َلُكْم ِإ‬
َ ‫ل َوَذُروا اْلَبْيَع َذِلُكْم‬ِّ ‫ِذْكِر ا‬
O you who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of
Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and
traffic): that is best for you if you but knew!” (Al-Jumu’ah 62: 9).

01. The virtues of Jumu'ah, Friday prayer:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.125a]

Friday (Jumu'ah) is the best day of the week.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "The
best day on which the sun rises is Friday. [On Friday] Adam was created and on that day
he entered paradise and on that day he was expelled from paradise. And the Hour will
come to pass on Friday." [This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and at-
Tirmizhi who calls it Sahih.]

Abu Lubanah al-Badri relates that the Prophet said: "The most prominent of the days
[lit. the leader of the days] is the day of Jumu'ah and the most honored in Allah's sight,
and it is more honored in Allah's sight than the day of breaking the fast or the day of
sacrifice. It has five significant merits: (i) Allah created Adam on this day; (ii) on this day
Allah sent Adam down to the earth; (iii) on this day, Allah caused Adam to die; (iv) on
this day, there is a time during which if anyone asks anything of Allah it will be granted
to him unless he asks for something which is forbidden; and (v) on this day, the Hour will
be established. There are no angels close to Allah or sky or earth or wind or mountain or
sea who are not worried concerning the day of Jumu'ah." [This is related by Ahmad and
Ibn Majah. Al-Iraqi says its chain is Hasan].

02. Supplications during Friday:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.125b]

One should do one's best to make supplications during the last


moments (or hours) of Jumu'ah.

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'Abdullah ibn Salam relates: "I said, and the Messenger of Allah was sitting: 'We find
in the Book of Allah that on Friday there is an 'hour' in which, if a believing slave prays
to Allah for something, his prayer is (indeed) accepted and he is granted what ever he
prays for.' The Messenger of Allah pointed toward me and said: 'Or part of an hour.' I
said: 'You have spoken the truth: or part of an hour.' I asked: 'What hour is it?' He replied:
'The last hour of the day.' I remarked: 'That is not a time of salah?' He responded:
'Certainly [it is]; if a believing slave offers salah and then sits, he will not be sitting, save
due to the salah, and he will be in salah."' [This is related by Ibn Majah.]

Abu Sa'id and Abu Hurairah report that the Messenger of Allah said: "On Jumu'ah
there is a time that if a believing slave asks Allah during it for some good, [Allah will
definitely] give it to him, and that time is after the 'Asr salah." [This is related by Ahmad.
Al-'Iraqi calls it Sahih.]

Jabir reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "The day of Jumu'ah has twelve hours,
and during one of the hours, you will not find a Muslim slave [of Allah] asking Allah for
something, but that He will give it to him. Seek it in the last hour after the 'Asr salah."
[This is related by anNasa'i, Abu Dawud, and by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, and he calls
it sahih according to Muslim's criteria. Ibn Hajar says that its chain is hasan.]

Abu Salamah ibn 'Abdur Rahman reports that some companions of the Prophet
gathered and mentioned the "hour on Jumu'ah." They left and did not differ on the fact
that it is the last hour of Jumu'ah. [This is related by Sa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan and
al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar calls it Sahih.]

Ahmad ibn Hanbal says: "Most of the hadith concerning the hour in which the
supplication is always responded to state the hour to be after the 'asr prayer, and some
state it to be after the sun passes the meridian."

There is a hadith recorded by Muslim and Abu Dawud which states that Abu Musa
heard the Messenger of Allah say concerning the special hour on Jumu'ah: "It is between
the time that the imam sits [i.e., upon the pulpit] and the time that the salah is completed."
All the same, this particular hadith is defective because its chain is broken and it is
mudtarib.

03. Making many prayers and


salutations upon the Prophet(saws)
during the night and the day of Jumu'ah:
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2, P.126]
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Aus ibn Aus reports that the Prophet said: "The most virtuous of your days is Jumu'ah.
On that day, Adam was created and on that day he died, (on that day) the horn will be
blown and the people will be dumbfounded! Increase your prayers upon me as your
prayers upon me will be presented to me." The people said: "O Messenger of Allah, how
will our prayers be presented to you when you have passed away?" He said: "Allah has
prohibited the earth from eating the bodies of the Prophets." [This is related by the five,
except for at-Tirmizhi.]

Ibn al-Qayyim says: "It is preferred to pray for (Allah's blessings on the Prophet during
the day and night of Jumu'ah as the Prophet said: 'Make many prayers upon me during
the day of Friday and the night of Friday.' The Messenger of Allah is the leader of
mankind, and Jumu'ah is the best of the days of the week. Prayers upon him during that
day are a privilege [he deserves] which belongs to no other. This act also has another
wisdom to it and that is that all of the good that has passed onto this [Muslim] ummah, in
this life and the hereafter, has passed through him. Allah has gathered the good of this life
and the next life for this ummah, and the greatest honor and success will be granted to
them on Friday. On that day, they will be granted their houses and palaces in paradise and
that is the day they will be given more when they enter paradise. It is a day of celebration
for them in this life. It is also a day in which Allah fulfills their needs and answers their
prayers and requests in this world. They are aware of all of that and are able to attain it
because of the Prophet and it is through him [that they received these teachings];
therefore, in gratitude and appreciation for the great blessings we received through him,
we should make many prayers upon him during the day and night of Jumu 'ah."

04. Recitation of Surah al-Kahf:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.127]

It is preferred to recite surah al-Kahf during the day and night of


Jumu'ah.

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on
Jumu'ah will have illumination from the light from one Jumu'ah to the next." [This is
related by an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and al-Hakim.]

Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah
will be blessed with a light that will rise from underneath his feet to the peak of the sky.
This will be a light for him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be forgiven for what
is between the Jumu'ah [and the next] Jumu'ah." [This is related by Ibn Mardwwiyah with
a faultless chain.]
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05. It is disliked to raise one's voice


while reciting al-Kahf in the mosque on Friday:
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.127a]

Shaikh Muhammad 'Abdu issued a verdict that mentioned reciting Surah al-Kahf aloud
among the many disliked matters on Friday. He also mentioned the following: singling
out Friday as a day of fasting, singling out its night as a night to perform salatul tahajjud,
reciting Surah al-Kahf during it with a specific manner of melody which disturbs those
who are offering salah, while the people in the mosque are not listening because of their
being engaged in conversation with others. Therefore, one should be careful about such a
recital.

06. Performing ghusl, beautifying one's self,


using the miswak, and using perfume for any
gathering and especially for Salatul Jumu'ah:
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.128]

It is preferred for anyone - man or woman, an elderly or young person, a traveler or a


resident - who desires to attend the salatul Jumu'ah or any gathering of the people, to
cleanse and to wear best attire. One should perform ghusl, put on one's finest clothing,
apply perfume, and to brush one's teeth. The following hadith are recorded on this matter:

Abu Sa'id reports that the Prophet said: "Every Muslim should have a ghusl on Friday
and wear his best clothing, and if he has perfume, he should use it." [This is related by
Ahmad, Al-Bukhari, and Muslim.]

Ibn Salam reports that he heard the Prophet say, while he was upon the pulpit on Friday:
"It would do no [harm] to anyone if he were to buy two gowns for Friday other than his
work clothes." [This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.]

Salman al-Farsi reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "A man who
performs ghusl on Friday, purifies [himself] what he can and uses dye [for his hair] or
perfumes himself in his house, goes to the mosque, and does not cause separation
between two people [who are already seated], prays what Allah has prescribed for him,
and then listens quietly while the imam speaks, all his sins between that Friday and the
next Friday will be forgiven." This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari, while Abu

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Hurairah used to say: "And for three more days as for every good deed Allah grants
tenfold reward." The sins mentioned in this hadith are the minor sins as Ibn Majah
recorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah in the words: "For one who has not
committed major sins."

Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that the Prophet said: "It is obligatory upon every
Muslim to perform ghusl, apply purfume and use the miswak on Jumu'ah.

Abu Hurairah reports that one Friday the Prophet said: "O gathering of Muslims, Allah
has made this day an 'id for you, so make ghusl and use the miswak." [This is related by
at-Tabarani in al-Ausat and al-Kabir with a chain whose narrators are trustworthy.]

07. Going early to Salatul Jumu'ah:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.129]

It is preferred for one to go early to the salatul Jumu'ah, unless he is


the imam. 'Alqamah says: "I went with 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud to the
mosque and we found that three people had arrived there before us.
[Ibn Mas'ud] said: 'The fourth of four, and the fourth of four is not far
from Allah, for I have heard the Messenger of Allah say: "The people
will be seated on the day of resurrection according to how they came
to the salatul Jumu'ah: the first, then the second, then the third, then
the fourth and the fourth of four is not far from Allah."' This is related
by Ibn Majah and al-Munzhiri.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever makes ghusl on Jumu'ah like the
ghusl one makes due to sexual defilement, and then goes to the mosque, it will be as if he
had sacrificed a camel. If he goes during the second hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed
a cow. If he goes during the third hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a horned lamb. If
he goes during the fourth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a hen. And if he goes
during the fifth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed (something like) an egg. When the
imam comes, the angels will be present to listen to the rememberance." [This is related by
the group, save Ibn Majah.]

Ash-Shaf'i and a number of scholars are of the opinion that the "hours" refer to the
hours of the day; therefore, it is preferred for the people to start attending the mosque
right after dawn. Malik is of the opinion that it refers to portions of the hour before the
sun passes its meridian and afterward. Some hold that it refers to portions of the hour
before the sun passes its meridian.
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Ibn Rushd says: "That is the most apparent meaning as going [to the mosque] after the
sun passes the meridian is obligatory."

08. Stepping over others' necks in the mosque:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.129a]

At-Tirmizhi reports that the people of knowledge dislike that one should "step over the
necks of the people" on Jumu'ah and they were very strict in this regard. 'Abdullah ibn
Busr says: "A man came and he was stepping over the necks of the people while the
Prophet was delivering khutbah of Jumu'ah. He said to him: 'Sit down. You have harmed
the people and have come late."' [This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ahmad, and
Ibn Khuzaimah, and others call it sahih.]

This ruling does not apply to the imam or one who finds an opening and cannot reach it,
save by going over the people. If one wants to return to his place after leaving it due to
some necessity, he may do so on the condition that he does not harm the people. 'Uqbah
ibn al-Harith relates: "I prayed the 'asr in Medinah behind the Prophet and then he stood
and hurried off, stepping over the people, to go to some of the apartments of his wives.
The people were afraid because of his rushing away in this manner. When he came out
and found them amazed at leaving them in such a hurry, he said: 'I remembered some
gold that was in my possession and I hated that it should remain with me, so I ordered it
to be distributed."' [This is related by al-Bukhari and an-Nasa'i.]

And when he returned he would make a similar supplication, but instead of saying: "from
seeing harm having come to our property and family," he would mention family first and
then property. [This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.]

09. Nawafl before salatul Jumu'ah:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.130]

It is a sunnah to offer supererogatory prayers before al-Jumu'ah until the imam arrives.
After the imam's arrival, one should no longer offer any salah, save for the prayer of
greeting the mosque (tahayyatul masjid) which may be performed quickly during the
khutbah unless one comes at the end of the khutbah and would not have the time [i.e.,
before the actual salah begins] to perform tahayyatul masjid.

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Ibn 'Umar used to perform a long prayer before al-Jumu'ah and then two rak'at after it,
and he said that the Prophet used to do so. [This is related by Abu Dawud.]

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever makes
ghusl on the day of Jumu'ah and then goes to the mosque and prays what has been
prescribed for him, and remains quiet while the imam delivers the khutbah, and then
prays with the imam, he will have forgiven for him what is between that Jumu'ah and the
next and an additional three days." [This is related by Muslim.]

Jabir reports that a man came to the mosque on Jumu'ah while the Prophet was
delivering the khutbah. The Prophet inquired of him: "Did you offer the salah?" The man
replied: "No!" He told him: "Pray two rak'at." [This is related by the group.]

In one narration it states: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu'ah
and the imam is delivering the khutbah, he should pray two rak'at and make them quick."
[This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud.]

In another narration, it is stated: "If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of
Jumu'ah and the imam has already arrived, he should offer two rak'at." [This is related by
al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

10. Feeling drowsy while in the mosque:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.130a]

It is preferred for one who is in the mosque to change place if he feels sleepy. The
movement may remove some of his drowsiness and help wake him up. This rule is true
for Fridays and any other day.

Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "If one of you
becomes sleepy while he is in the mosque, he should move from his place to another
place." [This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it
hasan Sahih.]

11. The Friday prayer as an obligation:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.131]

The scholars are in agreement that salatul Jumu'ah is an individual obligation and it is
two rak'at. Allah says in the Qur'an: "O you who believe, when the call for the salah of

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Jumu'ah is proclaimed, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah, and leave off business
(and trading). That is best for you if you but knew."

The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadith recorded by al-
Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: "We are the last [of the
people to come] but the first on the day of resurrection. They received their books before
us and we got ours after them. This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed
concerning it, and Allah guided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow
and the Christians the day after tomorrow."

Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet noticed some people staying away from al-Jumu'ah
and said: "I had the notion to order someone to lead the people in prayer, and then to go
and burn the houses of those who stayed away from al-Jumu'ah." [This is related by
Ahmad and Muslim.]

Abu Hurairah and Ibn 'Umar report that they heard the Prophet sallallahu alehi
wasallam say: "Those who are not attending the Friday salah should change their ways;
otherwise, Allah, the Exalted, will seal their hearts and they will be reckoned the
heedless." [This is related by Muslim, and by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i from ibn 'Umar and
ibn 'Abbas.]

Abu al-Ja'd ad-Damari reports that the Prophet said: "Whoever misses three Friday
prayers in a row out of negligence will have a seal put over his heart by Allah." This is
related by the five, and Ahmad and Ibn Majah have something similar from Jabir, while
Ibn as-Sakin has graded it to be sahih.

12. Upon whom salatul Jumu'ah is obligatory:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2, P.131a]

Salatul Jumu'ah is an obligation upon every free, adult, sane, resident Muslim who has
the ability to attend the salah and does not have a valid excuse to miss it. Salatul Jumu'ah,
however, is not obligatory on the following:

(01) Women and children. Concerning this category there is no difference of opinion.

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(02) The person who is ill and faces hardship if he goes to the mosque, or who fears that
his illness will be increased by going to the mosque, or whose recovery will be delayed.
This also includes the person who is nursing a very ill person if, especiallay, the ill person
cannot manage in the absence of the nursing person.

Tariq ibn Shihab reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Al-Jumu'ah
is a duty upon every Muslim in the community, save four: a slave, or a woman, or a child,
or a person who is ill."

An-Nawawi says that its chain is sahih according to the conditions set by al-Bukhari and
Muslim. Ibn Hajr says that more than one person has graded it sahih.

(03) For the traveler, even if he is staying at a certain place during the time of the
beginning of salatul Jumu'ah, it is not obligatory. This is based on the fact that the
Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam traveled and did not perform the salatul Jumu'ah but
only prayed the Zuhr and 'Asr together during the time of the Zuhr prayers. The caliphs
after him and others also acted in a similar manner.

(04) One who is in debt and cannot repay his debt and therefore fears that he will be
imprisoned, and one who fears that he will be harmed by an oppressive ruler:

Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever hears the
call to the salah and does not respond to it [i.e.,by coming to the salah], there will be no
prayer for him unless he has an excuse." The people inquired: "O Messenger of Allah,
what is a [valid] excuse?" He answered: "Fear or illness." [This is related by Abu Dawud
with a sahih chain.]

(05) Environmental restraints like rain, mud, extreme cold, and so on.

Ibn 'Abbas said to the mu'azhzhin on a rainy day: "When you say 'I testify that
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,' do not say 'Come to the prayer,' but say 'Pray in
your houses."' The people objected to that and he told them: "One better than me did so
[the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam]. Al-Jumu'ah is an obligation but I dislike that you
should go out walking in the mud and slush."

Abi Malih reports that his father had witnessed the day of Jumu'ah with the Prophet and
it was raining and the people were troubled by their shoes so he ordered them to pray in
their stopping places. [This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.]

All of these people are not obliged to pray the Friday salah although they are obliged to
pray the zuhr. Should one of them pray salatul Jumu'ah, it will still be valid for him or her

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and he will no longer be obliged to pray the zuhr. And the women during the time of the
Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, attended the mosque and used to pray al-Jumu'ah with
him.

13. The Time of the Salatul Jumu'ah:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2, P.132]

The majority of the companions and successors were of the opinion that the time of al-
Jumu'ah is the same as that of the zuhr. Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and
alBaihaqi record from Anas that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would pray al-
Jumu'ah when the sun had passed its meridian. Ahmad and Muslim record that Salamah
ibn al-Akua' said: "We would pray salatul Jumu'ah with the Prophet when the sun had
passed the meridian, and when we returned [from the salah], we would be following our
shadow." Al-Bukhari says: "The time of al-Jumu'ah is when the sun passes its meridian."
Similar narrations have been recorded from 'Umar, 'Ali, an-Nu'man ibn Bashir, and
'Umar ibn Harith. Ash-Shaf'i says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, Abu Bakr,
'Umar, 'Uthman, and the imams after them all prayed the Jumu'ah when the sun had
passed its zenith."

The scholars of the Hanbali school and Ishaq are of the opinion that the time for al-
Jumu'ah is from the beginning of the time for salatul 'id to the end of the time for the
zuhr. They base their opinion on Ahmad, Muslim, and an-Nasa'i who record from Jabir:
"The Prophet would pray alJumu'ah and then we would take our camels to rest until the
sun passed its zenith." This hadith clearly states that they prayed al-Jumu'ah before the
sun passed the meridian. They also cited as proof the hadith of 'Abdullah ibn Saidan as-
Salmi who said: "We prayed al-Jumu'ah with Abu Bakr, and his khutbah and salah were
before noon. Then we prayed with 'Uthman and his khutbah and salah lasted until after
the sun had passed the meridian, and no one scolded either for it." [This is related by
Ahmad, who cites it as a proof, and by ad-Daraqutni.]

Ahmad adds: "And [something] similar to that has been related from ibn Mas'ud, Jabir,
Sa'id, and Mu'awiyyah. They all prayed before the sun passed the meridian and no one
objected to what they did, and that was the consensus. The majority of the scholars,
however, interpret the hadith of Jabir as implying that one should pray the salah early in
its time, when the sun has passed the meridian, and not wait until the weather gets cool.
The prayer and the resting of the camels was right after the sun passed the meridian.

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As to the report from 'Abdullah ibn Saidan, these scholars consdier it weak. Ibn Hajar
writes about him: 'He is one of the major tabi'in [i.e., of the generation after the
companions], and his integrity is not well-established.

'Adi says: "He is somewhat majhul, i.e. unknown as a trustworthy person." Bukhari
observes. "His report is not to be trusted, especially when he is contradicted by people
who are more credible (qawi) than him as Ibn abi Shaibah relates from Suwaid ibn
Ghaflah that the later prayed with Abu Bakr and 'Umar after the sun had passed the
meridian and its chain is strong. "'

14. The number of people required for al-Jumu'ah:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.133]

There is no dispute among the scholars that a congregation is a necessary condition for
the validity of al-Jumu'ah. This is based on the hadith of Tariq ibn Shihab who reports
that the Prophet said: "Al-Jumu 'ah is an obligation ( wajib) upon every Muslim in the
community." However, the scholars do differ on how many people are required for al-
Jumu'ah. There are fifteen different opinions on this question and they are mentioned by
Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari. The strongest opinion is that salatul Jumu'ah is valid if there are
two or more people present since the Prophet is reported to have said: "Two or more
constitute a congregation."

Ash-Shaukani says: 'The other prayers are considered to be made in congregation if


there are two people present. The same applies to Jumu'ah salah, unless there is a reason
for it to be different. There is no evidence to show that [for the purpose of the
congregation] its number should be larger than that for the other prayers.

'Abdul Haqq says: 'There is no confirmed hadith on the number of people needed for al-
Jumu'ah.' Similarly, as-Sayuti holds: 'There is no confirmed hadith which states a
particular number [for the Jumu'ah salah].'" [This is also the opinion of at-Tabari, Dawud,
an-Nakha'i, and Ibn Hazm.]

15. The place for Al-Jumu'ah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.134]

It is valid to perform the Jumu'ah salah in any country, city, mosque, any building in a
city, or in any space in a city as it also is valid to have it performed in more than one
place. 'Umar wrote the following to the people of Bahrain: "Offer the Jumu'ah salah

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wherever you may be." [This is related by Ibn abi Shaibah. Ahmad holds its chain to be
good. This includes both the cities and countryside.]

Ibn 'Abbas says: "The first Friday salah that was performed in Islam, after the Friday
salah in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam in Medinah, was
in Jawa'i, a village in Bahrain." [This is related by al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.]

Al-Laith ibn Sa'd reports that the people of Egypt and of the surrounding sea-shore
would perform the Jumu'ah salah during the time of 'Umar and 'Uthman according to
their orders. Some of the companions of the Prophet attended jumu'ah prayer with them.
Ibn 'Umar saw the people in the areas between Makkah and Medinah performing the
Jumu'ah prayers, and he did not object to their action. [This is related by 'Abdurrazzaq
with a sahih chain.]

16. Conditions Stipulated by


The Jurists for the Friday Prayer
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.134a]

Some of the conditions under which the jumu'ah salah becomes obligatory have already
been mentioned (i.e., it is obligatory for a free, sane, adult male resident who does not
have a valid excuse which would excuse him from attending the prayer). It was also
mentioned that a congregation is a condition for the Friday salah. This is what the sunnah
of the Prophet teaches us and what Allah holds us responsible for. Concerning the other
stipulations which some of the jurists stipulate for the Jumu'ah salah, none of them has
any basis to which we may refer, or any evidence to support it. It will be sufficient here to
simply quote the author of ar-Raudah anNadiyah who writes:

[The Friday salah] is like the rest of the prayers and there is nothing in it that differs from
them, unless there is some evidence to the contrary. This statement refutes those who
stipulate, as a necessary conditions for Friday prayer, the presence of a well-established
imam and a congregational mosque in the area as well as a certain number of people
attending the congregational prayer. There is no evidence whatever that those conditions
are even preferred - not to speak of being obligatory, or for that matter, being a necessary
condition for the Friday salah. If two people pray the Jumu'ah in a place where there is no
one else but them, they would have performed their prescribed duty. If one of them
delivers the khutbah, they would be following what is sunnah; and if they leave the
khutbah, then it is only the sunnah which they have neglected, (not something which was
obligatory). But for the hadith of Tariq ibn Shihab which clearly requires every Muslim
to offer it in congregation and the fact that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always

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performed it in a congregation, offering it individually, like the rest of the prayers, would
have been quite acceptable. Concerning the statement "from four people to the ruler of
the area," that is certainly not the Prophet's statement nor of any of his companions... In
fact, [this is] a statement of al-Hassan al-Basri. As to various statements and
psuedojuristic opinions concerning this noble worship, the Friday prayer, which Allah
has prescribed once a week as one of the signs of Islam, a little consideration should
suffice to show their superfluity and error. One of these is the amazing statement that
khutbah is equivalent to two rak'at of salah, and if one misses it, then his jumu'ah is not
valid. They seem to be quite ignorant of what has been related from the Prophet through a
number of chains which support each other that "if a person misses one rak'ah, then he is
to perform another rak'ah and his salah would be completed." Have not other ahadith
reached them that are valid in such matters? Some say that one cannot perform the
Jumu'ah unless there are three people with the imam and others hold that four people are
needed, while yet others stipulate seven people! Still others say nine, and some think
twelve, twenty, thirty, and there are even some who think forty, fifty, seventy, and every
number that is between those numbers!

Some hold that many people have to be present without specifying a particular number,
while others state that al-Jumu'ah may only be performed in a city in which there is a
"congregational mosque." Some are convinced that there have to be so many thousand
people living in the area. Some hold that there has to be a congregational mosque and a
public restroom. Yet others propose that the prayer is not obligatory unless there is a
well-known and established imam; if such an imam cannot be found or if his credibility is
doubtful, then the Friday salah is neither obligatory nor legitimate....No such statement
can be found [in the book of Allah or in the sunnah] to support what they claim to be the
conditions or prerequisites of the Jumu'ah... Whoever comes with such gibberish must be
refuted for the only criterion is the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. As
Allah says in the Qur'an: "If you dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the
Messenger"; "The answer of the believers, when summoned to Allah and His Messenger,
in order that he may judge between them is no other than this: they say: "We hear and we
obey"; "But no, by thy Lord, they can have no (real) faith, until they make thee judge in
all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions, but
accept them with the fullest conviction." Those verses and others similar to them are the
clearest evidence that one must return to the rule of Allah and His Messenger if there is
any dispute. The rule of Allah is the Book of Allah. The rule of the Messenger, after his
passing away, is his sunnah and nothing other than that. Also, Allah did not endow any of
his slaves - even if he reaches the highest degree of knowledge and has accumulated what
no one else has - with the right to make any statement concerning this religion without
any authority from the Book or the Sunnah. Likewise, if a mujtahid (jurisconsult) should
take liberty of proposing an opinion without substantiating it, then it is not permissible

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for anyone to follow him in that, regardless of who he may be. I, as Allah knows, am
always greatly astonished by this type of writers and their writings which supposedly
provide guidance in one's creed and practice but which are filled with gibberish. This is
not limited to only some of the schools among the different schools of law, or only
certain areas from among the different areas, or only certain eras from among all of the
eras [it is found in all of these schools of law, areas, and eras]! In fact, the later people
follow the earlier people [in such things] as if they were following the umm al-kitab
[mother of the Book], although, [they follow] distorted teachings.

17. Ruling concerning khutbah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.137]

The majority of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that khutbahtul Jumu'ah is
obligatory and they support this by the confirmed hadith which state that the Prophet
always made the khutbah with the Jumu'ah. In their support they also quote the saying of
the Prophet: "Pray as you see me pray," and the Qur'anic verse: "O you who believe,
when the call is proclaimed for salatul jumu'ah, hasten unto the remembrance of Allah."
This verse contains an order to hasten unto the remembrance, which implies it is
obligatory, and (the scholars) interpret the remembrance of Allah to include the khutbatul
Jumu'ah.

AshShaukani refutes the first argument by saying that hadith simply states the action of
the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and does not necessarily prove that such an action
is obligatory. As to the verse, he regards it as simply a command to be present at the salah
which is obligatory and excludes khutbah... Regarding their argument relating to the
commandment to "hasten unto the rememberance of Allah," he says it refers to salah
only, which is the real cause for making haste. There is, however, an agreement that the
Friday salah is obligatory while there is a dispute over whether or not the khutbah is
obligatory. Ash-Shaukani concludes by saying that apparently the correct view is the one
held by al-Hassan al-Basri, Dawud az-Zahiri and al-Juwaini, that the khutbah is only a
highly recommended act.

18. The greeting of the Imam


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.137a]

The imam should greet the people when he comes upon the pulpit, followed by the azhan
which is to be made when he sits. The imam should face the people during the azhan.

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Jabir reports that when the Prophet mounted the pulpit, he would greet the people. This is
related by Ibn Majah and in its chain is Ibn Lahiya, and al-Athram has recorded it in his
Sunnan from ash-Sha'biy, on the authority of the Prophtet, in mursal form. Ata' and
others also reported in mursal form that when the Prophet walked to the top of the pulpit,
he would turn to the people and say: "Peace be upon you." According to ashSha'biy:
"Abu Bakr and 'Umar used to do that [also]."

As-Sa'ib ibn Yazid informs: "The first Azhan to salah made on the day of Jumu'ah was
made when the imam sat upon the pulpit during the time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, and
'Umar. Then, during the time of 'Uthman, since there were many people, he instituted a
third Azhan outside the mosque. The Prophet only had one mu'azhzhin." [This is related
by al-Bukhari, an-Nasa'i, and Abu Dawud.]

In another narration, it is stated: "During the time of 'Uthman, there were many people,
so 'Uthman ordered the people to make a third call to salah on the day of Jumu'ah, outside
of the mosque, and that practice has continued."

Ahmad and an-Nasa'i record: "Bilal would make the azhan to salah when the Prophet
sallallahu alehi wasallam sat upon the pulpit, and he would make the iqamah when the
Prophet came down from the pulpit."

'Adi ibn-Thabit relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather who said:
"When the Prophet ascended the pulpit, he would face his companions." This is related
by Ibn Majah. Concerning this latter hadilh, although there is some doubt about it, at-
Tirmizhi says: "The people of knowledge from among the companions and others follow
that and they prefer that the imam face the people when delivering the khutbah. "

19. Contents of the khutbah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.138]

It is preferred that the Friday khutbah include praises of Allah, the Exalted, prayers upon
the Prophet, admonitions, and Qur'anic recitations.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wassallam said: "Every speech
that does not begin with the praises of Allah is defective." [This is related by Abu
Dawud. Ahmad has something similar to it.]

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In another version, it is stated: "The Friday khutbah that does not contain the testimony
["There is no God except Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger] is like the defective
hand." [This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.]

Ibn Mas'ud reports that the Prophet would say in his opening testimony: "All praise be
to Allah, we seek His aid and we seek His forgiveness and we seek refuge in Allah from
the evil of our souls. Whomever Allah guides, no one will be able to mislead him.
Whoever He leaves astray will have no guidance for him. And I testify that there is no
God except Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger whom He sent
with the truth and as a warner before the Hour. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger
will be guided aright, and whoever disobeys them will only harm his own self and he will
not harm Allah, the Exalted, at all."

Ibn Shihab was asked about the Prophet's opening testimony during his khutbah on the
day of Jumu'ah, and he said something similar to that except that he stated: "Whoever
disobeys them has gone astray." [Abu Dawud related both of these reports.]

Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Messenger of Allah would deliver his khutbah standing,
would sit in between the two khutbahs, would recite some verses, and would remind the
people [about Allah]." [This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi.]

The obligatory nature of salatul Jumu'ah is also obvious from the hadith recorded by al-
Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: "We are the last [of the
people to come] but the first on the day of resurrection. They received their books before
us and we got ours after them. This day was obligatory upon them, but they differed
concerning it, and Allah guided us. The people, therefore, follow us: the Jews tomorrow
and the Christians the day after tomorrow."

Jabir also related that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would not make his
admonitions on Friday too long, but give a very short khutbah. This is related by Abu
Dawud.

Umm Hisham bint Harithah ibn an-Nu'man says: "I learnt [Surah] Qaf of the Glorious
Qur'an from the Prophet for he recited it upon the pulpit every Friday when he addressed
the people." [This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, an-Nasa' i, and Abu Dawud].

Ya'la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on the pulpit: "And
they cry: O Malik!..." (az-Zukhruf 77). [This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

Ibn Majah records from Ubayy that the Messenger of Allah recited: "Blessed is He..."
[Surah al-Mulk] on Friday while he was standing.

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In ar-Raudah an-Nadiyah, it is stated: "Thus the required khutbah, in terms of Islamic


law, should be modeled after the Prophet's khutbah exhorting people to do good and
warning them against dire consequences of the evil. This is the spirit of the address which
the Islamic law has instituted. As to the other contents of the khutbah, like praising Allah,
saying prayers upon His Messengers or reciting a portion of the Qur'an, none of these is
its main purpose, which is to admonish people... It has been customary among the
Muslims [in the light of the sunnah] that if one wanted to make some sort of
proclamation, he would begin with praises of Allah and prayers upon His Prophet, or
something of that nature. Still, that is not the purpose of the khutbah; indeed, the purpose
is that which is said after praises of Allah and prayers for the prophet. If a person delivers
a khutbah and confines it to only praising Allah and saying prayers upon the Prophet, his
khutbah would hardly be acceptable. Any person with common sense could understand
that.

It is the admonitary aspect of the Friday khutbah which the hadith emphasise, and if a
khatib makes an admonition, he fulfills the purpose of shari'ah; if he precedes his khutbah
with praises of Allah and prayers upon the Prophet and during his admonitions he uses
Qur'anic verses, then he does it in a complete and satisfactory manner."

20. Posture during and between the khutbahs


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.139]

It is proper for the imam to stand for the two khutbas and to sit for a short while in
between them.

Ibn 'Umar said: "When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam would deliver the
Khutbatul Jumu'ah, he did so standing, and then he would sit, and then he would stand
[again, for the second khutbah] as the people do today." [This is related by the group].

Jabir ibn-Samura said: "The Prophet would deliver the khutbah while standing, and
then he would sit, and then he would stand and speak again. Whoever says that he gave
the khutbah while sitting has lied. Verily, I prayed with him more than two thousand
prayers [including the five daily prayers]." [This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu
Dawud.]

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Ibn abi-Shaibah records that Tawus said: "The Prophet gave the khutbah while
standing and so did Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman. The first one to give khutbah while
sitting upon the pulpit was Mu'awiyyah," Ibn abiShaibah also records from ash-Sha'biy
that Mu'awiyyah used to deliver the khutbah while sitting, when he became overweight.
Some of the scholars say that it is obligatory to deliver the khutbah while standing and it
is also obligatory to sit in between the two khutbahs. They cite the example of the
Prophet and his companions who always did so; however, the fact that they consistently
performed an act is not sufficient to prove that it is fard (obligatory) .

21. It is preferred to raise one's voice,


to keep the khutbah short, and to the point
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.140]

Ammar ibn Yasir reports that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: "Prolonging salah
and shortening one's khutbah is a sign of one's understanding of the religion. So, prolong
the prayer and shorten the khutbah." This is related by Ahmad and Muslim. Shortening
the khutbah and prolonging one's salah shows one's understanding of religion, for such a
person is able to comprehend and express much in a few words.

Jabir ibn Samurah says: "The Prophet's salah was of a moderate length and so was his
khutbah." [This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud.]

'Abdullah ibn abi Aufa reports: "The salah of the Messenger of Allah was long and his
khutba'h was short." [This is related by an-Nasa'i with a sahih chain.]

Jabir informs: "When the Prophet delivered the khutbah, his eyes became red, his voice
rose, and his anger increased as if giving a warning to the enemy." [This is related by
Muslim and Ibn Majah.]

An-Nawawi says: "It is preferred for the khutbah to be in an eloquent and proper Arabic,
and it should be an organized speech that the people can understand. It should not be a
speech, which is over the heads of the people, nor should it be shallow or contain foul
language as that would defeat its purpose. Its words should be chosen carefully to make
them attractive and meaningful."

Giving his views on the subject, Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The khutbah of the Prophet
reinforced the fundamental articles of faith, like belief in Allah, the Exalted, His angels,

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His books, His messengers, and the meeting with Him. He would mention the paradise
and the hellfire and what Allah, the Exalted, has promised to His devoted servants and
the people who obey Him and what Allah has promised to His enemies and the miscreant.
While listening to his khutbah, the hearts would be filled with belief in Allah, His
oneness, and His majesty. His khutbahs were not like speeches of those who speak only
of matters of concern of common folk, lamenting earthly life and frightening people of
the approaching death. Such speeches cannot inspire faith in Allah or strengthen belief in
His oneness or move people by allusion to His mighty works in history, nor can they
kindle in hearts intense love for Allah, making the listeners look forward eagerly to the
time they will meet Him! The people who hear such speeches gain no benefit at all,
except that they will die and that their wealth will be distributed and their bodies will be
turned to dust. Woe to such poets, what sort of faith is fostered by such sermons, and
what sort of tawhid do they teach or knowledge disseminate? If we study the khutbahs of
the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam and his companions, we find them embued with
perspicuous guidance, tawhid, attributes of Allah, explaining the basic articles of the
faith, inviting people to Allah, and drawing their attention to His providential care that
makes Him so beloved to His slaves. His khutbahs referred to Allah's dealings with
others in the past so as to wam his listeners against His wrath and exhort them to
remember Him, thank Him and win His pleasure and love. Those who heard these
khutbahs were inspired with the love of Allah and they looked forward eagerly to
meeting their Lord. As time went by, the example of the Prophet was forgotten and other
things prevailed. The main purpose of the khutbah was forgotten. The eloquent and nice
words that moved the hearts became rare in speeches. The main thrust of the khutbah was
neglected. The hearts were no longer touched and the basic purpose of the khutbah was
lost."

22. The imam interrupting his


khutbah for some reason
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.141]

Abu Hurairah reports: "The Prophet was delivering a khutbah and al-Hassan and al-
Hussain [his grandsons] came and they were wearing two red shirts and they were
tripping while walking. The Prophet came down from the pulpit and picked them up and
placed them in front of himself, and then he said: 'Allah and His Messenger have told the
truth. Verily, your wealth and children are a trial. I looked to these two children walking
and tripping, and I could not be patient, so I cut off my khutbah and went to pick them
up."' [This is related by the five.]

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Abu Rifah al-'Adwi says: "I went to the Prophet while he was delivering a khutbah, and
I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, this strange man has come to ask about his religion as he
does not know what his religion is.' The Prophet turned to me and left his speech, he
came to me and he was given a wooden chair with four iron legs, and he started to teach
me what Allah had taught him and then he went back to complete his khutbah." [This is
related by Muslim and an-Nasa'i.]

Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would interrupt his khutbah due to some reason, or
to respond to a question from some of his companions.

Sometimes he would descend from the pulpit due to some need and then return and
complete his khutbah, as he did when he picked up al-Hassan and al-Hussain. He took
them and then returned with them to the pulpit. Sometimes he would interrupt his
khutbah to say things to certain people, [e.g.,] 'Sit, so and so,' 'Pray, so and so.'
[Sometimes] he ordered them to take care of certain things during his khutbah."

23. It is forbidden to speak during the khutbah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.142]

The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is obligatory to be silent during the
khutbah, and one is not to indulge in conversation during the khutbah, not even if it is to
order one to do some good or to stop some evil, and this rule applies whether or not the
person sitting in the mosque can actually hear the khutbah.

Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever speaks in
Jumu'ah while the imam is delivering the khutbah is like a donkey who is carrying books,
and for those who tell him to be quiet, there is no [reward] for the Jumu'ah." This is
related by Ahmad, ibn abi-Shaibah, al-Bazzar, and at-Tabarani. Ibn Hajar said in Bulugh
alMaram: "There is no fault in its chain."

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'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "There are three types of
people who attend the Jumu'ah: one, a man who is present but speaks [during the speech],
and that is his portion of the prayer; two, a man who is present and makes supplications -
in his case, Allah may give him what he asks, if He wishes, or He may not give him what
he asks, three, a person who is present and observes silence and does not step over the
necks of the Muslims nor harm anyone - for him, there is expiation from that Jumu'ah
until the next Jumu'ah plus an additional three days as Allah has said: 'He that does good
shall have ten times as much to his credit.'" [This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud
with a good chain.]

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: "If, during the Jumu'ah while the imam is
delivering khutbah, you tell your companion to be quiet, then you have spoken
needlessly." [This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.]

Abu ad-Darda' says: "The Prophet was upon the pulpit and was addressing the people
and he recited a verse, and next to me was Ubayy ibn-Ka'b and I asked him: When was
that verse revealed?' He refused to talk to me until the Messenger of Allah came down
from the pulpit and then he said to me: 'You have nothing from your Jumu'ah, except
your useless talk.' When the Prophet had finished, I went to him and informed him of
what had happened, and he said: 'Ubayy has told the truth. If you hear your imam
speaking, be quiet until he is finished.''' [This is related by Ahmad and at-Tabarani.]

Ahmad and ash-Shaf'i are reported to have made a distinction, concerning this ruling,
between one who can hear the speech and the one who cannot hear the speech, saying
that speaking is forbidden for the former and not for the latter, although it is preferred for
the latter also to be silent.

At-Tirmizhi records that Ahmad and Ishaq made an exception for replying to a
salutation and responding to a sneeze while the imam is delivering the Friday khutbah.
According to ash-Shaf'i: "If a person sneezes [during the khutbah] and someone says:
'May Allah bless you,' I wish I could have accomadated it since such a reply is a sunnah.
In my view it is makruh that a person should greet someone with salam [while they are
listening to the khutbah]. [What makes it worse is] that his salam is not returned, even
though saying salam is a sunnah while responding to it is a fard.

24. Indulging in conversation when the


khutbah is not being delivered, is permissible
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.143]

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Tha'labah ibn abi-Malik says: "We would be talking on Jumu'ah while 'Umar was
sitting on the pulpit and when the call to salah was finished 'Umar would stand and no
one would utter a word until he had completely finished both of his khutbahs. When the
iqamah was made and 'Umar came down from the pulpit, the people would then speak."
[This is related by ash-Shaf'i in his Musnad.]

Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that while the azhan was being made, 'Uthman
ibn-'Affan would be sitting on the pulpit, apprising the people of their situation and the
prices of some commodities.

25. Catching One Rak'ah or Less of the Jumu'ah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.143a]

Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that if a person catches only one
rak'ah of al-Jumu'ah, then that rak'ah will be valid and the person need only make up the
one rak'ah that he misses.

Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever catches
only one rak'ah of the salah and then adds to it the other one, his prayer will be
complete." This is related by an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and ad-Daraqutni. In Bulugh al-
Maram, Ibn Hajar says that its chain is sahih although Abu Hatim says that the strongest
opinion is that it is mursal.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever
catches one rak'ah of the prayer has indeed caught the whole prayer." [This is related by
the group.]

Whoever catches less than one rak'ah of the salah has not caught the Jumu'ah and he is to
pray four rak'at of the zuhr salah according to the majority of the scholars.

Ibn Mas'ud says: "Whoever catches one rak'ah from al-Jumu'ah is only to add another
one to it. Whoever misses both rak'at is to pray four rak'at." [This is related by at-
Tabarani with a good chain.]

Ibn 'Umar says: "If one catches from the Friday salah one rak'ah, then he is to add
another one to it. If he catches only the sitting [at the end of the prayer, following the
bowing], then he is to pray four [rak'at]." [This is related by al-Baihaqi.]

Such is the opinion of the Shaf'i, Maliki, and Hanbali schools, and Muhammad ibn al-
Hassan. Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf say that if one catches the tashahud with the imam,

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then he has caught al-Jumu'ah. He should pray two rak'at after the imam makes the
taslim, and his Friday salah would be complete.

26. Offering the salah in a crowded area


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.144]

Ahmad and al-Baihaqi relate from Sayyar that 'Umar was giving an address and said:
"The Messenger of Allah built this mosque and we were with him [i.e., the emigrants and
the helpers], and if it becomes very crowded, a person among you is to make the
prostration on the back of his brother." When, he saw some people praying in the street,
he said to them: "Pray in the mosque."

27. Nawaf'l before and after al-Jumu'ah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.144a]

It is a Sunnah to pray four rak'at or two rak'at after al-Jumu'ah:

Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Whoever is to
pray after the Jumu'ah should pray four rak'at." [This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud,
and at-Tirmizhi].

Ya'la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on the pulpit: "And
they cry: O Malik!..." (az-Zukhruf :77). [This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Ibn 'Umar says: "The Prophet would pray two rak'at in his house on the day of
Jumu'ah." [This is related by the group].

Ibn al-Qayyim says: "After the Prophet finished the Jumu'ah, he would enter his house
and pray two rak'at, and he ordered those who prayed the Jumu'ah to pray four rak'at
after it.

Our sheikh Ibn Taimiyyah says: 'When he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four
[rak'at], and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak'at.' I say: this is what
the hadith is pointing to. Abu Dawud records from ibn 'Umar that when he prayed in the
mosque, he would pray four rak'at, and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two
rak'at. Also, in the two Sahihs it is reported from ibn 'Umar that the Prophet would pray
two rak'at in his house after the Friday salah." [Abu Dawud]

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If one prays four rak'at, then, according to some, he is to pray them all connected, while
others hold that he is to pray two rak'at, make the taslim, followed by another two
rak'at. It is preferred to pray them in one's house. If one prays them in the mosque, he
should change his place of prayer after the Friday Salah.

Concerning any Sunnah Prayer before the Friday salah:

Ibn Taimiyyah writes: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam never offered any salah
after the Azhan and before the Friday salah, and no one has ever related such an act from
him. During the Prophet's time, there was only one Azhan and that was made when the
Prophet sat upon the pulpit. Bilal would make the Azhan and then the Prophet would give
the two khutbahs. Next, Bilal would make the iqamah and the Prophet would lead the
people in salah. It is not possible that the Prophet would have made a salah after the
Azhan nor anyone else among the Muslims who prayed with the Prophet could have done
so.

And we have no evidence to show that the Prophet, sallallahu alehi wasallam, prayed in
his house before going out to the mosque on Friday. He did not specify any time for any
salah before the Friday salah. What he said was meant to exhort those going early to the
mosque on Friday to engage themselves in prayer. He said: 'Whoever goes out early and
walks and does not ride to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed [by Allah] for
him...' That has been related from the Prophet's companions. When they would reach the
mosque on Friday, they would pray whatever amount was easy for them. Some of them
prayed ten rak'at and some prayed twelve and some only eight and others less than
that. For this reason most of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no Sunnah
Prayer with a specified number of rak'ah or time, before Al-Jumu'ah, for there is
nothing either in the actions or statements of the Prophet to support or confirm it.

Questions:

1. What is the best day of the week?

2. State a hadith that shows the merit of Friday. Who related it?

3. Upon whom is the Friday Prayer obligatory?

4. When does it become obligatory for the one who intended to reside in a town to pray
the Jumu^ah?

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5. When does it become obligatory for the one who lives outside of a town to attend the
Jumu^ah?

6. How many rak^ahs is the Jumu^ah Prayer? Is the Jumu^ah performed in congregation
or singly?

7. What are the conditions of the Jumu^ah prayer? List them.

8. What is the judgment if two Jumu^ahs were performed in one town?

9. List the integrals of the two speeches?

10. What are the integrals that are repeated in both speeches? In what speech is it
obligatory to make supplication for the Muslims?

11. List the conditions of the two speeches.

04.01.00.
Performing One Rak'ah
During the Time of Prayer
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 89]

Whoever catches a rak'ah of prayer before its time has expired has caught the entire
prayer in its time. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said,
"Whoever catches one rak'ah of the prayer has caught the prayer." [Related by "the
group."]

This refers to any of the prayers.

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Al-Bukhari has recorded, "Whoever of you catches one prostration of the afternoon
prayer before the sun has set should complete his prayer. If one of you catches one
prostration of the morning prayer before the sun has risen, he should complete his
prayer."

Here the meaning of prostration is rak'ah. The clear meaning of the hadith is that one who
catches one rak'ah of the morning or afternoon prayer should complete the prayer even if
the sun is setting or rising, also those are times in which it is not liked to pray. If one
rak'ah is performed, then the prayer is to be completed and the obligation of prayer will
have been fulfilled, although it is not allowed to intentionally delay those prayers until
such times.

04.02.00
Sleeping Through or Forgetting the Prayer
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 89a]

Whoever sleeps through or has forgotten to pray a certain prayer should pray it when he
wakes up or remembers the prayer.

Abu Qatadah related that sleeping through the prayer time was mentioned to the
Prophet, upon whom be peace, and he said, "There is no negligence in sleep, but
negligence occurs while one is awake. If one of you forgets a prayer or sleeps through its
time, then he should pray it when he remembers it."

As to the authenticity of the report, it is recorded by an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmizhi, who


said it is Sahih.

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Anas related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Whoever forgets a prayer
should pray it when he remembers it, and there is no expiation for it save that." [Related
by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

Reported 'Imran ibn Husain, "We went with the Messenger of Allah during the night.
When the last portion of the night came, we became tired and fell asleep. We did not
wake until we felt the heat of the sun. Some of us tried hurriedly to purify ourselves. The
Prophet ordered us to be calm. Then we rode on until the sun had risen and we made
ablution. He ordered Bilal to make the call to prayer, and then prayed two rak'ah before
the (obligatory) morning prayer. Then we stood and prayed. We said, 'O Messenger of
Allah, should we not repeat it tomorrow in its proper time?' He said, 'Would your Lord
the Most High forbid you from interest and accept it from you?"' [Related by Ahmed and
others.]

04.03.00
The Times in Which
the Prayers are Prohibited
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 90]

It is forbidden to pray after the morning prayer until the sunrise and from the sunrise until
the sun has completely risen to the length of a spear above the horizon, and when the sun
is at its meridian until it moves sightly to the west, and after the afternoon prayer until the
sun sets.

Abu Sa'eed reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "There is no prayer
after the morning prayer until the sun rises." [Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

'Amr ibn 'Abbas related that he said, "O Prophet of Allah, inform me about the
prayers." He said, "Pray the morning prayer and then abstain from prayer until sunrise
and the sun has completely risen, for it rises between the horns of Satan. That is when the

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unbelievers prostrate to it. Then pray, as your prayer will be witnessed and attended to
until the shadow of a spear becomes less than its length. At that time stop praying, for at
that time the hell-fire is fed with fuel. When the shade comes, you may pray, for your
prayer will be witnessed and attended (to by angels) until you pray the afternoon prayer.
Then abstain from praying until the sun sets, for its sets between the horns of Satan, and
that is when the unbelievers make prostrations to it." [Related by Ahmad and Muslim.]

Said 'Uqbah ibn 'Amr, "There are three times during which the Prophet prohibited us
from praying or burying our deceased: sunrise until the sun has risen (some distance),
when the sun is at its meridian, and when the sun is setting until it has completely set."
[Related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari.]

04.04.00
Opinions of the Jurists Concerning
Prayer After the Morning and Night Prayers
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 90a]

Most scholars agree that one can make up missed prayers after the morning or afternoon
prayers. This is based on the Prophet's words, "If someone forgets the prayer, he should
pray it when he remembers it." [Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

Concerning voluntary prayers, the following companions disliked such prayers during
those times:

'Ali, Ibn Mas'ud, Abu Hurairah and Ibn 'Umar. 'Umar used to beat those who
offered two rak'ah after the afternoon prayers (in the presence of other companions), and
was not rebuked. Khalid ibn al-Waleed also used to do this.

Those tabi'een who disliked such prayers were al-Hassan and Sa'eed ibn al-Musayyab.
Abu Hanifah and Malik also hated such prayers.

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Ash-Sahf i reasoned that prayers at such times are allowable if the person has a reason
for that prayer (the prayer of salutation to the mosque, or the prayers after one performs
the ablution, and so on). He uses as a proof the fact that the Prophet, upon whom be
peace, prayed the two noon sunnah rak'ah after the afternoon prayers.

The Hanbaliyyah say that it is forbidden to pray during such times even if one has a
reason to do so, except in the case of the two rak'ah for the circumambulation of the
Ka'bah.

This is based on the hadith from Jabir ibn Mut'am that the Prophet said, "O tribe of
'Abd Manat, do not prevent anyone from circumambulating this house (the Ka'bah) or
from praying therein at any time they wish."

As to the authenticity of thie report, it is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, at-Tirmizhi


and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi and Ibn Khuzaimah called it sahih.

05.00.00
About Praying at Sunrise, Sunset
and While the Sun is at its Meridian
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 91]

The Hanifiyyah are of the opinion that prayer during such times is not valid, regardless
of whether the prayer was obligatory or voluntary, or if one was making up a prayer or
fulfilling a requirement. But, they make an exception for the afternoon prayer of that
particular day and the funeral prayer (if the funeral is at any of these times, the funeral
prayer is still to be made). They also permit the prostration in response to Qur'anic
recitation if the respective verses were recited at such times.

Abu Yusuf also makes an exception for voluntary prayers on Friday while the sun is at
its meridian.

The Shariyyah say that voluntary prayers which are not offered for a particular reason
are disliked at such times. Obligatory prayers, voluntary prayers because of some
occasion, voluntary prayers on Friday when the sun is at its meridian and the prayer of
the circumambulation of the Ka'bah are all permissible at such times without any disliked
aspects.

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The Malikiyyah say that voluntary prayers during sunrise and sunset are forbidden,
even if there is some occasion for them. The same applies to a prayer that was vowed,
prostration owing to Qur'anic recitation, and the funeral prayer (unless they fear some
decay or alteration in the deceased). But they always allow prayer, voluntary or
obligatory, at the time when the sun is at its meridian.

Al-Baji wrote in his commentary to al-Muwatta, "In al-Mubsut it is related from Ibn
Wahb that Malik was asked about praying at mid-day and he said, 'I found the people
praying at mid-day of Friday. Some hadith do not consider it desirable (to pray at such
times), but I do not stop the people from praying. I do not like to pray at that time
because it is not desirable to do so."

The Hanbaliyyah say that no voluntary prayers should be made during such times,
regardless of whether or not there is a reason for such prayers, and regardless of whether
it is Friday or not, save for the prayer of salutations to the mosque on Friday (they allow
this without any disike for it while the sun is at its meridian or while the imam is making
his address). They also say that the funeral prayer is forbidden at that time, unless there is
a fear of alteration or decay in the corpse. They allow the making up of missed prayers,
the vowed prayers and the prayer of the circumabulation of the Ka'bah (even if it is
voluntary) at any of these three times.

06.00.00
Voluntary Prayer at Dawn
Before the Morning Prayer
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 92]

Yasar, the client of Ibn 'Umar, said, "Ibn 'Umar saw me while I was praying after the
dawn had begun, and he said, 'The Messenger of Allah came to us while we were praying
at this time and he said, 'Let your witness reach those who are absent that there is no
prayer after (the beginning of) the dawn except two rak'ah." As to its place in the corpus
of hadith, it is recorded by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Although the hadith is weak, its
numerous chains strengthen each other. We can conclude from this that it is disiked to
make voluntary prayers beyond the two sunnah rak'ah after the dawn has begun. [This
was stated by ash-Shaukani.]

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Al-Hassan, ash-Shaifi, and Ibn Hazm say voluntary prayers are permissible at that time
without any aspect of dislike. Malik openly allowed prayers during that time for those
who missed the voluntary prayers during the night due to some excuse.

It is mentioned that it reached him that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, al-Qasim ibn
Muhammad, and 'Abdullah ibn 'Aamar ibn Rabi'ah would pray the witr prayer after
the dawn had begun. Said 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, "It does not bother me if they make the
iqamah (the second call) to prayer while I am praying witr."

Yahya ibn Sa'eed reported, " 'Ibadah ibn as-Samit was the imam for the people. One
day he went to the morning prayer and the caller to prayer made the iqamah for the
prayer. 'Ibadah kept quiet until he prayed the witr prayer and then he led them in the
morning prayer."

Sa'eed ibn Jubair reported that Ibn 'Abbas slept (one night), woke up and told his
servant, "Look to see what the people are doing." (By that time he had lost his eyesight).
The servant returned and told him that they were dispersing from the morning prayer.

Ibn 'Abbas then stood, prayed witr and prayed the morning prayer.

06.01.00
Voluntary Prayers while
the Iqamah Is Being Made
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 93]

If the prayer has already started, it is disliked to preoccupy one's self with voluntary
prayers.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "If the prayer is
beginning, there is no prayer save the obligatory one." In another narration it states,
"Save for the one for which iqamah has been made." [Related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu
Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.]

Reported 'Abdullah ibn Sarjis, "A man entered the mosque while the Prophet was
leading the morning prayer. The man prayed two rak'ah at the side of the mosque and
then entered (the congregation) behind the Messenger of Allah. When the Prophet had
finished the prayer he said, 'O so and so, which of the two prayers do you count --the one

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you prayed by yourself or the one you prayed with us?" [Related by Muslim, Abu Dawud
and an-Nasa'i.]

The Messenger objected to this act, but he did not order him to repeat his prayer. This
shows that such a prayer is valid but disliked.

Reported Ibn 'Abbas, "I was praying while the caller to prayer was making the iqamah.
The Messenger of Allah pulled me and said, 'Do you pray four rak'ah for the morning
(obligatory) prayer?" The hadith is related by al-Baihaqi, at-Tabarani, Abu Dawud, at-
Tayalisi and al-Hakim, who said it is sahih according to the criterion of al-Bukhari and
Muslim.

Abu Musa al-Ash'ari related that the Prophet saw a man praying two rak'ah of the
morning prayer while the caller to prayer was making the (second) call. The Prophet
touched his elbow and said, "Shouldn't this be before that?" [Related by at-Tabarani.
Al-'Iraqi says it is good.]

07.00.00
Prerequisites of the Prayer
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.1]

01. Knowledge that the time for prayer has begun


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 109a]

If one is certain or fairly certain that the time has begun, he may pray. How he reached
his decision is not important.

02. Purity From Major and Minor Impurities


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 109b]

Says Allah in the Qur'an, "O you who believe, when you rise for the prayer, wash your
faces, your hands up to the elbows, and lightly rub your hands and (wash) your feet up to
the ankles. If you are unclean, purify yourselves."

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Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet said, "Allah does not accept any prayer that was
not performed while in a state of purity, nor does he accept charity from what has been
stolen from booty." [Related by "the group"]

03. Purity of the Body, Clothes and Place:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 109c]

Such objects should be clean of physical impurities as much as possible. If one can not
remove them, he may pray with the impurities present and does not have to repeat the
prayer later. Concerning bodily purity, Anas related that the Prophet upon whom be
peace, said, "Stay clean of urine, as the majority of punishment in the grave is due to it."
[This is related by Ad-Daraqutni, who said it is Hassan.]

Reported 'Ali, I used to have a great deal of prostatic fluid flowing, so I asked a man to
ask the Prophet about it (as I was shy to ask him, due to my relationship with him through
his daughter). He asked him and the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Make ablution
and wash your penis." [Related by al-Bukhari and others.]

'Aishah also related that the Messenger of Allah said to women with a prolonged flow
of blood, "Wash the blood from yourself and pray."

Concerning purity of clothing, we have the following: Says Allah:

﴾74:4﴿ ‫ك فَط َهّْر‬


َ َ ‫وَث َِياب‬
"And purify your raiment"4 [Surah Al-Muddathir, 74:4]

4These are very comprehensive words, which are full of meaning.

They mean this: "Keep your garments free from every filth and impurity, for the purity
of the body and garments and the purity of the spirit are inter-linked and inter-
dependent. " A pure spirit and an impure body with impure garments cannot live
together. The society in which the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) had arisen with
the invitation to Islam, was not only steeped in the evils of unbelief and immorality,
but was also devoid of even the most elementary concepts of purity and cleanliness,
and the Holy Prophet's task was to teach its members cleanliness in every way of life.
Therefore he was instructed to establish and present a high standard of purity in his
external life as well. Thus, it is the result of the same instruction that the Holy Prophet
(upon whom be peace) gave mankind such detailed teaching about the cleanliness of

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the body and garments as is not possessed even by the most civilized nations of today,
not to speak of the Arabs of the pre-Islamic days of ignorance. So much so that in most
of the languages of the world there is no word synonymous with "taharat" ". On the
contrary, in Islam every book of the Hadith and Fiqh begins with injunctions and
instructions on taharat (purity), which distinguishes between purity and impurity and
gives minute details about the methods and means of obtaining purity.

The second meaning of these words is: "Keep your garments neat and clean." The
criterion of religiosity given to the world by the monastic concepts was that a man was
holy to the extent he was unclean. If a person happened to put on neat clothes, he was
looked upon as a worldly man, whereas the fact is that human nature abhors filth and
uncleanness and even a person of ordinary fine taste loves to be associated only with a
neat and clean person. On this very basis, for the one calling the people to Allah it was
made imperative that externally also he should look so neat and clean that the people
should regard him with esteem and his personality should not be stained in any way so
as to repel others.

The third meaning of this Divine Command is: "Keep your garments free from moral
evils: your dress should be neat and clean but it should bear no tinge of vanity and
pride, display and exhibition, pomp and show. " The dress is the first thing that
introduces the personality of a person to others. The kind of dress a person wears
makes the people judge at first sight what kind of a man he is. The dresses of the rulers
and princes, the dresses of the religious functionaries, the dresses of the vain and
conceited people, the dresses of the mean and shallow people, the dresses of the evil-
natured and characterless people, all represent the tastes and tempers of those who
wear them. The temper of the one calling to Allah is naturally different from all such
people. Therefore, his dress also should necessarily be different from all of them. He
should wear such a dress as .should make everyone else feel that he is a noble and
refined person, who is not involved in any evil of the self.

Its fourth meaning is: Keep away from moral evils. Ibn `Abbas, Ibrahim Nakha`i,
Sha`bi, `Ata', Mujahid. Qatadah, Sa`id bin Jubair, Hasan Basri and other major
commentators have given this very meaning to this verse: keep yourself morally pure
and avoid all that is blameworthy. In Arabic usage also when it is said: "So and so is
clean in his garments", it implies that he is morally good and pure; on the contrary,
when it is said: "He is filthy in his garments", it means that he is dishonest and
fraudulent in his dealings: he is unreliable. [Towards Understanding the Qur'an, Sayyid
Abul a'la Mawdudi]

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Jabir ibn Sumrah reported that he heard a man ask the Prophet, "May I pray in the
same clothes that I had on during intercourse with my wife?" He said, "Yes, but if you
see some stains on it, you must wash it." This hadith is related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah.
Its narrators are trustworthy.

Reported Mu'awiyyah, "I asked Umm Habibah, 'Did the Prophet pray in the same
clothes that he wore when he had intercourse?' She said, 'Yes, if there were no stains on
it."'[Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.]

Abu Sa'eed reported that the Prophet removed his shoes and the people behind him did
likewise. When he finished the prayer, he asked, "Why did you remove your shoes?"
They said, "We saw you remove yours." He said, "Gabriel came to me and informed me
that there was some filth on them. Therefore, when one of you comes to the mosque, he
should turn his shoes over and examine them. If one finds any dirt on them, he should rub
them against the ground and pray with them on." [The hadith is related by Ahmad, Abu
Dawud, al-Hakim, Ibn Hibban and Ibn Khuzaimah. The latter grades it as Sahih.]

This hadith shows that if one enters the mosque (with his shoes on) and is unaware of
some impurity or has forgotten it, and he suddenly remembers it during the prayer, he
must try to remove it and proceed with the prayer. He does not have to repeat it later on.

Concerning the purity of the place where one is praying:


Abu Hurairah said, "A bedouin stood and urinated in the mosque. The people got up to
grab him. The Prophet said, 'Leave him and pour a container full of water over his urine.
You have been raised to be easy on the people, not to be hard on them." [Related by "the
group," except for Muslim.]

Commenting on this subject, ash-Shaukani says, "If what has been produced of proof is
firmly established, then one would know that it is obligatory to have one's clothes free of
impurities. Whoever prays and has impurities on his clothing has left one of the
obligations of the prayer. But his prayer would not be voided."

In ar-Rauzhat an-Nabiyyah it states, "The majority of scholars are of the opinion that it
is obligatory to purify three things: the body, the clothes, and the place of prayer. Some
are of the opinion that this is a condition for the soundness of the prayer, and others say
that it is just a sunnah. The truth of the matter is that it is obligatory. Whoever
intentionally prays with impurities on his clothing has left one of the obligations (of the
prayer), but the prayer is still valid."

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04. Covering the 'Aurah:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 111]

Says Allah in the Qur'an:

‫جد ٍ وَك ُل ُششوا‬ِ ‫سش‬


ْ ‫م‬َ ‫ل‬ ّ ‫عن ْشد َ ك ُش‬
ِ ‫م‬ ْ ‫ذوا ِزين َت َك ُش‬
ُ ‫خش‬ ُ ‫م‬ َ َ ‫َيا ب َن ِششي آ َد‬
﴾7:31﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫سرِِفي‬ ُ ْ ‫ب ال‬
ْ ‫م‬ ّ ‫ح‬ ِ ُ ‫ه َل ي‬ُ ّ ‫سرُِفوا إ ِن‬ ْ ُ ‫شَرُبوا وََل ت‬ ْ ‫َوا‬
O children of Adam, dress yourselves fully, properly and decently at the time of every
worship;20 eat and drink, but do not transgress, for Allah does not like the
transgressors.21[Surah Al-A'raf, 7:31]

20Here the word "Zinat"means full and proper dress. The verse exhorts the people to be
fully clothed, when they are engaged in worship. For this purpose, it does not suffice to
cover merely those parts of the body which the Law requires to be hidden in public in
addition to the shameful parts. Therefore one should dress properly and decently so as
to serve both the purposes, in accordance with one's means.

This command is meant to refute the wrong attitude which the ignorant people at that
time had adopted, and have been adopting since then. They thought that one should
worship Allah in perfect or semi-nudity and should put on a disheveled appearance
before Him. In utter contrast to this, Allah not only prohibits nudity but also
commands that one should be dressed fully, properly and decently at the time of
worship and should put on an appearance that might not have even a tinge of
untidiness and indecency.

21That is, "Allah does not like those people who transgress the limits imposed by Him by
making the lawful as unlawful. That is why He does not approve of those who put on a
disheveled appearance or starve themselves or deprive themselves of the lawful and
pure flings under the foolish belief that they are pleasing their Allah thereby. He does
not demand this as essential for His worship; nay, He is pleased if one wears a decent
dress and makes use of the pure things provided by Him. According to His Law, the
only thing that is sinful is to transgress His limits by making the lawful unlawful or the
unlawful lawful." [Towards Understanding the Qur'an: Sayyid Abul A'la Mawdudi]

The meaning of "adornment" here is the covering of the 'aurah. The meaning of "mosque"
is "prayer." Therefore, it means "Cover your 'aurah for every prayer."

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Salamah ibn al-Aku' said to the Prophet, "O Messenger of Allah, may I pray in a long
shirt?" He said, "Yes, but button it, even with just a thorn." [Related by al-Bukhari in his
Tareekh.]

05. A man must cover the


front and back of his pubic region
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 111a]

There is disagreement about the navel, thighs and knees. The reports seem to contradict
each other. The following hadith are used to prove that such parts are not part of the
man's 'aurah:

06. Exposing a man's thigh


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 111b]

Says 'Aishah, "The Prophet was sitting with his thigh exposed when Abu Bakr asked,
and received, permission to enter. The same thing happened with 'Umar. However, when
'Uthman sought permission to enter, the Prophet covered himself with his clothes. When
they left, I said, 'O Messenger of Allah, you permitted Abu Bakr and 'Umar to enter while
your thigh was exposed. When 'Uthman asked permission to enter, you covered yourself
with your clothes.' He said, 'O 'Aishah, should I not be shy of a man who, by Allah, even
the angels are shy of'?" [Related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari in mu'allaq form.]

Says Anas, "During the battle of Khaibar, the Prophet's gown was withdrawn from his
thigh until I could see its whiteness." [Related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari.]

Says Ibn Hazm, "It is correct to say that the thigh is not part of the 'aurah. If it were so,
why would Allah allow His Prophet, who is protected (from sin), to uncover his so that
Anas and others could see it? Allah would have kept him from doing this.

According to Jabir as recorded in the two Sahihs, when the Prophet was young
(before his prophethood), he was one time carrying the stones of the Ka'bah, wearing
only a loincloth. His uncle Al-'Abbas said to him, 'O nephew, why don't you untie your
waistcloth and put it on your shoulder for padding?' The Prophet did so and fell
unconscious. He was never seen naked again after that."'

Muslim records from Abu al-'Aliya that 'Abdullah ibn as-Samit struck his thigh and
said, "I asked Abu Zharr, and he struck my thigh as I struck yours, and he said, 'I asked
the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and he struck my thigh as I have struck
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yours and said, 'Perform the prayer in its time..." Ibn Hazm said, "If the thigh was 'aurah,
why would the Messenger of Allah touch it?" If the thigh was 'aurah according to Abu
Zharr, why would he have struck it with his hand? The same can be asked for 'Abdullah
ibn as-Samit and Abu al-'Aliya. It is not allowed for a Muslim to strike with his hand
another man's pubic area, or the clothes over the pubic area. Nor can a man touch the
clothing over a woman's 'aurah .

Ibn Hazm mentions that Hubair ibn al-Huwairith looked at Abu Bakr's thigh when it
was uncovered, and that Anas ibn Malik came to Qas ibn Shamas when his thigh was
uncovered.

However, the following hadith are used to show that the thighs and so on are part of the
'aurah:

Reported Muhammad Jahsh, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, passed
by Ma'mar while his thighs were uncovered. He said, to him, 'O Ma'mar, cover your
thighs, for they are (part of the) 'aurah." [This is related by Ahmad, al-Hakim and al-
Bukhari in Tareekh and in mu'allaq form in his Sahih].

Reported Jurhad, "The Messenger of Allah passed by me when the cloak I was wearing
did not cover my thigh. He said, 'Cover your thigh, for it (is part of the) 'aurah." [This is
related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmizhi, who called it Hassan, and by al-Bukhari
in mu'allaq form in the Sahih].

07. Woman's aurah & hijab


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 111b]

There is no such dispute over what constitutes a woman's 'aurah. It is stated that her entire
body is 'aurah and must be covered, except her hands and face. Says Allah in the Qur'an:

"And to display of their adornment only that which is apparent (do not expose any
adornment or beauty save the hands and face)."

It has been authentically related from Ibn 'Abbas, Ibn 'Umar and 'Aishah that the
Prophet said, "Allah does not accept the prayer of an adult woman unless she is wearing a
headcovering (khimar, hijab)." [This is related by "the five," except for an-Nasa'i, and by
Ibn Khuzaimah and al-Hakim. At-Tirmizhi grades it as Hassan.]

It is related from Umm Salamah that she asked the Prophet, "Can a woman pray in a
long shirt (like a night shirt) and headcovering without a loincloth?" He said, "If the shirt

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is long and flowing and covers the top of her feet." [This is related by Abu Dawud. The
scholars say it is sahih in mauqoof form (as a statement of Umm Salamah and not that of
the Prophet.)]

It is also related that 'Aishah was asked, "In how many garments is a woman to pray?"
She answered, "Ask 'Ali ibn Abu Talib and then return to me and tell me what he said."
'Ali's answer was, "In a headcover and a long flowing shirt." This was told to 'Aishah and
she said, "He has told the truth."

The clothes worn must cover the 'aurah, even if they are tight enough to highlight those
features. If the clothes are so thin that one's skin color can be seen, they are not suitable
for prayer.

08. Preferred to wear two garments in salat:


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 113a]

It is preferred for a person to wear at leat two garments, but he can wear just one if that is
all he has.

Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "If one of you is going
to pray, he should wear two garments, for Allah has the most right that you should look
good for Him. If one does not have two garments, he shoud cover himself with a cloak
when he prays, but not like the Jews do." [Related by at-Tabarani and al-Baihaqi.]

'Abdurazaq related that Ubayy ibn Ka'b and 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud had an argument.
Ubayy thought it was permissible to pray in one garment, while Ibn Mas'ud said that that
was allowed only if one had no other clothes. 'Umar mounted the pulpit and said, "The
correct position is: If Allah gives you more provisions, you should wear more clothes. A
man can gather his clothes about him, or pray in a waist cloth and a cloak, or in a waist
cloth and a shirt, or in a waist cloth and a caftan, or in trousers and a cloak, or in trousers
and a shirt, or in trousers and a caftan, or in leather trousers and a caftan, or in leather
trousers and a shirt.' And I (a narrator) think he said, 'Leather trousers and a cloak."

Buraida reported that the Prophet forbade one to pray using an improperly-affixed
sheet to cover his 'aurah, and to pray in trousers while not wearing a cloak. [Related by
Abu Dawud and al-Baihaqi.]

It is related that when al-Hassan ibn 'Ali prayed, he would wear his best clothes. He was
asked about that and he said, "Verily, Allah is beautiful and He loves beauty, so I

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beautify myself for my Lord." Such a view is in accord with Allah's words, "And wear
your adornment for every prayer."

09. Uncovering the Head During the Prayer


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 114]

Ibn 'Asakir related that the Prophet would sometimes remove his cap and place it in
front of him as a sutrah. According to the Hanifiyyah, one can pray with his head
uncovered. In fact, they prefer this if it is done out of a sense of humility and awe.'ø
There is no evidence whatsoever that it is preferred to cover one's head while praying.

10. Facing the Qiblah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 114a]

All scholars agree that one must face the Masjid al-Haram (in Makkah) during every
prayer. Says Allah in the Qur'an:

ْ ‫ما ك ُن ُْتشش‬
‫م‬ َ ‫ث‬
ُ ْ ‫حي‬ َ ْ ‫جد ِ ال‬
َ َ‫حَرام ِ و‬ ِ ‫س‬
ْ ‫م‬ َ ْ ‫شط َْر ال‬ َ ‫ك‬ َ َ‫جه‬ ّ َ‫فَو‬
ْ َ‫ل و‬
﴾2:144﴿ ُ ‫ره‬َ ْ ‫شط‬ َ ‫م‬ ْ ُ ‫جوهَك‬ُ ُ‫فَوَّلوا و‬
"Direct your face to the Masjid al-Haram. Wherever you may be, turn your faces to
it".*146 [Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:144].

146 "Masjid Haram" means the "Inviolable place of worship and reverence". It refers to
that place of worship at Makkah which has the Ka'bah in its centre.

The Commandment "Turn your face towards the Ka'abah" does not mean that one should
turn one's face exactly to the point of the Ka'abah from every part of the globe. Obviously
it is very difficult for everyone to do so at all times from all places of the globe. That is
why the Qur'an directs us to turn our faces towards the Ka'abah and not to the point of the
Ka'abah : We should do our best to find out the exact direction of the Ka`abah : then if
we are satisfied that a certain direction is most probably the correct direction, we should
turn our faces towards it. But when it is not possible to ascertain the exact direction (for
example, in a boat or a train, etc.) one should turn one's face to the probable right
direction, and if during the prayer the correct direction is found out, one should turn one's
face towards it at once.[Towards Understanding the Qur'an: Sayyid Abul A'la Mawdudi]

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Reported al-Barra', "We prayed with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, for
about sixteen or seventeen months towards Jerusalem, after which time he turned towards
the Ka 'bah." [Related by Muslim.]

11. If one can see the Ka'bah,


he must face that particular direction:
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 114b]

If he can not see it, he must turn in its direction, as this is all that he is able to do.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said, "The qiblah is between the East and the
West." [This is related by Ibn Majah and at-Tirmizhi].

The latter considers it hassan Sahih. This hadith refers to the people of Madinah and
whoever has a position similar to them (i.e., the people of Syria, the Arabian Peninsula
and Iraq. For the people of Egypt, the qiblah is between the East and the South.)

12. If one can not determine


the direction of the qiblah
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 115]

He should ask one who knows. If he finds no one to ask, he should try his best to
determine it. In such a case, his prayer will be valid, and he need not repeat it even
though he discovers later on that he had faced in the wrong direction. If it is made clear to
him while he is praying that he is facing the wrong direction, he need only turn in the
proper direction without stopping his prayer. This is based on the following incident:

Ibn 'Umar reported that the people were praying the morning prayer in the Quba'
mosque when a person came to them and said, "Allah has revealed some of the Qur'an to
the Prophet in which we have been ordered to face the Ka'bah, so face it." They
immedately turned their faces from Syria to the Ka'bah." [Related by al-Bukhari and
Muslim.]

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If one prays according to what he determined and then wants to make another prayer, he
should again try to determine the qiblah's direction. If it turns out to be different from
what he had determined earlier, he should pray in the new direction without repeating his
earlier prayer.

13. Two cases in which one


doesn't have to face the Ka'bah:
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 115a]

a. The first one is performing voluntary prayers while riding (an animal, car and so on).
The rider may bend his head slightly for the bowings and prostrations of the prayer, but
he should bend a little bit lower for the prostrations. He may face in whatever direction
his ride is going.

Reported 'Amr ibn Rabi'ah, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, pray
while riding, and he faced the direction in which he was going." This hadith is related by
Muslim, at-Tirmizhi and al-Bukhari. The latter added that "he bent his head slighty."

He did not, however, do this for the obligatory prayers.

Ahmad, Muslim and at-Tirmizhi recorded that he would pray on his mount while
travelling from Makkah to Madinah, facing away from Makkah.

Upon this, Allah revealed, "Wherever you turn, you will find Allah's face."

Says Ibrahim an-Nakha'i, "They would pray on their mounts and animals in the
direction in which they were facing."

Ibn Hazm comments, "This has been related from the companions and those of the
following generation, during travel and residence. "

b. The second case is praying while having to deal with forced conditions, illness and
fear. Under such circumstances, it is allowed to pray without facing the qiblah.

The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "If I order you to do something, do what you are
capable of doing."

Says Allah,

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﴾2:239﴿ ‫جاًل أ َوْ ُرك َْباًنا‬


َ ِ‫م فَر‬
ْ ُ ‫فت‬
ْ ‫خ‬ ْ ِ ‫فَإ‬
ِ ‫ن‬
"If you go in fear, then (pray) standing or on your mounts..." [Al-Baqarah 2:239].

Ibn 'Umar added, "Facing the qiblah or not facing it." [Related by al-Bukhari.]

14. The state of prayer, salah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 116]

There are many prophetic hadith on this topic. Here, we will mention just two of them,
one describing his actions and other quoting his statements.

'Abdullah ibn Ghanam related that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari gathered together his people
saying, " O Tribe of Ash'ari, gather together, and gather your women and children to
teach them how the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, prayed with us in
Madinah." They all gathered to watch him perform ablution. After it, he waited until the
sun had just passed the meridian and there was some shade, and then he made the Azhan.
He put the men in the row closest to him, the children in a row behind the men, and the
women in a row behind the children. After the iqamah, he raised his hands and made the
takbir, silently recited Surah al-Fatihah and another surah, repeated the takbir and bowed
while saying, "Glory be to Allah and Praise be to Him" three times, after which he said,
"Allah hears him who praises Him" and stood straight. He then made the takbir and
prostrated, made another takbir, raised his head (and sat), repeated the takbir and
prostrated again, after which he said the final takbir and stood up. In the first rak'ah he
made six takbir, and he made another one when he stood for the second rak'ah. When he
finished the prayer, he turned to his people and said, "Guard the number of my takbir and
learn my bowings and prostrations, for this is how the Prophet prayed with us during this
part of the day." (Then he said) when the Prophet, upon whom be peace, finished the
prayer, he turned toward the people and said, "O people, listen and understand. Allah has
slaves who are neither prophets nor martyrs, but both the prophets and martyrs envy them
for their closeness to Allah." A bedouin stepped forward, pointed to the Messenger of
Allah and said, "O Messenger of Allah, tell us about these people." The Prophet was
pleased with the bedouin's request and said, "They are from various peoples and tribes
who have no ties of relationship between them. They love each other purely for the sake
of Allah. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will present them pulpits of light for them to
sit on. Their faces will be light and their clothes will be light. The people will be scared
on the Day of Resurrection, but they will not be scared. They are the friends of Allah who
will not have any fear upon them nor will they grieve. [As to the authenticity of this

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report, it is related by Ahmad and Abu Ya'la with a Hassan chain. Al-Hakim says its
chain is Sahih.]

Reported Abu Hurairah, "A man entered the mosque and, after praying, went to the
Prophet, upon whom be peace. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, responded to his
salutations and said, 'Return and pray, for you have not prayed.' This happened three
times, and the man finally said, 'By the One who sent you with the Truth, I do not know
any better than that, so teach me.' He said, 'When you stand for the prayer, make the
takbir and then recite what you can from the Qur'an. Then bow until you attain calmness
and then come up again until you are standing straight. Then prostrate until you attain
calmness in your sitting, and prostate until you attain calmness in your prostration. Do
that during all of your prayer." [Related by Ahmad, Muslim and al-Bukhari.]

These are general hadith that describe how the Prophet, upon whom be peace, prayed or
what he said about its performance. Now we shall discuss those acts of the prayer which
are obligatory and those which are sunnah.

08.00.00
Salatul Jumu'ah and
Salatul E'id occurring on the same day
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.145]

If the day of E'id occurs on Jumu'ah, then salatul Jumu'ah is no longer an obligation upon
those who performed the salatul E'id.

Zaid ibn Arqam says: "The Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed the salatul E'id
and then he gave an exemption concerning the Jumu'ah, saying: 'Whoever wishes to pray
it may pray it.'" [This is related by the five and al-Hakim. Ibn Khuzaimah calls it Sahih.]

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Abu Hurairah reports that the prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "Two festivals
have occurred together on this day of yours. For whosoever desires, this will suffice for
his salatul Jumu'ah, but we are going to perform salatul Jumu'ah." [This is related by Abu
Dawud].

It is preferred for the imam to perform the Jumu'ah so anyone who wishes to perform it
may do so as well as those who were not able to attend the 'id prayer. The Prophet
sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "We are going to perform the salatul Jumu'ah."

According to the Hanbali school, the Zuhr is obligatory upon anyone who does not
attend the salatul Jumu'ah because he has performed the E'id prayer. Nevertheless, it
apparently is not obligatory as there is a hadith in Sunan Abu Dawud in which Ibn az-
Zubair says: "'Id and Jumu'ah occurred on the same day so he joined them and prayed
two rak'at at an early time, and did not add anything to it until 'asr.

08.01.00
Eid and Jumu'ah
Coinciding on the Same Day
By 'Alee Al-halabee & Saleem Al-Hilaalee
http://www.allaahuakbar.net/eid/eid_and_jumuah.htm

Abu Dawud (no.1070), an-Nisaa‘ee (3/194), Ibn Maajah (no. 1310), Ibn Khuzaymah (no.
1474) ad-Daarimee (no. 1620) Ahmad (4/372) transmit from Iyaas Ibn Abee Ramlah
as-Shaamee who said: ‘‘I witnessed Mu’aawiyah Ibn Abee Sufyaan - Have you
witnessed the coinciding of two ’Eids on the same day with the Prophet (sallallaahu
’alayhi wa sallam)? He replied: ‘Yes.’ So he said: ‘What did he do?’ He replied:
‘He (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) prayed ’Eid and then gave permission not to
pray Jumu’ah, and said: ‘He amongst you who desires to pray, let them pray.’’
[104] In this area, Abu Hurairah and others report from the Prophet (sallallaahu
’alayhi wa sallam). The Companions also act according to this.
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’Abdur-Razzaaq reports in his Musannaf (3/305), and Ibn Abee Shaybah in his
Musannaf (2/187) with a authentic chain of narration from ’Alee Ibn Abee Taalib that
two ’Eids coincided on the same day, so he said: ‘‘He who wishes to pray Jumu’ah
then let him do so and he who wishes to sit then let him do so.’’ And in Sahih-ul-
Bukhari is a similar narration from ’Uthmaan (radiyallaahu ’anhu).

In Sunane Abu Dawud (no. 1072), and in the Musannaf of ’Abdur-Razzaaq (no. 5725)
with an authentic chain of narration from Ibn Zubayr that he said: ‘‘Two ’Eids coincided
on the same day and so they were both joined together by making them one. He
prayed on the day of Jumu’ah two rak’ahs in the morning and he did not add to
them until he prayed the ’Asr Prayer ...’’

Ash-Shawkanee said in Naylul-Awtaar (3/348) after this narration: ‘‘It is apparent that
he did not pray Dhuhr Prayer.’’ It also shows that if for any (permissible) reason, the
Jumu’ah Prayer is cancelled, it is not obligatory for the person for whom it has been
cancelled to pray the Dhuhr Prayer and ’Ataa‘ held this opinion.

Thus it is apparent that those who hold this opinion are those who say that the Jumu’ah
Prayer is the origin. You are well aware of what He obligated over his servants on the
day of Jumu’ah, and that is the Jumu’ah Prayer. Thus making the Dhuhr Prayer
obligatory upon a person who leaves it i.e. Jumu’ah, either due to a permissible excuse
or otherwise is in need of evidence and there is no evidence which is worthy of being
adhered to from that which I know.

08.02.00
What to do when Eid Coincides with Friday
[By The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa]

Question: ...he gave a fatwa that the Jumu'ah and Zuhr prayer are "dropped" (not
obligatory) if one attended the `Eed prayer whether it is the imaam or (any of) the
congregation,...

Response: If the `Eed coincides with Friday, then attendance to the Jumu'ah prayer for
anyone who attended the `Eed prayer is "dropped" (not obligatory) except for the imaam.
For certainly he is not relieved of this obligation except if the people do not gather for the
Jumu'ah (prayer).

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And with Allaah lies all the success, and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon
our Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his
companions.

The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa, comprising -


Head: Shaykh 'Abdul 'Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz;
Deputy Head: Shaykh 'Abdur-Razzaaq 'Afeefee;
Member: Shaykh 'Abdullaah Ibn Qu'ood
Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-'Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa. - Volume 8, Page
179, Fatwa No.2140

WHAT TO DO WHEN `EID COINCIDES WITH FRIDAY


By Shaykh Ibn Baaz

08.03.00
The following Hadiths
regarding coinsidence of
Eid and Jumu'ah Prayer
Sunan Abu-Dawud Book 3
Prayer (Kitab Al-Salat): Details of Commencing Prayer
Translator: Prof. Ahmad Hasan, University of Southern Californis, USA

Book 3, Number 1065:

Narrated Zayd ibn Arqam:

Ilyas ibn AbuRamlah ash-Shami said: I witnessed Mu'awiyah ibn AbuSufyan asking Zayd ibn Arqam:
Did you offer along with the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) the Friday and 'Id prayers
synchronised on the same day? He said: Yes. He asked: How did he do? He replied: He offered the 'Id

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prayer, then granted concession to offer the Friday prayer, and said: If anyone wants to offer it, he may
offer.

Book 3, Number 1066:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

Ata' ibn AbuRabah said: Ibn az-Zubayr led us in the 'Id prayer on Friday early in the morning. When we
went to offer the Friday, he did not come out to us. So we prayed ourselves alone. At that time Ibn
Abbas was present in at-Ta'if. When he came to us, we mentioned this (incident) to him. He said: He
followed the sunnah.

Book 3, Number 1068:

Narrated AbuHurayrah:

The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: Two festivals ('Id and Friday) have synchronised on this day. If
anyone does not want to offer the Friday prayer, the 'Id prayer is sufficient for him. But we shall offer
the Friday prayer.

08.04.00
Muslim jurists differed on this issue
and have four opinions:
The first opinion:
Jumu’ah salat is still obligatory and has to be performed on time, whether one performs
Eid salat or not. And this applies for both the Imam and the congregation.

This is the position of the Hanafi, Maliki and Dhahiri schools. Ibn Qudamah in his book
al-Mughni attributed this opinion to the majority of the Fuqhaa’ and Muslim Jurists.

Their evidence, according to Ibn Rushd in “Bidayatul Mujtahid” is the default ruling of
Jumu’ah salat as was derived from the ayah in surat al-Jumu’ah:

“O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of
Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and
traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew…” 62:9

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The binding ruling of Jumu’ah salat was also clearly established by the many ahadith in
Bukhari, Muslim and other collections of hadith, and this cannot be out ruled even if Eid
falls on Friday.

Jumu’ah salat is also as obligatory as Eid salat, and performing one of them does not
substitute for the other. Imam Ibn Hazam rahimahullah in his book al-Muhallaa said:
“And if Eid and Falls on Friday, one should pray Eid first and then Jumu’ah. This is a
must, and there is no reliable evidence to prove otherwise”. He then said: “Jumu’ah is
Fard and Eid is supererogatory, and the supererogatory act does not override the Fard.”

Moreover, the scenario of Eid and Jumu’ah is similar to Eid and Dhuhr salat in any other
day besides Friday. Therefore, if dhuhr is required on Eid day, then Jumu’ah which is the
Fard of Friday is also required and remains obligatory.

The second opinion:


Jumu’ah is still obligatory on the residents of towns and cities and those who live near (a
reasonable distance) from the Masjid. As for the commuters and people who reside far
from the Masjid, they are then, if attended Eid salat, exempt from coming back for
Jumu’ah salat. The Imam, however, is still obligated to perform Jumu’ah.

This is the opinion of Imam ash-Shafi’ ee rahimahullah, and Imam an-Nawawi in his
Majmou’ attributed it to the majority of Muslim scholars.

His evidence is the narration of Abi Ubaid, as reported in Muwatta’ Imam Malik, who
said: I prayed Eid salat with Uthman ibn Affan one time. He first started with salat, and
then delivered the khutbah in which he said: “This day you have two Eids coming in one
day, so for the people who came form al-Awaali -the suburbs and outskirts of Madinah-
whoever wishes to stay for Jumu’ah, let them stay. And whoever wishes to return home,
they can leave. They have my permission.” Imam an-Nawawi rahimahullah attributed it
to Bukhari, and it is indeed in Bukhari in the “Book of al-Adhaahi” or qurbani’s and
sacrifices, chapter 16/ What is permissible to consume from the adhaahi and what is
permissible to keep?, and hadith number is 5572. (Fathul Bari’s copy)

Imam ash-Shirazi rahimahullah said: “and the people are excused from attending
Jumu’ah salat in general due to extreme hardship, and requiring people (of the suburbs)
to return back for Jumu’ah after they have attended Eid salat would inflict a great
hardship on them.”

The third opinion:


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Whoever attends Eid salat is pardoned from attending Jumu’ah regardless of his place of
residence, for both the Imam and the congregation. The Imam however, should still offer
Jumu’ah for those who wish to attend it and perform it for those who missed Eid salat.

Dhuhr salat, in this case, should still be performed in place of Jumu’ah. This opinion, due
to its clear textual evidences, is the strongest opinion of all.

It is the opinion of Imam Ahamd rahimahullah, and is the preference of shaykhul Islam
Ibn Taymiyyah who attributed it to a group of the companions such as Omar, Uthman,
Ibn Masoud, Ibn Abbas and others, and then said: “and there is no knowledge of any
disagreement among them on this.” It is also the opinion of many of the scholars of
hadith.

The evidence for this is hadith Zaid ibn Arqam who said: The Prophet prayed the Eid
salat on a Friday and granted a permission regarding the praying of Jumu’ah salat and
said: “If anyone wants to pray it, he may pray.” Reported by Imam Ahmad and in the
books of Sunan except for at-Tirmidhi. And was ruled Sahih by Ibn Khuzayma.

In the Sunan of Abu Dawood, Abu Hurayrah narrated, the Messenger of Allah said: “In
this day you have two Eids, and for whomever wishes (Eid salat) will suffice him (form
attending Jumu’ah) and we shall still be prying Jumu’ah.”

Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullah adds: “Moreover, if someone attends Eid
salat, he had already obtained the objective of the congregation (on Friday), so he prays
Dhuhr if he did not attend Jumu’ah salat, dhuhr salat will remain on time and Eid salat
achieves for him the purpose of Jumu’ah congregation. Keeping the obligation of
Jumu’ah (binding)on people will definitely cause hardship for them, and would ruin the
purpose of Eid, and the reason it was prescribed for to show joy and happiness. Hence, if
people were held back from enjoying their time ( in order to attend Jumu’ah salat) Eid
will cause an adverse result and negates its purpose.”

The fourth opinion:


Whoever attends Eid salat is pardoned and does not have to attend any salat after that
until Asr salat, i.e. both Jumu’ah and Dhuhr will no longer be required.

This is the opinion of Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah and from the companions Ibn az-Zubair. It was
also reported as one opinion of Imam Ahmad.

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Abdullah ibn az-Zubair radiyallahu anahu once said: “Two Eids (Eid Day and
Friday)came on one Day, so he prayed two Rak’ah early in the morning and did not add
anything to after that until Asr.” Ata’ reported this to Ibn Abbas when he was in Taif, and
to this he replied: “The followed the Sunnah” Reported by Abu Dawood.

In refuting this final opinion, Imam al-Khattabi rahimahullah said: “This -the act of Ibn
az-Zubair- could not be understood except in the context of the opinion of those who
permit performing Jumu’ah prior to the time of zawal (the beginning of the time of dhuhr
when the sun starts moving out of the zenith), hence Ibn az-Zubair would have prayed
Jumu’ah in place of Eid and dhuhr.”

In addition to that, Ata’ who reported the incident of ibn az-Zubair also said: “On
Jumu’ah time we gathered for salat but he (Ibn az-Zubair) did not come out (to lead us)so
we prayed individually.” This means that they prayed dhuhr, and there is a possibility that
Ibn az-Zubair did pray dhuhr in his house as well.

And Allah knows best.

09.00.00
Eid prayers (Salatul E'idain)
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 2:Sayyid Saabiq]

The prayers of the two 'ids was prescribed in the first year after the migration. It is a
sunnah mu'kkadah as the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always performed these
prayers and he ordered the men and women to go out to attend them.

01. Grooming for the two E'ids


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.147a]

It is preferred to make the ghusl, perfume one's self and don one's best attire on the
occasions of the two E'ids.

Ja'far ibn-Muhammad relates from his father on the authority of his grandfather who
reported that the Prophet would wear a Yemeni cloak on every 'id. [This is related by ash-
Shaf'i and al-Baghawi.]

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Al-Hassan as-Sibt says: "The Messenger of Allah ordered us to wear the best clothes we
could find for the two 'ids and to apply the best perfume we could find and to sacrifice
the best animal we could find." This is related by al-Hakim and in its chain is Ishaq ibn
Barzakh whom al-'Azdi declares to be weak while Ibn Hibban says he is trustworthy.

Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet used to wear his most beautiful clothes for them
and he had a special cloak that he would wear on the two E'ids and Jumu'ah.

02. Eating on the two E'ids


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.147b]

One is to eat before going to the salah for E'id-ul fitr, (the end of Ramadan) but not do so
on the occasion of the 'idul azha (commemmorating Prophet Ibrahim's sacrifice). For
E'id-ul-fitr, it is a sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray salatul E'id
while for E'idul-Azha the eating should be delayed until one returns from the E'id prayers
and then he may eat of his sacrifice if he has sacrificed an animal.

Anas reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the festival of breaking the fast until he
had eaten an odd number of dates." [This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari.]

Buraidah reports: "The Prophet would not go out on the day of breaking the fast ('idul
fitr) until he had eaten and on the day of sacrifice ('idul azha) he would not eat until he
had returned [from salah]." This is related by at-Tirmizhi and Ibn Majah, and also by
Ahmad who added: "And he would eat from his sacrifice."

In al-Muwatta' it is recorded from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab that the people were
ordered to eat before they go out on the day of breaking the fast.

Ibn-Qudamah said: "I do not know of any difference of opinion over the fact that one
should hasten in eating [eat early] on the day of breaking of the fast."

03. Going out to the musalla (place of prayer)


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.148]

Salatul E'id can be performed in the mosque but it is preferred to perform in a place
outside the city as long as there is no excuse or reason to do otherwise (e.g., rain and so
on) as the Prophet would pray the two 'ids in the outskirts of Medinah and he never
prayed it in his mosque, except once and because it was raining.

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Abu Hurairah reports that it was raining on the day of 'id, so the Prophet led them in
salatul 'id in the mosque. This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim, and its
chain contains an unknown narrator. Al-Hafiz says in at-Talkhis: "Its chain is weak," and
azh-Zhahabi asserts: "This hadith is rejected."

04. Women and children going out to attend E'id prayer


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.148a]

Shari'ah requires women and children to go out and attend the salatul 'idain. This includes
married, single, young, old, or menstruating women.

Umm 'Atiyah reports: "We were ordered to go out with the single and menstruating
women to the two 'ids in order to witness the good and the supplications of the Muslims.
The menstruating women would be separate from the others." ]This is related by al-
Bukhari and Muslim.]

Ibn 'Abbas says that the Prophet would take his wives and daughters to the two 'ids.
[This is related by Ibn-Majah and al-Baihaqi.]

Ibn 'Abbas further reports: "I went out with the Prophet on the day of breaking the fast
or of the sacrifice, and he prayed and gave a khutbah, and then he went to the women and
admonished them, reminded them of Allah, and ordered them to give charity." [This is
related by al-Bukhari.]

05. Taking different routes to and from musalla


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2, P.148b]

Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is preferred for a person to go
to the salah by one route and then to return home through another route, regardless of
whether he be the imam or a member of the congregation.

Jabir reports: "On the days of E'id, the Prophet would take different routes." [This is
related by al-Bukhari.]

Abu Hurairah says: "When the Prophet went to salatul 'id, he would return through a
different route." [This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and at-Tirmizhi].

It is permissible to return through the same route by which one goes to the musalla. Bakr
ibn Mubashir says: "I used to go with the companions of the Prophet to the musalla on
'idul azha and on 'idul fitr, and we passed through a specific valley in Medinah until we
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came to the place of salah and prayed with the Messenger of Allah, and then we would
return to our houses through the same valley." This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Hakim,
and by al-Bukhari in his Tarikh. Ibn as-Sakin says that its chain is acceptable.

06. The time of E'id prayers


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.149]

The time for salatul E'id begins from the time the sun is three meters above the horizon
until the sun reaches its meridian.

Ahmad ibn Hassan al-Bana' records that Jundub said: "The Prophet prayed the 'idul
fitr prayer while the sun was [approximately] six meters above the horizon and the 'id of
the sacrifice while the sun was three meters above the horizon."

Ash-Shaukani says: "That is the best of what has been related concerning the specific
time of salatul 'idain and the hadith shows that it is preferred to hasten in praying salatul
azha and to delay the salatul fitr."

Ibn Qudamah says: "It is a sunnah to pray salatul azha early in order to allow more time
for the people to perform the sacrifice, and the salatul fitr is to be delayed in order to give
people time to pay zakat al-Fitr. I know of no difference of opinion on this point."

07. The Azhan and Iqamah for salatul E'idain


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.149a]

Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "When the Messenger of Allah went to the musalla (place of
prayer), he would perform the salah without any azhan or iqamah and without saying 'as-
salatu jami'ah' (prayer in congregation). The sunnah is not to do any of that."

Ibn 'Abbas and Jabir both report that there was no azhan on the day of the breaking of
the fast or on the day of sacrifice. This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Muslim records that 'Ata said: "Jabir informed me that there is no azhan for the 'id of
breaking the fast, neither when the imam arrives nor afterward. And there is no iqamah or
call of any kind."

Sa'd ibn abi-Waqqas reports: "The Prophet prayed salatul E'id without any Azhan or
Iqamah. He would deliver two khutbahs standing and would seperate them by sitting
between them.' [This is related by al-Bazzar.]

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08. The Takbir during salatul E'idain


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.150]

The E'id prayer consists of two rak'at during which it is sunnah to pronounce the takbir
seven times, after the opening takbir and before the Qur'anic recital in the first rak'ah.
During the second rak'ah, one makes takbir five times after the takbir which is
customarily made for standing after the prostration. One is to raise one's hands during
each pronouncement of the takbir. [This is based on a report transmitted from 'Umar and
his son Abdullah.]

'Amr ibn Shu'aib reports from his father on the authority of his grandfather that the
Prophet would make twelve takbirat during the 'id prayer, seven in the first rak'ah and
five in the second. He did not pray before or after the 'id. [This is related by Ahmad and
Ibn Majah. Ahmad says: "I follow that." ]

Abu Dawud and ad-Daraqutni report that the Prophet said: "The takbirat during the
[E'id of breaking the fast are seven in the first rak'ah and five in the second, and the
Qur'anic recital comes after them in both the rak'at." This is the strongest opinion and it is
the opinion of the majority of the people of knowledge from among the companions, the
successors, and the imams.

Ibn Abdul-Barr commenting on the number of takbirat, says: "It has been related
through many good chains that the Prophet made seven takbirat in the first rak'ah and five
in the second. Such has been related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr, Ibn 'Umar, Jabir, 'Aishah.
Abu Waqid, and 'Amer ibn 'Auf al-Mazni. Nothing that has been related from him, either
through a stonger or weaker chain, differs from that, and it was the first to be practiced."

As to the pause between takbirat, it is said that the Prophet would be silent for a short
period of time between the takbirat, and nothing has been related from him concerning
exactly what he said during that pause; however, at-Tabarani and al-Baihai relate, with a
strong chain, that Ibn Mas'ud would praise and extol Allah, the Exalted, and make
prayers upon the Prophet during such intervals. The same has been recorded from
Huzhaifah and Abu Musa. Pronouncing the takbirat are a sunnah even though the salah is
not invalidated if one neglects them, either intentionally or out of forgetfulness.

Ibn Qudamah says: "I know of no difference of opinion on that point." Ash-Shaukani
states that the strongest opinion is that if one does not perform the takbirat out of
forgetfulness, he is not to perform the prostrations of forgetfulness.

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09. Prayer before or after salatul E'id


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.151]

It is not established that there is any sunnah prayer before or after the 'id prayer. The
Prophet never performed any such prayer, neither did his companions upon arrival at the
musalla (prayer place).

Ibn 'Abbas reports: "The Messenger of Allah went out to the site of the 'id prayer and
prayed two rak'at [i.e., the 'id prayer] without praying anything before or after it." This is
related by the group.

It is reported that Ibn 'Umar did the same and he stated that this was the practice of the
Prophet.

Al-Bukhari records that Ibn 'Abbas disliked that one should perform a prayer before
salatul E'id. Concerning voluntary prayers at such a time, Ibn Hajar has stated in Fath al-
Bari that there is no evidence to show that it is not allowed, unless it is at the times in
which it is disliked to pray on any day.

10. For whom the performance of Salatul E'id is valid


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.151a]

The E'id prayer is valid for men, women, children, travellers, residents, people in
congregation, and people praying individually. It is also valid if performed in a house,
mosque, or a distant place designated for the salah, and so on.

11. Whoever misses salatul 'id with


the congregation may pray two rak'at
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.151b]

In Sahih al-Bukhari we find in the chapter entitled: "If one misses salatul 'id he may
pray two rak'at and the same is the case for the women or people in their houses or in the
countryside. This is based on the Prophet's words: 'O Muslims, this is our festival."

' Anas ibn Malik ordered his protege Ibn abi-'Utbah, [who lived] in a remote area, to
gather his family and children and to pray [the 'id prayer] like the people in the city and
with takbirat similar to theirs.

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'Ikrimah said: "The people of the country should gather for the E'id and pray two rak'at
as the Imam does."

'Ata says: "If you miss the E'id [salah], pray two rak'at."

12. The khutbah of salatul E'id


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.151c]

The khutbah after salatul Eid is a sunnah and so is listening to it.

Abu Sa'id says: "On the id of breaking the fast and of the sacrifice, the Prophet would go
to the musalla (prayer place) and begin with the salah and when he finished, he would
face the people while the people were sitting in rows, and he would admonish them,
advise them, and exhort them [to do good deeds]. And if he wished to send off an army or
order something, he would do so and then leave." Abu Sa'id then says: "The people
continued to act likewise until I went out with Marwan, while he was the govenor of
Medinah, for one of the two 'ids. When I arrived at the place of prayer, I found a minbar
that was built by Kathir ibn as-Salt. When Marwan went to mount it before the prayer, I
pulled him by his clothes. He pushed me away and gave the khutbah before the salah. I
said to him: 'By Allah you have changed [the order].' He said: 'O Abu Sa'id...what you
know is gone.' I said: 'By Allah, what I know is better than what I don't know.' He said:
'The people would not stay with us after the salah so we made the khutbah before the
salah.'" [This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

'Abdullah ibn as-Sa'ib said: "I prayed the 'id salah with the Messenger of Allah and
when he finished the salah he said: 'We will be delivering a khutbah. Whoever wishes to
stay for the khutbah may stay. Whoever would like to leave, may leave." [This is related
by an-Nasa'i, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.]

Whatever has been recorded suggests that there are two khutbahs for the E'id and the
Imam sits between them [i.e., like the khutbatul Jumu'ah]. Such reports are considered
weak.

An-Nawawi says: "There is nothing at all substantiated about there being more than one
khutbah."

Ibn al-Qayyim writes: "The Prophet would begin all of his khutbahs with the praise of
Allah and there is no hadith from him that states that he began his E'id khutbahs with
Takbir.

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Ibn Majah recorded in his Sunan from Sa'id, the mu'azhzhin of the Prophet, that the
Prophet would say the takbir during his khutbahs and even more so during the 'id
khutbahs. Still, this does not prove that he began his khutbah with it! The people differ
over the beginning of the 'id and the khutbah for salatul istisqa' (prayer for rain). Some
say that they are to begin with takbir. Some say that the khutbah for salatul istisqa' begins
with praying for forgiveness while others say it begins with praises of Allah."

Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taimiyyah says: "That is correct as the Prophet said: 'Every affair
that does not begin with the praise of Allah is deficient.' The Prophet began all of his
speeches with praises of Allah. Concerning the statement of many jurists, i.e.. he began
the 'prayer for rain' by asking forgiveness from Allah and the id speech with takbir, there
is absolutely no proof for it in the Prophet's sunnah. In fact the sunnah contradicts that
statement as he began all of his speeches with the praises of Allah."

13. Making up a missed E'id prayer


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.152]

Abu 'Umair ibn Anas reports: "My Ansari uncles from among the companions of the
Messenger of Allah said to me: 'The moon for the month of Shawwal was hidden from us
and, therefore, our companions fasted. Then at the end of the day, riders came and they
bore witness to the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam that they had seen the moon the
previous night. The Prophet ordered the people to break their fasts and to go out to the
site of the salatul E'id on the next day.'" [This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn
Majah with a sahih chain.]

In this hadith there lies evidence for those who say that if the people miss salatul E'id
due to some excuse, then they may go out and pray it the next day.

14. Playing, amusements, singing,


and eating on the days of E'id
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.153]

Recreation, amusements, and singing, if they stay within the moral bounds, are
permissible on the days of E'id.

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Anas reports: "When the Prophet came to Medinah they had two days of sport and
amusement. The Prophet said: "Allah, the Exalted, has exchanged these days for two
days better than them: the day of breaking the fast and the day of sacrifice." This is
related by an-Nasa'i and Ibn Hibban with a sahih chain.

A'ishah says: "The Abyssinians were preforming in the mosque on the day of E'id. I
looked over the Prophet's shoulders and he lowered them a little so I could see them until
I was satisfied and left." [This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.]

Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim also record that she said: "Abu Bakr entered upon
us on the day of E'id and there were some slave girls who were recounting [in song the
battle of] Bu'ath in which many of the brave of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj were killed.
Abu Bakr said: 'Slaves of Allah, you play the pipes of the Satan!' He said it three times.
The Prophet said to him: 'O Abu Bakr, every people have a festival and this is our
festival."' In al-Bukhari's version, 'Aishah said: "The Messenger of Allah, entered the
house and I had two girls who were singing about the battle of Bu'ath. The Prophet lied
down on the bed and turned his face to the other direction. Abu Bakr entered and spoke
harshly to me, 'Musical instruments of the Satan in the presence of the Messenger of
Allah!' The Messenger of Allah turned his face to him and said: 'Leave them.' When Abu
Bakr became inattentive I signaled to the girls to leave. It was the day of E'id and the
Africans were performing with their shields and spears. Either I asked him or the Prophet
asked if I would like to watch them [I don't recall now]. I replied in the affirmative. At
this the Prophet made me stand behind him and my cheek was against his. He was
saying: 'Carry on, O tribe of Arfadah,' until I tired. The Prophet asked: 'Is that enough for
you?' I replied: "yes," so he said: 'Leave [then].'"

Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari, "Ibn as-Siraj related from Abu Az-Zinad on the
authority of 'Urwah from 'Aishah that the Prophet said that day: 'Let the Jews of Medinah
know that our religion is spacious [and has room for relaxation] and I have been sent with
an easy and straight forward religion. "'

Ahmad and Muslim record from Nubaishah that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam
said: "The days of tashriq (i.e., the days in which the 'id is celebrated) are days of eating
and drinking [non alcoholic drinks] and of remembering Allah, the Exalted."

15. The excellence of good deeds


in the first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.154]

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Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: "No good deeds
done on other days are superior to those done on these days [meaning the ten days of
Zhul-Hijjah]." The companions asked: "O Messenger of Allah, not even jihad in the way
of Allah?" He said: "Not even jihad, save for the man who puts his life and wealth in
danger [for Allah's sake] and returns with neither of them." [This is related by the group
save Muslim and an-Nasa'i.]

Ahmad and At-Tabarani record from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah said:
"There is no day more honorable in Allah's sight and no acts more beloved therein to
Allah than those in these ten days. So say tahlil ["There is no God but Allah"], takbir
[Allah is the greatest] and tahmid ["All praise is due to Allah"] a lot [on those days]."

Ibn 'Abbas says about the 'ayah, "Remember Allah during the well known days," that it
refers to the first ten days of Zhul-Hijjah. This is related by al-Bukhari. Sa'id ibn Jubair
would push himself very hard [to do good deeds] during these ten days.

Al-Auza'i says: "It has reached me that a deed on one of the ten days is similar to
fighting in the way of Allah, fasting during its days and guarding during its nights, except
for him who becomes a martyr." As to its source, he adds: "A man from the tribe of Bani
Makhzum related that to me from the Prophet."

Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet said: "There are no days more loved to Allah for
you to worship Him therein than the ten days of ZhulHijja. Fasting any day during it is
equivalent to fasting one year and to offer salatul tahajjud (late-night prayer) during one
of its nights is like performing the late night prayer on the night of power. [i.e., Lailatul
Qadr]." [This is related by at-Tirmizhi, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi.]

[See in details in the book of "Hajj-e-Baitullah: Akm Fakhrul Islam, New York, USA]

16. Congratulating one another on the days of E'id


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.154a]

It is commendable to congratulate one another on the days of 'id.

Jabir ibn Nafir reports: "When the companions of the Prophet met each other on the
day of 'id, they would say to each other, 'taqabbal minna wa minka [May Allah] accept it
from us and you.'" [Ibn Hajar said that its chain is Hasan.]

17. Takbirat during the days of E'id


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2,P.154b]
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It is a sunnah to pronounce the takbirat on 'id days. Concerning the E'id of breaking the
fast, Allah says "you should complete the prescribed period and that you should glorify
Allah [i.e., say takbirat] for having guided you and that you may give thanks."
Concerning the 'id of the sacrifice, Allah says: "that you may remember Allah during the
well known days;" and: "He has made them subject to you, that you may glorify Allah for
His guidance to you.

The majority of the scholars say that the time for the takbirat during the 'id of breaking
the fast is from the time one goes to the 'id prayer until the khutbah begins. Weak hadith
have been recorded stating this, but there are also authentic reports from Ibn 'Umar and
other companions that they did so.

Al-Hakim says: "This sunnah has been practiced by ahl-il hadith. Malik, Ahmad, Ishaq,
and Abu Thaur [have made statements concurring that practice]."

Some say that the takbirat are from the night before the 'id, when the moon is seen, until
the person goes to the musalla and the imam arrives. The time for the takbirat during the
'id of the sacrifice is from the day of 'Arafah until the time of the 'asr on the thirteenth of
Zhul-Hijjah.

Ibn Hajar writes in Fath al-Bari: "None of that has been confirmed from the Prophet.
The most authentic report from the companions is that 'Ali and Ibn Mas'ud would make
the takbirat from the day of 'Arafah to the 'asr of the last day of Mina. Ibn al-Munzhir and
others reported it. Ash-Shaf'i, Ahamd, Abu Yusuf, and Muhammad follow that report and
it is also the view of 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbas."

There is no specific time for the takbirat during the days of tashriq (three days after 'idul
azha). In fact, it is preferred to pronounce takbirat during every moment of those days.

Al-Bukhari recorded: "During 'Umar's stay at Mina, he would say takbirat in his tent
[so loud] that the people in the mosque would hear it and then they would start doing it
also and the people in the market place would do the same and all of Mina would resound
with the takbirat. Ibn 'Umar used to say the takbirat, during those days of Mina, after the
prayers and while on his bed, in his tent, while sitting and while walking during all of
those days. Maimuna would say the takbirat on the day of sacrifice. The women used to
say takbirat behind Abban ibn 'Uthman and 'Umar ibn 'Abdulaziz along with the men in
the mosque during the days of tashriq."

Al-Hafiz ibn Hajar said: "These reports show that the takbirat are made during all the
times of these days, after salah and all other times. Some say the takbirat are made only
after the salah, and some say they are to be made only after the fard prayers and not after
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nawafl, others declare them to be for men and not for women, while some say that they
are only to be said in congregations and not individually, while others reserve them only
for those who perform the salah on time and not for those who are making up a missed
prayer, and some say only for residents and not travellers, whereas others think they are
only for the people of the city and not for the people of the countryside. Apparently al-
Bukhari is of the opinion that it is for all people and the reports that he has transmitted
support his opinion."

These takbirat can be made in many different forms. The most authentic form is that
which has been recorded with a sahih chain by 'Abdurrazaq from Salman, who said:
"They made takbirat with: 'Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar kabeera."' From
'Umar and ibn Mas'ud the following is related: "Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar. La ilaha
illallah. Allahu akbar. Allahu akbar wa lillahil-hamd." Translation: Allah is the greatest,
Allah is the greatest. There is no God but Allah. Allah is the greatest, Allah is the
greatest. All praise belongs to Allah.

10.00.00
Every Muslim must be Cautious
about the following rules regarding
Salah(Prayer)
The Fards of the Prayer

Prayer has twelve fards, some of which must be observed before beginning the prayer.
They are known as the conditions or prerequisites of prayer. Others, known as the "pillars
of prayer," are observed while praying. Some schollars say 12 some says 13 and some
say 14 Fards of prayer. So we mentioned everything here.

Fard Parts before the Salat:


1. Body has to be clean of all sorts of impurities.
2. Garments should be clean and pure.
3. Place of salat should be clean.
4. Covering of Satr.
5. The right time for salat.

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6. Facing the Qiblah.


7. Having the intention to offer salat.

The Prerequisites of Prayer:

1. Purity from hadath: Cleansing oneself of invisible impurities by performing wudu' or


ghusl, as appropriate, or tayammum (when it is impossible to perform the former two).

2. Purity from najasat: Cleansing oneself of visible impurities on one's body or clothing
before praying.

3. Covering of satar: Covering what needs to be covered. For men, this consists of
everything between the navel and the knee; for women, it is the whole body, excluding
the hands, face, and feet. If one-quarter of what must be covered becomes uncovered
while praying for as long as it takes one to perform one pillar of salat, the prayer is
invalid.

4. Facing the qiblah: Facing toward the Ka'bah while praying. If the one praying turns his
or her chest away from the qiblah (approximately 45 degrees), the prayer is invalid.

5. Prescribed time: There is a specific time for each fard and wajib prayer. Prayers must
be performed within the times set out for them. The prayer cannot be performed
beforehand. It is also a sin to leave it for later without a legitimate justification.

6. Making the niyyah: Calling to mind the prayer to be performed. The imam must intend
to fulfill his role, and the congregation must intend to follow the imam.

Fard Parts During the Salat


1. To began salat with Takbeer Tahrima.
2. Qiyam in every rakah.
3. Qirat (in two rakah of Fard, and all rakahs of Sunnah, Wajib, and Nafl)
4. Ruku in every rakah.
5. Two Sijdahs in every rakah.
6. Qa'adah Akhirah
7. Salam (To end the salat).

The Pillars of Prayer

1. Takbir Tahrimah: After preparing one's intention, one says "Allahu akbar," raises his
or her hands, and recites the takbir.
2. Qiyam: Standing while praying. If one has a valid excuse not to stand, he or she may

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pray while seated.


3. Qira'at: Reciting at least three short Qur'anic verses during qiyam.
4. Ruku': Bending so that one's hands will touch one's knees.
5. Sujud (sajdah): Placing one's forehead and nose, along with one's toes, knees, and
hands on the ground. It is not sufficient for the forehead and nose to merely touch the
ground; the forehead must feel the ground's hardness. In large crowds, those in the back
rows may rest their foreheads on the backs of those in the front rows.
6. Qa'dah Akhirah: Sitting at the end of the prayer long enough to recite the tahiyyat.

Wajib Parts
1. To recite Surah Al- Fatiha in every rakah
2. Recite a portion of Quran in the first two rakah of Fard and in every rakah of other
salats after Fatiha.
3. To observe sequence.
4. To observe Qauma.
5. To observe Jalsah.
6. To observe Qa'ada Ula.
7. To recite Tashahud at least once in the two rak'ahs.
8. To raise hands with Takbeer for Qunut in the last rakah of Witr.
9. To pronounce additional Takbeers in Eid salats.

Sunnah Parts
01. To raise hands and turn palms towards Qibla before Takbeer Tahrimah. For males to
ear lobes. For female shoulder level.
02. To keep the head erect while pronouncing Takbeer Tahrimah.
03. To tie hands properly after Takbeer Tahrimah.
04. To recite Thana.
05. To pronounce Taawwuz.
06. To recite Bismillah before Fatiha.
07. To recite only Fatiha in 3rd and 4th rakah of Fard.
08. To recite Ameen after Fatiha.
09. To pronounce tasbih in ruku and sijdah at least thrice.
10. To place the knees first, then two hands, then nose and at last forehead in sijdah.

Mustahabb Part
1. To look during Qiyaam to the place of sijdah,
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2. To look between the two feet during ruku',


3. To look at the thighs during Qa'dah, and
4. To look at the shoulders during Salaam.

The Mustahabbat of the Prayer

Things that the Prophet (saas) did only once or twice are referred to as mandub or
mustahabb. For example, saying tasbih more than three times in ruku' and sajdah or
reciting, during the qira'at, more verses than the Sunnah requires. Mustahabbat have been
legitimized as complementing the sunnahs.

According to the Hanafis, the following mustahabbat are mandub (recommended):

1) Men, while saying the takbir tahrimah, should take both hands out of their outer
garment, for this is closer to modesty. If it is cold, however, they do not have to do so.
Women have to raise their hands under their outer garment so that their arms will not be
exposed.

2) During the qiyam, one should look at where the forehead will rest during sajdah, at the
feet's upper surface during ruku', at the nostril flaps during sajdah, at the lap during the
qa'dah, and at the shoulders when turning one's head. The individual must strive to
perform an excellent prayer with khushu' (humility). The Messenger of Allah (saas) has
described excellence (ihsan) as:

"That you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, for although you don't see Him, He,
verily, sees you." (Sahih Muslim, Book 001, Number 0001)

3) Try to keep the mouth closed when yawning. If this is not possible, one should cover it
with the back of one's hand.

4) Try not to cough.

5) During iqamah, when the muezzin says "Hayya 'ala al-falah," the imam and
congregation should stand. If the imam is not near the mihrab, each row through which
he'll pass must stand. (See al-Bukhari, Salat, 9; Abu Dawud, 106-107)

When the words "qad qamat as-salat" (prayer has been established) are spoken, the imam
begins the prayer, thereby confirming the muezzin's words. However, there is nothing
wrong with beginning the prayer after the iqamah's end. Indeed, in the view of the Shafi'i,
Malaki, and Hanbali, as well as Abu Yusuf, this is actually what is best. (Prof. Hamdi

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Donduren, Delilleriyle Islam Ilmihali [Islamic Catechism with Proofs] [Erkam


Publishing])

Things That Break Salat


01. Talking
02. Crying (scream)
03. To ignore, break, or miss one of the Fard parts (intentionally or unintentionally).
04. To deliberately miss any Wajib parts of the salat or unintentionally and failing to
perform sijdah-Sahaf.
05. To cough or moan unnecessarily.
06. To chew or eat something.
07. Breaking into laughter.
08. To commit a blunder in the recitation of Quran so as to change the meaning. 09. To
move about or shift unnecessarily.
10. To repeat an act irrelevant to the salat over and over again.
11. To try to read something in front.

Undesirable Things
01. Wearing clothes against the established customs or practices.
02. Trying to fold the garments to save them from dust.
03. Playing with garments, hair, etc.
04. Offering salat in an undignified dress.
05. Performing the salat bareheaded.
06. Standing up for salat when there is a strong desire to go to the bathroom.
07. Placing one's hands on the hip or back.
08. Shaping the fingers or intertwining the fingers of one hand with those of the other.
09. Turning the face away from the Qiblah or casting side-glances.
10. Yawning on purpose.
11. Praying in garments or on mat that has pictures of animals on them or in a place
where there are pictures of living beings.
12. Standing in the back of Jamaat when there is room in the front.
13. Keeping the eyes closed except for concentrating.
14. Prostrating one's self by touching only the forehead or only nose or only edge of the
cap.
15. Sitting square during the salat without a genuine reason.
16. Bending down for ruku before finishing the recitation properly and tying to complete
it in the ruku.
17. Reciting the Quran regardless of sequence or size in various Rakahs of Fard salat.
18. Neglecting a Sunnah part in the salat.
19. Raising both feet of the ground in sijdah.
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Cases in Which Salat Can Be Broken


1. A train, airplane, or ship is going to set off for destination.
2. If a snake or harmful creature appears.
3. In case of danger of material loss.
4. If a person feels a strong desire to go to the bathroom.
5. If there is a danger of a blind person falling and drowning in the stream.
6. If the clothing catches fire.
7. Parents or grandparents call for help in affliction.

Fidyah for one missed salat is the same as that of one missed fast. Therefore, if a person
missed all the salats on a day, he will be required to pay fidyah for 6 salats (including the
obligatory Witr salat).

11.00.00
Actions which invalidate the Salah
[According to Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 2]

01. Intentionally eating or


drinking invalidates the salah
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 95a]

Ibn al-Munzhir says: "The people of knowledge agree that if one intentionally eats or
drinks during a fard salah, he is to repeat the salah.

The same is the case with nawafil according to the majority of scholars as what
invalidates an obligatory (fard) prayer also invalidates a voluntary (nafl) prayer."

02. Speaking intentionally about something


unrelated to the salah invalidates the salah:
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 95b]

Intentionally speaking during the salah, if it is not beneficial to the salah, invalidates the
salah.

Zaid ibn Arqam relates: "We used to talk while we were in salah and a person would
speak to the person next to him until the verse was revealed: 'And stand before Allah in

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devout obedience' and we were then commanded to observe silence during the salah."
[This is related by the group].

Ibn Mas'ud reports: "We used to greet the Messenger of Allah while he was in salah
and he would respond to our greeting. When we returned from Abyssinia, we greeted him
[during prayer] but he did not respond to our salutation. We said to him: 'O Messenger of
Allah, we used to greet you while you were in salah and you used to respond to us!' He
then said: 'Prayer demands one's complete attention.'" [This is related by al-Bukhari and
Muslim].

If one is ignorant of this ruling or speaks due to the fact that he has forgotten this ruling,
his salah will still be valid

Mu'awiyyah ibn alHakam said: "I was praying behind the Messenger of Allah and
someone in the congregation sneezed. I said [to him]: 'May Allah have mercy upon you.'
The people then stared at me, showing their disapproval of my act. I said: 'Woe to me,
why do you stare at me so?' They started to strike their hands on their thighs and when I
saw that they wanted me to become silent, I was angered but said nothing. When the
Messenger of Allah finished the prayer - and may my father and mother be ransomed for
him, I found no teacher better than him either before or after him - he did not scold, beat,
or revile me but he simply said: 'Talking to others is not seemly during the salah, for the
salah is for glorifying Allah, extolling His Greatness, and reciting the Qur'an.'" [This is
related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa'i. Mu'awiyyah ibn al-Hakam spoke
out of ignorance of this ruling and the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam did not order
him to repeat his salah].

Talking [if it is a reminder as to the incompleteness of the salah], does not nullify the
salah as can be seen in the following hadith.

Abu Hurairah says: "The Messenger of Allah led us in either the noon or after-noon
prayers and he made the taslim after praying just two rak'at. Zhul Yadain said to the
Prophet: 'O Messenger of Allah, has the salah been shortened or have you forgotten [part
of it]?' The Prophet sallallahu alehi wassalam said: 'It has not been shortened, nor did I
forget any part of it." He said: 'Yes, O Messenger of Allah, you did forget.' Thereupon the
Prophet asked (the people): 'Is Zhul Yadain correct in what he says?' The people said: 'He
is correct, you offered only two rak'at.' Then, the Prophet prayed the two remaining rak'at
and made the taslim, said the takbir and performed the sajdah, sat and made the takbir
and performed the sajdah again, and finally said the takbir and sat again." [This is related
by al-Bukhari and Muslim].

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The Maliki school allows talking during the prayer if it is done for any good of the salah
as long as it does not become a common practice and (is done) only when saying
subhanallah fails to alert the imam to correct his mistake.

Al-Auza'i's comments are: "Whoever intentionally speaks during the salah, seeking
some benefit to the salah, does not invalidate his salah." He said that if a person recites
aloud in the 'asr and someone behind him says: "It is the 'asr," (i.e., the recital is not to be
aloud) then the latter person would not invalidate his salah.

03. Intentionally making many motions


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 96]

The scholars differ over what exactly constitutes a few motions and what constitutes
many motions. Some say that one makes many motions when, if seen from behind, one
would be certain that he was not performing salah, and anything less than that amount is
considered only a few motions. Some say that it is any act or string of actions which
would make others believe that the person is not praying.

An-Nawawi says: "If a person performs a lot of actions that are not part of the salah, he
invalidates his salah, and, on this point, there is no difference of opinion. If the acts are
few, then they do not invalidate the salah and, on this point, there also is no difference of
opinion. This is the exact position. However, there does exist a difference of opinion over
what exactly constitutes a few actions and many actions, [and there exist four opinions on
this point..." He says that the fourth opinion is the correct and most popular opinion.

The fourth opinion is that the exact definitions of too much and too little are determined
by generally accepted standards. One is not harmed in his salah by common acts such as
nodding in reply to a salutation, taking off one's shoes, raising the headdress and putting
it back in place, putting on or taking off a light garment, carrying or holding a small
child, preventing someone from passing in front of the person in prayer, covering one's
spittle in one's clothing and similar other actions. As for the other acts, those which are
considered to constitute many actions (e.g., taking many consecutive steps, performing
actions repeatedly) they invalidate the prayer.

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An-Nawawi also says: "The scholars are in agreement that many actions invalidate the
prayer if they are performed consecutively [i.e., one after another]. If one separates the
actions, for instance, taking a step and then stopping for a while, then taking another step
or two, and then another two steps, after a pause (though a short one) between them, then
the salah will not be harmed, even if he (in this manner should take a hundred or more
steps. There is no difference of opinion on this point. As for light actions," he continues,
"such as, moving one's finger in glorifying Allah or in itching, and so forth., these do not
invalidate the prayer according to the well-known, authentic opinion, even when they are
done repeatedly and consecutively, but they are disliked."

AshShaf'i, in a statement concerning it, says: "Even if one counts the verses on one's
fingers, it would not invalidate one's salah, but it is best to avoid [such an act]."

04. Intentionally leaving out an essential act or


condition of the prayer without any valid excuse for doing so:
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 97]

Al-Bukhari and Muslim record that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam told a
bedouin who had not performed his salah well: "Return and pray for you have not
prayed." ([This hadith was mentioned earlier]

Ibn Rushd writes: "There is an agreement that if one prays and he is not in a state of
purity, it is obligatory for him to repeat the prayer, [that is true if the act was done]
intentionally or out of forgetfulness. Similarly, one who prays without facing the qiblah,
intentionally or due to forgetfulness, [must repeat the salah]. In general, if any of the
conditions for the correctness of the salah are absent, it becomes obligatory to repeat the
salah. "

05. Smiling or laughing during the salah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 98]

Ibn al-Munzhir records that there is a consensus of opinion that laughing (during the
salah) invalidates the prayer. An-Nawawi says: "This is the case if one laughs aloud, and
produces sound. Most of the scholars say that there is no problem with smiling. If one is
overcome by laughter and cannot control it, his salah will not become invalid if it is of
minor nature. If it is a hearty laughter, it will invalidate the salah. Custom would
determine whether it is a major or a minor laughter."

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12.00.00
Making (Qada') for missed Salah
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 2]

The scholars agree that it is obligatory for one who has forgotten the salah or slept
through its time to make up the missed [qada') prayer. This opinion is based on the hadith
of the Prophet mentioned earlier: "There is no negligence while one is asleep but
forgetfulness occurs when one is awake. If one of you forgets the prayer or sleeps
through its time, then he should perform the salah when he recalls it." If one falls
unconscious, then he need not repeat the salah, unless he regains his consciousness with
enough time to purify himself and perform the salah within its proper time.

'Abdurrazaq relates from Naf'i that Ibn 'Umar once fell sick and became unconscious
and missed the prayer. When he regained his consciousness, he did not make up the
missed prayer.

Ibn Juraij reports from Ibn Tawus on the authority of his father that if a sick person
becomes unconscious, he is not to make up the prayers he missed .

Mu'ammar relates: "I asked az-Zuhri about one who becomes unconscious, and he said
that he is not to make up the salah he missed."

Hamad ibn Salamah relates from Yunus ibn 'Ubaid that both al-Hassan al-Basri and
Muhammad ibn Sireen said that a person who falls unconscious is not to make up the
prayers he may miss.

Concerning missing a salah intentionally, the majority of the scholars say that it is a sin
and the missed salah must be made up for. [Ibn Taimaiyyah says.]

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01. In law, there is no way for one who


leaves a salah intentionally to make its Qada'
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 99a]

He may however, resort to increasing his voluntary and supererogatory acts. Ibn Hazm
has thoroughly discussed this question. The following is a summary of what he says on
this subject:

Concerning one who leaves a salah intentionally until its time expires, he will never be
able to make up for that salah. Such a person should turn to Allah and ask His forgivness
and increase his good deeds and nawafil in order to increase his weight [of good] on the
Day of Resurrection.

Abu Hanifah, Malik, and Ash-Shaf'i say that he can make up the prayer after its time
has expired, and Malik and Abu Hanifa even say that if a person intentionally misses a
prayer or a few prayers, then he is to make up those prayers before he prays the present
salah, even if he has missed all five prayers and should, while making them up, miss the
present salah. They say that if he missed more than five prayers, he is to begin by praying
the salah whose time is present [and then he is to make up the prayers he missed]. The
proof for our position [i.e, the position of Ibn Hazm] is found in the words of Allah, the
Exalted: "Woe unto the worshippers who are heedless of their prayers,'' and: "And then
there succeeded them a later generation who wasted the prayers and followed their own
lusts, but they will meet with destruction." If one who intentionally misses a salah could
make it up later, then why is it mentioned with affliction or transgression? Of course,
there is no affliction or transgression on one who delays the salah. But the case of one
who procrastinates until the last portion of its permissible time expires is quite different.

Allah, the Exalted, has appointed certain times for the fard salah; both the beginning time
and the ending time for the salah have been established, and there is no difference
between praying a salah before its time and praying it after its proper time elapses
because, in both cases the salah is not performed within its prescribed time. This is not to

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draw an analogy between one and the other but it is applying the same rule to them as
they both must be performed within the limits set by Allah. Allah, the Exalted, says:
"Whoever transgresses the limits set by Allah has verily wronged his own soul!" : The
principle of making qada' must be established by the proper sources of Islamic law.
Legislating [in shari'ah] is not permissible, save by Allah's authority as evidenced by His
Prophet.

We ask those people who say that one may make qada' for a salah which he misses
intentionally: "Tell us about this salah that you want him to perfom, is it the same salah
that Allah ordered him to perform or is it a different one?" If they say it is the same one,
then we may say to them: "Then one who misses it intentionally is not guilty of being
disobedient [to Allah, the Exalted], as he has done what Allah had ordered him to do, and
there is no sin upon him according to your statement and likewise there should be no
blame upon one who intentionally delays a salah until its time expires, but that is not an
acceptable position for any Muslim." If they say that it is not the salah which Allah
ordered, we may say: "You have told the truth," and this is a sufficient confession from
them. Then, we may ask them: "Is one who intentionally leaves the salah until its time
expires being obedient or disobedient to Allah?" If they say obedient, they will be
differing from the consensus of the Muslims and the Qur'an and the confirmed sunnah. If
they say he is being disobedient, they are speaking the truth and it is not valid that an act
of disobedience should replace an act of obedience.

Also, Allah, the Exalted, has set specific limits, through the tongue of His Messenger, for
the times of the salah. Each salah has a specific beginning time, and no one may perform
the salah before that time, and each prayer has a specific ending time, and no one may
perform the salah after that time. No one of this ummah will dispute that point. However,
if one is allowed to pray after the time set by the Messenger of Allah, then setting an
ending time for the salah has no meaning to it. Such an opinion is nonsense and may
Allah, the Exalted, keep us from it. Every action is connected with a certain time and it is
not valid outside of that time; if it was valid outside of that time, what would be the
purpose of that time being specifically singled out for that act? [The logic of this
argument] is clear and Allah, the Almighty, is our Supporter.

Ibn Hazm discusses this point at great length, and adds: "If making up a salah is
obligatory for one who has left a salah, even after its time has expired, why is it that
Allah and His Messenger have chosen not to mention that fact as (surely) they did not
forget it: "And your Lord is not forgetful!" Any law that is not based on the Qur'an or the
sunnah is not valid. It has been authentically reported that the Prophet said: "Whoever
misses the 'asr salah, it is as if he has lost his family and his property." It is correct to say
that if one "misses" something, he cannot make it up, for if he makes it up or could make

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it up, the act would not be "missed." The entire Muslim ummah is in agreement with the
statement and ruling that if the time of the salah has elapsed, then the salah is "over" [i.e.,
"qada" in Arabic], but if one can make it up, the statement that the salah is "over"
becomes false and untrue; therefore, there is no way that it could ever be made up. [The
people who agree with us on this include 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, his son 'Abdullah, Sa'd
ibn Abi Waqas, Salman al-Farsi, ibn Mas'ud, al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr,
Budail al-'Uqaili, Muhammad ibn Sireen, Mutraf ibn 'Abdullah, 'Umar ibn 'Abdulaziz,
and others.]

Allah has left no excuse, for anyone required to perform the salah, to delay the salah from
its proper time for any reason whatsoever, not even during times of fighting, fear,
extreme illness, or travelling. Allah says: "And when you are among them and arrange
them for salah, let only one party be with you" And: "But if you are in danger, then
walking or riding." Allah, the Exalted, does not permit even the extremely sick person to
delay the salah. In fact, such a person has been ordered to pray sitting, if he cannot pray
standing, and if he cannot pray sitting, then he may pray on his side.

Also, if one cannot make ablution with water, he may make tayammum; and if he cannot
find soil to make tayammum, he may still pray. Whence has the permission been obtained
that one may intentionally leave the salah until its time is finished and who has ordered
that it be performed after its time and how is it that the belated salah would be sufficient?
None of this is derived from the Qur'an, Sunnah, Qiyas (analogical reasoning), and so
forth.

Ibn Hazm further says: "Concerning our statement that the one who intentionally leaves
a salah until its time expires is to repent to Allah, the Exalted, ask for His forgiveness,
pray an increased number of nawafil, and do good deeds. This statement is based on
Allah's words: "Then there succeeded them a generation who missed prayers and
followed after lusts. But they will meet destruction save him who repents and believes
and does right. Such will enter the garden and will not be wronged," and: "...those who,
when they do an evil thing or wrong themselves, remember Allah and implore
forgiveness for their sins - who forgives sins, save Allah - and will not knowingly repeat
the wrong they did," and: "Whoever does an atom's weight of good shall see it and
whoever does an atom's weight of evil shall see it," and: "...We set a just balance for the
day of resurrection so no soul shall be wronged."

This [Muslim] ummah is in agreement, and there are texts that state that voluntary acts
are a type of good deeds and Allah knows how much they are really worth. It necessarily
follows that a number of voluntary works may be equivalent in merit to an obligatory
deed and may even amount to a greater merit.

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Furthermore, Allah has informed us that He does not waste the action of any person and
that the good deeds erase the evil ones.

13.00.00
The prayer of a person
who is ill (Salatul Marid)
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2]

Whoever has some excuse due to illness and cannot stand during the fard salah is allowed
to pray sitting. If he cannot pray in a sitting posture, he may pray while on his side by
making gestures. In such a case, his gestures for sajdah should be lower than those for his
ruku'. This principle is based on Allah's words: "...And celebrate Allah's praises,
standing, sitting, and lying on your sides."

'Imran ibn Hussain says: "I had piles [hemorrhoids], so I asked the Prophet about the
prayer and he said: 'Offer the salah while standing and if you cannot do so, pray while
sitting, and if you can't do that, then make salah while Iying on your side."' This is related
by the group, except for Muslim. An-Nasa'i adds: "And if you cannot offer salah while
lying on your side, then do it while lying on your back. Allah does not burden a soul,
save with what it can bear."

Jabir reports: "The Messenger of Allah visited a sick person and found him praying on
a cushion. The Prophet pushed it aside and said: "Pray on the ground if you can, and if
you cannot, then pray by making gestures, and make your sajdah lower than your ruku'.'"
[This is related by alBaihaqi]

What is meant by inability is that the person if he prays [in the regular way], will suffer
hardship, or his disease will aggravate, or his recovery would be hampered, or he will
swoon if he prays in the customary manner. One should sit cross-legged while praying in
a sitting position.

'Aishah narrates that she saw the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam sitting cross-legged
while praying. [This is related by an-Nasa'i and al-Hakim says it is sahih]
It is also permissible to sit in the manner that one sits while performing the tashahud.

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One who can offer the salah neither sitting nor standing is to lie down on his side, and if
he cannot do that, he is to lie down on his back with his legs toward the qiblah according
to his state of health. [Ibn al-Munzhir prefers this opinion].

On this point, there is a weak hadith reported by 'Ali which states that the Prophet said:
"The sick person is to pray standing if he is able. If he cannot do so, he should pray
sitting. If he is not able to make the sajdah, he should nod with his head and make the nod
of his sajjud lower than that of his ruku'. If he cannot pray in a sitting posture, he should
pray while lying down on his right side facing the qiblah. If one cannot pray on his right
side, he should pray while lying on his back with his legs stretched out toward the
qiblah." [This is related by Ad-Daraqutni].

Some scholars maintain that one can pray in whatever manner is easy for him. It is
apparent from the hadith that if one can only nod while lying on his back, then nothing
else is obligatory upon him.

14.00.00
The prayer during times of
fear or danger (Salatul Khauf):
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.2]

The scholars are all in agreement about the legality of "fear prayer" (Salatul Khauf). The
Qur'an says: "When You (O Prophet) are with them, and stand to lead them in prayer, let
one party of them stand up (in prayer) with you, taking their arms with them. When they
finish prostrations, let them take their position in the rear. And let the other party come up
which has not yet prayed - and let them pray with you, taking all precautions, and bearing
arms: the unbelievers wish if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to
assault you in a single rush. But there is no blame on you if you put away your arms
because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill; but take (every) precaution
for yourselves. For the unbelievers Allah has prepared humiliating punishment."

On this subject Imam Ahmad says: "There are six or seven confirmed hadith about
'salatul khauf,' and whichever way one performs it, it will be valid."

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Ibn al-Qayyim says: "Basically, there are six ways to pray salatal khauf, although some
say there are more than (six ways of praying it). Whenever they notice any difference in
the narration of an incident, they describe it as a difference [in the manner of prayer] thus
coming to seventeen ways. This might be due to different acts of the Prophet or simply to
differences in the narrations." Al-Hafiz says: "This is the true position and its explanation
is given below.

01. Different ways of offering salatul Khauf


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P.105]

(01) If the enemy is not in the direction of the qiblah, then the imam should lead a group
in the performance of one rak'ah after which he should wait until they complete the
second rak'ah by themselves, and then, they should go and face the enemy. And the
second group should come and the imam would lead them in salah while he is performing
his second rak'ah. He should again wait for them to complete another rak'ah by
themselves before leading them in the salutations.

Saleh ibn Khawat relates from Saleh ibn Abu Khaithimah that a group lined up with
the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam while another group faced the enemy. He prayed
one rak'ah with the group that was with him and remained standing while they finished
the salah and left and faced the enemy. The second group came and prayed the remaining
rak'ah with him, then he stayed sitting until they had completed their prayers individually,
after which he led them in making the taslim. [This is related by the group, except for Ibn
Majah].

(02) If the enemy is not in the direction of the qiblah, then, the imam prays one rak'ah
with one group of the army while the other group faces the enemy, after which the two
groups exchange places, and the imam prays one rak'ah with the second group. The
members of each group will complete one rak'ah of their prayers on their own.

Ibn 'Umar says: "The Messenger of Allah prayed one rak'ah with one group while the
other group faced the enemy, [At that point, those who had prayed] took the place of their
companions facing the enemy and the second group came and prayed one rak'ah with the
Prophet and then he made the taslim. Then each group made (the remaining) one rak'ah."
[This is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Ahmad.]

It is apparent that the second group completed their salah after the imam made the taslim
without discontinuing their salah (i.e., for them, it was two continuous rak'at), and the
first group did not complete their salah until the second group had completed their salah
and went back to face the enemy.
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Ibn Mas'ud says: "Then, he made the taslim and they stood up to finish the second
rak'ah individually and, then they made their taslim."

(03) The imam prays two rak'at with each group, the first two rak'at being his fard salah
and the latter two being nafl. It is allowed for one who is making a nafl to lead others in
salah who are praying fard. Jabir reports that the Prophet prayed two rak'at with one
group of his companions and then another two rak'at with another group and then he
made the taslim. [This is related by ash-Shaf'i and an-Nasa'i].

Abu Dawud, Ahmad, and an-Nasa'i record that he said: "The Prophet prayed the
salatul Khauf with us, and he prayed two rak'at with some of his companions, and then
the others came and took their places and he prayed two rak'at with them, and he made
the taslim. So, the Prophet prayed four rak'at and the people prayed two rak'at each."

Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim record that he said: "We were with the Prophet
during the campaign of Zhat al-Riqa and the salah was made, and he prayed two rak'at
with one group and then they withdrew, and he led the other group in two rak'at. The
Prophet prayed four rak'at and the people prayed two rak'at."

(04) If the enemy is in the direction of the qiblah, then the imam leads both of the groups
in salah at the same time and they share in guarding against the enemy, and they follow
the imam in every one of his actions until he performs sajdah, in which case one group
will make the sajdah with him and the other will wait until they are finished and then
perform their own sujjud. After the first rak'ah is finished, the people in front will move
to the back and those in the back will move to the front.

Jabir said: "I prayed salatul khauf (fear prayer) with the Prophet. He arranged us in two
rows behind him. The enemy was between us and the qiblah. The Prophet sallallahu alehi
wasallam made the takbir and we all made the takbir. He performed the ruku' and we all
made the ruku'. Then, he raised his head from the ruku' and we all raised our heads from
the ruku'. Next he went down for sajdah as well as the row closest to him, while the back
row stood facing the enemy until the Prophet and the first row had completed their
prostrations, after which the back row made sajdah and then stood [after completing their
sajjud]. Following this, those in the back row moved to the front while those in the front
row moved to the back. The Prophet performed the ruku' and we all made ruku'. Then, he
raised his head and we raised our heads from ruku. Afterward, he made the sajdah and the
row that was previously in the back during the first rak'ah prostrated with him while the
[new] back row stood facing the enemy. When the Prophet and the [new] front row had
completed their sujjud, the [new] back row made the sujjud. Finally, the Prophet made

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the taslim and we all made the taslim. [This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, an-Nasa'i, Ibn
Majah, and al-Baihaqi].

(05) Both of the groups begin the prayer with the imam, and then one group would guard
against the enemy while the other group would pray one rak'ah with the imam, after
which they would face the enemy while the other group would come and pray one rak'ah
by themselves (individually) while the imam is standing. Then, they would join him in
what is the imam's and their second rak'ah. At that point, the group which had gone to
face the enemy would come and pray one rak'ah (their second) individually while the
others would be sitting (in salah waiting for them to sit in their second rak'ah), after
which the imam would make the taslim and both groups would make the taslim together
[behind the imam].

Abu Huraira reports: "I prayed salatul khauf with the Messenger of Allah during the
year of the Battle of Najd. He stood to pray 'asr and one group stood with him while the
other group was faced the enemy with their backs toward the qiblah. When he made the
takbir, all the people made the takbir- that is, those with him and those facing the enemy.
Then, he performed one rak'ah and the group with him also performed their ruku' and
sujjud with him while the others were still facing the enemy. Next, the group which was
with the Prophet went to face the enemy while the other group came and prayed one
rak'ah and the Prophet kept standing [in prayer] as he was. Then, he performed the ruku'
and the new group performed the ruku' with him and he performed the sajdah and they
performed the sajdah with him. After this, the group which had gone to face the enemy
came and prayed one rak'ah while the Prophet and those with him were sitting [in
prayer]. Finally, the Prophet made taslim and both groups made the taslim with him. The
Prophet prayed two rak'at and both groups prayed two rak'at." [This is related by Ahmad,
Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa'i].

(06) Each group prays only one rak'ah with the imam and the imam prays a total of two
rak'at whereas each group prays one. Ibn 'Abbas reports that the Prophet prayed at Zhi-
qard, and he arranged the people into two rows, one row behind him and one row
guarding against the enemy. The group behind him prayed one rak'ah (with him) and then
left the place to the other group. The other group then came and prayed one rak'ah (with
the Prophet), and [neither group] made up a rak'ah.

This is related by An-Nasa'i and Ibn Hibban. Ibn 'Abbas also says: "Allah made the
prayer obligatory on your Prophet [in the following manner]: four rak'at while resident,
two while traveling, and only one during times of fear." [This is related by Ahmad,
Muslim, Abu Dawud, and an-Nasa'i].

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02. How to pray maghrib during times of fear


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 108]

The sunset prayer is not to be shortened and there is no hadith which states how it is to be
prayed during times of fear. Therefore, the scholars differ over how it is to be performed.

The Hanafi and Maliki schools say that the imam is to pray two rak'at with the first
group and then one rak'ah with the second group.

Ash-Shaf'i and Ahmad say it is permissible for the imam to pray one rak'ah with the
first group and then two rak'at with the second group as it has been related that 'Ali
performed it in that manner.

03. Prayer during times of extreme fear


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 108a]

If the fear [of the enemy] is great or fighting is taking place, each person is to pray
individually to the best of his ability - that is, standing or riding, facing the qiblah or not
facing the qiblah, making gestures for the ruku' and sajjud- whatever he can do. He
should make the gesture for his sajjud lower than that for his ruku'. He is excused from
any of the acts of salah which he is unable to perform.

Ibn 'Umar relates: "The Prophet described salatul khauf and said: 'If the danger is
greater than that, then [pray] standing or riding."'

In Sahih al-Bukhari, the wording is: "If the danger is greater than that, then pray while
standing on your feet or riding, facing the qiblah or not facing the qiblah." In Muslim's
version, Ibn 'Umar is reported to have said: "If the danger is greater than that, then pray
standing or riding and by making gestures."

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04. The prayer of attacker or the attacked


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 108b]

If one is attacking the enemy and fears that he will miss the time of salah, he may pray by
making gestures even if he is moving in a direction other than that of the qiblah. The case
of the one who is being attacked is the same as the one who is attacking. The same is the
case for anyone whose enemy prevents him from making the ruku' or the sajdah or a
person who fears for himself or his family or his wealth from an enemy or a thief or a
wild animal; in all such cases, the person may [if necessary] pray by making gestures and
facing any direction.

Al-'Iraqi writes: "The same applies to anyone who is fleeing from a flood or fire and has
no other option open to him. The same is true for one who is in straitened conditions and
is in debt and cannot pay it and he fears that his debtor might catch him and imprison him
while not believing his claim. This applies also to one who fears a punishment of qisas
and hopes that by his absence the prosecuting party's anger will abate and they will
forgive him."

'Abdullah ibn Unais reports: "The Messenger of Allah sent me to Khalid ibn Sufyan al-
Hazhili, who was close to 'Arafat, and said: 'Go and kill him.' I saw him and the time of
the afternoon prayer came and I said [to myself]: 'I fear that something between him and
me will cause me to delay the salah, so I left walking and offered the salah by making
gestures. When I came close to him, he said to me: 'Who are you?' I said: 'A man from
among the Arabs. It has reached me that you are gathering the people against this man
[i.e, the Prophet] so I came to you for that reason.' He said: 'I am doing that.' I walked
with him for a while until I could strike him dead with my sword." [This is related by
Ahmad and Abu Dawud. AlHafiz says its chain is hasan.]

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15.00.00
The prayer of a traveler
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 2]

01. Shortening the prayers that consist of four rak'at


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 109a]

Allah says in the Qur'an: "And when you go forth in the land there is no sin upon you, if
you shorten your prayer when you fear the disbelievers may attack you." This concession
is not limited to situations of danger.

Ya'la ibn Umaiyyah said: "I said to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab: 'Explain to me why the
people shorten the salah when Allah says, 'And when you go forth...[the preceding verse]
and those days are gone now!' 'Umar said: 'I wondered about that too and I mentioned
that to the Prophet and he said: "This is a charity that Allah, the Exalted, has bestowed
upon you, so accept His charity.'" This is related by the group.

At-Tabari records that Abu Munib al-Jarshi mentioned this verse to Ibn 'Umar and said:
"We are safe now and are not in fear, should we, then, shorten the salah'?" He answered
him: "You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)."

The issue was also referred to 'Aishah and she said: "The salah was made fard in Makkah
in sets of two rak'at. When the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam came to Medinah, two
rak'at were added to each salah except the maghrib salah because it is the witr of the
daytime, and the dawn prayer due to its lengthy Qur'anic recital. But if one travels, he
performs the original prayer [i.e., only two rak'at]." This is related by Ahmad, alBaihaqi,
Ibn Hibban, and Ibn Khuzaimah. Its narrators are trustworthy.

Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The Prophet would pray only two rak'at for those prayers which
consisted of four, whenever he traveled until he returned to Medinah. And it is not
confirmed that he ever prayed four rak'at [while traveling], and none of the imams differ
on this point, although they do differ about the ruling of shortening the salah."

'Umar, 'Ali, Ibn Mas'ud, ibn 'Abbas, ibn 'Umar, Jabir and the Hanafi scholars say that it is
fard. The Maliki school holds that it is Sunnah mu'akadah (the stressed one); it is even
more emphasized than the congregational salah. If the traveler cannot find another
traveler to lead him in the salah, he may pray by himself as it is disliked that he should
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follow one who is a resident [i.e., and pray four rak'at] according to the Maliki school.
The Hanbali school holds that it is preferred for the person to shorten the prayer rather
than to pray the complete salah. The Shaf'i school has a similar opinion, if the person has
traveled a sufficient distance.

02. The distance one must travel


before shortening one's prayer
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 110]

The conclusion from the Qur'anic verse is that any traveling, be it long or short, which
falls within the linguistic definition of the word "travel" would suffice to shorten one's
salah, to combine them and to break the fast. There is nothing in the sunnah which
confines this general term to any particular meaning.

Ibn al-Munzhir and others have mentioned more than twenty reports on this point. Here
we shall mention some of the more important reports.

Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and al-Baihaqi record that Yahya ibn Yazid said: "I
asked Anas ibn Malik about shortening the prayer, and he said: 'The Messenger of Allah
would pray two rak'at if he had traveled a distance of three miles or farsakh."' Ibn Hajar
writes in Fath al-Bari: "This is the most authentic hadith which states and clarifies [that
question]." The conflict between mile and farsakh is made clear in Abu Sa'id al-Khudri's
statement: "If the Prophet traveled a distance of one farsakh, he would shorten his
prayer." [This was related by Sa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan and by al-Hafiz ibn Hajar in
at-Talkhis, and he implicitly accepted it by not making any further comments about it.]

It is well-known that a farsakh equals three miles and, therefore, Abu Sa'id's hadith
removes the confusion which arises from Anas' hadith when he says that the shortest
distance, due to which the Prophet shortened his prayer, was three miles. One farsakh is
equivalent to 5,541 meters while one mile equals 1,748 meters. The shortest distance
which has been mentioned with respect to the shortening of salah is one mile. This was
recorded by Ibn abi Shaibah, with a sahih chain, on the authority of Ibn 'Umar. Ibn Hazm
follows this report, and argues that if the distance is less than one mile, one is not to
shorten the salah, the Messenger of Allah went to the graveyard of al-Baqi' to bury the
dead and (similarly) he went off to answer the call of nature and did not shorten his salah.

Concerning what some jurists say, namely, that the journey must be at least two days
long or as some say three days, Imam Abu al-Qasim alKharqi's refutation of their opinion
is sufficient for us.

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In al-Mughni he says: 'I do not find any proof for what those scholars say. The
statements of the (sahabah) companions are contradictory, and they are not a (conclusive)
proof if they differ. Something has been related from Ibn 'Umar and Ibn 'Abbas which
differs from what these scholars use as proof. Even if that were not the case, their
statements do not constitute a proof when a statement or action of the Prophet himself
exists. Even if their statements were accepted, we would not be able to follow the
distance they mentioned due to the following two reasons. One, they differ from the
sunnah that has been related from the Prophet and from the clear meaning of the Qur'an,
as the clear meaning of the verse allows one to shorten one's salah if one makes any
journey upon the earth. Allah says: "If you journey on the earth, there is no blame upon
you if you shorten your prayer." The condition of there being fear has been deleted as can
be seen in the hadith we recorded from Ya'la ibn Umayyah, and what remains is the clear
meaning of the verse which covers every type of journey. The Prophet said: "The traveler
may wipe over his socks for a period of three days." This shows the length of time that
one may wipe over the socks and it cannot be used as a proof for the question we are
discussing here. One could argue that traveling is less than a three-day journey on the
basis of the hadith: "It is not allowed for any woman who believes in Allah and the last
day to travel a journey of one day, save in the presence of a male relative." Two, the
question of the distance to be traveled is one that may only be answered by some sort of
revelation from Allah, the Exalted [the Qur' an or Sunnah]; it is not the type of issue
which one may address on the basis of personal reasoning, nor is there any way to derive
an analogy. The proofs which exist support the opinion that shortening the salah is
permissible for every traveler, unless there is some consensus to the contrary."

Similar to that is the traveling by planes, trains, and so forth, or a trip that is in obedience
to Allah, the Exalted, or otherwise. If there is someone whose occupation requires him to
always be traveling, for instance, a pilot, a ship captain, truck driver, and so on, then he is
permitted to shorten his salah or break his fast as he is truly traveling.

03. Whence one may shorten one's salah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 111]

The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is permissible to shorten one's salah
when one leaves one's residence and is outside of one's city, and that is a condition, and
he is not to resume his regular salah until he reaches the first houses of his city.

Ibn al-Munzhir says: "I do not know of the Prophet shortening his salah during any of
his travels until after he had left Medinah."

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Anas relates: "I prayed four rak'at at Zhul-Halifah." This is related by the group. Some
of the early scholars say that if one makes the intention to travel, he may shorten his salah
even if he is in his house.

04. When the traveler is to pray the complete salah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 112]

A traveler may shorten his salah as long as he is on a journey. Likewise if he stays in


some place for business or some other affair, then he may shorten his salah as long as he
is there, even for years. If the person intends to stay in a place for a certain amount of
time then, according to Ibn al-Qayyim, he remains a traveler, regardless of whether he
plans to stay there for a long or short time, as long as he does not plan to stay [i.e., reside
and not return] in the place that he has traveled to. The scholars differ on this point.

Summing up and giving his own opinion, Ibn al-Qayyim says: "The Messenger of
Allah stayed in Tabuk for twenty days and during that time he shortened his salah and he
did not say that one may not shorten his salah if he stays longer than that, although there
is agreement that he did stay there for that period of time."

In Sahih al-Bukhari, it is recorded that Ibn 'Abbas said: "The Prophet stayed, during
some of his journeys, for nineteen day and he prayed only two rak'at. If we stayed in a
place for nineteen days, we would not pray the complete salah. However, if we stayed
longer than that, we would perform the whole salah."

Ahmad states that ibn 'Abbas was referring to the Prophet's stay in Makkah at the time
of its conquest when he said: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Makkah for eighteen
days during the time of the conquest as he had to go to Hunain and was not planning to
stay there." This is his interpretation of Ibn 'Abbas' statement.

Others say that Ibn 'Abbas was referring to the Prophet's stay in Tabuk as Jabir ibn
'Abdullah said: "The Messenger of Allah stayed in Tabuk for twenty days and performed
qasr salah." Imam Ahmad related this in his Musnad.

Al-Miswar ibn Makhramah reports: "We stayed with Sa'd in some of the cities of ash-
Sham [Syria] for forty days, and Sa'd would perform qasr while we would offer the
whole salah."

Naf'i relates: "Ibn 'Umar was in Azerbaijan for six months, as there was snow blocking
the pass, and he would pray two rak'at."

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Hafs ibn 'Ubaidullah says: "Anas ibn Malik stayed in ash-Sham for two years and he
prayed the salah of a traveler." Anas relates: "The companions of the Prophet stayed in
Ram Hurmuz for seven months and they shortened their salah."

Al-Hassan reports: "I stayed with 'Abdurrahman ibn Samurah for two years in Kabul,
and he shortened his salah but he did not combine the salah." Ibrahim says: "We resided
in Rai for a year or more and in Sijistan for two years . . . [and we prayed qasr]. This is
the guidance of the Prophet and his companions, and this is the correct position.

Concerning other opinions which people follow Imam Ahmad say: "If a person
intends to stay for four days, he has to offer the whole salah and he may offer qasr if his
intention is for less than that. This is based on an interpretation of the reports from the
Prophet and his companions [i.e., they never intended to stay for longer than that and
would always say: 'We will leave tomorrow,' and so on]. This interpretation is obviously
suspect.

The Prophet conquered Makkah and stayed there to establish Islam, eradicate polytheism,
and to guide the Arabs. It definitely goes, without saying, that such an objective does take
more than a day or two to complete. Similarly, his stay in Tabuk was in preparation for
the impending war and he knew that this might take longer than just four days.

In the same way, Ibn 'Umar's stay in Azerbaijan for six months, and his praying qasr
during the entire time was with the knowledge that it takes more than two or three days
for such snow to melt and the pass to become traversable.

The same is the case with Anas' stay of two years in ash-Sham and his praying qasr and
the companions' stay in Ram Hurmuz for seven months while shortening their prayers. It
is well known that activities like theirs, such as jihad and guarding, took more than four
days."

The followers of Ahmad maintain: "If one is staying in a place for the purpose of jihad
or due to imprisonment or sickness, then one may shorten one's salah regardless of
whether the person thinks that such a situation may last for a short time or a long time."

This is correct but there is no proof that such conditions have been stipulated in the
Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma' (consensus), or practice of the Prophet's companions. They argued
that such conditions are based on what is needed for the person to fulfill his need while
remaining a traveler, and that is what is less than four days. His response to them was:
'From where do you derive those conditions, while the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam
stayed for more than four days, shortening his salah, in Makkah and Tabuk, and he did
not mention to anyone anything about it and he never told them that he never intended to
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stay for more than four days, even though he knew that the people would [strictly] follow
his actions concerning the salah. They surely followed him in his shortening of the salah,
and he did not object to their praying qasr if they were to stay for more than four nights.
This should be made clear as it is very important. Similarly, the companions (as-sahabah)
followed him in that and he did not say anything [in objection] to those who prayed with
him."

Malik and ash-Shaf'i say: "If one intends to stay for more than four days, he should
perform the whole salah, and if he intends to stay for less than that, he is to offer qasr."

Abu Hanifah holds: "If one intends to stay for fifteen days, he should do the qasr. If he
intends to stay for less than that, he should not shorten the salah."

This is also the opinion of al-Laith ibn Sa'd, and it has also been related from three
companions: 'Umar, ibn 'Umar, and Ibn 'Abbas.

Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab is of the opinion that: "If you stay for four days, you pray four
rak'at." A statement similar to that of Abu Hanifah's has also been related from him.

'Ali ibn Abi Talib says that if one stays for ten days, he is to perform the whole salah,
and the same has been related from Ibn ' Abbas .

Al-Hassan says: "One who does not get to his destination or (city of residence) may
shorten salah."

'Aishah says: "One who does not put down his provision is to shorten the salah."

The four imams agree that if one has some need to take care of and always has the
intention of leaving the next day, then he may shorten his salah for as long as he is in that
state. However, according to one statement of ash-Shaf'i, he may do so only for seventeen
or eighteen days and he is not to shorten his salah after that time.

Ibn al-Munzhir states in his Ishraf: "The people of knowledge are in agreement that a
traveler may perform qasr as long as he does not intend to stay in a place, even though he
stays there for years."

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05. Nawafli during travel


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 114]

The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is not disliked to perform
nawafil during the state in which one is shortening his salah. On this point, there is no
difference between regular sunnah prayers and other nawafl.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim record that the Prophet made the ghusl in the house of Umm
Hani on the day of the conquest of Makkah and then he prayed eight rak'at.

Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet prayed while riding in whatever direction he was
facing and nodding his head [i.e., for the movements of the salah].

Al-Hassan relates: "The companions of the Prophet while on a journey performed


supererogatory prayers before and after the fard salah."

Ibn 'Umar and others are of the opinion that there are no nawafl, before or after the
fard salah, except for during the middle of the night. He saw some people praying after
the salah and said: "If I were to pray, I would have performed the whole salah [as
obviously that would have taken preference]. O nephew, I accompanied the Messenger of
Allah [on joumeys] and he never prayed more than two rak'at until Allah took his soul.
And I accompanied Abu Bakr and he did not pray more than two rak'at." He also
mentioned the name of 'Umar and 'Uthman, then he recited the verse: "Ye have indeed in
the messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)." This is related by al-Bukhari.

Ibn Qudamah combines what al-Hassan and what Ibn 'Umar say by concluding that al-
Hassan's report points to the fact that there is no harm in praying nawafil while traveling,
whereas Ibn 'Umar's report points to the fact that there is no harm in not praying such
nawafil.

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06. Traveling on a Friday


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P. 115]

There is no harm in traveling on a Friday if it is not during the time of the salah.

'Umar heard a man say: "If today was not Friday, I would have left." 'Umar said:
"Leave. Friday does not keep one from traveling."

Abu 'Ubaidah traveled on Friday and he did not wait for the salah.

Az-Zuhri wanted to travel before noon on Friday and the people mentioned something
to him, and he said: "The Prophet traveled on Friday."

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16.00.00
Combining Two Prayers
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol. 2]

It is allowed for a person to combine the zuhr and 'asr salah, either during the time of the
earlier or the later salah, or the maghrib and 'isha prayers if he is in one of the following
circumstances:

01. Combining the salah at 'Arafa and al-Muzdalifah


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P.115b]

The scholars are in agreement that one is to combine the zuhr and 'asr prayer during the
time of the zuhr prayer, at 'Arafa [during the performance of the pilgrimage], and the
maghrib and 'isha prayers during the time of the 'isha at muzdalifah, following the
example of the Prophet.

02. Combining the salah during traveling


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P.115c]

Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that it is permissible to combine two
prayers during the time of either one of them while traveling, regardless of whether the
person is actually on the road or has stopped at a place for some time.

Mu'azh reports that while the Prophet was at Tabuk and the sun had passed the
meridian, the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam combined the zuhr and 'asr prayers before
he started his journey. If he started his journey before the sun passed its meridian, he
would delay the zuhr prayer until the time when he stoppped for the 'asr prayer. He would
do likewise for the maghrib prayer. If the sun set before he began his journey, he would
combine the maghrib and 'isha prayers [at that time]. If he began a journey before the sun
had set, he would then combine them at the time of 'isha. [This is related by Abu Dawud
and at-Tirmizhi who call it hasan.]

Kuraib reported that Ibn 'Abbas said: "Shall I not inform you of the salah of the
Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam during a journey?" We said: "Certainly." He said: "If
the sun passed its meridian while he stopped, he would combine the zuhr and 'asr prayers
before remounting [i.e., moving on]. If the sun had not passed its meridian while he had
stopped [i.e., before breaking camp], he would travel until the time of the 'asr prayer and
then he would combine the zuhr and 'asr prayers. If the sun set while he had stopped, he
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would combine the magrib and 'isha prayers. If that did not occur while he had stopped,
he would ride until the 'isha time and then combine them." [This is related by Ahmad.]

Ash-Shaf'i has something similar in his Musnad, namely that when he [the Prophet]
set out to travel before the sun passed its meridian, he delayed the zuhr prayer and
combine it with the 'asr during the time of the 'asr salah. Al-Baihaqi recorded it with a
good chain and he says: "To combine the two prayers due to traveling is something that is
well-known and was practiced by the companions of the Prophet sallallahu alehi
wasallam and those who followed them."

Imam Malik records in al-Muwatta' from Mu'azh that the Prophet sallallahu alehi
wasallam delayed his salah one day during the battle of Tabuk and then went and prayed
the zuhr and 'asr prayers together. Then he returned and went back again and said the
maghrib and 'isha prayers together.

Commenting on this report, ash-Shaf'i says: "His statement, 'then he returned and left
again,' only refers to a situation where the Prophet was staying in a certain place [i.e., he
was not traveling from one site to another] . "

Ibn Qudamah mentions the preceding hadith and writes in al-Mughni: "Ibn 'Abdul-
Barr said: 'That hadith is sahih and its chain is confirmed. The people who are familiar
with the life history of the Prophet say that the battle of Tabuk took place in the ninth
year of the hijrah. This hadith is a clear proof and the strongest evidence against those
who claim that one can only combine the prayers while one is actually moving from one
site to another as the Prophet was settled and was not traveling since the Prophet was
staying in his tent and would come out and combine two prayers and then return to his
tent.

Muslim recorded this hadith in his Sahih and stated: 'He would pray the zuhr and 'asr
together and the maghrib and 'isha together. One must follow this hadith as it is
confirmed [to be authentic] and it is a clear statement on this rule and there is nothing
which contradicts it. The permission to combine the salah is a concession for anyone who
is traveling but it is by no means confined to just those times when the person is actually
on the road [i.e., traveling from one place to another].

The same is the case for shortening the salah and for wiping over the socks, but it is best
to delay it.'": Having the intention to combine is not a condition for combining or
shortening the salah.

Ibn Taimiyyah holds: "That is the position of the majority of the scholars. When the
Prophet combined the salah with his companions or shortened the salah with them, he
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never ordered any of them to make the intention for combining or shortening the salah. In
fact, when he left Medinah for Makkah, he prayed two rak'at without combining the
salah, and then he prayed the zuhr prayer at 'Arafa without telling the people that he
intended to pray the 'asr right afterward, next he prayed the 'asr with them and they did
not have the intention to combine their prayers, and in that combination he prayed the
latter salah early. When he went from Medinah, he led the people in the 'asr salah at
Zhul-Halifah and he did not order them to make the intention to shorten the salah.":
Concerning offering the two combined prayers right after each other, Ibn Taimiyyah
writes: "The correct opinion is that it is not a necessary condition to do so under any
circumstances, neither during the time of the first salah nor during the time of the latter
salah. There is no such limit in the shari'ah and doing so would defeat the purpose of the
concession [i.e., permission to combine the two salah]."

Ash-Shaf'i says: "It is quite permissible for a person to pray the maghrib in his house
with the intention of combining the prayers and then go to the mosque to pray the 'isha."
A similar statement has been related from Ahmad.

03. Combining two prayers during rain


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P.117]

Al-Athram records in his Sunnan that Abu Salamah ibn 'Abdurrahman said: "It is a
sunnah to combine the maghrib and 'isha prayers when it is raining."

Al-Bukhari records that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam combined the maghrib
and 'isha prayers on a rainy night.

A summary of the opinions of the different schools of fiqh on this point follows:

The Shaf'i school says that it is allowed for the resident to combine the zuhr and 'asr or
the maghrib and 'isha, praying each pair in the time of the earlier salah only, given that it
is raining when one begins the earlier prayer and it is still raining by the time one begins
the second prayer.

According to the Maliki school, it is allowed to combine the maghrib and 'isha in the
mosque at the time of the maghrib due to rain or expected rain, if there is mud and
darkness along the way, or if there is a lot of mud and it prevents the people from
wearing their shoes. Nevertheless, he dislikes that the zuhr and 'asr should be combined
due to rain.

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According to the Hanbali school, it is only allowed to combine the maghrib and 'isha in
the time of the former or the latter due to snow, ice, mud, severe cold, or rain which soaks
the clothes. This concession is allowed only for one who prays with a congregation in the
mosque and who comes from a distance over which he could be harmed by the rain.
However, for one who prays in a congregation in his house or whose path to the mosque
is covered or protected, or for one whose house is right next to the mosque, it is not
allowed to combine the salah.

04. Combining the two prayers


due to some illness or other excuse
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P.118]

Ahmad, Qadi Hussain, al-Khattabi, and al-Mutawali of the Shaf'i school are of the
opinion that it is allowed to combine two prayers, either during the time of the earlier or
later salah, due to illness as it is a greater hardship than rain. An-Nawawi says: "This is a
strong opinion based on [sound] evidence."

In al-Mughni it is stated: "The illness which permits one to combine the prayers is the
one which would otherwise cause hardship and more weakness [if he prayed each salah
separately]."

The Hanbali school is the most accommodating as it allows one to combine the prayers,
at the time of the early or later salah, for one who is ill as well as for the woman who is
breast-feeding and will face hardship in cleaning her dress for every salah, for the woman
who is plagued by a prolonged flow of blood, for the person who cannot control his urine,
and for one who cannot purify himself or herself, and for the one who fears for his life,
property, or family.

Ibn Taimiyyah says: "Among the opinions the most accommodating on this question is
that of the Hanbali school which allows one to combine the prayers if he is busy (since
an-Nasa'i has related something to that effect from the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam)
and they also say that the cook and baker, and so forth., may also combine their prayers if
they fear their wealth (i.e., their investment or what they are working on) will otherwise
be ruined."

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05. Combining two prayers due to some pressing need


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P.118a]

Imam an-Nawawi writes in his commentary on Sahih Muslim: "The majority of the
scholars are of the opinion that it is allowed for the resident to combine the prayers due to
some pressing need. This is the statement of Ibn Sireen and Ashhab from the companions
of Malik, and al-Khattabi records it from al-Qifal and ash-Shaf'i and from Abu Ishaq al-
Maruzi, and from a number of as-hab al-ahadith, and it is the conclusion of Ibn al-
Munzhir. This is supported by the statement of ibn 'Abbas: 'The Prophet combined his
salah because he did not want to put his ummah to hardship, and not because of illness or
any other reason."' The hadith from Ibn 'Abbas, mentioned previously, has been recorded
by Imam Muslim who states: "The Messenger of Allah combined the zuhr and 'asr and
then the maghrib and 'isha in Medinah without there being any danger or rain." Ibn
'Abbas was asked: "What did he desire by that action?" He replied: "He did not want any
hardship for his ummah." Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from him that the Prophet
prayed seven rak'at and eight rak'at, i.e., the zuhr and 'asr together and the maghrib and
'isha together, in Medinah.

Muslim also records from 'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas addressed the
people one day after the 'asr salah until well after the sun had set and the stars began to
appear. The people said to him: "The prayer, the prayer." A man from the tribe of Taim
continuously repeated: "The prayer, the prayer." Ibn 'Abbas said: "Are you teaching me
the sunnah? May you have no mother." Then he said: "I saw the Messenger of Allah
combine the zuhr and 'asr and the maghrib and 'isha." 'Abdullah ibn Shaqiq commented:
"I felt some uneasiness in my heart about what he had said, so I went to Abu Hurairah to
ask him about that, and he confirmed what Ibn 'Abbas had said."

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06. Validity of combined prayers


after their legal excuse ceases to exist
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P.119]

In al-Mughni it is stated: "If someone performs both prayers at the time of the earlier
salah and then his reason for doing so ceases to exist after he has completed the salah and
before the time of the next salah begins [i.e., the next salah being the one which he had
just prayed during the earlier time], then what he has done is sufficient for him and he
need not repeat the second salah at its proper time. Since he performed the salah in a
proper manner, he is free from any extra obligation due to that action. He fulfilled his
obligation during a circumstance in which he had some legal excuse, and his action is not
invalidated by the fact that this excuse no longer exists. This is similar to the case of a
person who performe tayammum, and after he finishes his salah, he finds water."

07. Prayer on a ship, train or plane


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P.119a]

A salah on a ship, train, plane, and so on, is valid and there is no


dislike for such an act as it makes life easier for the one performing it.
Ibn 'Umar says: "I asked the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam about
salah on a ship and he said: 'Pray standing upon them unless you fear
that you will be drowned [i.e., the boat might capsize]."' This is related
by ad-Daraqutni and by al-Hakim. The later grades it sahih according
to the criteria of al-Bukhari and Muslim.

'Abdullah ibn Abi 'Utbah reports: "I accompanied Jabir ibn 'Abdullah and Abu Sa'id
al-Khudri and Abu Hurairah on a boat, and they prayed standing in a congregation, with
one of them as their imam, although they could have gone ashore [if they had so
desired]." [This is related by Sa'id ibn Mansur.]

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08. Some supplications for the traveler


[Fiqh-us-Sunnah Vol. 2, P.119b]

It is preferred for the traveler to say, upon leaving his house: "In the name of Allah, the
Exalted! We have trusted in Allah. There is no power or might, save with Allah. O Allah,
I seek refuge in Thee from being misguided and from misguiding others, or that I stray
from Your path or cause others to stray from Your path, or that I am wronged or that I do
wrong to others, or that I act foolishly or have someone act foolishly with me."

Then, the person may say whatever he wishes of the supplications which have been
recorded from the Prophet, sallallahu alehi wasallam. Here are some of them:

'Ali ibn Rabi'ah narrates: "'Ali was brought a riding animal. When he put his foot in
the stirrup, he said: 'In the name of Allah.' Then, when he sat on it, he said: 'Praise be to
Allah. Glory be to the One Who made this subservient to us for we were not able to make
[it subservient] and it is to our Lord that we will return.' He then praised Allah three times
and extolled His greatness three times and then said: 'Glory be to You; there is no God
but Thee. I have wronged my soul, so forgive me. No one forgives sins, except You.'
Then, he laughed. I said to him: 'Why do you laugh, commander of the faithful?' He
replied: 'I saw the Messenger of Allah doing the same and then laughing. I asked him:
"What makes you laugh, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "The Lord is pleased with His
slave who says: 'O Lord, forgive me,' and He says: 'My slave knows that no one forgives
sins, save I.'" [This is related by Ahmad and Ibn Hibban, and by al-Hakim who says it is
sahih according to the criteria of Imam Muslim.]

Al-'Azdi reports that Ibn 'Umar taught him that the Messenger of Allah would extol
Allah's greatness three times while seating himself on his camel for a journey. Then he
would say: "Glory be to the One who made this subservient to us for we were not able [to
make it subservient]. It is to our Lord that we shall return. O Allah, we ask of Thee, in
this journey of ours, righteousness and piety and to (be able to) perform such deeds that
are pleasing to You. O Allah, make this journey of ours easy for us and make its length
short for us. O Allah, companion on this journey and the One who looks after our family
and property in our absence. O Allah, I seek refuge in Thee from the difficulty of
traveling and the unhappiness in what I see and in finding that something harmful has
happened when I return to my property and family."

When he would return from his journey he would add: "Returning [are we] repentant,
serving and praising our Lord." [This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.]

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Ibn 'Abbas reports that when the Prophet desired to travel, he would say: "O Allah,
You are my companion in my travels and the One Who looks after my family [while I am
gone]. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from unworthy travel companions and an unpleasant
situation upon my return. O Allah, make the distance short for us and the travel easy for
us." When he desired to return, he would say: "We are returning, [while] repenting to
Allah, worshipping our Lord and praising Him." When he would enter upon his family,
he would say: "We are repenting to our Lord. We hope that none of our sins would
remain." [This is related by Ahmad, at-Tabarani, and al-Bazzar with a sahih chain.]

'Abdullah ibn Sarjas reports that, when the Prophet had to travel, he would say: "O
Allah, I seek refuge in You from the difficulty of the journey, and sorrow on return, and
disorder after things are set right, from the cry of the oppressed, and from seeing harm
having come to our property and family."

And when he returned he would make a similar supplication, but instead of saying: "from
seeing harm having come to our property and family," he would mention family first and
then property. [This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.]

Ibn 'Umar reports that when the Prophet went out for a battle or a journey, and night
came upon him, he would say: "O Earth, my Lord and your Lord is Allah. I seek refuge
in Allah from your evil and the evil of what is on you and the evil of what has been
created upon you and the evil of what walks upon you. I seek refuge in Allah from lions
and large black snakes, and from snakes and scorpions, and from the evil or all that
inhabit the land, and the evil of a father and what he has fathered." This is related by
Ahmad and Abu Dawud.

Khaulah bint Hakim as-Sulimiyah reports that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam
said: "Whoever stops at a stopping place should say: 'I seek refuge by the perfected word
of Allah. the Exalted, from the evil of what has been created,' then nothing will harm him
until he leaves that stopping place." This is related by the group, save al-Bukhari and Abu
Dawud.

'Ata ibn abi Marwan states from his father that Ka'b took an oath by the One who
opened up the sea for Moses that Suhaib related to him that whenever the Messenger of
Allah sallallahu alehi wasallam saw a city which he wished to enter, he would say: "O
Allah, Lord of the seven heavens and what they shade, Lord of the seven earths and what
they carry, Lord of the satans and those that they misguide, Lord of the winds and what
they blow away, I ask of You for the good of this city and the good of its inhabitants and
the good of what is in it. I seek refuge in You from its evil and the evil of its inhabitants

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and the evil of what is in it." [This is related by an-Nasa'i, ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim who
calls it sahih.]

Ibn 'Umar says: "We would travel with the Messenger of Allah, and when he would see
the city that he wished to enter, he would say: 'O Allah, give us blessings from what is in
it,' three times. And, 'Allah, give us provisions from its harvest and make us beloved to its
inhabitants and make the pious people of its inhabitants beloved to us." [This is related by
at-Tabarani in al-Ausat with a good chain.]

'Aishah says: "Whenever the Messenger of Allah came to a place that he wished to enter
he would say: 'O Allah, I ask of you of the good of this place and the good of what you
have collected therein. O Allah, grant us provisions from its harvest and protect us from
its diseases. Make us beloved to its inhabitants and make the pious people of its
inhabitants beloved to us.' [This is related by ibn as-Sani.]

Abu Hurairah reports that when the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam was on a
journey and daybreak approached he would say: "Let one listen and witness the praise of
Allah and His good favor toward us. Our Lord, accompany us and show us favour [as we]
seek refuge in Allah from the hell-fire." [This is related by Muslim.]

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17.00.00
Preparation to Perform Salah

To perform your Salah you must be clean and pure:

Allah's Messenger said:

The key to Paradise is prayer and the key to prayer is cleanliness (Ablution). [Tirmidhi,
Transmitted Ahmad, Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah]

A desert Arab came to Allah's Apostle and asked him about ablution. He
demonstrated (washing each part of his body) thrice, and then said:

That is (the method) of the ablution. And he who does more than this has done wrong,
transgressed the limit and has oppressed (himself). [Tirmidhi #417, Transmitted by
Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and AbuDawud transmitted something to the same effect.]

01. The order to purify the body:


Hadith - Bukhari 1:161, Narrated by Hadrat Humran and hadrat Uthman(ra)

(The slave of 'Uthman) I saw 'Uthman bin 'Affan asking for a tumbler of water (and when
it was brought) he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice and then put his
right hand in the water container and rinsed his mouth, washed his nose by putting water
in it and then blowing it out. Then he washed his face and forearms up to the elbows
thrice, passed his wet hands over his head and washed his feet up to the ankles thrice.
Then he said, "Allah's Apostle said :

‫م‬ َ ّ ‫سل‬ َ َ‫ه ع َل َي ْهِ و‬ ُ ّ ‫صّلى الل‬ َ ِ‫ل الل ّه‬ ُ ‫سو‬ ُ ‫ل َر‬ َ ‫ َقا‬:
َ ‫من توضأ‬
(( ‫ث‬ َ ُ ‫ن َل ي‬
ُ ّ ‫حد‬ ِ ْ ‫ي‬َ ‫ت‬َ ‫ع‬ ْ ‫ك‬ ‫ر‬ َ ‫لى‬ ّ ‫ص‬
َ ّ ‫م‬ ُ ‫ث‬ َ
‫ذا‬ َ ‫ه‬ ‫ئي‬ ِ ‫ضو‬
ُ ‫و‬
ُ َ ‫و‬ ‫ح‬
ْ َ ‫ن‬ ّ َ َ ْ َ
ِ ِ ‫ن ذ َن ْب‬
‫ه‬ ْ ‫م‬ ِ ‫م‬ َ ّ ‫قد‬ َ َ ‫ما ت‬َ ‫ه‬ ُ َ ‫فَر ل‬ ِ ُ‫ه غ‬ ُ ‫س‬َ ‫ف‬ ْ َ ‫ما ن‬ َ ِ‫)) ِفيه‬

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[ ‫ حديث حمران مولى عثمان رضي الله‬، ‫متفق عليه‬


539 – 150 : ‫]عنهما‬

'If anyone Performs ablution like that of mine and offers a two-rak'at prayer during which
he does not think of anything else (not related to the present prayer) then his past sins will
be forgiven.' [Bukhari:159, Muslim:539]

" After performing the ablution 'Uthman said, "I am going to tell you a Hadith which I
would not have told you, had I not been compelled by a certain Holy Verse (the sub
narrator 'Urwa said: This verse is:

﴾2:159﴿ ‫ت َواْلُهَدى‬
ِ ‫ن اْلَبّيَنا‬
َ ‫ن َما َأْنَزْلَنا ِم‬
َ ‫ن َيْكُتُمو‬
َ ‫ن اّلِذي‬
ّ ‫ِإ‬
'Verily, those who conceal the clear signs and the guidance which we have sent down...)'
[Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:159].

I heard the Prophet(pbuh) saying: 'If a man performs ablution perfectly and then offers
the compulsory congregational prayer, Allah will forgive his sins committed between that
(prayer) and the (next) prayer till he offers it.' "

The Noble Qur'an says:

‫س شُلوا‬ َ ‫ذين آ‬ َ ‫يا أ‬


ِ ْ ‫ص شَلةِ َفاغ‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ‫شى‬ ‫ش‬ َ ‫ل‬ ‫إ‬
ِ ْ ْ ‫م‬ ُ ‫ت‬‫م‬ ُ ‫ق‬ َ
‫ذا‬ ِ ‫إ‬ ‫نوا‬ ُ ‫م‬
َ َ ِ ّ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ها‬َ ّ ‫ي‬ َ
‫حوا‬ ْ َ ُ َ ‫وجشششوهَك ُم وأ‬
ُ ‫سششش‬ ‫م‬
َ ْ َ ِ ‫وا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫فششش‬ ِ ‫را‬َ َ‫م‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫لشششى‬ ‫إ‬
ِ ْ ‫م‬ ‫ك‬ َ ‫ي‬ ِ ‫د‬ ‫يششش‬ْ َ ْ ُ ُ
‫جن ُب ًششا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ن‬ُ ‫ك‬ ‫ن‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ع‬ َ ‫ك‬ ْ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫شى‬ ‫ش‬ َ ‫ل‬ ‫إ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ش‬ ُ ‫ك‬ َ ‫ل‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ر‬ َ ‫برُءوسك ُم وأ‬
ُ ْ ُْ ْ َِ ِ َْ ْ ِ ْ ُ ْ َ ْ ِ ُِ
‫جششاَء‬ َ َ ‫َفاط ّهروا وإن ك ُنتم مرضششى أ َو ع َل َششى س ش‬
َ ْ ‫فر ٍ أ و‬ َ ْ َ ْ َ ْ ُْ ْ َِ ُ ّ
‫م‬ ‫ش‬ َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ف‬ َ ‫ء‬ ‫شا‬‫ش‬ ‫س‬ ‫ن‬‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ش‬ ‫س‬ ‫م‬ ‫ل‬ َ ‫و‬ َ ‫أ َح شد منك ُشم م شن ال ْغَششائ ِط أ‬
ْ َ ّ ُ ْ َ ْ ِ
ُ َ ِ ْ ْ ِ ٌ َ
‫حوا‬ ُ ‫سششش‬ َ ‫م‬ ْ ‫دا ط َي ّب ًشششا َفا‬ ً ‫صشششِعي‬ َ ‫مشششوا‬ ُ ‫م‬ ّ َ ‫مشششاًء فَت َي‬ َ ‫دوا‬ ُ ‫جششش‬ ِ َ‫ت‬
‫م‬ ‫ش‬ ُ ‫ك‬ ‫ي‬َ ‫ل‬َ ‫ع‬ َ
‫ل‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ي‬ ِ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬ ّ ‫ل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫د‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ما‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ُ ‫ك‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ي‬ َ ‫بوجوهك ُم وأ‬
ْ ْ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ُ
ِ َ ُ ْ ِ ْ ِ ْ َ ْ ِ ُ ُ ِ

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‫م‬ ُ ْ ‫ه ع َل َي‬
ْ ‫كشش‬ ُ َ ‫مت‬
َ ْ‫م ن ِع‬ ْ ُ ‫ريد ُ ل ِي ُط َهَّرك‬
ّ ِ ‫م وَل ِي ُت‬ ْ ِ ‫حَرٍج وَل َك‬
ِ ُ‫ن ي‬ َ ‫ن‬ ْ ‫م‬ ِ
﴾5:6﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫شك ُُرو‬ ْ ُ ‫ل َعَل ّك‬
ْ َ‫م ت‬
O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salât (the prayer), wash your faces and
your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and
(wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janâba (i.e. had a sexual discharge),
purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you
comes from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e.
sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and
rub therewith your faces and hands. Allâh does not want to place you in difficulty, but He
wants to purify you, and to complete His Favor on you that you may be thankful. [Surah
Al-Ma'idah, 5:6]

24According to the practice and instructions of the Holy Prophet, washing of the face
includes the inside washing and cleaning of the mouth, throat and nose. It is also essential
to wipe the ears from outside and inside as they form part of the head. The hands should
be cleansed first because the other parts are to he cleansed with them.

The Noble Qur'an says:

﴾9:108﴿ َ ‫طّهِري‬
‫ن‬ ّ ‫ب اْلُم‬
ّ ‫ح‬
ِ ‫ل ُي‬
ُّ ‫َوا‬
...And Allâh loves those who make themselves clean and pure. [(i.e. who clean their
private parts with dust i.e. to be considered as soap) and water from urine and stools,
after answering the call of nature]. [Surah At-Tauba, 9:108]

‫ض‬
ِ ‫حي‬ ِ ‫ساَء ِفي اْلَم‬َ ‫ل ُهَو َأًذى َفاعَْتِزُلوا الّن‬ ْ ‫ض ُق‬
ِ ‫حي‬ ِ ‫ن اْلَم‬
ِ‫ع‬َ ‫ك‬ َ ‫سَأُلوَن‬
ْ ‫َوَي‬
‫حْي فثُ َأَمَرُك فُم‬
َ ‫ن‬ْ ‫ن ِم ف‬ّ ‫ن َفْأُتوُه‬
َ ‫طّهْر‬َ ‫ن َفِإَذا َت‬
َ ‫طُهْر‬
ْ ‫حّتى َي‬ َ ‫ن‬ّ ‫ل َتقَْرُبوُه‬َ ‫َو‬
﴾2:222﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫طّهِري‬ َ ‫ب اْلُمَت‬
ّ ‫ح‬ ِ ‫ن َوُي‬َ ‫ب الّتّواِبي‬
ّ ‫ح‬ِ ‫ل ُي‬
َّ ‫ن ا‬
ّ ‫ل ِإ‬ُّ ‫ا‬
They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: that is an Adha (a harmful thing for a
husband to have a sexual intercourse with his wife while she is having her menses),
therefore keep away from women during menses and go not unto them till they have
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purified (from menses and have taken a bath). And when they have purified themselves,
then go in unto them as Allâh has ordained for you (go in unto them in any manner as
long as it is in their vagina). Truly, Allâh loves those who turn unto Him in repentance
and loves those who purify themselves (by taking a bath and cleaning and washing
thoroughly their private parts, bodies, for their prayers, etc.). [Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:222]

The Noble Qur'an says:

َ‫حَرام‬َ ‫جَد اْل‬


ِ‫س‬
ْ ‫ل َيْقَرُبوا اْلَم‬
َ ‫س َف‬ٌ ‫ج‬َ ‫ن َن‬
َ ‫شِرُكو‬ ْ ‫ن َآَمُنوا ِإّنَما اْلُم‬َ ‫َيا َأّيَها اّلِذي‬
‫ن‬
ْ ‫ن َفضْفِلِه ِإ‬ْ ‫لف ِمف‬
ُّ ‫ف ُيْغِنيُكفُم ا‬
َ ‫سفْو‬َ ‫عْيَلفًة َف‬
َ ‫خْفُتْم‬
ِ ‫ن‬ ْ ‫عاِمِهْم َهَذا َوِإ‬ َ ‫َبْعَد‬
﴾9:28﴿ ‫م‬
ٌ ‫حِكي‬ َ ‫عِليٌم‬َ ‫ل‬ َّ ‫ن ا‬ ّ ‫شاَء ِإ‬َ
O you who believe (in Allâh's Oneness and in His Messenger Muhammad
Verily, the Mushrikûn (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of
Allâh, and in the Message of Muhammad ) are Najasun (impure). So let
them not come near Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah) after this year, and if you fear
poverty, Allâh will enrich you if He will, out of His Bounty. Surely, Allâh is All-
Knowing, All-Wise.[Surah At-Tauba, 9:28]

Taharah: Allah says in the Noble Qur'an:

﴾2:222﴿ َ ‫طّهِري‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫ب اْلُمَت‬
ّ ‫ح‬
ِ ‫ن َوُي‬
َ ‫ب الّتّواِبي‬
ّ ‫ح‬
ِ ‫ل ُي‬
َّ ‫ن ا‬
ّ ‫ِإ‬
Most Surely Allah loves those who turn to Him and those who care for cleanliness.
[Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:222]

Cleanliness of the body, clothing, and the places where the prayer is performed is called
Taharah (purification).

Some impurities that must be removed before performing Salah


1. Human urine.
2. Human Excrement.

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3. Wadi: A thick white secretion that might be discharged after urination.


4. Mathi: A white sticky prostatic fluid, (other than sperm or semen).
5. Menstrual blood.
6. Defecation and urine of animals whose meat is not permissible to eat (carnivores,
such as lions).
7. Dog saliva.
8. Water remaining after a carnivore has drunk from it.

17.01.00
Purification
Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 1:

The shari'ah has divided water into four kinds:

-1- mutlaq water,

-2- used water (for purification),

-3- water mixed with pure elements and

-4- water mixed with impure elements. We shall discuss each of them separately.

Volume 1, Page 1a: Mutlaq water

This kind of water is considered pure because of its inherent purity and as such, it can be
used by an individual to purify him or herself. It consists of the following categories:

Volume 1, Page 1b: Rain water, snow, and hail

These substances are pure because Allah says so: "And sent down water from the sky
upon you, that thereby He might purify you..." (al-Anfal 1), and "We send down
purifying water from the sky" (al-Furqan 48). This is also supported by the following
hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, used to
be silent between the (opening) takbir of the prayer and the verbal Qur'anic recitation.
Abu Hurairah asked him, "O Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be
sacrificed for you, why do you remain silent between the takbir and the recital? What do
you say (silently during that time)?" He said, "I say, 'O Allah, make a distance between
me and my sins similar to the distance you have made between the East and the West. O

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Allah, cleanse me of my sins in the manner that a white garment (is cleansed) from dirt.
O Allah, wash my sins from me with snow, water, and hail."' This hadith is related by the
"group", except for at-Tirmizhi.

Volume 1, Page 2: Sea water

Sea water's purity is based on the following hadith: Abu Hurairah related that a man
asked the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, "O Messenger of Allah, we sail on
the ocean and we carry only a little water. If we use it for ablution, we will have to go
thirsty. May we use sea water for ablution?" Said the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be
peace, "Its (the sea) water is pure and its dead (animals) are lawful (i.e., they can be eaten
without any prescribed slaughtering)." This hadith is related by "the five." At-Tirmizhi
calls it hassan sahih, and al-Bukhari says it is sahih.

Volume 1, Page 2a: Water from the well of Zamzam

'Ali narrated that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, called for a bucket that
contained water from the well of Zamzam. He drank from the bucket, then made ablution
(with its water). This hadith is related by Ahmad.

Volume 1, Page 2b: Altered water

This involves water whose form has been altered because of its being in a place for a long
period of time, or because of the place in which it is located, or because of its being
mixed with a substance that cannot be completely removed from it (i.e., water mixed with
algae, tree leaves, and so on). The scholars agree that this type of water falls under the
heading of mutlaq water.

The rationale is simple: everything that falls under the general term of water, without any
further qualifications, is considered pure, for the Qur'an says, "...and if you find not
water, then go to clean, high ground..." (al-Ma'idah 6).

Volume 1, Page 2c: Used water

This category refers to water which drips from the person after he performs ablution or
ghusl. It is considered pure because it was pure before its use for ablution, and there is no
basis to think that it has lost its purity. This statement is supported by the hadith of Rab'i
bint Mu'wazh which describes the ablution of the Messenger of Allah. She states, "He
wiped his head with (the water) remaining on his hands from his ablution." This hadith is

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related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Abu Dawud's version is, "The Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, wiped his head with the extra water that was in his hand."

Abu Hurairah also reported that the Messenger of Allah met him alone in the streets of
Madinah while he was in post-sex impurity. He therefore slipped away, made ghusl and
returned. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, asked him "Where have you
been, Abu Hurairah?" He answered, "I was in post-sex impurity and did not want to sit
with you while I was in that condition." The Prophet replied, "Glory be to Allah. The
believer does not become impure." [This is related by "the group."]

This is based on the rationale that since a believer never becomes impure, the water he
uses for purification also does not become impure. Thus, a pure object touching a pure
object cannot result in one's becoming impure.

Ibn al-Munzhir said that it is related that 'Ali, Ibn 'Umar, Abu Umamah, 'Ata, al-
Hassan, Makhul and anNakha'i said that if a person forgot to wipe his head while making
ablution, it is sufficient for him to wipe his head with any water remaining in his beard.
Ibn al-Munzhir stated that this proves that they took "used water" as pure. This opinion
comes from one of the narrations attributed to Malik and ash-Shaf'i. Ibn Hazm ascribes it
to Sufyan al-Thauri, Abu Thaur, and all scholars of the Zhahiri school of thought.

Volume 1, Page 3: Water mixed with pure elements

This category includes water that has been mixed with substances like soap, saffron,
flowers, and so on, that is, objects considered pure by the shari'ah. Such water is
considered pure as long as it has not been so mixed with other substances that one can no
longer call it water. If this is the case, the water is still considered pure, but it cannot be
used for purification. Umm 'Atiyah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be
peace, entered her house after the death of his daughter Zainab and said, "Wash her three
or five or more times--if you see fit to do so--with water and dry tree leaves. For the final
washing, use some kafoor or something from kafoor. When you are finished, inform me."
She did so, after which he gave the women his outer garment and told them to wrap
Zainab in it. This was related by "the group."

The deceased should be washed with something that may purify a live person. Ahmad,
an-Nasa'i and Ibn Khuzaimah record from Umm Hani that the Messenager of Allah and
Maimunah washed themselves from one (water) container that had a trace of dough in it.
In both of these hadith, we find that the water was mixed with another substance, but
since the other substance was not substantial enough to alter its nature, it remained fit for
consumption.

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Volume 1, Page 3a: Water mixed with impure elements

We can divide this category into two sub-categories:

-1- The impure substance alters the taste, color or odor of the water. In this case, it can
not be used for purification. According to Ibn al-Munzhir and Ibn al-Mulaqqin, there is a
consensus on this point.

-2- The liquid is still considered water, meaning that the impure substance has not altered
its taste, color or odor. Such water is considered pure and may be used for purification.
This is based upon the following hadith: Abu Hurairah reported that a bedouin urinated in
the mosque. The people stood to get him (and stop him). The Prophet said, "Leave him
and pour a bucket of water or a container of water over his urine. You have been raised to
be easy on the people, not to be hard on them." This hadith is narrated by "the group,"
except for Muslim.

Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri asked the Prophet, "Can we make ablution from the well of
Buda'ah (i.e., a well in Madinah)?" The Prophet, upon whom be peace, told him, "Water
is pure and nothing makes it impure."

This hadith is related by Ahmad, ash-Shaf'i, Abu Dawud, anNasa'i and at-Tirmizhi, who
classified it as hassan. Ahmad said, "This hadith is sahih and Yahya ibn Ma'een and
Muhammad ibn Hazm classified it as such." This is also the opinion of Ibn 'Abbas, Abu
Hurairah, al-Hassan al-Basri, Ibn al-Musayyab, 'Ikrimah, Ibn Abu Laila, al-Thauri,
Dawud azh-Zhahiri, an-Nakha'i, Malik and others. Says al-Ghazzali, "I wish ash-Shaf'i's
opinion was like Malik's."

There is also a hadith from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar in which the Messenger of Allah is
reported to have said, "If there are at least two buckets of water, it will not carry any
impurity." This hadith is related by the "five." However, this hadith is muzhtarab in its
chain of narrators and text. Ibn 'Abdul-Barr said in at-Tamheed, "As to the opinion of
ash-Shaf'i which is based on this hadith, it is weak on scrutiny and is not confirmed by
historical reports."

Volume 1, Page 4: Leftover water

"Leftover water" is what remains in a pot after some has been drunk. There are five
different types of leftover water.

Volume 1, Page 4a: Water leftover after people have drunk from the pot

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According to the shari'ah, such water is considered pure regardless of whether the one
who drank from the pot was a Muslim, an unbeliever, a person in post-sex impurity or a
menstruating woman.

Although Allah says in the Qur'an, "Verily, the idol worshippers are impure" (at-Taubah)
this is a reference not to their physical state, but to their false beliefs and creed. They may
come into contact with dirt or impurities, but this does not mean that their possessions or
bodies are impure. In fact, they used to mix with the Muslims. Their emmissaries and
delegations used to visit the Messenger of Allah and enter his mosque. The Prophet, upon
whom be peace, did not order that the objects they touched be cleansed. As for
mensturating women, 'Aishah said, "I used to drink (from a container) while I was
menstruating. I would then pass it to the Messenger of Allah and he would drink from the
same spot where I had put my lips." (Related by Muslim.)

Volume 1, Page 5: Water left in a container after an allowable animal has drunk
from it

Such water is considered pure. Since the animal qualifies for consumption, its saliva is
also pure. Abu Bakr ibn al-Munzhir said, "The scholars are agreed that such water is
permissible to drink or use for ablution."

Volume 1, Page 5a: Water remaining in a pot after it has been drunk by a donkey,
mule, beasts of birds of prey

Such water is also considered pure, based on the hadith of Jabir in which the Messenger
of Allah was asked about making ablution with drinking water left by donkeys. The
Prophet, upon whom be peace, answered, "Yes, and from the drinking water left by any
of the beasts of prey." This hadith was related by ash-Shaifi, ad-Daraqutni and al-Baihaqi
who said, "When its different chains are put together they become strong." It has also
been related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah went out at night while he was
on a journey. He passed by a man who was sitting by a pond. Said 'Umar, "Did a beast of
prey drink from your pond tonight?" The Messenger of Allah told him, "O owner of the
pond, do not inform him. It is not necessary, for him (the beast of prey) is what he carried
in his stomach and for us is what he left, water to be used for drinking and purifying."
This is related by ad-Daraqutni. Yahya ibn Sa'eed reported that once 'Umar was among a
group that included 'Amr ibn al-'Aas and, when they came upon a pond, 'Amr said, "O
owner of the pond, have the beasts of prey discovered your pond?" 'Umar said, "Do not
inform us, since the people drink after the wild beasts and the wild beasts after the
people." This is related by Malik in al-Muwatta.

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Volume 1, Page 6: Water left in a pot after a cat has drunk from it

Such water is also considered pure. This is proven by the hadith of Kabshah bint Ka'b
who, when she was under the care of Abu Qatadah, entered the room to pour some water
for him. A cat came, drank some of the water, and Qatadah proceeded to tilt the container
so the cat could drink more. Kabshah said, "He noticed that I was watching him." He
asked, "Are you surprised, O niece?" I answered, "Yes." He said, "The Messenger of
Allah, upon whom be peace, said, 'It (the cat) is not impure. They intermingle with you."'

Volume 1, Page 6a: Water left in a pot after a pig or dog has drunk from it

Such water is considered impure and must be avoided. Al-Bukhari and Muslim have
recorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah, that the messenger of Allah said, "If a dog
drinks from one of your containers, wash it seven times." Ahmad and Muslim also have
this addition, "Cleanse one of your containers if a dog licks it by washing it seven times,
the first washing being with dirt." As for the leftover water of a pig, it is clearly
considered filth and impure.

Volume 1, Page 6b: Types of impurities

Najasah refers to impure substances that the Muslim must avoid and wash off if they
should happen to contaminate his clothes, body and so on. Says Allah in the Qur'an,
"Purify your raiment" (alMudathar 4); and, "Allah loves those who repent and who purify
themselves" (al-Baqarah 222). The Messenger of Allah also said, "Purity is half of the
faith."

Volume 1, Page 6c: Dead animals

This refers to animals which die from "natural causes," that is, without the proper Islamic
way of slaughtering. It also includes anything that is cut off of a live animal. Abu Waqid
al-Laithy reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "What is cut off of a live
animal is considered dead," i.e., it is considered like an animal that has not been properly
slaughtered. This is related by Abu Dawud and by at-Tirmizhi, who classifies it as hassan
and says that the scholars act according to this hadith.

Volume 1, Page 7: Dead animals of the sea and dead locusts

Ibn 'Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Two types of dead animals and two
types of blood have been made lawful for us. The types of dead animals are seafood and
locusts. The two types of blood are the (blood of the) liver and the spleen."

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This is related by Ahmad, ash-Shaf'i, al-Baihaqi and adDaraqutni. The hadith is weak, but
Imam Ahmad says that it is authentic in mauqoof form. Abu Zar'ah and Abu Hatim have
said the same. Such a report has the implication of a marfu' hadith because a companion
saying, "This was allowed for us" or "This was forbidden for us" is like one of them
saying, "We were ordered to do this," or "We were forbidden to do this," and so on.
(Such statements are considered marfu' with respect to their regulations). And we have
already mentioned the Prophet's statement concerning the ocean, "Its water is pure and its
'dead animals' are allowable (to eat.)."

Volume 1, Page 7a: Dead animals that have no running blood

(That is) bees, ants, and so on. They are considered pure. If they fall into some substance
and die, the substance will not become impure. Ibn al-Munzhir said, "I do not know of
any disagreement concerning the purity of such water save what has been related from
ash-Shaf'i. It is well-known that he views them as being impure. Nevertheless, it does not
bother him if the object falling into a substance does not alter it (in any way)."

Volume 1, Page 7b: Bones, horns, claws, fur, feathers, and skin and so on of dead
animals

All of these are considered pure. Concerning the bones of dead animals, az-Zuhri said, "I
have met some scholars of the preceeding generations who used such objects for combs
and pots for oil, and they did not see anything wrong in that." This is related by al-
Bukhari. Said Ibn 'Abbas, "The client of Maimunah was given a sheep as charity, and it
died. The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, passed by it and said, 'Why do you
not remove its skin, treat it and put it to use?' She said, 'It is dead' (i.e., it has not been
slaughtered properly). He said to her, 'Only eating it is forbidden."' This is related by the
group. Ibn Majah attributes the incident to Maimunah and her client. Al-Bukhari and an-
Nasa'i do not mention treating the skin. It is reported from Ibn 'Abbas that he recited:
"Say (O Muhammad): "In all that has been revealed to me, I do not find anything
forbidden to eat; if one wants to eat thereof, unless it be carrion, or blood poured forth, or
swine flesh..." (al-An'am 145). Then he said, "What is forbidden is its meat. As for its
skin, skin used for waterskins, teeth, bones, fur and wool, they are permissible." This is
narrated by Ibn Munzhir and Ibn Hatim. Similarly, its rennet and milk are considered
pure. This is supported by the fact that when the companions conquered Iraq, they ate the
cheese of the Magians which was made from rennet, although their slaughtered animals
were considered the same as 'dead animals.' It is confirmed from Salman al-Farsi that
when he was asked about cheese, clarified butter and pelts, he said, "What is permissible
is what Allah made permissible in His book. What is forbidden is what Allah made
forbidden in His book. What he omits, He has pardoned for you." It is well-known that he

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was being asked about the cheese of the Magians, as Salman was 'Umar's deputy in
Mada'in, Iraq.

Volume 1, Page 8: Blood

This includes blood that pours forth from an animal's body, such as blood from a
slaughtered animal, or from menstruation, except for what small amounts are overlooked.
Ibn Juraij said about the Qur'anic verse "...or blood poured forth..." (al-An'am 145), that
this is the blood that flows out. The blood that does not flow out, but remains in the veins,
is permissible. This is related by Ibn al-Munzhir. And it is also related from Abu Majlizn
in his discourse on blood that he was asked, "What about the blood that remains in the
slaughtered sheep or at the top of the cooking pot?" He answered, "There is no problem
with it. What is forbidden is the blood that flows out (of the animal at the time of
slaughtering)." This was recorded by 'Abd ibn Hameed and by Abu ash-Shaikh. It is also
related from 'Aishah that she said, "We used to eat the meat when the blood was
streaking the pot." Al-Hassan said, "The Muslims always prayed, even while they were
bleeding." This was mentioned by al-Bukhari. It is confirmed that 'Umar prayed while his
wound was bleeding. Elucidating the point, Ibn Hajr says in Fath al-Bari (a commentary
on Sahih al-Bukhari): "Abu Hurairah did not see anything wrong in a drop or two of
blood during the prayers. Based on this report from Abu Hurairah, the blood of a flee or
the blood that comes from a pimple are to be overlooked. Abu Majlizn was asked about
pus that gets on the body or the clothes. He said, 'There is nothing wrong with them.
Allah mentions only the blood, not the pus."'

Commenting on the subject, Ibn Taimiyyah says, "It is obligatory to clean the clothes
from pus, purulent matter or similar fluids." He also says, "There is no proof concerning
its impurity." It is preferred for the person to avoid contact as much as possible with these
substances.

Volume 1, Page 9: Pig's meat

According to the verse (al-An'am 145) quoted earlier, items mentioned therein are
impure. The pronoun 'they' refers to all three of the mentioned items. It is, however,
allowed to knit with the hair of a pig according to most of the scholars.

Volume 1, Page 9a: Vomiting of a person, urine, and excrement

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There is agreement among the scholars that these objects are impure. But, a slight amount
of vomit (commonly understood as a small amount of liquid) and the urine of an
unweaned male baby are overlooked and pardoned. It is sufficient just to sprinkle water
over the urine of an unweaned male baby. This is based on the hadith of Umm Qais. She
came to the Messenger of Allah with her unweaned son. After a while, the baby urinated
in the Prophet's lap. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, called for some water, which he
sprinkled over his clothes, and did not give them a complete washing. This is related by
al-Bukhari and Muslim.

'Ali narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, "The urine of a baby boy should have
water sprinkled upon it. The urine of a baby girl is to be washed off." Says Qatadah,
"This refers to a male baby that has not yet begun to eat. If he already eats, then the
garment is to be washed."

This hadith is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi and Ibn Majah. In al-Fath, Ibn
Hajr says its chain is sahih.

Sprinkling is sufficient as long as the boy is still nursing. If he eats solid food, his urine
must be washed from the clothes and body. There is no disagreement on this latter point.
Perhaps the reason for this exemption to the male baby's urine is that people have a
tendency to carry their male babies around, and it would have been difficult to clean the
clothes after their frequent urinations.

Volume 1, Page 10: Al-Wadi

Wadi is a thick white secretion discharged (by some people) after urination. It is
considered impure. 'Aishah said, " Wadi comes out after urination. The person should
wash the private parts and perform ablution. It is not necessary to perform ghusl. This is
related by Ibn al-Munzhir. Ibn 'Abbas related that "mani (sperm) requires ghusl. As for
mazhi (semen) and wadi they require a complete purification." This is related by al-
Athram. Al-Baihaqi has it with the wording, "Concerning mazhi (prostatic fluid) and
wadi, he said, 'Wash your sexual organs and perform the same type of ablution as you
perform for prayer."'

Volume 1, Page 10a: Al-Mazhi or prostatic fluid

This is a white sticky fluid that flows from the sexual organs because of thinking about
sexual intercourse or foreplay, and so on. The person is usually not aware of when
exactly it is secreted. It comes from both the male and the female sexual organs, although
the amount from the latter is usually more than the former's. Scholars are agreed that it is

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impure. If it gets on the body, it is obligatory to wash it off. If it gets on the clothes, it
suffices to sprinkle the area with water, as it is very hard to be completely protected from
this impurity, especially for the young, single person. 'Ali said, "I used to excrete mazhi,
so I asked a man to ask the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, about it. I was shy
to do so because of my position with respect to his daughter ('Ali was the Prophet's son-
in-law). He said, 'Make ablution and wash your penis." This is related by al-Bukhari and
others. Sahl ibn Hanif said, "I used to suffer from excessive amounts of mazhi. I used to
make lots of ghusl because of it. So I mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah, upon
whom be peace, and he said, 'It is sufficient to take a handful of water and sprinkle it over
your clothes wherever the fluid appears."

The hadith is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi. The latter says, "The
hadith is hassan sahih. In the chain is Muhammad ibn Ishaq, who is considered weak
when he relates in mu'an'an (handed-down) form because of his reputation as one who
commited tadlis. But in this narration, he makes it clear that he heard the hadith directly."
Al-Athram narrated the same hadith with the wording, "I was bothered by a great deal of
mazhi, so I went to the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and informed him of this. He said
'It is sufficient for you to take a handful of water and sprinkle it over (the mazhi)."'

Volume 1, Page 11: Sperm, Al-Mani

Some scholars say that sperm is impure, but apparently it is pure, for it is only
recommended to wash it off if it is still wet, and to scratch it off if it is dry. Said 'Aishah,
"I used to scratch the sperm off the Messenger of Allah's clothes if it was dry, and wash it
off if it was still wet." (This is related by ad-Daraqutni, Abu 'Awanah and al-Bazzar). It is
also related that Ibn 'Abbas said, "I asked the Messenger of Allah about sperm on clothes.
He said, 'It is the same as mucus and spittle. It is sufficient to rub the area with a rag or
cloth."'

The hadith was related by ad-Daraqutni, al-Baihaqi and atTahawi. There is a difference in
the narration over whether it should be in marfu'or mauqoof form.

Volume 1, Page 11a: The urine and stools of animals that are permissible to eat

Both of these are considered impure. Ibn Mas'ud related that the Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, went to answer the call of nature. He asked 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud
to bring three stones. 'Abdullah said, "I could not find three stones, so I found two stones
and animal dung and brought them to him. He took the two stones and threw away the
dung saying, 'It is impure."'

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The hadith is related by al-Bukhari, Ibn Majah, and Ibn Khuzaimah. In one narration it
states, "It is impure. It is the stool of a donkey." A little amount of it is pardoned though,
as it is very difficult to completely protect one's self from it. Al-Waleed ibn Muslim says,
"I said to al-Auza'i, 'What about the urine of animals whose meat is not eaten, like the
mule, donkey and horse?' He said that they used to come into contact with these during
their battles, and that they did not wash it off their bodies or clothes. As for the urine and
stools of animals whose meat is permissible, Malik, Ahmad and a group of the Shaifiyyah
says that it is pure. Commenting on the subject, Ibn Taimiyyah says, "None of the
companions held that it is impure. In fact, the statement that it is impure is of recent
origin and not from the early generations of the companions."

Said Anas, "A group of people from the tribes of Ukul or 'Uraina came to Madinah and
became ill in their stomach. The Prophet ordered them to get a milking she-camel and
drink a mixture of its milk and urine." This hadith is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and
Muslim and points to a camel's urine as being pure. Therefore, by analogy, other
permissible animals' urine may also be considered pure. Says Ibn al-Munzhir, "Those
who claim that that was permissible only for those people are incorrect. Specification is
only confirmed by some specific proof." He also says, "The scholars permit, without any
objection, the sale of sheep's stools and the use of camel's urine in their medicine, both in
the past and in the present, again without any objection. This shows that they are
considered pure." Says ash-Shaukani, "Apparently, the urine and stools of every living
animal permissible to eat is pure." There is nothing to prove otherwise.

Volume 1, Page 12: Jallalah

Jallalah refers to an animal that eats the waste or flesh of other animals, such as camels,
cows, sheep, chickens, geese, and so on. Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah
forbade the drinking of such animals' milk.

This hadith is related by "the five," except for Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi grades it as sahih.
In one narration it states, "It is also prohibited to ride upon a jallalah. (Related by Abu
Dawud.) 'Amr ibn Shu'aib related on the authority of his father, from his grandfather, that
the Messenger of Allah prohibited the meat of domestic donkeys. As for the jallalah, he
prohibited riding or eating them." (Related by Ahamad, an-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud.) If the
jallalah animal is kept away from the other animals for some time and is given clean food
to eat, then it becomes pure and is no longer called jallalah. If this is the case, it becomes
permissible to eat, as the reason for its prohibition was the change it underwent due to
eating filth, a state which would no longer be present.

Volume 1, Page 12a: Alcohol

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According to most scholars, alcohol is impure. Says Allah in the Qur'an, "Alcohol, games
of chance, idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork." Some
scholars say that it is pure, for they take the meaning of rajis in its abstract sense as
describing alcohol and whatever is related to it. This is not labeled as impure in a definite,
sensory way. Says Allah, "Stay away from the impurities of idols." Idols are impure in
the abstract sense, and they are considered impure if one touches them. The explanation
of the preceding verse is that they are a tool of Satan, for they cause enmity and hatred
and keep people away from the remembrance of Allah and pra.yer. In Subul as-Salaam it
says, "Their origin is pure and their being prohibited does not mean that the object itself
is impure. For example, hashish is prohibited but it is pure. But, something impure is not
necessarily prohibited. Every impure thing is prohibited, but not vice-versa. That is
because of the ruling that something impure cannot be touched under any circumstances.
If a ruling says that something is impure, it is also prohibited. This differs from a ruling
that something is prohibited. For example, it is forbidden to wear silk and gold, but they
are absolutely pure by consensus." If one understands that, then the prohibition of alcohol
does not necessarily entail its also being considered impure: it needs some other evidence
to prove that it is impure. If not, then we are left with the original position that it is pure.
If one claims other than that, he must substantiate it.

Volume 1, Page 13: Purifying the body and clothes

If the clothes or body are contaminated with impurities, it is obligatory to wash them with
water until they are cleansed of the impurities. This is especially the case if the impurity
is visible, such as blood. If there are some stains that remain after washing which would
be extremely difficult to remove, they can be overlooked. If the impurity is not visible,
such as urine, it is sufficient to wash it one time. 'Asma bint Abu Bakr related that a
woman came to the Prophet, upon whom be peace, and said, "Our clothes are
contaminated with menstrual blood. What should we do about this?" He said, "Scrape it,
rub it with water, pour water over it and then pray in it." (This is related by al-Bukhari
and Muslim) If impurities get on the lower portion of a woman's dress, it is purified by
dust as she trails along. A woman said to Umm Salamah, "I have a long dress that drags
on the ground, even when I walk through places that contain filth. What should I do about
it?" Umm Salamah answered her, "The Messenger of Allah said, 'What comes after it
purifies it."' This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.

Volume 1, Page 13a: Dogs

Dogs are considered impure. Any container that a dog has licked must be washed seven
times, the first time with dirt. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenager of Allah, upon
whom be peace, said, "Purifying a container that a dog has licked is done by washing it

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seven times, the first washing being with dirt (that is, water mixed with dirt until it
becomes muddy)." This was related by Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and al-Baihaqi. If a
dog licks a pot that has dry food in it, what it touched and what surrounds it must be
thrown away. The remainder may be kept, as it is still pure. As for a dog's fur, it is
considered pure.

Volume 1, Page 14: Purifying the ground

If there are impurities on the ground, it is purified by pouring water over it. This is
proven by Abu Hurairah's hadith, mentioned earlier, about the bedouin who urinated in
the mosque. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said all that needed to be done for
purification was to pour water over it. Said Abu Qulabah, "The drying of the ground is its
purification." 'Aishah said, "The purification of the ground is its becoming dry." (Related
by Ibn Abi Shaibah.) This, of course, refers to the case where the impurity is a liquid. If
the impurity is a solid, the ground will only become pure by its removal or decay.

Volume 1, Page 14a: Purifying clarified butter and other similar substances

Ibn 'Abbas relates from Maimunah that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, was asked
about a mouse that fell into a pot of clarified butter. He said, "Take (the mouse) and what
is around it out, and throw it away. Then eat (the rest of) your clarified butter." This is
related by al-Bukhari.

Commenting on the subject, al-Hafezh Ibn Hajr says, "Ibn 'Abdul Barr reported that there
is agreement that if a dead animal falls into a solid matter, what the dead animal touches
and what is around it must be thrown away, provided that one can make sure that the
animal did not touch the remainder. As for a liquid substance, there is some difference of
opinion. The majority say that the entire liquid becomes impure; az-Zuhri, al-Auza'i, and
some others disagree with that opinion.

Volume 1, Page 15: Purifying the skin of dead animals

Tanning purifies the skin and the fur of a dead animal. This is based on the hadith of Ibn
'Abbas, in which the Prophet said, "If the animal's skin is tanned, it is purified." (Related
by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

Volume 1, Page 15a: Purifying mirrors and similar objects

Mirrors, knives, swords, nails, bones, glass, painted pots and other smooth surfaces that
have no pores are purified by simply wiping them and removing any impure remains. The

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companions of the Prophet used to pray while wearing swords smeared with blood, and
they used to just wipe the swords to purify them.

Volume 1, Page 15b: Purifying shoes

Shoes may be purified by rubbing them against the ground, as long as the remains of the
impurity are removed. Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom
be peace, said, "If one of you stepped in some filth, the dirt will purify his shoes."
Related by Abu Dawud. In another narration it states, "If one of you steps in some filth
with his shoes on, the dirt will purify them." Abu Sa'eed reported the Prophet, upon
whom be peace, saying, "When a person comes to the mosque, he should look at his
shoes. If he finds any filth on them, he should wipe them against the ground and pray in
them." (Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.) Since shoes are repeatedly exposed to filth,
it is sufficient just to wipe them against the ground. This is similar to the case of
defecation. In fact, it is stronger than that case, as defecation usually occurs only two or
three times a day.

Volume 1, Page 15c: Useful points that are greatly needed concerning purification

Rope used for hanging clothes with impurities on them may afterwards be used for
hanging pure clothes.

If a liquid falls on a person and he does not know if it was water or urine, he need not
inquire about it. If he does inquire, the one who is asked need not answer him even if he
knows that the liquid is impure. In that case, the person need not wash his clothes.

If a person finds something moist on his body or clothes at night, and he does not know
what it is, he need not smell it to discover what it might be. It is related that 'Umar passed
by a gutter (and got wet). 'Umar's companion asked the owner of the gutter if the water
was pure or impure. 'Umar told the owner not to answer the question, and went on his
way.

Clothes that have street mud on them need not be washed. Reported Kamyal ibn Ziyad, "I
saw 'Ali wading through the mud, after which he entered the mosque and prayed without
washing his legs."

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If a person finishes his prayer and sees some impurities on his clothes or body of which
he was not previously aware, or he was aware of them but forgot about them, or he did
not forget about them but he was not able to remove them, then his prayer is still valid
and he need not repeat it. This opinion is supported by Allah's statement, "And there is no
sin for you in the mistakes you make unintentionally." (al-Ahzab 5). Many of the
companions and those of the following generation gave this legal verdict.

If a person can not determine what part of his clothes contain the impurity, he should
wash the whole garment. This is based on the axiom, "If an obligation cannot be fulfilled
except by performing another related act, then that act also becomes obligatory."

If a person mixes his pure clothes with his impure clothes (and gets confused between
them), he should investigate the matter and pray once in one of the clothes. This is similar
to the question of the exact direction of the qiblah. It does not matter if the proportion of
pure clothes was large or small.

Volume 1, Page 16: It is not proper for one to carry something that has Allah's
name upon it while he is going to the bathroom

It is not proper for one to carry something that has Allah's name upon it (unless he is
afraid of losing it or having it stolen), while he is going to the bathrom. Anas related that
the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, had a ring engraved with Muhammad
Rasool-ullah, (Muhammad the Messenger of Allah), which he would remove when he
went to the bathroom. Ibn Hajr says that this hadith is malul (a type of weak hadith
having a defect) and Abu Dawud says it is m unkar, (singularly related by people who are
not trustworthy). The first portion of the hadith is authentic, however.

Volume 1, Page 17: He should move and hide himself from others while going to the
bathroom

This is especially true in the case of defecation, so others can not hear noxious sounds or
smell bad odors. Said Jabir, "We were journeying with the Messenger of Allah, upon
whom be peace, and he would only relieve himself when he was out of sight." (This is
related by Ibn Majah.) Abu Dawud records that, "When he wanted to relieve himself, he
would go where no one could see him." He also related, "When the Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, went out he would go very far away."

Volume 1, Page 17a: One should mention the name of Allah and seek refuge in Him
when entering the privy or removing his clothes to relieve himself

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Anas reported that when the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, entered the privy
he would say, "In the name of Allah. O Allah! I seek refuge in you from male and female
noxious beings (devils)." This is related by "the group."

Volume 1, Page 17b: One should not talk when going to the bathroom

One should not respond to a greeting or repeat what the caller to prayer is saying. He may
speak if there is some necessity (i.e., to guide a blind man who fears he may be harmed).
If he sneezes, he should praise Allah to himself and simply move his lips (without
making a sound). Ibn 'Umar related that a man passed by the Prophet, upon whom be
peace, and greeted him while he (the Prophet) was urinating. The Prophet did not return
his greeting. (This is related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari.) Abu Sa'eed reported
that he heard the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, say, "Isn't it true that Allah
detests those who converse while they relieve themselves?" This was related by Ahmad,
Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.

This hadith seems to support the position that it is forbidden to talk. Many scholars,
however, say that it is only disliked, not forbidden.

Volume 1, Page 18: One should neither face nor turn his back on the qiblah while
relieving himself

Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "When
one of you relieves himself, he should neither face the qiblah nor turn his back on it."
This was related by Ahmad and Muslim.

The prohibition implies that it is only disliked. As Ibn 'Umar related that he once went to
Hafsah's home, where he saw the Messenger of Allah relieving himself while facing
Syria with his back to the Ka'bah. This is related by "the group." Some reconciliate these
hadith by saying that in the desert it is forbidden to face or turn one's back on the Ka'bah,
while it is permitted in buildings. Said Marwan al-Asghar, "I saw 'Umar sitting on his
she-camel and facing the qiblah while urinating. I said, 'O father of 'Abdurahman ... is
this not forbidden?' He said, 'Certainly not ... This has been prohibited only in open areas.
If there is a barricade (or separator) between you and the qiblah, there is nothing wrong
with it."

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This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Khuzaimah and al-Hakim. Its chain is hassan as Ibn
Hajr said in Fath al-Bari.

Volume 1, Page 18a: One should seek a soft and low piece of ground to protect
himself from impurities

Abu Musa related that the Messenger of Allah came to a low and soft part of the ground
and urinated. He then said, "When one of you urinates, he should choose the proper place
to do so."

This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. One of its narrators is unknown, but its
meaning is sound.

Volume 1, Page 18b: One should not use a hole in the ground

Qatadah related from 'Abdullah ibn Sarjas who said, "The Messenger of Allah forbade
urination into a hole." Said Qatadah, "What is disliked about urinating into a hole?" Said
he, "It is the residence of the jinn."

This hadith is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, Abu Dawud, al-Hakim and al-Baihaqi. Ibn
Khuzaimah and Ibn as-Sakin classified it as sahih.

Volume 1, Page 18c: One should avoid shaded places and those places where people
walk and gather

Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "Beware
of those acts which cause others to curse." They asked, "What are those acts?" He said,
"Relieving yourself in the people's walkways or in their shade." This hadith is related by
Ahmad, Muslim and Abu Dawud.

Volume 1, Page 19: One should not urinate in bathing places or in still or running
water

'Abdullah ibn Mughaffal narrated that the Prophet said, "None of you should urinate in a
bathing place and then make ablution in the water. The majority of waswas comes from
that." This is related by "the five," but the statement, "and then make ablution in it" was

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only related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud. Jabir said the Prophet forbade urinating in still
as well as running water. (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) In Majma az-
Zuwaid it states, "This was related by at-Tabarani, and its narrators are trustworthy."

If there is a drain in the bathing place, it is permissible to urinate into it.

Volume 1, Page 19a: One may not urinate while standing

If a person can guarantee that no impurities will touch his clothes, it is permissible to
urinate while standing. Said 'Aishah, "If someone relates to you that the Messenger of
Allah urinated while standing, do not believe him. He only urinated while sitting." This
hadith is related by "the five," except for Abu Dawud. At-Tirmizhi's comment is, "It is
the best thing related on this point, and it is the most authentic."

One should not forget that what 'Aishah said is based on the knowledge that she had.
Huzhaifah relates that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, went to a public
garbage dump and urinated while standing. Huzhaifah went away, and the Prophet then
called him over. The Prophet made ablution and wiped over his shoes. This is related by
"the group."

Commenting upon the issue, an-Nawawi says, "To urinate while sitting is most desirable
in my opinion, but to do so standing is permissible. Both acts are confirmed by the
Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace.

Volume 1, Page 19b: One must remove any impurities from his clothes and body

To do so, he can use a rock, stone or any other pure matter. One may use only water to
clean the area, or any combinations of purifying agents. 'Aishah reported that the
Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "When one of you goes to relieve
himself, he should clean himself with three stones." (Related by Ahmad, anNasa'i, Abu
Dawud and ad-Daraqutni).

Anas related that the Messenger of Allah would enter the privy, and that Anas and
another boy would carry the water container and spear for him. The Prophet would clean
himself with water." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

Ibn 'Abbas related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, passed by two
graves and said, "They are being punished. But they are not being punished for a great

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matter (on their part). One of them did not clean himself from urine and the other used to
spread slander." (Related by "the group.")

Anas also related the Prophet as saying, "Purify yourselves from urine, as most
punishment in the grave is due to it."

Volume 1, Page 20: One should not clean himself with his right hand

'Abdurahman ibn Zaid related that Salman was asked, "Your Prophet teaches you
everything, even how to relieve yourselves?" Salman said, "Certainly ... He forbade us
from facing the qiblah while doing so, from cleaning ourselves with our right hand, and
from cleaning ourselves with less than three stones. We also should not use an impure
substance or a bone to clean ourselves." (Related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and at-
Tirmizhi.)

Hafsah reported, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, reserved his right hand
for eating, drinking, putting on his clothes, taking and giving. He used his left hand for
other actions." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, al-Hakim and
al-Baihaqi).

Volume 1, Page 20a: One should remove any bad smell from his hands after
cleaning himself

Abu Hurairah said, "When the Messenger of Allah upon whom be peace, relieved
himself, I used to bring him a container of water. He would cleanse himself, then rub his
hands against the soil." (Related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, al-Baihaqi, and Ibn Majah.)

Volume 1, Page 20b: One should sprinkle his penis and underwear with water after
urination

Make sure that he has cleansed himself. If one finds some dampness in his clothes after
so doing, he can content himself by saying, "That is just water." This is based on the
hadith related by al-Hakim ibn Sufyan or Sufyan ibn al-Hakim who said, "When the
Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, urinated, he would wash and sprinkle (his
penis)." In another narration it states, "I saw the Messenger of Allah urinate, after which

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he sprinkled water over his penis." Ibn 'Umar used to sprinkle his penis until his
underwear became wet.

Volume 1, Page 20c: Entering the bathroom

One should enter the bathroom or a privy with his left foot, and exit with his right foot,
saying: "O Allah! I seek your forgiveness." 'Aishah related that when the Messenger of
Allah left the bathroom, he would say this supplication. (Related by "the five," except for
an-Nasa'i.) What 'Aishah stated is the soundest statement on this topic. It is related
through a number of weak chains that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to say,
"Praise be to Allah who made the filth leave me and who has given me health," and
"Praise be to Allah who let me enjoy it, kept for me its energy and relieved me of its
harm."

Volume 1, Page 21: Acts that correspond to the Nature of Mankind

Allah has chosen certain acts for all of His prophets and their followers to perform. These
acts distinguish them from the rest of mankind, and are known as sunan al-fitra, (the acts
that correspond to the nature of mankind).

Volume 1, Page 21a: Circumcision

This prevents dirt from getting on one's penis, and also makes it easy to keep it clean. For
women, it involves cutting the outer portion of the clitoris. Abu Hurairah reported that the
Messenger of Allah said, "Ibrahim circumcised himself after he was eighty years old."
(Related by al-Bukhari.) Many scholars say that it is obligatory.'ø The Shaf'iyyah
maintain that it should be done on the seventh day. Says ash-Shaukani, "There is nothing
that states explicitly its time or indicates that it is obligatory."

Volume 1, Page 21b: Shaving pubic hairs and pulling out underarm hairs

They are two sunan acts. If the hair is only trimmed or pulled out, it will suffice.

Volume 1, Page 21c: Clipping one's fingernails, trimming and shaving his
moustache

Ibn 'Umar related that the Messenger of Allah said, "Differ from the polytheists: let your
beards (grow)" and shave your moustache." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim). Abu
Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "Five things
are part of one's fitra: Shaving the pubic hairs, circumcision, trimming the moustache,

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removing the hair under the arms and trimming the nails." (Related by "the group.") It
does not mention which one would specifically fulfill the sunnah. One should make sure
that his moustache is not so long that food particles, drink and dirt accumulate in it. Zaid
ibn Arqam related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said "Whoever does not take
(off) some of his moustache is not one of us." (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-
Tirmizhi, who classified it as sahih.) It is preferred to cut the pubic hairs, pluck out the
underarm hairs, cut the nails and trim the moustache on a weekly basis, a practice which
is most hygenic. If some unnecessary hair is left on the body for a longer period of time,
it may disturb the person. One may leave this action for forty days, but no longer. Said
Anas, "The time period for us to trim the moustache, cut the nails, pluck out the underarm
hairs and cut the pubic hairs was forty nights." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and
others).

Volume 1, Page 22: Letting one's beard grow and become thick

This is a feature of dignity. It should not be cut so short that it appears like a shaved
beard, nor should it be left so long that it becomes untidy. It is also a sign of manhood.
Says al-Bukhari, "Whenever Ibn 'Umar made the hajj or 'umrah, he would hold his beard
in his fist and, whatever exceeded his fist, he would cut off."

Volume 1, Page 22a: Oiling and combing one's hair

Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet, upon whom be peace, as saying, "Whoever has hair
should honor it." (Related by Abu Dawud.)

Said 'Ata ibn Yasar, "A man came to the Prophet with unkempt hair and an untidy beard.
The Prophet pointed to him, as if ordering him to straighten his hair and beard. He did so
and returned. Thereupon the Prophet observed, 'Is that not better than one of you coming
with his hair unkempt, as if he were a devil?"' (Related by Malik.)

Abu Qatadah related that he had a great amount of hair. He asked the Prophet, "O
Messenger of Allah, I have lots of hair. Should I comb it?" He answered, "Yes ... and
honor it." Abu Qatadah used to oil it twice a day due to the Prophet's words, "... and
honor it."

Cutting one's hair off is permissible, and so is letting it grow if one honors it. Ibn 'Umar
narrated that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Shave it all or leave it all."
(Related by Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i). To shave part of it and leave
part of it is greatly disliked. Nafa' related from Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah

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prohibited qiza'. Nafa' asked, "What is qiza' ?" He said, "It is to shave off part of the hair
of a youth and to leave part." (AlBukhari and Muslim.)

Volume 1, Page 23: Leaving grey hairs in place

This applies to both men and women. 'Amr ibn Shu'aib related on the authority of his
father from his grandfather that the Prophet said, "Do not pluck the grey hairs as they are
a Muslim's light. Never a Muslim grows grey in Islam except that Allah writes for him,
due to that, a good deed. And he raises him a degree. And he erases for him, due to that,
one of his sins." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.)
And Anas said, "We used to hate that a man should pluck out his white hairs from his
head or beard." (Related by Muslim. )

Volume 1, Page 23a: Changing the color of grey hair by using henna, red dye, yellow
dye, and so on

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The Jews and
Christians do not dye, so differ from them." (Related by "the group.") Abu Zharr reported
that the Messenger of Allah said, "The best thing that one can use to change the color of
grey hairs is henna and katm (a reddish dye)." (Related by "the five.")

There are some narrations that state that dying is disliked, but it is obvious that these
narrations conflict with the sunnah and custom. It is related from some of the companions
that it is better not to dye, while others say it is better to do it. Some used a yellow dye,
while others used henna or katm. Others used saffron, and a group of them used a black
dye. Ibn Hajr mentioned in Fath al-Bari that az-Zuhri said, "We used black dye if our
face was youthful, but if wrinkles were present and the teeth were gone we would not use
it." Said Jabir, "Abu Quhafah (Abu Bakr's father) was brought to the Prophet during the
conquest of Makkah while his head was "white." The Prophet, upon whom be peace,
said, "Take him to one of his wives and let her change the color of his hair with
something, but she should avoid (making his hair) black." (Related by "the group," except
for al-Bukhari and at-Tirmizhi). This dealt with a certain incident, and cannot be
generalized. Furthermore, black would not be proper for someone as old as Abu Quhafah.

Volume 1, Page 24: To use musk and other types of perfume

These are pleasing to the soul and beautify the atmosphere. Anas reported the Messenger
of Allah as saying, "Among the things of this world, I love women and perfume, and the
coolness of my eyes is prayer." (Related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i.) Abu Hurairah
reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "If someone offers perfume, do not reject it,

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for it is light to carry and has a sweet scent." (Related by Muslim, an-Nasa'i and Abu
Dawud.) Abu Sa'eed reported that the Prophet said about musk, "It is the best of
perfumes." (Related by "the group," except for al-Bukhari and Ibn Majah).

Nafa' narrated that Ibn 'Umar used to burn and inhale a branch called aluwah that has a
nice smell. He also used camphor. He used to say, "This is the way the Messenger of
Allah inhaled such scents (that is, by burning them.)" (Related by Muslim and an-Nasa'i.)

17.02.00
How to Purify Things
In general, water can purify anything that is impure.

One must remove all impurities from his/her private parts by using any pure matter (i.e.
toilet tissue) three times, or by using water, or both.

1. Purifying the body and clothing:


This is performed by washing them with water until they are cleansed of
impurities. This is especially important in the case where the impurity is visible,
such as menstrual blood. If there are some difficult stains that remain after
washing, they can be overlooked. If the impurity is not visible, such as urine, it is
sufficient to wash it once, but preferable to wash it three times.

2. Purifying clothing from a male infant’s urine:


This is performed by sprinkling water on the stained clothing. If it is stained by the
urine of a female infant, then it must be washed.

3. Purifying the bottom of shoes:


This is performed by rubbing them against the ground until the remains of
Najassah (impurity) are removed.

4. Purifying the ground:


(a) Pour water over the impurity on the ground (soil or sand).
(b) Allowing the ground (soil or sand) to dry from the impurity (such as urine)
will make the area pure, only if there are no visible traces of the impurity left.

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5. Purifying utensils if they were touched by dog saliva:


This is performed by washing the utensil seven times with water. The first
cleansing should be mixed with soil. However, if the saliva has touched the body
or clothing, then only one cleansing is needed.

17.03.00
Minor Hadath and Major Hadath
The body must also be free of Hadath (ritual impurities).

1. Minor Hadath:
This requires Wudhu (ablution). It happens after one or more of the following
occurs: natural discharges like urine, excrement, passing gas, falling asleep, or
unconsciousness of any kind.

2. Major Hadath:
This requires washing the whole body. It could be caused by unconscious
ejaculation (e.g. in one's sleep), intercourse, menstruation or post-childbirth
bleeding. This type of washing requires bathing the whole body, including, the
head with pure water.

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18.00.00
How to Perform Wudhu(Ablution)
Method I
Before we perform Salah we must first prepare ourselves. This preparation includes
making sure that we are clean from any physical impurities and performing Wudu.

Wudhu (ablution) is required for performing Salah. We cannot offer our Salah without
making Wudhu at first. Here are the steps to take:
To make yourself ready for salat, you would require to wash your face
and arms, wipe your head and wash your feet.

Prior to entering Salaat (prayer), the person is required to undertake a certain purification
procedure known as "Wudhu" without which, the person's prayer would not be
acceptable in the sight of "Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala). This performance is called
wudhu and is preferably carried out as follows:

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Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu'anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said:


The Prayer of anyone of you breaching purification is not accepted unless he makes
wudoo. [Al-Bukhaaree, (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/206), Muslim (no.225) and others].

Ibn 'Umar (radhiAllaahu 'anhumaa) said: Indeed I heard Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi
wa sallam) say: Allaah does not accept Prayer without purification, nor Sadaqah from
illegally attained wealth. [Muslim (1/160) and others].

The Definition of Wudhu

Wudhu in the Arabic Language: Wudhu is the action, and wudhu the water used.
Therefore - and it is also a verbal noun; or they are two forms of the same word, both
meaning the verbal-noun and may be both referring also to the water used.

Wudoo in the Sharee'ah: Wudoo is using clean and cleansing (Tuhoor) water upon certain
body parts as Allaah ta'ala has prescribed and explained.

HOW TO PERFORM WUDHU Method I


Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) himself explained
Declare the
in the hadeeth narrated by 'Umar (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) in the
intention for
1 Sahihain Verily the actions are by intention and there is for
Wudhu in your
everyone only what he intended... [Fath-ul-Baaree, 1/9, and
heart
Muslim, 6/48]. At-Tasmiyyah (Mentioning Allaah's Name)
Say Bismillah (In Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu' anhu) said that Rasoolullah
the Name of (sallallahu 'alaihi wasallam) said There is no wudoo for him
Allah). who does not mention Allaah's name upon it. [Reported by
2
Ibn Maajah (no.399), At-Tirmidhee (no.26), Abu Dawood
(no.101) and others. Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani says: hadeeth
Saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaarni', no.7444)].

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Wash the right Humraan (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that 'Uthmaan called for
hand up to and water to make wudoo and washed his hands three times... then
including the said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)make
wrists. Make sure wudoo just as I have made wudoo . [Al-Bukhaaree and
to while rub and Muslim, and as preceded].
rub between the
fingers of the And in the hadeeth of Abdullaah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu'anhu)
hand. And thus he was asked about the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu
make sure no part 'alaihi wa sallam), so he called for a bowl of water and made
3
of the hand is left wudoo from it as the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)
dry. Three times made wudoo, and he poured out water from the bowl upon his
hand and washed it three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, l/255),
Muslim, 3/121].

Then do the same Aus ibn Abi Aus reports from his grandfather (radhiAllaahu
with the left hand. 'anhu) who said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu alaihi wa
(also three times) sallam) make wudoo washing his hands three times. [Ahmad
(4/9), An-Nasaa'ee (1/55) - with saheeh isnaad].

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4 Make a cup with 'Abdullaah ibn Zaid al-Ansaaree said that it was said to him:
the right hand then Perform for us the wudoo of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa
from this hand sallam), so he called for a pot of water. Until he said: So he
take water into washed his mouth and nose with a single handful and did that
your mouth and three times. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].
swirl it inside the
mouth and then In the hadeeth of 'Amr ibn Yahyaa (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) he
expel out of said: And he washed his mouth and nose using three handfuls
mouth. then sniff of water. [Muslim, 3/123].
remaining water
from the cupped Al-Imam an-Nawawi says: And in this hadeeth is a clear proof
right hand and for the correct opinion that the sunnah in washing the mouth
sniff water into the and nose is that it should be with three handfuls of water -
nose and then washing the mouth and nose [together] with each of them.
blow the water out
and using the left Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that the Prophet
hand remove the (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said When one of you makes
water from your wudoo then let him enter water into his nose, then expel it.
nose. Do this three [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/229), Muslim (no.237), Abu
times Dawood (no. 140)].

in the hadeeth of Laqeet (radhiAllaahu 'anhu) who said: O


Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam), inform me of the
Some people rinse wudoo . He said Complete the wudoo and rub between the
the mouth first fingers and exert in breathing in the water into the nose
three times and unless you are fasting. [Abu Dawood, no.l42; At-Tirmidhee,
then rinse the nose no.38; An-nasaa'ee, no.ll4; IbMaajah, no.407; and others].
three times (Declared as saheeh by Ibn Hibbaan and al-Haalcim, and adh-
Dhahabee agreed to that. Also declared as saheeh by Ibn al
However the first Qaataan, An-Nawawi and Ibn Hajr. Refer to the footnote in al-
method is the most Baghawi's Sharh us-Sunnah: 1/417
authentic.
'Abd Khair said: We were sitting looking towards 'Alee - as he
made wudoo - and he entered into his mouth a handful of water
with his right hand and washed his mouth and nose, then
expelled it from his nose with his left hand - he did that three
times, then said: Whoever would like to see the way of
purification of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) -
then this is his purification. [Reported by ad-Daarimee. Ash-
shaikh al-Albaanee says in his notes on al-Mishkaat: Its isnaad

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is saheeh].

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Wash the face Humraan ibn Abaan narrates that 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu
three times, from 'anhu) called for water to make wudoo and so mentioned the
the hairline to the way in which the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) made
jawbone and chin, wudoo . Humraan said: Then he washed his face three times.
and from start of [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/312), Muslim (no.226)].
the ear to start of
the ear 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that the Prophet
(sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to run his (wet fingers)
A man should through his beard. [At-Tirmidhee (no.31), Ibn Maajah
wash the hair of (no.430), Ibn Jaarood (p.43) and al-Haakim (1/14~) who
5 his beard by declared its isnaad as saheeh as did Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn
taking a handful of Hibbaan. See the note in al-Baghagawi's Sharh us-Sunnah,
water and entering 1/421].
it below his chin
and rubbing it Anas (radhiAllaahu'anhu) narrates that the Prophet
through his beard (sallallaahu'alaihi wa sallam), when he made wudoo , used to
and passing the take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it
wet fingers through his beard and said This is what my Lord - the Great
through the beard. and Exalted - has ordered me to do. [Abo Dawood (no.145),
al-Baihaqee (1/54), al-Haakim (1/149). Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani
declares it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami', no.4572)].

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Wash the right


arm up to and
including the Humraan ibn Abaan reports that 'Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu'anhu)
elbow. Three called for water for wudoo and mentioned the Prophet's
times. (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) way of making wudoo - and
Humraan said: Then he washed his right arm including the
The arm extends elbow three times, then the left in the same way. [Al-
from the Bukhaaree and Muslim as has preceded].
fingertips,
including the nails, Jaabir (radhiAllaahu'anhu) said that when the Prophet
to the lower part of (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallarn) made wudoo , he would pass the
the upper arm. It is water over his elbows. [Reported by ad-Daaraqutnee (1/15), al-
essential to remove Baihaqee (1/56) and others - Ibn Hajr declared it to be hasan.
anything stuck to And Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh (Saheeh
6
the hands before ul-Jaami', 4547)].
washing them,
such as dough, The proof in this matter is the hadeeth of Nu'aim ibn Mijmar
mud, paint, nail who said: I saw Abu Hurairah make wudoo - he washed his
polish etc, that face and completed the wudoo , then washed his right hand
could prevent the until he reached the upper arm, then his left hand till he
water from reached the upper arm" - then in the end of the hadeeth he said:
reaching the skin. "This is how I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam)
make wudoo . [Muslim, 1/246]

Do the same with


the LEFT ARM .
Three times

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Wet your hands Al-Bukhaari (185) and Muslim (235) narrated from ‘Abd-
in water, Place Allaah ibn Zayd (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he
both hands at the described the wudoo’ of the Prophet [an error occurred while
front of the head processing this directive] (peace and blessings of Allaah be
(beginning of upon him): … Then he wiped his head with his hands, front to
hairline) and wipe back. He started at the front of the head and (wiped) until his
the head hands reached the back of the head, then he brought them back
backwards until to where he started
you reach the
nape. Then bring
them back to the
front of the head
(beginning of
hairline). This is
7
done once only

With regard to a
woman’s hair, she
should wipe it
whether it is loose
or braided from
the front of her
head to the roots of
the hair at the nape
and then bring
forward as above,
but she does not
have to wipe the
entire length of her
hair.
8 Clean the ears by From 'Abdullaah ibn 'Amr - about the way of performing
inserting the tips wudoo - he said: Then he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) wiped
of the index his head and entered his two forefingers into his ears and
fingers into the wiped the backs of his ears with his thumbs. [Reported by Abu
ears. Twist them Dawood (no.135), an-Nasaa'ee (no.140), Ibn Maajah (no.422)
round the folds of and authenticated by Ibn Khuzairnah].
the ears. Then
wipe the back of

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the ears with your


thumbs. From
bottom of the ear
upwards. ONCE
ONLY

Wash the right


feet up to and
including the Ibn 'Umar (radhiAllaahu 'anhumaa) said: Rasoolullah
ankles, three (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) fell behind us and then came
times, upon us during a journey, then we found him and it was time
for 'Asr - so we began to make wudoo and wipe over our feet,
You should enter so he (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) called out at the top of his
the water between voice Woe to the ankles from the Fire. (two or three times)
the toes with your [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/232) and Muslim, 3/128].
little finger and
then wash the foot
(note not wipe feet
9
but wash them) 'Abdullah b. 'Amr reported: We returned from Mecca to
and make sure Medina with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him),
you wash the sole and when we came to some water on the way, some of the
of the foot and people were in a hurry at the time of the afternoon prayer and
heals. Make sure performed ablution hurriedly; and when we reached them, their
no parts of the foot heels were dry, no water had touched them. The Prophet (may
is left dry peace be upon him) said: Woe to (dry) heels, because of Hell-
fire. Make your ablution thorough.
Wash the left feet
same as the right ( Muslim Book 002, Number 0468)
foot also three
times.

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The Du'aa After the Wudoo

Ashhadu an laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu laa shareeka lah, wa ashhadu anna
Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluhu.

( I bear witness that there is no god except Allaah alone, with no partner or
associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.)

Allaahumm aj’alni min al-tawwaabeena waj’alni min al-mutatahhireena


10
( O Allaah, make me one of those who repent and make me one of those who
purify themselves)

According to another hadeeth narrated in Sunan al-Nasaa’i, one of the things that
may also be said after wudoo’ is: “Subhaanaka Allaahumma wa bi hamdika,
ashhadu an laa ilaaha ill anta, astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilayka

(Glory and praise be to You, O Allaah, I bear witness that there is no god but You,
I seek Your forgiveness and I repent to You).

Note. The water must also be pure (taahir), for impure (naajis) water cannot be used
11 for wudoo’. One must also remove anything that could prevent water from reaching
the skin and nails, such as nail polish.

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18.01.00
Wudu (Ablution): How to Perform
Method II

Limitation of water used for (complete bath) showering and wudhu:

َ ‫س َقا‬
‫ل‬ ‫ن‬َ ‫ع َن أ‬
ٍ َ ْ
ُ ‫س‬
‫ل‬ ِ َ ‫ن ي َغْت‬ َ ْ‫ل أ َو‬
َ ‫كا‬ ُ ‫س‬ِ ْ‫م ي َغ‬ َ ّ ‫سل‬َ َ‫ه ع َل َي ْهِ و‬ ُ ّ ‫صّلى الل‬
َ ‫ي‬ ّ ِ ‫ن الن ّب‬ َ
َ ‫كا‬
َ ‫خمسة أ‬
ٍ‫داد‬
َ ‫م‬ ْ ِ َ ْ َ ‫صاِع إ َِلى‬ ّ ‫ِبال‬
ُ
ُ ْ ‫ضأ ِبال‬
[ ّ ‫مد‬ ّ َ‫[ وَي َت َو‬737 – 201 : ‫متفق عليه‬
Narrated Hadrat A'nas(ra): He said, 'The Prophet(pbuh)used from one saa to five
mud(more or less 2500gm to 3125gm) water for taking shower and one mud(more or less
625gm) for wudhu(ablution). [Bukhari: 201, Muslim:737]

Wudu (Ablution): How to Perform

1. Say "Bismillah" (in the Name of Allah)


2. Wash hands 3 times
o Use left hand to wash right hand, up to and including the wrist, 3 times.
o Then, use right hand to wash left hand, up to and including the wrist, 3
times.
3. Rinse water in mouth 3 times
o Cup right hand with water and put in mouth, then spit it out, 3 times.
4. Snuff water in nose 3 times
5. Wash face 3 times

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6. Wash forearms 3 times


o Wipe right forearm with left hand, all the way up to and including the elbow,
3 times.
o Wipe left forearm with right hand, all the way up to and including the elbow,
3 times.

7. Wipe water over head/hair 1 times


o It has been recorded that the Prophet used to wipe his head three different
ways:
1. Wiping all of his head. 'Abdullah ibn Zaid reported that the Prophet
wiped his entire head with his hands. He started with
the front of his head, then moved to the back, and then returned his
hands to the front.
2. Wiping over the turban only.
 Said 'Amru ibn Umayyah, "I saw the Messenger of Allah
wipe over his turban and shoes." (Related by
Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Ibn Majah).
 Bilal reported that the Prophet said, "Wipe over
your shoes and head covering." (Related by Ahmad.)
 'Umar once said, "May Allah not purify the one who does not
consider wiping over the turban to be purifying." Many hadith
have been related on this topic by al-Bukhari, Muslim and
others. Most of the scholars agree with them.
3. Wiping over the front portion of the scalp and the turban. Al-
Mughirah ibn Shu'bah said that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom
be peace, made ablution and wiped over the front portion of his scalp,
his turban and his socks. (Related by Muslim.) There is, however, no
strong hadith that he wiped over part of his head, even though al-
Ma'idah: apparently implies it. It is also not sufficient just to wipe
over locks of hair that proceed from the head or along the sides of the
head.
o If you are a female and a non-mahram male (or any non-Muslim who you
believe may describe you to others) may see you (such as in a public
bathroom, etc.), do not remove your hijab or niqab... keep it on and wipe
over it.
8. Wipe the inside and back of ears 1 time
o Wash both ears at the same time
9. Wash feet

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o Wash right foot, including the ankle, with left hand, 3 times.
o Wipe between each toe on right foot, with left hand pinky, 1 time.
o Wash left foot, including the ankle, with right hand, 3 times.
o Wipe between each toe on left foot, with right hand pinky, 1 time.

 Once the Prophet remained behind us in a journey. He


joined us while we were performing ablution for the prayer which was
over-due. We were just passing wet hands over our feet (and not
washing them properly) so the Prophet addressed us in a loud voice
and said twice or thrice: "Save your heels from the fire." [Bukhari
1:164, Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Amr]
 "...and then he washed his feet up to the ankles." [Bukhari 1.186,
narrated Amr]

Al-Wudu Pictures has shown below:

The process of performing Wudu is as follows:

Mention the name of Allah by saying "Bismilla-Hir-Rahma-


Nir-Rah'im" (in the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the
Merciful).

Wash both hands up to the wrists together three times, ensuring


that every part including between the fingers is wetted by water
as shown in figures 1, (a) and (b).

2
3

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Taking a handful of water


into the mouth, rinse the
mouth three times as shown
in figure 2.

Snuff water contained in the right palm into the nose and then
eject the water with the left hand (thrice) - as shown in figures 3
and 4.

Wash the face, ear to ear, forehead to chin, three times as


shown in figures 5, 6 and 7.

4
5

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Wash the right arm thoroughly from the wrist to the elbow three
times. Repeat the same with the left hand - as shown in figures
8 and 9.

Run moistened hands over the head from forehead to the back
and back to forehead (once) - as in figures 10, 11 and 12.

6
7

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Run moistened fingers


through the ears, the first
finger of each hand going
across the inside of the
corresponding ear, while the
thumb runs across the outside
(once) - as shown in figure
13.

Wash both feet up to the


ankles starting from the right
and ensuring that all parts
particularly between the toes
are wetted - as shown in
figure 14. If you had
performed complete "Wudu"
before putting on your socks
or stockings, it is not
necessary to remove them
when you want to repeat the
performance of "Wudu". It is
enough to wipe over the
stockinged feet with wet
hands. This may be done for a
period of one day, (and three
days on journey) on the
condition that the socks or
stockings are never removed.

If they are removed, it is necessary to re-wash the feet for


Wudu. The process ends with the recitation of the Kalimatus-
Shahadah.

ASH-HADU ALLA ILAHA ILLALLAHU WA-ASH-HADU


AN-NA MUHAMMADAN 'ABDUHU-WA-RASULUH

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18.02.00
Ablution (Wudu')
What the Qur'an and Sunnah Say
[According to Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume I]

Ablution means to wash one's face, hands, arms, head and feet with water.

Volume 1, Page 25a: Part of Islamic law

This is proven from the three major sources of Islamic law:

-1- The Qur'an. Says Allah in the Qur'an, "O you who believe, when you rise for prayer,
wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows and lightly rub your heads and (wash)
your feet up to the ankles (al-Mai'dah 6).

-2- The Sunnah. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Allah does not
accept the prayer of one who nullified his ablution until he performs it again." (Related
by al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmizhi.)

-3- The Consensus. There is a consensus of scholarly opinion that ablution is part of
Islamic law. Therefore, it is a recognized fact of the religion.

Volume 1, Page 25b: Its virtues

Many hadith state the virtues of ablution. We shall mention just a few:

-1- 'Abdullah ibn as-Sunnabiji stated that the Messenger of Allah said, "When a slave
makes ablution and rinses his mouth, his wrong deeds fall from it. As he rinses his nose,
his wrong deeds fall from it. When he washes his face, his wrong deeds fall from it until
they fall from beneath his eyelashes. When he washes his hands, his wrong deeds fall
from them until they fall from beneath his fingernails. When he wipes his head, his
wrong deeds fall from it until they fall from his ears. When he washes his feet, his wrong
deeds fall from them until they fall from beneath his toenails. Then his walking to the
mosque and his prayer give him extra reward." (Related by Malik, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah
and al-Hakim.)

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-2- Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "If good characteristics exist in a
person, Allah makes all of his acts good. If a person purifies himself for prayer, he
expiates all of his sins and his prayer is considered an extra reward for him." (Related by
Abu Ya'la, al-Bazzar and at-Tabarani in al-Ausat.)

-3- Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "'Shall I inform you (of an
act) by which Allah erases sins and raises degrees?" They said, "Certainly, O Messenger
of Allah." He said, "Perfecting the ablution under difficult circumstances, taking many
steps to the mosque, and waiting for the (next) prayer after the (last) prayer has been
performed. That is ribat. (Related by Malik, Muslim, at-Tirmizhi and an-Nasa'i.)

-4- Abu Hurairah also reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, passed
by a grave site and said, "Peace be upon you, O home of believing people. Allah willing,
we shall meet you soon, although I wish I could see my brothers." They asked, "Are we
not your brothers, O Messenger of Allah?" He said, "You are my companions. My
brothers are the ones who will come after (us)." They said, "How will you know the
people of our nation who will come after you, O Messenger of Allah?" He said, "If a man
has a group of horses with white forelocks amidst a group of horses with black forelocks,
will he recognize his horses?" They said, "Certainly, O Messenger of Allah." He said,
"They (my brothers) will come with white streaks from their ablutions, and I will receive
them at my cistern. But there will be some who will be driven away from my cistern as a
stray camel is driven away. I will call them to come. It will be said, 'They changed
matters after you,' then I will say, 'Be off, be off."' (Related by Muslim.)

Volume 1, Page 27: The obligatory parts of the ablution

Ablution has certain components which, if not fulfilled according to the correct Islamic
procedures, make one's ablution void.

Volume 1, Page 27a: Intention

This is the desire to do the action and to please Allah by following His command. It is
purely an act of the heart, for the tongue (verbal pronouncement, and so on) has nothing
to do with it. To pronounce it is not part of the Islamic law. That the intention is
obligatory is shown in the following: 'Umar related that the Prophet, upon whom be
peace, said, "Every action is based on the intention (behind it), and everyone shall have
what he intended..." (Related by "the group.")

Volume 1, Page 27b: Washing the face

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This involves "pouring" or "running" water from the top of the forehead to the bottom of
the jaws, and from one ear to the other.

Volume 1, Page 27c: Washing the arms to the elbow

The elbows must be washed, for the Prophet, upon whom be peace, did so.

Volume 1, Page 27d: Wiping the head

This means to wipe one's head with his hand. It is not sufficient just to place the hand on
the head or to touch the head with a wet finger. The apparent meaning of the Qur'anic
words, "...and wipe over your heads..." does not imply that all of the head needs to be
wiped. It has been recorded that the Prophet used to wipe his head three different ways:

-1- Wiping all of his head. 'Abdullah ibn Zaid reported that the Prophet, upon whom be
peace, wiped his entire head with his hands. He started with the front of his head, then
moved to the back, and then returned his hands to the front. (Related by "the group.").

-2- Wiping over the turban only. Said 'Amru ibn Umayyah, "I saw the Messenger of
Allah, upon whom be peace, wipe over his turban and shoes." (Related by Ahmad, al-
Bukhari and Ibn Majah). Bilal reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said,
"Wipe over your shoes and head covering." (Related by Ahmad.) 'Umar once said, "May
Allah not purify the one who does not consider wiping over the turban to be purifying."
Many hadith have been related on this topic by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others. Most of
the scholars agree with them.

Wiping over the front portion of the scalp and the turban

Al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah said that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, made
ablution and wiped over the front portion of his scalp, his turban and his socks. (Related
by Muslim.) There is, however, no strong hadith that he wiped over part of his head, even
though al-Ma'idah: apparently implies it. It is also not sufficient just to wipe over locks of
hair that proceed from the head or along the sides of the head.

Volume 1, Page 28: Washing the feet and the heels

This has been confirmed in mutawatir (continuous) reports from the Prophet, upon whom
be peace, concerning his actions and statements. Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet lagged
behind us in one of our travels. He caught up with us after we had delayed the afternoon
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prayer. We started to make ablution and were wiping over our feet, when the Prophet
said, 'Woe to the heels, save them from the Hell-fire,' repeating it two or three times."
(Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

Needless to say, the preceding obligations are the ones that Allah has mentioned in (al-
Ma'idah 6).

Volume 1, Page 28a: Following the prescribed sequence

Allah mentioned the obligations in a specific order. He also differentiated the legs from
the hands--though both of them have to be washed--from the head, which only needs to
be wiped. The polytheists of Arabia would not differentiate items unless there was some
benefit in doing so. The way Allah structured the ablution made it easier for them to
comprehend it. Al-Ma'idah 6 explains what is obligatory and it falls under the generality
of the Prophet's statement, "Begin with what Allah began with." The Prophet used to
follow that sequence as one of ablution's principles. There is no such report that the
Prophet, upon whom be peace, ever departed from that sequence. Ablution is part of
worship, and in matters of worship there is no room for anything except doing what has
been commanded.

Volume 1, Page 28c:

This section deals with those acts connected with the ablution, but which are not
obligatory, as the Prophet, upon whom be peace, did not rigorously stick to them or
censure anyone for not doing them. They are as follows:

Volume 1, Page 29: Mentioning the name of Allah at the beginning

There are some weak hadith that mention this act, and all of the chains of these hadith
point to the fact that there is some basis for this act. In any case, it is a good act in and of
itself and, in general, it is part of the Islamic law.

Volume 1, Page 29a: Dental Hygiene

This involves using a stick or similar object to clean one's teeth. The best type to use is
that of the arak tree found in the Hejaz. Such a practice strengthens the gums, prevents
tooth disease, helps digestion and facilitates the flow of urine. This sunnah is fulfilled by
using any object which removes yellow stains on the teeth and cleans the mouth, such as
a toothbrush, and so on. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
said, "Were it not to be a hardship on my community, I would have ordered them to use a

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toothbrush for every ablution." (Related by Malik, ash-Shaf'i, al-Baihaqi and al-Hakim.)
'Aishah reported that the Prophet said, "The toothbrush purifies the mouth and is pleasing
to the Lord." (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmizhi.)

Using a toothbrush is liked at any time, but there are five times in which it is especially
liked:

-1- ablution,

-2- prayer,

-3- reading the Qur'an,

-4- rising from sleep, and

-5- when the taste in one's mouth has changed. Fasting and non-fasting people may use it
at the beginning, the end, or at any other time during the day. 'Amr ibn Rabi'ah said, "I
have seen the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, on countless occasions using a
toothbrush while fasting." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmizhi.)

When one uses a toothbrush, it is sunnah to clean it afterwards. Said 'Aishah, "When the
Prophet, upon whom be peace, used his toothbrush, he would give it to me. I would wash
it, use it, wash it again and give it back to him." (Related by Abu Dawud and alBaihaqi.)

It is part of the sunnah that one who has no teeth may use his fingers to clean his mouth.
Asked 'Aishah, "O Messenger of Allah, how should a toothless person cleanse his
mouth?" "By putting his fingers into his mouth," he replied. (Related by at-Tabarani.)

Volume 1, Page 30: Washing the hands three times at the beginning

This is based on the hadith of Aus ibn Aus al-Thaqafi who said, "I saw the Messenager of
Allah make ablution, and he washed his hands three times." (Related by Ahmad and an-
Nasa'i.) Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "When one
of you rises from his sleep, he should not put his hand into a pot until he has washed it
three times, for he does not know where his hand was (while he slept)." (Related by "the
group", al-Bukhari did not mention the number of times.)

Volume 1, Page 30a: Rinsing the mouth three times

Laqit ibn Sabrah reported that the Prophet said, "When one performs ablution, he should
rinse his mouth." (Related by Abu Dawud and al-Baihaqi.)

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Volume 1, Page 30b: Sniffing up and blowing out water three times

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "When one of you
performs ablution, he should sniff water up his nostrils and then blow it out." (Related by
al-Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawud.)

The sunnah is to put the water into the nostrils with the right hand and blow it out with
the left. 'Ali once called for water for ablution, rinsed his mouth, sniffed up water into his
nostrils and blew it out with his left hand. He did that three times and then said, "That is
how the Prpohet, upon whom be peace, would purify himself." (Related by Ahmad and
an-Nasa'i.)

This sunnah is fulfilled by putting water into the mouth and nostrils in any way. The
practice of the Prophet was to do both acts at the same time. 'Abdullah ibn Zaid said,
"The Prophet would rinse his mouth and nose with just one hand (at one time, together).
He did that three times." In one narration it says, "He would rinse his mouth and nose
with three scoops of water." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) It is also sunnah to be
plentiful (with water) while performing this sunnah, except if one is fasting. Laqit asked
the Prophet, "Inform me about your ablution." He replied, "Complete and perfect the
ablution and (put water) between your fingers. Use lots of water while sniffing it up your
nostrils, unless you are fasting." (Related by "the five." At-Tirmizhi said it is sahih.)

Volume 1, Page 31: Running one's fingers through his beard

'Aishah reported that the Messenger of Allah would run his fingers through his beard.
(Related by Ibn Majah and at-Tirmizhi, who classified it as sahih . )

Anas said that when the Messenger of Allah performed ablution, he would take a handful
of water and put it under his jaws and pass it through his beard. He said, "This is what my
Lord, Allah, ordered me to do." (Related by Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi and al-Hakim.)

Volume 1, Page 31a: Running water through one's fingers and toes

Ibn 'Abbas said that when the Messenger of Allah performed ablution, he would run his
fingers through his fingers and toes. (Related by "the five," except Ahmad.) It is also
related that it is preferable to remove jewelry, for example, rings, bracelets, and so on,
while performing ablution. Even though these reports are not accepted as fully authentic,
one must follow them, for they fall under the general category of completing and
perfecting the ablution.

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Volume 1, Page 31b: Repeating each washing three times

This is a sunnah that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, almost always followed. If he
acted otherwise, it was just to show that the other acts are permissible. 'Amr ibn Shu'aib
related on the authority of his father from his grandfather who said: "A bedouin came to
the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and asked him about the ablution. He
showed him how to wash each part three times and said, 'This is the ablution. Whoever
does more than that has done wrong, transgressed and committed evil." (Related by
Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) 'Uthman also reported that the Messenger of Allah
would repeat each washing three times. (Related by Ahmad, Muslim and at-Tirmizhi.) It
is also proven that he performed each washing only once or twice. According to most of
the reports, he wiped his head only once.

Volume 1, Page 31c: Beginning each action with the right side

Said 'Aishah, "The Messenger of Allah loved to begin with his right side while putting on
his shoes, straightening his hair and cleaning (or purifying) himself." (Related by al-
Bukhari and Musilm.) Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said, "When you clothe or
wash yourself, begin with your right side." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi,
and an-Nasa'i.)

Volume 1, Page 32: Rubbing the limbs with water

This means to rub the hands over the bodily parts with water. 'Abdullah ibn Zaid reported
that the Messenger of Allah was brought a pot of water which he used to perform
ablution, and then rubbed his arms. (Related by Ibn Khuzaimah.) He also related that the
Messenger of Allah performed ablution, then rubbed his limbs. (Related by Abu Dawud
at-Tayalisi, Ahmad, Ibn Hibban and Abu Ya'la.)

Volume 1, Page 32a: Close sequence

Each bodily part must be washed right after the other in the prescribed sequence (without
separating the washing of the different parts of acts not related to the abution). This is the
customary practice of the early and later generations of Muslims.

Volume 1, Page 32b: Wiping the ears

The sunnah is to wipe the interior of the ears with the index fingers and the exterior
portions with the thumbs. The water used to wipe the head is also used for the ears, as the
ears are part of the head. Al-Miqdam ibn Ma'd Yakrih reported that the Prophet, upon

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whom be peace, wiped his head and his ears, the interior and exterior, while making
ablution. He also put his finger inside his ear. (Related by Abu Dawud and at-Tahawi.)

While describing the ablution of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, Ibn 'Umar said, "He
wiped his head and ears with one wipe." (Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud.) In one
narration it states, "He wiped the inner portion of his ears with his index finger, and the
outer portion with his thumb."

Volume 1, Page 32c: Elongating the streaks of light

This refers to washing the complete forehead, a practice which is more than what is
obligatory in washing the face, and will increase the streak of light (on the Day of
Judgement). It also refers to washing above the elbows and ankles. Abu Hurairah
reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "My nation will come with bright streaks of
light from the traces of ablution." Abu Hurairah then said, "If one can lengthen his streak
of light, he should do so." (Related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Muslim.) Abu Zar'ah
related that when Abu Hurairah made ablution, he washed his arms above his elbows and
his feet up to his calves. He was asked, "Why do you do this?" He said, "This is the
extent of the embellishment." (Related by Ahmad. ) According to al-Bukhari and
Muslim, its chain is sahih.

Volume 1, Page 32d: Economizing the use of water, even if one is in front of the sea

Anas said, "The Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to perform ghusl (the complete
bathing) with a sa'a of water (1.616 cm) 3 to 5 madd (each 4 madd equals one sa'a). He
also used to make ablution with one madd (404 cm) of water." (Related by al-Bukhari
and Musim.) 'Ubaidullah ibn Abu Yazid narrated that a man asked Ibn 'Abbas, "How
much water is sufficient for ghusl?" He answered, "One madd." "And how much is
sufficient for ghusl?" He said, "One sa'a." The man said, "That is not sufficient for me."
"Ibn 'Abbas said, "No? It was sufficient for one better than you, the Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace." (Related by Ahmad, al-Bazaar and at-Tabarani in al-Kabeer. Its
narrators are trustworthy.) 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar narrated that the Messenger of Allah
passed by Sa'd while he was performing ablution and said, "What is this extravagance,
Sa'd?" He said, "Is there extravagance in the use of water?" He said, "Yes, even if you are
at a flowing river." (Related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah with a weak chain.)

Extravagance is to use water without any benefit, like washing the parts more than three
times. Ibn Shu'aib's hadith, quoted earlier, illustrates the point in question. 'Abdullah ibn
Mughaffal narrated that he heard the Prophet say, "There will be people from my nation

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who will transgress in making supplications and in purifying themselves." (Related by


Ahmad, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i.)

Says al-Bukhari, "The scholars do not like one to use water beyond what the Prophet,
upon whom be peace, used for ablution.

Volume 1, Page 33: Supplication while performing ablution

There is nothing confirmed from the Prophet, upon whom be peace, regarding
supplications during ablution save the hadith of Abu Musa al-Ash'ari who said, "I came
to the Messenger of Allah with water. While he was performing ablution, I heard him
supplicate, 'O Allah, forgive my sins. Make my residence spacious for me and bless me
in my provisions.' I said, 'O Prophet of Allah, I heard you supplicating such and such.' He
said, 'Did I leave anything out?" (Related by an-Nasa'i and Ibn as-Sunni with a sahih
chain.) An-Nawawi includes this event under the chapter, What is to be said after one
completes the ablution, and Ibn as-Sunni has it under, What is to be said when one is in
the state of ablution.

An-Nawawi holds that both meanings may be implied from the hadith.

Volume 1, Page 34: Supplication after ablution

'Umar reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "If one completes (and
perfects) the ablution and then says, 'I testify that there is no god except Allah, the One
Who has no partner, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger," the eight gates of
paradise will be opened for him and he may enter any of them that he wishes." (Related
by Muslim.)

Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri reported that the Prophet said, "Whoever makes ablution and says,
'Glory be to Thee, O Allah, and the praise be to Thee. I bear witness that there is no god
except You. I beg Your forgiveness and I repent unto you,' will have it written for him,
and placed on a tablet which will not be broken until the Day of Resurrection. This hadith
is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat. Its narrators are of the sahih. An-Nasa'i has it with
the wording. "It will be stamped with a seal, placed below the throne, and it will not be
broken until the Day of Resurrection." The correct statement is that it is mauqoof.

As for the supplication, "Allah, cause me to be from among the repentant, and cause me
to be from among the pure," it has been narrated by at-Tirmizhi who said, "Its chain is
muzhtarib and there is nothing authentic concerning this (supplication)."
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Volume 1, Page 34a: Praying two rak'ah after ablution

Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said to Bilal,
"O Bilal, tell me what good deed you have done in Islam that I hear the sound of your
footsteps in Paradise?" Bilal said, "That after I purify myself during the day or night, I
pray with that purification as much as Allah has destined for me." (Related by al-Bukhari
and Muslim.) 'Uqbah ibn 'Aamr related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be
peace, said, "If one performs and perfects his ablution and prays two rak'ah with his heart
and face (completely on his prayer), Paradise becomes his." (Related by Muslim, Abu
Dawud, Ibn Majah and Ibn Khuzaimah in his Sahih.) Khumran, the client of 'Uthman,
added, "I saw 'Uthman call for water for ablution, pour it from the pot onto his right hand
and wash it three times. He then put his right hand into the container, rinsed his mouth
and nose and blew the water out. Then he washed his face three times, followed by his
arms up to the elbows. Then he washed his feet three times and said 'I saw the Messenger
of Allah, upon whom be peace, make ablution like this.' And then he would say,
'Whoever makes ablution like this and then prays two rak'ah without having any other
concern on his mind, all his past sins will be forgiven." (Related by al-Bukhari, Muslim
and others.)

Other practices (protecting the eyes and wrinkles, removing any rings, wiping the neck,
and so on) have not been mentioned here as their narrations are still questionable. But,
one may follow them as part of general cleanliness.

Volume 1, Page 35: Nullification of ablution

It is not desirable that one who is making ablution should leave any of the sunan that
have just been mentioned. The person would then lose the great reward of these
(simple)acts. Anytime one abandons the sunnah, he has done a disliked deed.

Volume 1, Page 35a: An excretion of the penis, vagina or anus

This would include urine, feces (Allah says, "...or one of you comes from relieving
himself," thus proving that such an act obligates a new purification), and releasing gas
from the anus. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Allah does not
accept the prayer of a person who has released gas until he makes a new ablution. A
person from Hazhramaut asked Abu Hurairah, "What does releasing gas mean?" He
answered, "Wind with or without sound." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.) He also
narrated that the Prophet said, "If one of you finds a disturbance in his abdomen and is
not certain if he has released any gas or not, he should not leave the mosque unless he
hears its sound or smells its scent." (Related by Muslim.)

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Hearing the escaping gas or smelling it is not a condition for nullifying ablution, but he
stressed that one should be certain of the action. As for al-Mazhi (prostatic fluid), the
Prophet said, "Make ablution." Concerning sperm or al-mani, said Ibn 'Abbas "It requires
ghusl and for al-mazhi and al-wadi, wash your sex organs and make ablution." This was
related by al-Baihaqi in his Sunan.

Volume 1, Page 35b: Deep sleep that makes a person completely unaware of his
surroundings

If the person did not keep his bottocks firmly seated on the floor while sleeping, he must
make a new ablution. Safwan ibn 'Asal said, "The Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to
order us while we were travelling not to take our socks off unless we were in post-sex
impurity (i.e. not for defecation, urination or sleep)." (Related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i and
at-Tirmizhi, who graded it sahih.) If one's buttocks has remained firmly on the floor
during his sleep, no new ablution is necessary. This is implied by the hadith of Anas who
said, "The companions of the Prophet were waiting for the delayed night prayer until
their heads began nodding up and down (from drowsiness and sleep). They would then
pray without performing ablution." (Related by ash-Shaifi, Muslim, Abu Dawud and at-
Tirmizhi.) The wording that at-Tirmizhi recorded from the chain of Shu'bah is, "I have
seen the companions of the Prophet sleeping to the extent that one could hear some of
them snoring. But, they would stand for prayer without a new ablution." Said Ibn
alMubarak, "In our opinion, this happened when they were sitting."

Volume 1, Page 36: Loss of consciousness

This nullifies the ablution regardless of whether it was owing to insanity, fainting,
drunkenness, or some medicine. It also does not matter if one was unconscious for a short
or long period of time, or if one was sitting, or fell to the earth, and so on. The aspect of
unawareness here is greater than that of sleeping. The scholars are agreed on this point.

Volume 1, Page 36a: Touching the sexual organ without any "barrier" between the
hand and the organ

Busrah bint Safwan narrated that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Whoever
touches his sexual organ cannot pray until he performs ablution."

This hadith is related by "the five." At-Tirmizhi classified it as sahih and al-Bukhari
called it the most authentic report on that topic. Malik, ash-Shaifi, Ahmad and others also
narrated it. Abu Dawud said, "I asked Ahmad, 'Is the hadith of Busrah authentic?' He
said, 'Certainly it is authentic." In the narration of Ahmad and an-Nasa'i, Busrah heard the

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Prophet saying, "Ablution is to be made by the one who touches his sexual organ." This
is general and encompasses touching one's own sexual organs or touching somebody
else's. Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet as saying, "Whoever touches his sexual organ
without any covering (between them) must perform ablution." (Related by Ahmad, Ibn
Hibban and al-Hakim, who classified it as sahih, as did Ibn 'Abdul-Barr.)

Said Ibn as-Sakin, "That hadith is from the best of what has been related on this topic."
Ash-Shaf'i related: "Any man who touches his penis must perform ablution. Any women
who touches her vagina must perform ablution." Commenting on its authenticity, Ibn
alQayyim quotes al-Hazimi who says, "That chain is sahih." The Hanifiyyah are of the
opinion, based on the following hadith, that touching the sexual organ does not nullify the
ablution: "A man asked the Prophet if a man who touches his penis has to perform
ablution. Said the Prophet, upon whom be peace, "No, it is just a part of you." (Related
by "the five." Ibn Hibban classified it as sahih, and Ibn al-Madini said, "It is better than
the hadith of Busrah.'')

Volume 1, Page 37: Touching a woman

'Aishah related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, kissed her while he
was fasting and said, "Kissing does not nullify the ablution, nor does it break the fast."
(Related by Ishaq ibn Rahawaih and al-Bazzar with a good chain.)

Evaluating its authenticity, 'Abdul-Haqq says, "I do not know of any defect in the hadith
that could cause its rejection."

'Aishah also said, "One night, I missed the Messenger of Allah in my bed, and so went to
look for him. I put my hand on the bottom of his feet while he was praying and saying, 'O
Allah, I seek refuge in Your pleasure from Your anger, in Your forgiveness from Your
punishment, in You from You. I cannot praise you as You have praised Yourself"
(related by Muslim and at-Tirmizhi, who classified it as sahih.), and she also reported,
'The Prophet kissed some of his wives and went to prayer, without performing ablution."
(Related by Ahmad and "the four,'' and its narrators are trustworthy.) She also said, "I
would sleep in front of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, with my feet in the direction of
the qiblah (to him). When he made prostrations, he would touch me, and I would move
my feet." In another narration it says, "When he wanted to prostrate, he would touch my
legs."

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Volume 1, Page 38: Bleeding from an unusual place

This involves bleeding due to a wound, cupping or a nosebleed, and regardless of


whether the amount of blood is small or large.

Said al-Hassan, "The Muslims still prayed even while wounded." (Related by al-
Bukhari.) He also reported, "Ibn 'Umar squeezed a pimple until it bled, but he did not
renew his ablution. Ibn Abi 'Uqiyy spat blood and continued his prayer. 'Umar ibn al-
Khattab prayed while blood was flowing from him. 'Ibbad ibn Bishr was hit with an
arrow while praying, but continued his prayers." (Related by Abu Dawud, Ibn
Khuzaimah, and al-Bukhari in mu 'allaq form.)

Volume 1, Page 38a: Vomit

Regardless of whether the amount of vomit was great or small, there is no sound hadith
that it nullifies ablution.

Volume 1, Page 38b: Eating camel meat

That this does not nullify the ablution was the opinion of the four rightly guided caliphs,
the companions and the following generation, although there is an authentic hadith that
states one should make ablution after it.

Said Jabir ibn Sumrah, "A man asked the Prophet, 'Should we make ablution after eating
mutton?' He said, 'If you wish, make ablution. If you do not, do not make ablution.' The
man asked 'Should we make ablution after eating camel meat?' He said, 'Yes."' Al-Barra'
ibn 'Aazib related that someone asked the Prophet about praying in the dens of camels,
and he said, "Do not pray therein, for they are of the devils." He asked about the dens of
sheep, and he said, "Pray therein, for they are blessings. (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud
and Ibn Hibban. ) Ibn Khuzaimah said, "I know of no dispute over the authenticity of this
report." In summation, an-Nawawi can be quoted as saying, "This opinion has the
strongest proof, although the majority of the scholars differ from it."

Volume 1, Page 39: Of doubts whether or not one has released gas

This is the case where the person cannot quite recall if he is in a state of purity or not.
Such a state of mind does not nullify ablution, regardless of whether the person is in
prayer or not, until he is certain that he has nullified his ablution. 'Abbad ibn Tameem
related that his uncle queried the Prophet about a person who feels something in his
abdomen while praying. Said the Prophet, "He should not leave (the prayer) until he

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hears it or smells it." (Related by Muslim, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmizhi). It does not mean
that its sound or bad smell nullifies ablution, but that the person must be certain about the
fact that he has nullified his ablution. Says Ibn al-Mubarak, "If one is uncertain about his
condition of purity, he does not need to perform a new ablution." If one is certain that he
has nullified his ablution and doubts whether he has purified himself or not, he must
perform a new ablution.

Volume 1, Page 39a: Laughing during prayer

This does not nullify ablution, for there are no confirmed reports that state such a thing.

Volume 1, Page 39b: Washing a dead person

This also does not require a new ablution, for the reports that say it nullifies ablution are
weak.

Volume 1, Page 39c: Any type of ritual prayer

This involves only obligatory, voluntary, or funeral prayers, not the supplications (du'a).
This is based on Allah's statement, "O you who believe. When you get up to perform a
prayer (salah) wash your face and your arms up to the elbows and wipe your head and
feet to the ankles." Also, the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "Allah does
not accept a prayer (that was performed while the person) was not in a state of purity. Nor
does he accept charity from misappropriated booty." (Related by "the group," except for
al-Bukhari.)

Volume 1, Page 40: Circumambulating the Ka'bah

Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Circumambulation is a type of
prayer, but Allah has permitted speaking during it. Whoever speaks during it should only
speak good."

This hadith is related by at-Tirmizhi, ad-Daraqutni, al-Hakim, Ibn as-Sakin and Ibn
Khuzaimah, who classified it as sahih.

Volume 1, Page 40a: Touching a copy of the Qur'an

Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad related from his father on the authority of his grandfather that
the Prophet, upon whom be peace, sent a letter to the people of Yemen which stated, "No
one is to touch the Qur'an except one who is purified."

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This hadith is related by an-Nasa'i, ad-Daraqutni, al-Baihaqi and al-Athram. Of its chain,
Ibn 'Abdul-Barr says, "It appears to be a continuous transmission." 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar
reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "No one is to touch the Qur'an
unless he has purified himself." (Al-Haithami mentioned it in Majma' az-Zawaid and said
its narrators are trustworthy.) Apparently, this hadith has a problem. The word "purify"
must have one particular meaning here. Therefore, to say that one who has a minor
defilement may not touch the Qur'an makes no sense. Concerning Allah's statement,
"...which none touches save the purified," (alWaqi'ah 79), apparently the pronoun refers
to "the Book kept hidden" (from the preceding verse) and that is "the well-preserved
tablet" and the "purified" refers to the angels, which is similar to the verses, "On honored
scrolls, exalted, purified, (set down) by scribes, noble and righteous" (Abasah 13-16). Ibn
'Abbas, ashSha'bi, azh-Zhahak, Zaid ibn 'Ali, al-Mu'aiyad Billah, Dawud, Ibn Hazm and
Hammad ibn Abu Sulaiman are of the opinion that one who has a minor defilement may
touch the Qur'an. Most of the scholars, however, agree that such people may recite the
Qur'an without touching it.

Volume 1, Page 40b: While mentioning the name of Allah

Al-Muhajir ibn Qunfuzh related that he greeted the Prophet, upon whom be peace, but
that the latter did not return his salutation until he had made ablution: "There is nothing
that prevented me from responding to you except that I do no like to mention the name of
Allah unless I am in a state of purity." Said Qatadah, "Because of this, al-Hassan hated to
recite the Qur'an or mention Allah's name unless he had performed ablution. (Related by
Amad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) Raeported Abu Juhaim ibn al-Harith,
"The Prophet, upon whom be peace, met a person at the well of Jaml, who greeted him,
but he did not return his greeting until he had wiped his face and hands." (Related by
Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and an-Nasa'i.) This action was one of
preference, not of obligation. Mentioning the name of Allah is permissible for the one
who is in a state of purity, one who has a minor impurity, a person in post-sex impurity,
or one who is standing, sitting, and so on. Said 'Aishah, "The Messenger of Allah used to
remember Allah at all times." (Related by "the five," except for an-Nasa'i.) Al-Bukhari
recorded it in mu'alliq form.) Reported 'Ali, "The Messenger of Allah would come from
relieving himself, recite to us and eat meat with us. Nothing would stop him from the
Qur'an except post-sex impurity." (Related by "the five." At-Tirmizhi and Ibn as-Sakin
categorized it as sahih.)

Volume 1, Page 41: Going to sleep

Al-Barra' ibn 'Aazib reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said,
"When you go to your bed, perform ablution, lie on your right side and then say, 'O

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Allah, I submit my soul to You, and I turn my face to You. I entrust my affairs to You. I
retreat unto You for protection with hope and fear in You. There is no resort and no
savior but You. I affirm my faith in Your books which You revealed and in Your
prophets you sent.' If you die during that night, you will be along the natural path. Make
it your final statement (of the night). He reported that he repeated this supplication to the
Prophet, upon whom be peace, and he said, "...and Your messengers." The Prophet
interjected, "No,...'and the prophets You sent." (Related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and at-
Tirmizhi.) This also applies to one who is in post-sex impurity . Ibn 'Umar asked the
Prophet, "O Messenger of Allah, can one of us sleep while he is in post-sex impurity?"
The Prophet answered, "Yes, if he makes ablution." Reported 'Aishah, "When the
Prophet, upon whom be peace, wanted to sleep in a state of post-sex impurity, he would
wash his private parts and perform ablution." (Related by "the group.")

Volume 1, Page 41a: To remove a sexual impurity

If a person in a state of post-sex impurity wants to eat, drink or have intercourse again, he
should perform ablution.

Said 'Aishah, "When the Prophet, upon whom be peace, was in a state of impurity
because of intercourse and wanted to eat or sleep, he would perform ablution." 'Ammar
ibn Yasar reported that the Prophet permitted a person in post-sex impurity to eat, drink
or sleep if he performed ablution first. (Related by Ahmad and at-Tirmizhi, who
classified it as sahih.)

Abu Sa'eed reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "If one has intercourse
with his wife and wants to repeat the act, he should perform ablution." (Related by "the
group," except for al-Bukhari. Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban and al-Hakim recorded it with
the addition, "It makes the return more vivacious.")

Volume 1, Page 42: Before performing ghusl

It is preferred to perform ablution before ghusl regardless of whether that particular ghusl
was an obligatory or a preferred act. Said 'Aishah, "When the Messenger of Allah, upon
whom be peace, performed post-sex ghusl, he would begin by washing his hands and
then pour water from his right hand to his left and wash his private parts. He would then
perform ablution.." (Related by "the group.")

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Volume 1, Page 42a: Before eating food touched by fire

Said Ibrahim ibn 'Abdullah ibn Qarizh, "I passed by Abu Hurairah while he was
performing ablution and he said, 'Do you know why I am making ablution? It is because I
ate some yoghurt dried over a fire, for I heard the Messenger of Allah say, 'Perform
ablution before eating food touched by fire." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim and "the four.")

'Aishah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Perform ablution from
whatever touches fire." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.) This
order is one of preference as the following hadith makes clear: 'Amr ibn Umayyah
azhZhamari said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, cutting a piece of
a sheep's shoulder and eating it. He was then called to prayer. He put the knife down,
prayed, and did not perform another ablution." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

Volume 1, Page 42b: Renewing the ablution for every prayer

Said Buraidah, "The Prophet, upon whom be peace, made ablution for every prayer. On
the day of the conquest of Makkah, he made ablution, wiped over his socks and prayed a
number of times with just one ablution. 'Umar said to him, 'O Messenger of Allah, you
did something that you have not done (before).' He answered, 'I did it on purpose,
'Umar."' (Related by Ahmad, Muslim and others.)

Said Anas ibn Malik, "The Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to make ablution for
every prayer." He was asked, "And what did you people use to do?" Malik said, "We
prayed the prayers with one ablution unless we nullified it." (Related by Ahmad and al-
Bukhari . )

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said, "Were it not to be a hardship on my people,
I would order them to make ablution for every prayer." (Related by Ahmad with a hassan
chain.)

Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Whoever makes
ablution while he is already in a state of purity will have ten good deeds written for
him."~ø (Related by Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and Ibn Majah.)

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Volume 1, Page 43: Notes of importance concerning ablution

It is permissible to speak while performing ablution. There is nothing reported from the
sunnah that prohibits it.

Making supplications while washing the extremities is based on false hadith. It is best for
the person to use only the supplications mentioned under the Sunnah Acts of Ablution.

If the person who is making ablution has a doubt concerning how many times he has
washed a particular part of the body, he should go by the number he is certain about.

If any barrier or substance with weight, such as wax, is found on the body, it would
invalidate one's ablution unless it is removed and the ablution is performed again.
Coloring, like henna, is permissible, as it does not affect the ablution's correctness.

People with unusual circumstances (i.e. women with "prolonged flows of blood"), people
who cannot control their urine, people with flatulence, and so on, should perform one
ablution for each prayer whether their problem exists all or part of the time. Their prayers
will be acceptable even while their problems are occuring.

One may be assisted by others in performing ablution.

One may use a towel to dry himself during any time of the year.

Volume 1, Page 44: Proof of its legitimacy

Wiping over the socks is part of the sunnah. An-Nawawi states, "All those who qualify
for ijma' (consensus) agree that it is allowed to wipe over the socks--during travelling or
at home, if needed or not--even a woman who stays at home or a handicapped person
who cannot walk can do so. The Shi'ah and Khawarij reject it, but their rejection is not
valid. Says Ibn Hajr in Fath al-Bari, "All of the preservers (of hadith) are of the opinion
that wiping over the socks has come through a continuous transmission. Some have
collected all of its narrations (from among the companions), and its number exceeds
eighty. This includes hadith from the ten pepole who were promised Paradise." The
strongest hadith on this point has been related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu
Dawud and at-Tirmizhi on the authority of Hammam anNakha'i who said, "Jarir ibn
'Abdullah urinated, performed ablution and wiped over his socks." It was said to him,
"You do that and you have urinated?" He said, "Yes, I saw the Messenger of Allah, upon
whom be peace, urinate and then do likewise." Said Ibrahim, "They were amazed at that
hadith, because Jarir had embraced Islam after surah al-Ma'idah was revealed (10 AH).
One of its verses calls for washing one's feet. This hadith helps us understand the verse
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by confining it to one who is not wearing socks. This constitutes a particular case, and the
person who wears socks can just wipe over them.

Volume 1, Page 44a: Wiping over slippers

It is allowed to wipe over slippers, as this has been related from many companions. Says
Abu Dawud, "Wiping over sandals (has been done by) 'Ali ibn Abu Talib, Ibn Mas'ud, al-
Barra' ibn 'Aazib, Anas ibn Malik, Abu Umamah, Sahl ibn Sa'd and 'Amr ibn Hareeth. It
has also been related from 'Umar ibn al-Khattab and Ibn 'Abbas." 'Ammar, Bilal ibn
'Abdullah ibn Abu Aufi and Ibn 'Umar also have hadith on this subejct. In Ibn alQayyim's
Tahzhib as-Sunan, he relates from Ibn al-Munzhir, "Ahmad made a statement about the
permissibility of wiping over slippers because of his fairness and justice. Nevertheless,
the basis of this permissibility is the practice of the companions and a manifest analogy.
There is no real difference between socks and slippers. It is correct that they take the
same ruling. Most scholars say that one can wipe over either one." Those who permit it
include Sufyan al-Thauri, Ibn al-Mubarak, 'Ata, al-Hasan and Sa'eed ibn alMusayyab.
Commenting on this subject, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad said, "It is allowed to wipe over
them if they are thick and completely hide what they cover."

Abu Hanifah did not approve of wiping over thick slippers, but he changed his mind three
or seven days before his death. He wiped over his slippers during his illness and said to
his visitors, "I did what I used to tell people not to do." Al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah reported
that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, made ablution and wiped over his
socks and slippers. This is related by Ahmad, at-Tahawi, Ibn Majah and at-Tirmizhi, who
called it hassan sahih. Abu Dawud graded it weak.2

As it is permissible to wipe over socks so is it permissible to wipe over any foot covering,
which has been used to avoid the cold or protect the wound, and so on. Of its
permissibility, Ibn Taimiyyah says, "It is all right to wipe over foot covering because it
takes precedence over wiping socks or slippers, for usually a foot covering is used for
some need and to protect the feet from some harm. If wiping over the socks and slippers
is allowed, then wiping over any foot covering should come first. Whoever claims that
there is a consensus on the inadmissibility of wiping over foot coverings does so with a
lack of knowledge. Not to speak of a consensus, he cannot prove its forbiddance even
from the works of ten famous scholars." He goes on to say, "Whoever ponders over the
words of the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, and gives analogy its proper
place, will know that the license from him was spacious on this subject and in accord
with the beauty of Islamic law and the monotheistic magnanimity with which the Prophet
had been sent." Even if there are some holes or cuts in the socks, it is permissible to wipe
over them, as long as the person has only such socks to wear. Says al-Thauri, "The

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slippers of the emigrants and helpers were not free of cuts or holes, like the slippers of the
people (in general). If this were a matter of concern, it would have been mentioned and
related by them."

Volume 1, Page 45: Conditions for wiping over the socks

One must have put his socks (or whatever covering he is using) while in a state of purity.

Said al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah, "I was with the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
one night during an expedition. I poured water for him to make ablution. He washed his
face and arms and wiped his head. Then I went to remove his socks and he said, 'Leave
them on, as I put them on while I was in a state of purity,' and he just wiped over them."
(Related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari and Muslim).

Al-Humaidi related in his Musnad that al-Mughirah reported, "We said, 'O Messenger of
Allah, may we wipe over our socks?' He said, 'Yes, if you put them on while you were in
a state of purity." The stipulations by the jurists that the socks must completely cover the
foot to the ankle, and that one must be able to walk (a distance) in them alone, has been
shown by Ibn Taimiyyah in his al-Fatawa to be weak.

Volume 1, Page 46: The place to be wiped on a sock

Islamic law prescribes that the top of the sock is to be wiped.

Said al-Mughirah, "I saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, wipe over the
top of his socks." (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmizhi, who called it
hassan.) 'Ali observed, "If the religion was based on opinion, the bottom of the sock
would take preference in being wiped to the top of the sock." (Related by Abu Dawud
and ad-Daraqutni with a hassan or sahih chain.) What is obligatory in the wiping is what
is meant by the lexicographical meaning of the word "wipe." There are no specifications
authentically mentioned with respect to the wiping.

Volume 1, Page 46a: The duration of the wiping

For the resident, this period is one day and night. For the traveller, it is three days and
nights. Said Safwan ibn 'Assal, "We were ordered (by the Prophet) to wipe over the socks
if we were in a state of purity when we put them on, for three days if we were travellers,
and for one day and night if we were residents. We did not remove them unless we were
in post-sex impurity." (Related by ash-Shaf~i, Ahmad, Ibn Khuzaimah, at-Tirmizhi, and
an-Nasa'i, who graded it sahih.)

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Shuraih ibn Hani said, "I asked 'Aishah about wiping over socks and she answered, 'For
the traveller, three days and three nights; for the resident, one day and night." This hadith
is related by Ahmad, Muslim, at-Tirmizhi, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah. Of its authenticity,
al-Baihaqi says, "This is the most authentic report on this topic." Some say that the
duration begins with the time of the wiping, while others say it begins from the time of
nullifying the ablution after wearing the socks.

Volume 1, Page 46b: The description of the wiping

After the person completes his ablution and puts on his socks or slippers, it is proper for
him to wipe over them later on when he wants to perform ablution. He is permitted to do
that for one day and night if he is resident, and for three days and nights if he is a
traveller. But if he is in post-sex impurity, he must remove his socks, in accordance with
the preceding hadith of Safwan.

Volume 1, Page 47: What invalidates the wiping

The following invalidates the wiping:

-1- The end of the permissible time period for wiping.

-2- Post-sex impurity.

-3- Removal of the socks. If (i) or (iii) occurs while the person was in a state of purity, he
need only wash his feet.

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18.03.00
Matters which Invalidate the Wudhu
The person will remain in a state of Wudhu until any of the following matters is
committed:

(1) Anything coming out of the Anus or penis/vagina such as urine, feaces or gas etc.

(2) A person falling sound Sleep

(3) Becoming Unconscious - insanity or fainting or intoxication

(4) Touching the Uncovered Private Parts

(5) Touching a Woman which leads to prostatic fluid or semen being emitted. A man
can touch, kiss and hug his wife and his wudhu will still be valid. It will only break
if these actions lead to the emmision of prostatic fluid or semen.

18.04.00
Wudu: What Invalidates It
If any of the following happen, you must perform wudu again before doing salah. It is
recommended (but not mandatory) to always be in a state of wudu, so it is not necessary
to wait until hearing the adhan (call to Salah) before performing wudu.

1. Relieving oneself from the call of nature

O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salât (the prayer), wash your
faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over)
your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janâba (i.e.
had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill
or on a journey or any of you comes from answering the call of nature, or you have
been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then
perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands.
Allâh does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to
complete His Favour on you that you may be thankful. [The Noble Qur'an 5:6]

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2. Passing gas, i.e. breaking wind

Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said,


"Allah does not accept the prayer of a person who has released gas until he makes
a new ablution." A person from Hadhramaut asked Abu Hurairah, "What does
releasing gas mean?" He answered, "Wind with or without sound." [Related by al-
Bukhari and Muslim.]

Abu Hurairah also narrated that the Prophet said, "If one of
you finds a disturbance in his abdomen and is not certain if he has released any gas
or not, he should not leave the mosque unless he hears its sound or smells its
scent." [Related by Muslim.]

'Abbad ibn Tameem related that his uncle queried the Prophet
about a person who feels something in his abdomen while praying.
Said the Prophet , "He should not leave (the prayer) until he hears it
or smells it." [Related by Muslim, Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi.]

3. Sexual Relations

One must perform ghusl after sexual relations, i.e. when the male private part
enters the female private part.

4. Touching one's private parts with no barrier (i.e. cloth) between the hand and
organ

Busrah bint Safwan narrated that the Prophet said, "Whoever


touches his sexual organ cannot pray until he performs ablution." [This hadith is
related by "the five." At-Tirmidhi classified it as sahih and al-Bukhari called it the
most authentic report on that topic. Malik, ash-Shaifi, Ahmad and others also
narrated it.]

In the event that you forget whether you have done wudu or not, err on the side of not re-
performing wudu.... i.e. do not perform wudu again unless you are sure that you
broke/invalidated it.

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Make wudu again if you experience anger.


AbuWa'il al-Qass said: We entered upon Urwah ibn Muhammad ibn as-Sa'di. A man
spoke to him and made him angry. So he stood and performed ablution; he then returned
and performed ablution, and said: My father told me on the authority of my grandfather
Atiyyah who reported the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) as saying: Anger comes
from the devil, the devil was created of fire, and fire is extinguished only with water; so
when one of you becomes angry, he should perform ablution.[Hadith - Dawud, Narrated
Atiyyah as-Sa'di]

18.05.00
Wudu: What Doesn't Invalidate It
1. Drinking or Eating

The Messenger of Allah drank some milk and he did not rinse his
mouth nor did he perform ablution, and he offered the prayer. [Dawud, Narrated
Anas ibn Malik]

2. Kissing a mahram woman (such as your wife)

'Aishah related that the Messenger of Allah kissed her


while he was fasting and said, "Kissing does not nullify the ablution, nor does it
break the fast." [Related by Ishaq ibn Rahawaih and al-Bazzar with a good chain.
Evaluating its authenticity, 'Abdul-Haqq says, "I do not know of any defect in the
hadith that could cause its rejection."]

3. Laughing
Laughing does not invalidate wudu. Laughing loudly during salah, however, does
invalidate the salah.
4. Vomiting
5. Changing a baby's diaper
o Just wash your hands after changing the diaper.
6. People with unusual circumstances (i.e. women with "prolonged flows of
blood"), people who cannot control their urine, people with flatulence, and so on,
should perform one ablution for each prayer whether their problem exists all or
part of the time. Their prayers will be acceptable even while their problems are
occuring. and 7. Talking During Wudu

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19.00.00
At-Tayammum
In circumstances were water cannot be found, or there is only just enough for
drinking, or if water is injurious to health, in such circumstances one can
perform Tayammum (dry ablution ).

Allah saysin the Noble Qur'an:

ْ‫جففوَهُكْم َوَأْي فِدَيُكم‬ ُ ‫سُلوا ُو‬ ِ‫غ‬ْ ‫لِة َفا‬َ‫ص‬ ّ ‫ن َآَمُنوا ِإَذا ُقْمُتْم ِإَلى ال‬ َ ‫َيا َأّيَها اّلِذي‬
‫ن ُكْنُت فْم‬ْ ‫ن َوِإ‬ِ ‫جَلُكْم ِإَلففى اْلَكْعَبْي ف‬
ُ ‫سُكْم َوَأْر‬ ِ ‫حوا ِبُرُءو‬ ُ‫س‬ َ ‫ق َواْم‬ِ ‫ِإَلى اْلمََراِف‬
‫حفٌد ِمْنُكفْم‬ َ ‫جففاَء َأ‬َ ‫سفَفٍر َأْو‬ َ ‫عَلففى‬ َ ‫ضى َأْو‬ َ ‫ن ُكْنُتْم َمْر‬ ْ ‫طّهُروا َوِإ‬ ّ ‫جُنًبا َفا‬ُ
‫صفِعيًدا طَّيًبففا‬َ ‫جُدوا َمففاًء َفَتَيّمُمففوا‬ ِ ‫ساَء َفَلْم َت‬ َ ‫سُتُم الّن‬
ْ ‫لَم‬ َ ‫ط َأْو‬ِ ‫ن اْلَغاِئ‬َ ‫ِم‬
ْ ‫ل عََلْيُكفْم ِمف‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫جَعف‬ ْ ‫لف ِلَي‬
ُّ ‫جوِهُكْم َوَأْيفِديُكْم ِمْنفُه َمففا ُيِريفُد ا‬ ُ ‫حوا ِبُو‬ ُ‫س‬ َ ‫َفاْم‬
﴾5:6﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫شُكُرو‬ ْ ‫عَلْيُكْم َلَعّلُكْم َت‬
َ ‫طّهَرُكْم َوِلُيِتّم ِنْعَمَتُه‬َ ‫ن ُيِريُد ِلُي‬ْ ‫ج َوَلِك‬ٍ ‫حَر‬ َ
[6] O Believers, when you rise to offer the Salat, you must wash your faces and hands
and arms up to the elbows and wipe your heads with wet hands and wash your feet up to
the ankles;24 and if you have become unclean, cleanse yourselves with a full bath;25 if,
however, you are sick or are on a journey, or if any of you has relieved himself or if you
have "touched" women and you can find no water, then cleanse yourselves with pure
dust: strike your palms on it and wipe your hands and faces with it. 26 Allah does not will
to make life hard for you, but He wills to purify you and complete His blessing upon
you27 so that you may show gratitude.[Surah Al-Ma'idah, 5:6]

24According to the practice and instructions of the Holy Prophet, washing of the face
includes the inside washing and cleaning of the mouth, throat and nose. It is also
essential to wipe the ears from outside and inside as they form part of the head. The
hands should be cleansed first because the other parts are to he cleansed with them.

25A full bath is essential in case one becomes "unclean" by cohabitation or by a


discharge of semen during sleep etc. It is forbidden to touch the Qur'an or to offer the

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Prayer while one is "unclean". [For further details please refer to E.N.`s 67, 68, 69 of
An-Nisa, Towards Understanding the Qur'an:Sayyid Abul A'la Mawdudi].

26Please refer to E.N.'s 69 and 70 of An-Nisa.

27Cleanliness of the body is a blessing like the purity of the soul. The blessing of Allah
becomes complete only when one gets full guidance for the purity of both the body and
the soul.

‫حّتى َتْعَلُموا َمففا‬ َ ‫سَكاَرى‬ ُ ‫لَة َوَأْنُتْم‬


َ‫ص‬ ّ ‫ل َتْقَرُبوا ال‬ َ ‫ن َآَمُنوا‬ َ ‫َيا َأّيَها اّلِذي‬
‫ضففى‬ َ ‫ن ُكْنُتْم َمْر‬ ْ ‫سُلوا َوِإ‬ِ ‫حّتى َتْغَت‬ َ ‫ل‬ ٍ ‫سِبي‬َ ‫عاِبِري‬ َ ‫ل‬ ّ ‫جُنًبا ِإ‬
ُ ‫ل‬َ ‫ن َو‬ َ ‫َتُقوُلو‬
‫سفاَء َفَلفْم‬ َ ‫سفُتُم الّن‬ْ ‫لَم‬ َ ‫ط َأْو‬ِ ‫ن اْلَغفاِئ‬َ ‫حٌد ِمْنُكفْم ِمف‬
َ ‫جاَء َأ‬َ ‫سَفٍر َأْو‬َ ‫عَلى‬ َ ‫َأْو‬
َّ ‫ن ا‬
‫ل‬ ّ ‫جوِهُكْم َوَأْيِديُكْم ِإ‬ ُ ‫حوا ِبُو‬ ُ‫س‬ َ ‫طّيًبا َفاْم‬
َ ‫صِعيًدا‬َ ‫جُدوا َماًء َفَتَيّمُموا‬ ِ ‫َت‬
﴾4:43﴿ ‫را‬ ً ‫غُفو‬ َ ‫ن عَُفّوا‬ َ ‫َكا‬
O Believers, do not offer the Prayer while you are intoxicated,65 for Prayer should be
offered only when you know what you are saying.66 Likewise, do not offer the Prayer if
you are "unclean"67 until you take your bath, except when passing on the way:68 and if
you are sick or on a journey .or if any one of you has relieved himself or you have
touched69 women and can find no water, then cleanse yourselves with pure dust by
rubbing it on your face and hands;70 no doubt Allah is Lenient and Forgiving. [Surah An-
Nisa, 4:43]

65This is the second Commandment about drinking. The first Commandment (Al-
Baqarah: 219) was that drinking is an evil thing and Allah does not approve of it.
Accordingly some of the Muslims began to refrain from it from that time. The majority
of them, however, did not give it up and often offered the Prayer in a state of
intoxication and made blunders in their recitations. Probably, this second
Commandment came in the beginning of A.H. 4 and prohibited the offering of the
Prayer while one was drunk. As a result they changed the timings of their drinking so
as not to clash with the timings of the Prayers. Some time after this, the
Commandment about total prohibition as contained in Al-Ma'idah: 90-91 was sent
down.

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Incidentally, the word sukr (state of intoxication) as used in the Text also implies that this
Commandment prohibits not only drinkig but every kind of intoxicant. Moreover,
though every intoxicating thing is in itself unlawful, the offence of intoxication is
doubled and becomes more heinous, when the Prayer is offered in such a state.

66For the same reason, the Holy Prophet has instructed that when one feels sleepy, and
doses again and again during the Prayer, one should give up his Prayer and go to sleep.

Some people from this verse argue that the Prayer of the one who does not know the
meaning of its Arabic Text, is no Prayer at all. But apart from the fact that it is an
unnecessary hardship, the Arabic words of the Qur'an do not support this version. The
Qur'an does not say, "unless you understand its meaning" or "unless you understand
what you are saying" but it says "unless you know what you are saying". That is, one
should be in his senses to know what he is uttering with his tongue lest he should
recite, say, a poem, instead of the text of the Prayer.

67The Arabic word janabat literally means being far off and stranger, and the word ajnabi
(stranger) is derived from the same root. As an Islamic term it refers to that state of
uncleanliness and impurity that is caused by the emission of seed by sexual intercourse
or in sleep because this makes a person stranger to cleanliness.

68A section of the jurists and commentators,such as 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, Anas bin
Malik, Hasan Basri and Ibrahim Nakha'i and others deduce from the words, "when
passing on the way," that one should not enter a mosque in a state of "uncleanliness"
except when one has to pass through it for some urgent piece of business. Another
section of them, such as Hadrat 'Ali, Ibn 'Abbas, Said bin Jubair and some others
conclude from this that if one becomes "unclean" when on a journey, one may cleanse
oneself by wiping one's face and hands with pure dust, if water is not available. As
regards entering a mosque in such a state of "uncleanliness", the latter section is of the
opinion that one may sit in the mosque after performing his ablutions ( wudu). But
there is almost a consensus of opinion that if one becomes "unclean" on a journey and
water is not available for a bath, one may cleanse oneself with pure dust and offer the
Prayer. However, the former section derives this opinion from the Traditions and the
latter bases this concession on this part of verse 43.

69There is a difference of opinion as to implication of "if you have touched women."


Hadrat 'Ali, Ibn 'Abbas, Abu Mesa Ash'ari, Ubaiyy Ibn Ka`b, Said bin Jubair, Hasan
Basri and several other jurists are of the opinion that here "have touched" means "have
had sexual intercourse". Imam Abu Hanifah and those of his way of thinking and
Imam Sufyan Thauri have adopted the same interpretation. On the contrary, Hadrat

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`Abdullah bin Mas`ud and 'Abdullah bin 'Umar and (according to some traditions)
Hadrat `Umar also are of the opinion that the word "touched" actually means "touching
with the hand" and Imam Shafi`i has adopted this version. Some jurists, such as Imam
Malik, have adopted a middle course and expressed the opinion that if the touch
between a man and a woman is of sexual nature, they shall have to make fresh
ablutions for the Prayer but if. their bodies touch each others without any feeling of
sensuality, there is nothing wrong in this.

70If one has to perform ablutions or take a bath before offering one's Salat and water is
not available, one is allowed to resort to tayammum; or, if one is sick and there is a
danger that the disease would worsen if one performs ablutions or takes a bath, one is
allowed to resort to tayammum even if water is available.

Literally tayammum means "to turn to"; that is, one should turn to pure dust when water
is not available, or if its use is harmful. There is a difference of opinion concerning the
method of performing tayammum. The majority of the jurists, such as Imam Abu
Hanifah, Imam Shafi`i and Imam Malik, prescribe that one should strike one's hands
on pure dust and wipe one's face with them; then one should again strike one's hands
and wipe one's hands up to the elbows with them. This method has been prescribed by
some Companions of the Holy Prophet and their followers such as Hadrat `Ali,
`Abdullah bin `Umar, Hasan Basri, Sha'bi and Salim bin `Abdullah and others. But
some jurists such as `Ata', Mak-hul, Auza`i and Ahmad bin Hanbal consider it enough
to strike one's hands only once on pure dust and wipe the face and the hands up to the
wrists and not up to the elbows. The Ahl-i-Hadith, in general, follow this method.

For the performance of tayammum, it is not essential only to strike one's hands on pure
earth: any dusty thing or dry piece of earth suffices for this purpose. Some people
object to this method of cleansing; they say, "How can one be cleansed by striking
one's hands on dust and wiping the face and hands up to the elbows with these? Let
them look upon this method from the psychological point of view. Tayammum helps
keep alive the feelings of cleansing oneself and of the sanctity of the Prayer, even if
one is not able to use water for a long time. Thus, a Muslim will always keep in view
the rules of purity and cleanliness prescribed by the Islamic Code and will
scrupulously be mindful of his state of cleanliness and purity for the observance of the
Prayer. [Towards Understanding the Qur'an: Sayyid abul a'la Mawdudi]

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19.01.00
Instances when
At-Tayammum is Permitted
At-Tayammum is permitted only on specific instances as follows:

1. Where the person cannot find water or the amount of water is not sufficientfor
Wudhu. However, before performing AT-Tayammum, the person is required
tolook for water earnestly from any possible source.
2. When a person is injured or ill and believes that the use of water willworsen his/her
condition, then, At-Tayammum is allowed.
3. When water is too cold such that it may harm the person, AT-Tayammum is
allowed if the user cannot find means of heating the water.
4. When water is nearby, but the person is not able to fetch it due to fear forhis/her
life, family and wealth, (e.g. from an enemy either beast or human inthe vicinity)
then, At-Tayammum may be performed.
5. When there is not enough water and one is forced to save what is availablefor
drinking and/or cooking, then, At-Tayammum is allowed.

The Earth (Soil) to be used for At-Tayammaum

This should be pure earth or soil and canbe sand, stone or gypsum which produce dust
when hit with the hands.

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19.02.00
How to Perform At-Tayammum
Tayammum (Dry Wudu):

When absolutely no water is available, you should perform Tayammum (dry wudu)...

Hadith - Bukhari 1:331, Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah

The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to
perform Tayammum, therefore anyone of my followers can pray wherever the time of a
prayer is due.

The Noble Qur'ansays:

‫س شُلوا‬ َ ‫ذين آ‬ َ ‫يا أ‬


ِ ْ ‫ص شَلةِ َفاغ‬ ّ ‫ال‬ ‫شى‬ ‫ش‬ َ ‫ل‬ ‫إ‬
ِ ْ ْ‫م‬ ُ ‫ت‬‫م‬ ُ ‫ق‬ َ
‫ذا‬ ِ ‫إ‬ ‫نوا‬ ُ ‫م‬
َ َ ِ ّ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ها‬َ ّ ‫ي‬ َ
‫حوا‬ ‫سششش‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫فششش‬ ‫را‬ ‫م‬ ْ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫لشششى‬ َ ‫إ‬ ‫م‬ ُ ‫ك‬ ‫ي‬ ‫د‬ ‫يششش‬ َ ‫وجشششوهَك ُم وأ‬
ُ َ ْ َ ِ ِ َ َ ِ ْ َِ ْ َ ْ ُ ُ
‫جن ُب ًششا‬ ُ َ ْ َ ُ َ َ ‫برُءوسك ُم وأ‬
ُ ‫م‬ ْ ‫ش‬ ُ ‫ت‬ ْ ‫ن‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ن‬
ْ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬
َِ ِ ‫ن‬ ‫ش‬ْ ‫ي‬َ ‫ب‬ ْ ‫ع‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫شى‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ل‬ ‫إ‬
ِ ْ ‫م‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ج‬
ُ ‫ر‬ ْ َ ْ ِ ُِ
‫جششاَء‬ َ َ ‫َفاط ّهروا وإن ك ُنتم مرضششى أ َو ع َل َششى س ش‬
َ ْ ‫فر ٍ أ و‬ َ ْ َ ْ َ ْ ُْ ْ َِ ُ ّ
‫م‬ ‫ش‬ َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ف‬ َ ‫ء‬ ‫شا‬‫ش‬ ‫س‬ ‫ن‬‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ش‬ ‫س‬ ‫م‬ ‫ل‬ َ ‫و‬ َ ‫أ َح شد منك ُشم م شن ال ْغَششائ ِط أ‬
ْ َ ّ ُ ُ ْ َ ْ ِ َ ِ ْ ْ ِ ٌ َ
‫حوا‬ ُ ‫سششش‬ َ ‫م‬ ْ ‫دا ط َي ّب ًشششا َفا‬ ً ‫صشششِعي‬ َ ‫مشششوا‬ ُ ‫م‬ ّ َ ‫مشششاًء فَت َي‬ َ ‫دوا‬ ُ ‫جششش‬ ِ َ‫ت‬
‫م‬ ‫ش‬ ُ ‫ك‬ ‫ي‬َ ‫ل‬َ ‫ع‬ َ
‫ل‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ج‬‫ي‬ ِ ‫ل‬ ‫ه‬ ّ ‫ل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫د‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ما‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ُ ‫ك‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ي‬ َ ‫بوجوهك ُم وأ‬
ْ ْ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ِ ُ َ ُ ْ ِ ْ ِ ْ َ ْ ِ ُ ُ ِ
‫م‬ْ ‫كشش‬ ُ ْ ‫ه ع َل َي‬ ُ َ ‫مت‬ َ ْ‫م ن ِع‬ ّ ِ ‫م وَل ِي ُت‬ ْ ُ ‫ريد ُ ل ِي ُط َهَّرك‬ ِ ُ‫ن ي‬ ْ ِ ‫حَرٍج وَل َك‬ َ ‫ن‬ ْ ‫م‬ ِ
﴾5:6﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫شك ُُرو‬ ْ َ‫م ت‬ ْ ُ ‫ل َعَل ّك‬
O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salât (the prayer), wash your faces and
your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and
(wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janâba (i.e. had a sexual discharge),
purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you
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comes from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e.
sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and
rub therewith your faces and hands. Allâh does not want to place you in difficulty, but He
wants to purify you, and to complete His Favor on you that you may be thankful.[Surah
Al-Ma'idah, 5:6]

A. Make intension in heart to perform At-Tayammum.


B. SayBismillah (In the Name of Allah).
C. Strike both palms of hands on clean sand, dust or anything containing these(e.g.
wall or stone) .
D. Blow into the palms
E. Wipe the face using both palms.(once)
F. Thereafter using the left palm to wipe over the back of the right hand upto the
wrist, and then, uses the right palm to wipe over the back of the left hand up to the
wrist.
G. Finish with the Dua as given above for Wudhu.

19.03.00
Tayammum, the dry ablution
[Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 1]

Definition. Literally tayammum means "aim, purpose." In Islamic law, it refers to


"aiming for or seeking soil to wipe one's face and hands with the intention of preparing
oneself to pray, and so on."

Volume 1, Page 63a: Proof of its legitimacy

This is proven by the Qur'an, sunnah and ijma' (consensus). The Qur'an says, "And if you
are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes from relieving himself, or you have touched
women, and you do not find water, then go to high clean soil and rub your face and hands
(therewith). Lo, Allah is Benign, Forgiving" (an-Nisa': 43). From the sunnah we have the
hadith related by Abu Umamah in which the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "All of
the earth has been made for me and my nation a pure place of prayer. Whenever a person
from my nation wants to pray, he has something with which to purify himself, that is, the
earth." (Related by Ahmad.) Finally, there is a consensus that tayammum forms a
legitimate part of the shari'ah, as it replaces ablution or ghusl under specific
circumstances.

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Volume 1, Page 63b: Blessing from Allah

This form of ablution is viewed as a blessing from Allah to the Muslims. Jabir relates that
the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "I have been given five things that were not
given to anyone before me: I have been made victorious due to fear for a distance of one
month's journey; the earth has been made a place of prayer for me--wherever and
whoever of my nation wants to pray, he may pray; and the war booty has been made
lawfal for me, and this was not lawful for anyone before me. I have been given
permission to intercede. The prophets used to be raised for their own people only, but I
have been raised for all of mankind." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

Volume 1, Page 64: The reason for its legitimacy

Said 'Aishah, "We went out with the Messenger of Allah on one of his journeys until we
reached Baida'. At this place, one of my bracelets broke and fell somewhere. The
Messenger of Allah and others began to look for it. There was no water at that place, nor
did anyone have any water with him. The people went to Abu Bakr and said, "Do you see
what your daughter has done?" Abu Bakr came to me, while the Prophet was sleeping on
my thigh. He blamed me and said to me whatever Allah willed him to say. He also poked
me in my side. I could not move, for the Prophet, upon whom be peace, was sleeping on
my lap. He slept until the morning without any water available. Then, Allah revealed the
verse of tayammum. As-Sayyid ibn Huzhain said, 'That was not the first blessing from
the family of Abu Bakr.' The camel that I was on got up and we found the necklace
underneath it." (Related by "the group," except for at-Tirmizhi.)

Volume 1, Page 64a: One cannot find water, or the amount one finds is insufficient
for ablution

'Imran bin Husain said, "We were with the Messenger of Allah during a journey. When
he led the people in prayer, one man stayed apart. He asked him, "What prevented you
from praying?" He said, 'I need a post-nocturnal bath and there is no water.' He said, 'Use
the soil, for it is sufficient.''' (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

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Abu Zharr related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "The soil is a purifier for a
Muslim, even if he does not find water for twenty years." (Related by "the four." At-
Tirmizhi grades it hassan sahih.) But before one makes tayammum, he must look for
water from any posible source. If he is sure water is not to be found or it is too far away,
he does not have to look for it.

Volume 1, Page 64b: One is injured or ill

If one is in this condition, and believes water will worsen it (he does not have to be
absolutely sure, but may base his opinion on past experience or what a knowledgeable
person has told him), he may perform tayammum. Jabir said, "We were on a journey and
one of us got injured. Later, he had a wet dream. He asked his companions, 'Can I
perform tayammum?' They said, 'No, not if you have water.' He performed ghusl and
died. When they came to the Messenger of Allah, they informed him of what had
transpired. He said, 'They killed him, Allah will kill them. Do you not ask if you do not
know? The rescue of the ignorant person is the question. He could have performed
tayammum and dropped water on his wound or wrapped it with something and wipe over
the wrapping, and wash the rest of his body." This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah,
ad-Daraqutni and Ibn as-Sakin, who said it is sahih.

Volume 1, Page 65: If the water is cold enough to physically harm the user

This is only allowed on the condition that he can find no one to heat it, or is unable to use
the public bathrooms. 'Amr ibn al-'Aas narrated that he was participating in an
expedition. He had a wet dream during an extremely cold night, and was afraid that if he
performed ghusl he would die. He prayed the morning prayer with his companions. He
then went to the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, to ask him about this.
Muhammad said, "O 'Amr, did you pray with your companions while you needed a post-
nocturnal bath?" 'Amr mentioned the verse, "Do not kill yourselves, Allah is merciful to
you" to the Prophet. The Prophet just laughed and didn't say anything. (Related by
Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Hakim, ad-Daraqutni, Ibn Hibban and al-Bukhari in mu'allaq
form.) This example illustrated the Prophet's tacit approval.

Volume 1, Page 65a: When water is nearby, but one does not want to fetch it due to
fear

If one fears for his life, family, wealth, (for example, if an enemy is nearby--beast or
human--or one is a prisoner, and so on), one may perform tayammum. This is also

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allowed if there is water but one lacks the proper means to get it, or if one fears some
accusation against him if he gets it.

Volume 1, Page 65b: If one is saving his water for later use

This could be for a hound, for dough, cooking or to remove an impurity that is not
pardonable. Says Imam Ahmad, "Many of the companions performed tayammum to save
their water for drinking." 'Ali said that a man who is travelling and becomes unclean
because of sex or a wet dream can perform tayammum if he fears he will go thirsty: "He
should perform tayammum and not ghusl." (Related by ad-Daraqutni.) Says Ibn
Taimiyyah, "If a person needs to relieve himself but has only a small amount of water, it
is best that he pray with tayammum and relieve himself, rather than keep his ablution and
pray before relieving himself."

Volume 1, Page 66: One can get water, but fears that the prayer will be over by the
time he gets it

He can perform tayammum and pray, and does not need to repeat his prayer (after he gets
water).

Volume 1, Page 66a: The soil used for tayammum

It must be pure soil: this can be sand, stone, gypsum, and so on. Says Allah, "Perform
tyammum with pure soil," and all scholars of Arabic agree that "soil" is whatever covers
the earth, dirt or otherwise.

Volume 1, Page 66b: How to perform tayammum

First, one must have the intention (see the section on ablution). Then, he mentions Allah's
name, strikes the soil with his hands, wipes his face and his hands up to the wrist.
Nothing is more authentic and clear than what 'Ammar related. He said, "We became
sexually impure and had no water, so we rolled in the dirt and prayed. This was
mentioned to the Prophet and he said, 'This would have been enough for you,' and he
struck the earth with his hands, blew in them and then wiped his face and hands with

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them." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim). In another text he states, "It would have
been enough for you to strike the ground with your hands, blow into them, then wipe
your face and hands up to the elbows." (Related by ad-Daraqutni.)

This hadith shows that one strike of the earth is sufficient, and one only wipes the arms to
the wrists. It is from the sunnah that one who makes tayammum with dirt should blow
into his hands first and not make his face dusty or dirty.

Volume 1, Page 66c: What tayammum makes permissible

After doing so, he is pure and may do any of the acts requiring prior purification, such as
praying and touching the Qur'an. He does not have to perform it during the time of
prayer, and he may pray as many prayers as he wishes (unless he nullifies it), exactly as
he can after performing the regular ablution. Abu Zharr reported that the Prophet said,
"The soil is a purifier for a Muslim, even if he does not find water for twenty years. Then
if he touches water, that is, to make ablution, and so on, it would be good." This is related
by Ahmad and at-Tirmizhi, who said it is sahih.

Volume 1, Page 66d: What nullifies tayammum

In addition to the presence of water, everything that nullifies the ablution nullifies
tayammum. If a person prays after performing tayammum and then finds water, he does
not need to repeat his prayer even if there is time left to do so. Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri said,
"Two men went out on a journey. The time of prayer came and, as they had no water,
they performed tayammum. Then they found some water during the time of the same
prayer. One of them repeated his prayer with ablution and the other did not. When they
saw the Messenger of Allah, they asked him about the proper procedure in such a case.
He said to the one who did not repeat his prayer, 'You have acted according to the sunnah
and your prayer is sufficient for you.' He said to the other, 'You will get a double
reward."' (Related by Abu Dawud and anNasa'i.) If one comes across water before he
prays or finishes his prayer with tayammum, his prayer becomes null and void, for he
must make ablution with water. If a person is not clean because of sex or a wet dream, or
a woman is menstruating, and they pray after performing tayammum, they need not
repeat their prayer after finding water, but they must perform ghusl with water when they
can. 'Umar said, "The Prophet led the people in prayer, and afterwards saw a man who
had not prayed. He said, 'Why didn't you pray with us?' The man replied, 'I was sexually
unclean and there was no water.' He told him, 'Use the soil, and it will be enough.' 'Imran

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then mentioned that they later found water. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, brought a
bowl of water for the man and told him to perform ghusl. (Related by al-Bukhari.)

Volume 1, Page 67: Wiping Over Casts, Wrappers and Similar Items

It is allowable to wipe over any wrapper or diseased or injured bodily part. There are
many hadith on this point, and although they are all weak, their many chains strengthen
each other, making them valid to talk about. One hadith, that of Jabir (quoted earlier),
relates a story about a man who was on a journey and suffered an injury. While he slept,
he had a wet dream, after which he asked his companions if he could perform
tayammum. They said he could not, so he made ghusl and died because of it. When that
was mentioned to the Prophet, he said "They killed him, may Allah kill them. Do you not
ask about what you do not know? ... It would have been enough for him to perform
tayammum and drop a little water over his wound or else wipe it, then to wipe it and
wash the rest of the body." This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, ad-Daraqutni and
Ibn as-Sakin, who classified it as sahih. Ibn 'Umar used to do this.

In fact, it is obligatory to wipe over such casts or wrappers in ablution or ghusl instead of
washing the injured parts. This must be done even if he has to heat the water. But, if he
believes that this would harm the diseased or injured part, or that his condition may
worsen, or that his pain would increase, he may wipe the injured part with water. If he
fears that this would also be harmful, he should wrap it and then gently wipe over it. It is
not necessary for him to be in a state of purity while applying the cast or wrapper to be
wiped. There is also no time limit for such wipings, for he can do so as long as his
condition lasts. Removing the wrapper or cast nullifies the wiping, as does the final cure.

Volume 1, Page 68: The Prayer of One Who Has no Means of Purifying Himself

Whoever cannot get water or soil may pray in whatever state he is in, and he will not
have to repeat his prayer later. This is based on what Muslim related from 'Aishah. She
had borrowed some jewelry from 'Asma and it broke (and fell). The Messenger of Allah,
upon whom be peace, sent some people to search for it. The prayer time came and they
had to pray without ablution. When they came to the Prophet, they complained to him
and the verses of tayammum were revealed. Usaid ibn Huzhair said, "May Allah give you
good recompense. Allah never reveals an order with respect to you except that He
removes by it some hardship and gives the Muslims some benefit." The companions
prayed while in a state of impurity, but the Prophet did not admonish them nor did he
order them to repeat their prayers. Says an-Nawawi, "That is the strongest statement of
proof (on this question)."

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20.00.00
Obligatory Ghusl (Taking shower)
Ghusl
Complete body washing, i.e. bath or taking shower.

Hadith - Muwatta 2.74

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'n Nadr, the mawla of Umar ibn Abdullah that
Abu Salama ibn Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf related that he had asked A'isha, the wife of the
Prophet what made ghusl obligatory. She said, "Do you know what you are
like, Abu Salama? You are like a chick when it hears the cocks crowing and so crows
with them. When the circumcised part passes the circumcised part, ghusl is obligatory."

Hadith - Bukhari 1:228, Narrated 'Aisha

Fatima bint Abi Hubaish came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle I get
persistent bleeding from the uterus and do not become clean. Shall I give up my
prayers?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, because it is from a blood vessel
and not the menses. So when your real menses begins give up your prayers and when it
has finished wash off the blood (take a bath) and offer your prayers." Hisham (the sub
narrator) narrated that his father had also said, (the Prophet told her): "Perform ablution
for every prayer till the time of the next period comes."

Hadith - Bukhari 1:327, Narrated 'Aisha

The Prophet said to me, "Give up the prayer when your menses begin and
when it has finished, wash the blood off your body (take a bath) and start praying."

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In certain cases Whudu is not sufficient such as sexual impurity, impurity due to
menstruation or nifaas (post natel bleeding) and some other cases.In such cases a perosn
is required to make Ghusl

Ghusl(taking shower), which is washing the entire body with water, then the basic rule
with regard to it is Allah’s saying:

﴾5:6﴿ ‫طّهُروا‬
ّ ‫جُنًبا َفا‬
ُ ‫ن ُكْنُتْم‬
ْ ‫َوِإ‬
“And if you are in a state of sexual impurity (Janaabah), then purify yourselves (i.e.
wash your entire bodies).” [Surah Al-Maa’idah, 5:6]

And Allah’s saying:

‫حّتى َتْعَلُموا َمففا‬


َ ‫سَكاَرى‬ ُ ‫لَة َوَأْنُتْم‬
َ‫ص‬ّ ‫ل َتْقَرُبوا ال‬
َ ‫ن َآَمُنوا‬ َ ‫َيا َأّيَها اّلِذي‬
﴾4:43﴿ ‫سُلوا‬
ِ ‫حّتى َتْغَت‬ َ ‫ل‬ٍ ‫سِبي‬
َ ‫عاِبِري‬َ ‫ل‬ ّ ‫جُنًبا ِإ‬
ُ ‫ل‬َ ‫َتُقوُلونَ َو‬
“O you who believe. Do not come near the prayer while you are in a drunken state, until
you know what you are uttering (i.e. when you are not drunk), nor when you are in a state
of sexual impurity (janaabah) – unless you are traveling on the road – until you make
Ghusl (i.e. wash your entire body).” [Surah An-Nisaa, 4:43]

20.01.00
Ghusl, the complete ablution(Taking shower)
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.1]

Ghusl means to wash the entire body with water. Says Allah in the Qur'an, "If you are
sexually impure, purify yourselves." And, "They question you concerning menstruation.
Say: It is an illness, so let women alone at such times and do not have sex with them until
they are cleansed" [Al-Baqarah 222].

Volume 1, Page 49a: Actions requiring Ghusl

The actions that require Ghusl are:

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Volume 1, Page 49b: Discharge of al-Mani owing to stimulation while asleep or


awake

The opinion of the jurists in general is that ghusl is a must should one have a discharge of
al-mani (sperm) owing to stimulation while asleep or awake. Abu Sa'eed reported that he
heard the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, say, "Water (washing) is (needed)
after (ejaculation of) sperm." (Related by Muslim.)

Umm Salamah reported that Umm Sulaim said, "O Messenger of Allah, Allah is not
ashamed of the truth. Does a woman have to perform ghusl if she has a wet dream?" He
said, "Yes, if she sees the liquid." (Related by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others.)

There are some other points of importance that need to be noted:

Volume 1, Page 49c: If the sperm is discharged without any type of stimulation
(owing to illness or extreme cold)

In this case, ghusl is not obligatory. 'Ali reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
said to him, "If sperm is ejaculated, perform ghusl." [Related by Abu Dawud]

Said Mujahid, "We were in a meeting in the mosque with the companions of Ibn 'Abbas
(Tawus, Sa'eed ibn Jubair and 'Ikrimah). When he stood to pray, a man came in and said,
'Is there one who can give a legal verdict?' We said, 'Ask your question.' He said,
'Whenever I urinate, a liquid always follows it.' We asked, 'Is it the type of liquid that
gives birth to children?' He said, 'Yes.' We said, 'Then you have to perform ghusl.' The
man went away. Ibn 'Abbas hurried to finish his prayer, after which he told 'Ikrimah to
bring the man back. He turned to us and said, 'Is your verdict found in the Book of
Allah?' We said, 'No.' He asked, 'Is it based on the sayings of the Prophet, upon whom be
peace?' We said, 'No.' 'Then from what?' We said, 'From our opinion.' He said, 'That is
why the Messenger of Allah said that one learned man is more difficult for Satan than a
thousand worshippers.' The man came and faced Ibn 'Abbas, who said to him, 'When that
happens, is it owing to any stimulation?' He answered, 'No.' Ibn 'Abbas asked, 'Do you
feel any numbness in your body?' He answered, 'No.' Said Ibn 'Abbas, 'That is from the
cold. Ablution is sufficient."'

Volume 1, Page 50: If one has a wet dream but does not find any traces of
ejaculation

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There is no need for ghusl in this instance either. Ibn al-Munzhir said, "All of the
knowledgeable people known to me agree on this point." The hadith of Umm Salamah
mentioned earlier supports this proposition.

Volume 1, Page 50a:

If one wakes from sleep and finds some moistness, but does not recall any wet dream,
though he is sure it is sperm, what should he do? To be safe, he should perform ghusl.
Said Mujahid and Qatadah, "There is no need for ghusl until he is sure that it is sperm,
for his prior condition of purity is not ended by an uncertainty .

Volume 1, Page 50b: If a man squeezes his penis to prevent ejaculation

This also makes ghusl unnecessary. This is based on the hadith which states that ghusl is
required if the sperm can be seen. But, if the person walks and cannot control his
ejaculation. he must perform ghusl.

Volume 1, Page 51: Sperm on the clothes during prayer

If a man does not know how the sperm got on his clothes, and he has already prayed,
should he perform ghusl and repeat all of his prayers since the last time he slept? If he
thinks that it happened before his most recent sleep, he should repeat all of his prayers
since the supposed time of his ejaculation .

Volume 1, Page 51a: Touching the two circumcised parts

This refers to the penis and the vagina. If one's penis has entered his wife's vagina, ghusl
is obligatory even if there was no ejaculation. Says Allah, "If you are sexually impure,
purify yourselves." Commenting on the subject, ash-Shaifi says, "In the Arabic language,
sexual impurity refers to any type of sexual intercourse, regardless of whether sperm was
ejaculated or not. If someone says, 'So and so is sexually impure due to so and so,' it
refers to any type of sexual intercourse between them, even if there was no ejaculation.
No one disagrees that the fornication which requires the prescribed punishment is sexual
intercourse, even if there is no ejaculation."

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "When anyone sits
between the four parts of her body and exerts himself (has intercourse), bathing becomes
obligatory (for both)." (Related by Ahmad and Muslim.)

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Sa'eed ibn al-Musayyab reported that Abu Musa al-Ash'ari said to 'Aishah, "I would
like to ask you something, but I am embarrassed." She said, "Ask and don't be shy, for I
am your mother." He asked about a man who had intercourse but did not ejaculate. She
said, on the authority of the Prophet, "If the two circumcised parts encountered each
other, ghusl is obligatory." This hadith is related by Ahmad and Malik with different
wordings. There is no doubt that there must be insertion; if there is only touching, ghusl
is not obligatory for either. All scholars agree on this point.

Volume 1, Page 51b: Women and their period

Concerning menstruation and childbirth bleeding, Allah says in the Qur'an, "Do not
approach them until they become pure. When they are pure, go to them in the manner that
Allah has prescribed for you." The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said to
Fatimah bint Abu Habish, "Do not pray during your period. After it has ended, perform
ghusl and pray." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

Post-childbirth bleeding is treated in a similar manner, according to the consensus of the


companions. If a woman gives birth and has no flow of blood afterwards, some scholars
say that she must perform ghusl, while others say that it would not be necessary. There is
no textual authority on this latter point.

Volume 1, Page 52: Death

When a Muslim dies, it is obligatory to wash his or her body, according to the consensus
of the Muslims. This will be discussed in more detail later on.

Volume 1, Page 52a: A non-Muslim upon embracing Islam

New converts to Islam must perform ghusl. Abu Hurairah reported that Thumamah al-
Hanafi was captured. The Prophet, upon whom be peace, passed by him and said, "What
do you have to say for yourself, O Thumamah?" He said, "If you kill me, you would be
killing a relative. If you give me a bounty (set me free), I would be thankful. If you want
wealth (as a ransom), we can give you what you wish." The companions of the Prophet
preferred the ransom and said, "What would we get if we killed him?" One time when the
Prophet passed by him, he finally embraced Islam. The Prophet, upon whom be peace,
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untied him and told him to go to the garden of Abu Talhah and perform ghusl. He
performed ghusl and prayed two rak'ah. The Prophet said, "Indeed, your brother became
a fine Muslim." This hadith is related by Ahmad. There is also a source for the story in
reports by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Volume 1, Page 52b: Prayer Volume 1, Page 52c: Circumambulating the Ka'bah

The reasoning behind this can be found in What actions require the ablution as a
prerequisite.

Volume 1, Page 52d: Touching or carrying the Qur'an

The companions were all agreed that it is forbidden to touch or carry the Qur'an while
one is in a state of impurity. There are some jurists, such as Dawud ibn Hazm, who allow
the physically unclean person, whether because of sex or menstruation, to touch or carry
the Qur'an, and they see nothing wrong with this. He derives his support from a hadith in
the two Sahihs in which it is stated that the Prophet sent a letter to Heraclius saying, "In
the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful...O people of the book, come to a
statement that is common between us and you, that we should worship none but Allah,
and that we shall ascribe no partner unto Him, and that none of us shall take others for
lords besides Allah. If they turn away, then say 'Bear witness that we are they who have
surrendered (unto Him)." (al'Imran 64). Ibn Hazm concludes, "This is the letter the
Messenger of Allah wrote, containing this verse, to the Christians, and of course they
touched it." The majority of scholars answer him by stating that one is allowed to touch
parts of the Qur'an that are used in letters, books, tafsir, and so on, as such things are not
copies of the Qur'an, nor is it confirmed that such an action is forbidden.

Volume 1, Page 53: Reciting the Qur'an

According to most scholars, one who is physically unclean (because of sex or


menstruation) may not recite any portion of the Qur'an. This is based on a hadith from
'Ali, in which he stated that nothing kept the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace,
from the Qur'an save being sexually impure. This is related by "the four." At-Tirmizhi
graded it sahih. Says al-Hafez in al-Fath, "Some people declare some of its narrators
weak. But, in fact, it is of the hassan class and it is satisfactory as a proof." He also
related, "I saw the Messenger of Allah perform ablution and recite some of the Qur'an,

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after which he said, 'This is for the one who is not in post-sex impurity. If one is in post-
sex impurity, he may not do so, not even one verse." Ahmad and Abu Ya'la related this
hadith with that wording. With that wording, al-Haithami says, "Its narrators are
trustworthy." Says ash-Shaukani, "If that (report) is authentic, that is proof enough that it
is forbidden." The first hadith does not forbid it, for it just states that it was his practice
not to recite the Qur'an while he was in post-sex impurity. Similar reports do not show
that it is disliked. Therefore, how can it be used as a proof that it is forbidden?" Al-
Bukhari, at-Tabarani, Dawud, and Ibn Hazm are of the opinion that it is permissible for
one who is in post-sex impurity (or in menstruation) to recite the Qur'an. Says al-Bukhari,
"Ibrahim said, 'There is no problem if a menstruating woman recites a verse.' Ibn 'Abbas
did not see anything wrong with a sexually impure person reciting the Qur'an. The
Prophet, upon whom be peace, used to mention Allah under all circumstances." In Ibn
Hajr's notes to that work, he says, "There is no authentic hadith reported by the author
(al-Bukhari) concerning the prohibition of reciting by one who is sexually impure or
menstruating." The sum total of what has been related on this issue informs us on this
point, though the interpretations differ.

Volume 1, Page 54: Staying in the mosque

It is forbidden for one who is physically unclean (because of sex or menstruation) to stay
in the mosque. 'Aishah said, "The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, saw that his
companions' houses were practically in the mosque. He said, 'Direct those houses away
from the mosque.' He then entered the mosque, but the people did nothing, hoping that
Allah would reveal to Muhammad that what they were doing was permissible. After he
came out, he said, 'Direct those houses away from the mosque, for it is not permitted for a
menstruating woman or sexually impure person to be in the mosque." (Related by Abu
Dawud.)

Umm Salamah related that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, came to the mosque's
courtyard and said at the top of his voice, "The mosque is off limits to menstruating
women and the sexually impure persons." [Related by Ibn Majah and at-Tabarani]

Such people can, however, pass through the mosque, for says Allah, "O you who believe,
draw not near unto prayer when you are drunk until you know that which you utter, nor
when you are impure save when journeying upon the road, until you have bathed" [An-
Nisa' 43].

Said Jubair, "One of us used to pass through the mosque though he was impure."
(Related by Ibn Abu Shaibah and Sa'eed ibn Mansur in his Sunan.) Zaid ibn Aslam said,

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"The companions of the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, used to walk through
the mosques while they were sexually impure." [Related by Ibn al-Munzhir.]

Yazib ibn Habib reported that the companions' doors opened up into the mosque, and
that when they were sexually impure, they could find no water or any path to water save
through the mosque. Then Allah revealed, "...nor when you are impure, save journeying
upon the road..." [Related by at-Tabari.]

Commenting on the preceding reports, ash-Shaukani says,"The meaning is so clear that


there is no room for doubt." Said 'Aishah, "The Prophet said to me, 'Hand me my cloth
from the mosque.' I said, 'I am menstruating.' He said, 'Your menstruation is not in your
hand." (Related by the group, except for al-Bukhari.) Said Maimunah, "The Messenger of
Allah used to come to one of our rooms while we were menstruating and put his head on
(his wife's) lap and recite the Qur'an. Then one of us would take his clothes and put them
in the mosque while she was menstruating." [Related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i. The
report has supporting evidence.]

Volume 1, Page 55: Actions for which ghusl is preferred

This category of actions involves a reward for performing ghusl, and no blame if he does
not. Such actions are:

Volume 1, Page 55a: Before the Friday prayer

Muslims are encouraged to perform ghusl before they gather for the Friday prayer. In
fact, Islamic law even goes to the extent of ordering one to perform ghusl at this time as
part of the overall cleanliness and hygiene of the Muslim society. Abu Sa'eed reported
that the Prophet said,"Ghusl on Friday is obligatory (wajib) on every adult, as is using a
toothbrush and applying some perfume." (Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

The meaning of "obligatory" here is that it is greatly recommended. This understanding


of the Prophet's saying is derived from what al-Bukhari recorded about an incident from
Ibn 'Umar about his father. One day, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab was standing and delivering
the khutbah when 'Uthman, one of the people from among the emigrants and helpers,
entered. 'Umar said to him, "What time is it now?" He said, "I was busy and could not
return home. When I heard the call to prayer, I did not make more than the regular
ablution." 'Umar said, "And the ablution only, when you know that the Messenger of
Allah ordered us to perform ghusl ?" Commenting on the incident, says ash-Shaf'i, "
'Uthman did not leave the prayer to perform ghusl, nor did 'Umar order him to do so. This

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illustrates that the companions knew that this order was one of choice. It also shows that
it is preferred."

Muslim recorded that Abu Hurairah reported the Prophet saying, "Whoever makes the
ablution and perfects it and then goes to the Friday prayer and listens attentively, will
have forgiveness during (the period) between the Friday and the next (Friday), and an
additional three days." Says al-Qurtubi, "This hadith shows that ghusl is preferred. The
mention of ablution, the reward and acceptability points to the fact that ablution alone is
sufficient.'' Ibn Hajr states in at-Talkhis, "It is one of the strongest proofs that ghusl for
the Friday prayer is not obligatory. The statement that it is preferred is built upon the fact
that if one does not perform ghusl, it will not harm (his prayer). But, if others are harmed
by his perspiration or bad smell from his clothes and body, ghusl becomes obligatory, and
not performing it detracts from the rewards of salah. Some scholars say that the Friday
ghusl is a duty even if its non-performance causes no harm (to others). Their basis for this
opinion is the hadith related by Abu Hurairah in which the Prophet, upon whom be peace,
said, "It is a duty upon every Muslim to perform ghusl once every seven days, by
washing his head and body." Al-Bukhari and Muslim accept the hadith mentioned on the
subject in their apparent meanings, and refute the ones contrary to the last hadith (of Abu
Hurairah).

The time for the Friday ghusl is between dawn and the time of the Friday prayer. It is
preferable to do it at the time of departure (to the mosque). If one loses his ablution after
that, it is sufficient for him just to make a new ablution (he does not have to repeat the
ghusl).

Says al-Athram, "I heard Ahmad being asked if a person performed ghusl, and then lost
it, would the regular ablution be sufficient for him. He said, 'Yes, and I have not heard
anything about that preferable to the hadith of Ibn 'Abzi," Ahmad is referring to the
hadith related by Ibn 'Abzi Shaibah (with a sahih chain from 'Abdurahman ibn 'Abzi on
the authority of his father, who was a companion.)He performed ghusl for the Friday
prayer, and afterwards nullified his ablution. After that, he performed just the regular
ablution, and did not repeat his ghusl. The time for the ghusl ends with the time of the
prayer. If one performs ghusl after the prayer, it would not be the ghusl of the Friday
prayer, and one who does so is not following the Prophet's order. Ibn 'Umar reported that
the Prophet said, "Before you come to the Friday prayer, you should perform ghusl.
(Related by "the group.") Muslim says, "When one of you wants to come to the Friday
prayer, he should perform ghusl." Ibn 'Abdul-Barr related that there is a consensus on this
point.

Volume 1, Page 56: Performing ghusl for the 'Id prayers

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Scholars also encourage Muslims to perform ghusl for the 'id prayers, even though there
is no authentic hadith to support this opinion. It says in al-Badr alMuneer, "The hadith
concerning performing ghusl for the 'ids are weak. But there do exist good reports from
the companions (on this point) . "

Volume 1, Page 56a: Ghusl for washing a corpse

According to many scholars, performing ghusl is also preferred for one who has washed a
corpse. Abu Hurariah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "Whoever
has washed a corpse must perform ghusl, and whoever carried him must perform
ablution." [Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and
others.]

However, there is some criticism of this hadith. 'Ali ibn al-Madani, Ahmad, Ibn al-
Munzhir, ar-Rafi' and others say, "The hadith scholars did not classify anything on this
topic as authentic." But Ibn Hajr quotes at-Tirmizhi and Ibn Hibban: "At-Tirmizhi called
it hassan and Ibn Hibban called it sahih. And, due to its numerous chains, it is most likely
hassan.

An-Nawawi strongly refutes what at-Tirmizhi said." Says azh-Zhahabi, "The chains of
this hadith are stronger than a number of chains of the hadith that the jurists argue by."
The order in the hadith implies preference, based on what has been related by 'Umar, who
said, "We used to wash the dead. Some of us would perform ghusl and some would not."
[Related by al-Khateeb with a sahih chain].

When 'Asma bint Umaish washed the body of her deceased husband, Abu Bakr as-
Siddiq, she asked if there were any among the emigrants present, and said, "This day is
extremely cold and I am fasting. Do I have to make gh usl?" They said, "No." [Related by
Malik.]

Volume 1, Page 57: Making Ghusl for Hajj

According to the scholars, it is also preferable for one who is undertaking the pilgrimage
or 'umrah to perform ghusl. Zaid ibn Thabit related that he saw the Messenger of Allah,
when he intended to perform the hajj, perform ghusl. [Related by ad-Daraqutni, al-
Baihaqi and at-Tirmizhi, who called it hassan. As-Usaili regarded it as weak.]

Volume 1, Page 57a: Making Ghusl upon entering Makkah

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It is preferable for whoever wants to enter Makkah to perform gh usl. It is reported that
Ibn 'Umar, when going to Makkah, would spend the night in Tawa, and would enter
Makkah during the day. He mentioned that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, also used
to do this. [Related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

Ibn al-Munzhir said, "All of the scholars say it is preferred to perform ghusl upon
entering Makkah, but if one does not do so, there is no expiation for him to make. Most
of them say that the regular ablution is sufficient.

Volume 1, Page 57b: Making Ghusl at Mount 'Arafah

Such an act is preferred while one stops there during the hajj. Malik ibn Nafa' reported
that Ibn 'Umar used to do so before embarking upon the hajj, upon entering Makkah, and
while stopping at 'Arafah.

Volume 1, Page 57c: The intention

This involves distinguishing the acts of worship from the customary acts. The intention is
only in the heart, and should not be stated, as this would be tantamount to innovation.

Volume 1, Page 58: Washing all bodily parts

This is based on the following: Says Allah, "If you are sexually impure, cleanse
yourselves," that is, perform ghusl, and "They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: 'It
is an illness, so leave women alone at such times and go not in unto them until they are
cleansed," that is, until they perform ghusl. The proof that cleansing means ghusl is in the
verse, "O you who believe, draw not unto the prayer when you are drunk until you know
what you utter, nor when you are polluted, save when journeying upon the road, until you
have bathed (taghtasilu)." This shows that ghusl, the washing of all bodily parts, is meant.

Volume 1, Page 58a: How ghusl is performed

According to the practice of the Prophet, upon whom be peace, the correct manner of
performing ghusl is:

-1- wash both hands three times,

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-2- wash the penis,

-3- make a complete ablution (like the one made for prayer--the Prophet used to delay
washing his feet until the end of his ghusl if he was using a tub, and so on),

-4- rub water through one's hair three times, letting the water reach down to the roots of
the hair,

-5- pour water over the entire body, begining with the right side, then the left, washing
under the armpits, inside the ears, inside the navel, inside the toes and whatever part of
the body can be easily rubbed. This account is based on the following report from
'Aishah: "When the Prophet, upon whom be peace, took his bath after sexual intercourse,
he would begin by washing his hands. Then he would pour water from his right hand to
his left and wash his sexual organs, make the ablution for prayer, take some water and put
his fingers to the roots of his hair to the extent that he sees that the skin is wet, then pour
water over his head three times and then over the rest of his body." (Related by al-
Bukhari and Muslim.) In one narration it states, "He used to rub his head with his hands
until he was certain the water reached his skin, and then he poured water over it three
times." It is also related that she said, "When the Prophet would perform ghusl after
having had sexual intercourse, he would call for some water, which he would pour on his
right hand to wash the right side of his head and then the left. He would then take water
with both hands and pour it over his head." Said Maimunah, "I put water out for the
Messenger of Allah to perform ghusl. He washed his hands two or three times, and then
he poured water from his right hand to his left and washed his private parts, wiped his
hands on the earth, rinsed his mouth and nose, washed his face and hands, washed his
head three times, poured water over his body, and finally moved from his place and
washed his feet. I brought him a towel, but he did not take it, for he shook the water off
with his hands." [Related by "the group."]

Volume 1, Page 59: Ghusl for women

A woman performs ghusl just as a man does, except that if she has plaited hair she does
not have to undo it, provided that the water can reach the roots of her hair. Umm Salamah
said, "O Messenger of Allah, I am a woman who has closely plaited hair on my head. Do
I have to undo them for ghusl after sexual intercourse?" He said, "No, it is enough for
you to throw three handfuls of water on your head and then pour water over yourself.
After doing this, you shall be cleansed." (Related by Ahmad, Muslim and at-Tirmizhi,
who called it hassan sahih.) 'Ubaid ibn 'Umair reported that 'Aishah discovered that
'Abdullah ibn 'Amr was ordering the women to undo their plaits of hair (for ghusl). She
observed, "It is amazing that Ibn 'Amr orders the woment to undo the plaits of hair for

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ghusl. Why doesn't he just order them to shave their heads? I and the Messenger of Allah
used to bathe from one vessel, and all I did was pour three handfuls of water over my
head."[Related by Ahmad and Muslim.]

It is preferrable for a woman performing ghusl to cleanse herself from menstruation or


post-childbirth bleeding to take some cotton smeared with musk or perfume and wipe it
over the traces of blood. This will remove the bad smell of the menstrual blood. 'Aishah
reported, "'Asma bint Yazid asked the Messenger of Allah about ghusl after menstruation
has ended. He said, "She should use water mixed with the leaves of the lote-tree and
cleanse herself. Then she should pour water over her head and rub it well till it reaches
the roots of the hair, after which she should pour water over it. Afterwards, she should
take a piece of cotton smeared with musk and cleanse herself with it." 'Asma asked,
"How should she cleanse herself with it?" He said, "Praise be to Allah, she should cleanse
herself with it." 'Aishah said in a subdued tone that she should apply it to the traces of
blood. 'Asma then asked about bathing after sexual intercourse. He said, "She should take
water and cleanse herself or complete the ablution, pour water on her head and rub it till
it reaches the roots of her hair, and then she should pour water over herself." 'Aishah
observed, "How good are the women of the 'helpers' that shyness does not keep them
from learning their religion." [Related by "the group," except at-Tirmizhi.]

Volume 1, Page 60: Questions related to Ghusl

It is sufficient to perform one ghusl for both menstruation and sexual impurity, or for the
Friday prayer and the 'id prayer, or for sexual impurity and the Friday prayer, if one has
the intention for both of them. This is based on the Prophet's saying, "All acts are based
on intentions."

If a person performed post-sex ghusl but did not make ablution, the ghusl will suffice.
Said 'Aishah, "The Messenger of Allah did not perform ablution after ghusl." Ibn 'Umar
said to a man who had told him that he performed ablution after ghusl, "You went too
far." Says Abu Bakr ibn al-'Arabi, "There is no difference of opinion among the scholars
that ablution falls under the category of ghusl. If the intention was to remove sexual
impurity, it also includes the minor impurities, as what sexual impurity prevents is greater
than what the minor impurities prevent. The smaller one falls under the greater one, and
the intention for the greater one suffices.''

It is acceptable for a person in post-sex uncleanliness or a menstruating woman to remove


their hairs, cut their nails, go to the markets, and so on, without any dislike. 'Ata said that
such people can get cupped, cut their nails and their hair, and that this is allowed even if
he (or she) has not performed the regular ablution. [Related by al-Bukhari].

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One may enter a public bathroom. As long as he keeps his private parts from being seen,
and he does not look at others' private parts. Says Ahmad, "If you know that everyone
inside the bathroom is wearing a loincloth, you may enter. If not, then don't enter." The
Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, "A man should not look at another man's private
parts, and a woman should not look at another woman's private parts." There is no
problem with mentioning Allah's name in the public baths, as mentioning the name of
Allah under any circumstances is good, since there is no text prohibiting it. The
Messenger of Allah used to remember Allah under all circumstances.

There is no problem in drying one's self with a towel or other cloth after performing
ablution or ghusl during the summer or winter.

It is permissible for a man to use the water left over by a woman and vice-versa. This is
derived from the fact that it is permissible for them to perform ghusl from the same
container. Ibn 'Abbas narrated that some of the Prophet's wives were performing ghusl
from a container. The Prophet came and performed his ablution or ghusl from it. They
said to him, "We were sexually unclean." He said, "The water does not become impure."
(Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i and at-Tirmizhi, who called it hassan sahih).
'Aishah used to wash with the Messenger of Allah from one container, and they would
take turns taking water until he said, "Leave some for me, leave some for me."

It is not allowed to bathe in the nude in front of people. It is forbidden to uncover one's
private parts. If you cover it with some clothes, it is permissible. The Messenger of Allah
would cover Fatimah with a curtain when she performed ghusl. If one performs ghusl in
the nude, far away from the people, it is not prohibited. The prophets Musa (Moses) and
Ayyub (Job) did so, as al-Bukhari, Ahmad, and an-Nasa'i recorded.

20.02.00
Occasions when Ghusl(Taking Shower)
is Required as an obligatory Act
Ghusl is required as an obligatory act in the following cases:

1. After the discharge of semen as a result of stimulation whether awake orasleep (i.e.
in a wet dream). This state is known in Arabic as "JUNUB". If,after the dream no
wetness is traced in one's clothing, bathing is notobligatory. However, in case
wetness is found but without recalling any dream,performing Ghusl is obligatory.
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This is based on the hadeeth of Umm Salamah, whoreported that Umm Sulaim, the
wife of Abu Talha, asked Allaah’s Messenger(sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam),
saying: “Allaah is not shy when it comes to thetruth. So is it obligatory for a
woman to perform ghusl if she has a wet dream(i.e. seminal fluid comes out)?”
The Prophet (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) responded: “Yes, if she sees the fluid.”
[This hadeeth is reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]
2. After sexual intercourse performing Ghusl is required. It is to be doneafter sexual
intercourse, regardless of whether one ejaculated or not. A male isobligated to
perform ghusl if just the head of his private organ enters (thefemale private organ),
even if it is for one second. This is based on thehadeeth of Abu Hurairah
(radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: Allaah’s Messenger(sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam)
said: “When a man sits in between the four partsof a woman and enters into her
(for intercourse), the ghusl becomes obligatory.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and
Muslim]
3. In Muslim’s report, there is the addition:“…even if he doesn’t ejaculate.” The
women falls under the same ruling as theman in this regard.
4. Following a period of menstruation, a woman is required to perform Ghusl(taking
shower).
5. At the end of 40 days after childbirth, a woman is required to perform Ghusl(taking
shower) but if the bleeding stops before completing the 40 days period, then she
must make the Ghusl(taking shower) as soon as the bleeding stops.

6. When a Muslim dies, Ghusl is required for him/her except for the Jihad
Martyr (Shaheed).

20.03.00
Ghusl, menstruating women
[Has taken from Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Vol.1, P.73]

She does not have to perform ghusl for every prayer, except for the one time when her
period or blood flow has ended.

Volume 1, Page 74: She must make ablution for every prayer, menstruating women

Said the Prophet, "Make ablution for every prayer." According to Malik, this is only
preferred and not obligatory (unless she nullifies her ablution, of course).

Volume 1, Page 74a: Keeping the blood in check, menstruating women

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She is to wash her vagina before she makes ablution, and she should wear something
which soaks up the blood. It is preferred for her to do what she can to keep the blood in
check.

Volume 1, Page 74b: Ablution, menstruating women

She should not make ablution before the prayer's time begins.

Volume 1, Page 74c: Sex, menstruating women

She may have intercourse with her husband even while the blood is flowing, according to
most scholars, because there is no evidence to the contrary. Said Ibn 'Abbas, "If she can
pray, her husband can have intercourse with her." Al-Bukhari says that if she is pure
enough for prayer, she certainly must be pure enough for intercourse. Abu Dawud and al-
Baihaqi related that 'Akramah bint Hamnah had a prolonged flow of blood and that her
husband had intercourse with her. An-Nawawi holds its chain to be hassan.

Volume 1, Page 74d: What she can do, menstruating women

She is to be considered a pure person, and she may pray, fast, remain in the mosque,
recite the Qur'an, touch a copy of the Qur'an, and so on.

20.04.00
Occasions for which Ghusl is preferred
Ghusl(taking shower) is recommended in the followingcases:

1. Before going to Jummah Congregational (Friday Prayer).


2. Before going to Eid Prayers (Muslim annual feast prayers).
3. Before undertaking Umrah or Hajj (Pilgrimage to Makkah).
4. Upon washing a corpse. (According to many scholars, the performance of
Ghuslis preferred for a person who washes a corpse).
5. When a disbeliever revert to Islam.

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20.05.00
How to Perform Ghusl(Showering)
The Complete Ghusl: which is what has been reported in the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah
(radyAllaahu ‘anhaa) in Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, in which she said: “When
Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) would perform ghusl due to
Janaabah (sexual impurity), he would begin by washing his hands. Then he would
pour water from his right hand to his left and wash his private parts with it (i.e. the
left hand). Then he would perform wudoo (ablution). Then he would take water
and place his (wet) fingers on the roots off his hair. Then he would pour three
handfuls of water over his head. Then he would pour water all over the rest of his
body. Then he would wash his feet.” This wording is from Muslim. The hadeeth is
in Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from the narration of Maymoonah, (radyAllaahu
‘anhaa).

A woman is not obligated to undo her hair (if it is bundled or braided) when
performing ghusl, due to the hadeeth of Umm Salamah (radyAllaahu ‘anhaa) in
Saheeh Muslim in which she said: “O Messenger of Allaah, I am a woman with
much braids in my head. Should I undo them when performing ghusl, due to sexual
impurity (Janaabah) and menses?” He (sallAllaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) responded:
“No. It is sufficient for you to just pour three handfuls of water on your head.”

1 Intention inside ones heart not verbal.


2 Say Bismillah
Wash the right hand up to and including the wrists. Make sure to while rub and
rub between the fingers of the hand. And thus make sure no part of the hand is
left dry. Three times
3

Then do the same with the left hand. (also three times)
Wash off the impurities (off the private parts)
4

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Wash the right hand up to and including the wrists. Make sure to while rub and
5 rub between the fingers of the hand. And thus make sure no part of the hand is
left dry. Three times

Then do the same with the left hand. (also three times)

Make a cup with the right hand then from this hand take water into your mouth
and swirl it inside the mouth and then expel out of mouth. then sniff remaining
water from the cupped right hand and sniff water into the nose and then blow the
water out and using the left hand remove the water from your nose. Do this three
6 times

Some people rinse the mouth first three times and then rinse the nose three times

However the first method is the most authentic.

Wash the face three times, from the hairline to the jawbone and chin, and from
start of the ear to start of the ear
7 A man should wash the hair of his beard by taking a handful of water and
entering it below his chin and rubbing it through his beard and passing the wet
fingers through the beard.
Wash the right arm up to and including the elbow. Three times.

The arm extends from the fingertips, including the nails, to the lower part of the
upper arm. It is essential to remove anything stuck to the hands before washing
8
them, such as dough, mud, paint, nail polish etc, that could prevent the water from
reaching the skin.

Do the same with the LEFT ARM . Three times


Pour water over the head Three times down to the roots of the hairs. rubbing the
9
roots of the hair with the wet fingers
10 Pour water liberally over the entire body, beginning with the right side and then

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the left side and rubbing the body with hands. Ensuring that no part of the body is
untouched by water
Move away from area were you did ghusl and Wash the right feet up to and
including the ankles, three times,

You should enter the water between the toes with your little finger and then wash
the feet (note not wipe feet but wash them) and make sure and make sure you
11
wash the sole of the foot and the heals. Make sure no parts of the foot is left dry

Wash the left foot same as the right foot. Three times

Then say the following Duas for Wudhu when outside the bathroom (if
bathroom has a toilet inside it)

Ashhadu an laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu laa shareeka lah, wa ashhadu anna
Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluhu.

12 ( I bear witness that there is no god except Allaah alone, with no partner or
associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.)

Allaahumm aj’alni min al-tawwaabeena waj’alni min al-mutatahhireena

( O Allaah, make me one of those who repent and make me one of those who
purify themselves)

21.00.00
Adhan (call to prayer)
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To assemble the Muslims for congregational prayer, "Adhan", or the call to prayer is
given. The caller (Muazzin) stands facing Ka'aba (Qibla), and raising his hands to his
ears calls in a loud voice. The person who gives the Adhan is called the mu’azzin
(Caller).

While calling for prayer, he stands in the Minaret or in the courtyard of the mosque,

facing the Qiblah and raises his hands to his ears and calls out:

‫ال اكبر‬- ‫( ال اكبر‬Allahu Akber) (Allah is the Greatest)

‫ال اكبر‬- ‫( ال اكبر‬Allahu Akber) (Allah is the Greatest)

‫( ال أشهد أن ل اله إل‬Ashhadu alla ilaha illallah) (I bear witness that there is no god but
Allah)

‫( ال أشهد أن ل اله إل‬Ashhadu alla ilaha illallah) (I bear witness that there is no god but
Allah)

‫( اشهد أن محمدا رسول ال‬Ashhadu anna muhammader rasulllah) (I bear witness that
Muhammad is Allah’s messenger)

‫( اشهد أن محمدا رسول ال‬Ashhadu anna muhammader rasulllah) (I bear witness that
Muhammad is Allah’s messenger)

‫( حي على الصلوة‬Hayya ala salah) (come to prayer)

‫( حي على الصلوة‬Hayya ala salah) (come to prayer)

‫( حي على الفلح‬Hayya ala alfalah) (come to success)

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‫( حي على الفلح‬Hayya ala alfalah) (come to success)

‫ال اكبر‬- ‫( ال اكبر‬Allahu Akber) (Allah is the Greatest)

‫( ال ل اله إل‬la ilaha illallah) (There is no god but Allah )

During the Adhan for Fajr Salah, the following is added after Hayya alal falah:

‫( النوم الصلوة خير من‬Assalatu khairun minan naum) (Salah is better than sleep)

‫( النوم الصلوة خير من‬Assalatu khairun minan naum) (Salah is better than sleep)

21.01.00
Dua After Adhan and it's importance
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On completion of the Adhan, Muslims are recommended to recite:

ALLAHUMMA RABBA HADHI-HID-DA'WA-TIT TAMMAH

O Allah! Lord of this complete call and prayer of ours, by the


blessing of it.

WAS-SALATIL QAAE-MATI MUHAMMADANIL-WASILATA

give to Muhammed his eternal riqhts of intercession,


WAL FADI-LAT WAD-DARAJATAR RAFI-A

distinction and highest class (in paradise).

WAB 'ATH-HU MAQAMAM-MAHMUDA-NI LATHI WA `ADTAK

And raise him to the promised rank You have promised him.

WAR-ZUQ-NA SHA FA 'ATAHU YAUM-AL-QIYAMAH

and bestow his Intercession on us on the day of judgement.

IN-NAKA LA-TUKHULIFUL-MI`AD

Surely You never go back on your word.

22.00.00: Iqamah

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After Adhan when the Muslims are assembled at the place of worship, a
second call (Iqamah) is recited by one of the group. This signals the start of
the congregational Salah. It is similar to Adhan except that it is recited faster
but in a lower tone and these sentences are recited after Haya 'Alal Fal'ah.
Iqamah is another call to prayer said just before the actual start of Salah.
The following is aid (in Arabic language):
‫ال اكبر‬- ‫( ال اكبر‬Allahu Akber) (Allah is the Greatest)
‫ال اكبر‬- ‫( ال اكبر‬Allahu Akber) (Allah is the Greatest)
‫( ال أشهد أن ل اله إل‬Ashhadu alla ilaha illallah) (I bear witness that there is no
god but Allah)
‫( ال أشهد أن ل اله إل‬Ashhadu alla ilaha illallah) (I bear witness that there is no
god but Allah)
‫( اشهد أن محمدا رسول ال‬Ashhadu anna muhammader rasulllah) (Ibear witness
that Muhammad is Allah’s messenger)
‫( اشهد أن محمدا رسول ال‬Ashhadu anna muhammader rasulllah)(Ibear witness that
Muhammad is Allah’s messenger)
‫( حي على الصلوة‬Hayya ala salah) (come to prayer)
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‫( حي على الصلوة‬Hayya ala salah) (come to prayer)


‫( حي على الفلح‬Hayya ala alfalah) (come to success)
‫( حي على الفلح‬Hayya ala alfalah) (come to success)
‫( قد قامت الصلوة‬Qad Qamatis salah) (the prayer has begun)
‫( قد قامت الصلوة‬Qad Qamatis salah) (the prayer has begun)
‫ال اكبر‬- ‫( ال اكبر‬Allahu Akber) (Allah is the Greatest)
‫( ال ل اله إل‬la ilaha illallah) (there is no god but Allah )

The Ka’ba, Makkah-al-Mukarrama


100,000 times reward for One Rakah Salah in the Holy Ka’ba

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Masjid-e-Nabubi, Medina-al-Munawwarah
50,000 times reward for One Rakah Salah in the Holy Medina

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23.00.00
Summary of the
Lessons, Rewards and Benefits of Prayer

You should know - My dear Brothers and Sisters and the Muslim youths that the
following has been authentically reported from our Messenger (sas) regarding the
lessons, benefits and rewards of the five daily prayers:

1. That Allaah the Exalted wipes away sins by the five prayers.

2. That the five prayers are an expiation for what occurs between them, if major sins are
avoided.

3. That sins burn and destroy a person and thus it is necessary to extinguish that with the
prayers.

4. That the muslim reaches the level of the truthful and the martyrs on account of his
prayers, charity and fasting.

5. The superiority of prayer[1] over other actions.

6. That Allaah the Exalted bestowed a favour upon that companion by entering him into
Paradise before his brother who died as a martyr because he prayed more than him.

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7. That the prayer is light which illuminates the path of the servant in this world and the
hereafter.

8. That an abundance of prostrations and prayers is the way to accompany the Messenger
(sas) in Paradise.

9. That a two rakah prayer is more loved by the dead person than the world and what is in
it.

10. That emptying the heart for Allaah in the prayer puts a person in the same condition
as the day when his mother gave birth to him.

11. That should a person enter the Fire - refuge is sought from that - the angels will
remove him from it and will recognise him by the marks of prostration.[2]

12. That the prayer participates in undoing the knots which Shaytaan places at the top of
ones head.

13. That the night prayer is the most excellent prayer after the obligatory prayers.

14. That the one who prays at night obtains a reward which most of mankind do not.

15. Gratitude is shown to Allaah with the (obligatory) prayer and night prayer.

16. That the prayer most loved by Allaah is the prayer of Daawood (as) which is to pray
for a third of the night and to sleep for two thirds of the night.[3]

17. That has Allaah has bestowed a favour upon His servant by the hour during the night
in which the supplication is answered. It is befitting for the muslim that he aspires for it
and seeks to find it so that he is given the good of this world and the Hereafter.

18. That the night prayer is an evidence for righteousness and taqwaa and it expiates the
sins and prevents one from falling into them.

19. That Allaah Azzawajall covers the husband and wife who help each other in
performing the night prayer with His mercy. If one of them refuses the other sprinkles
water on his or her face.

20. That two rakahs of prayer at night makes a person amongst the men who remember
Allaah often or the women who remember Allaah often.

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21. That Allah is amazed by the man who gets up from his sleep, leaving his bed sheet,
his wife and his love for her in order to perform prayer. Allah laughs at him and informs
the angels about him.

22. That there is no jealousy or competition except with regard to two men, one of whom
prays at night reciting the Qur'an which Allah has bestowed upon him.

23. That whoever recited ten verses in the night (in prayer) will not be written amongst
the heedless, a Qintaar of reward will be written for him and Allah the Exalted will say to
him: "Recite and rise by one degree with every verse", until he comes to the last verse he
knows. Allah favors him by giving him eternity.

24. That whoever prays at night with a hundred verses is written amongst the devout
worshippers and whoever prays with a thousand verses is written amongst the
Muqantareen and whoever prays with two-hundred verses is written amongst the devout
worshippers and sincere ones.

25. That the one who walks to the prayer (in the mosque) is raised in ranks and has his
sins removed, both while he goes to the mosque and when he returns from it.

26. That for every step he takes he receives ten good deeds.

27. That the Muslim is written amongst the worshippers from the time he leaves the
house till he returns to it.

28. That the one receiving the greatest reward for the prayer is the one who walks the
furthest towards it and then the one further than him (from the mosque).

29. That one step which a servant takes to the prayer in congregation is counted as an act
of charity for him.

30. That taking many steps towards the mosque is from ar-Ribaat (guarding the frontiers)

31. That every time a servant leaves for the mosque in the morning or the evening Allah
prepares for him a feast in Paradise.

32. That Allah makes the light of those who walk through the darkness to the mosques
complete and perfect on the Day of Judgment.

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33. That the reward for the one who leaves his house in a state of purity for the obligatory
prayer is like the reward of the pilgrim in the state of ihraam.

34. That the one who leaves for the mosque has a guarantee from Allah in that he should
provide for him sustenance and suffice him (in his affairs).

35. That the one who walks for the prayer in congregation, after having beautified his
wudhu and travels to visit Allah the Exalted, is bestowed with a great favor in that Allah
honors those of his servants who visit Him, and Allah's honoring of them is increasing
their Eemaan, showing benevolence to them, rewarding them, raising their ranks,
removing their difficulties and making their hearts content and happy.

36. The obligation to pray in congregation.

37. That the Prophet (says) did not make a concession for the old blind man by allowing
him to leave the congregational prayer. How then can those who are fit and well be
allowed a concession?

38. That whoever abandons the congregational prayer has been threatened with
heedlessness and having a seal placed on his heart.

39. That staying away from the congregational prayer is a sign of hypocrisy.

40. The extreme striving of the Companions (ra) for attending the congregational prayer
in spite of difficult circumstances.

-------------------------

Footnotes

1 Its condition is that the Aqeedah of the person is correct, sound and in accordance with
the Pious Predecessors of this Ummah.

2 The condition for being removed from the fire due to the intercession of the angels (and
others) is that a person should be from the People of Tawheed. Intercession is only for the
People of Tawheed.

3 Due to his (sas) saying: "...He used to sleep half the night, then prayer for a third and
then go to sleep for a sixth of it." When a half is added to a sixth they give two-thirds.

[English Translation by Amjad ibn Muhammad Rafiq]


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24.00.00
SIGNIFICANCE
OF PHYSICAL POSTURES IN PRAYER
It is pity that so much effort is being wasted in transcendental meditation (TM) to revive
human consciousness (the soul) to the supreme Reality of the Universe. A cursory study
of history shows that this technique was never really effective even in the old days and
was only confined to a few hermits and Rishis. It was an intellectual exercise of the mind
which was practiced by a very few individuals of very high caliber to quench their thirst
for the Divine Union and was practically beyond the comprehension of the common man
in the street. It is a mental exercise which quietness the mind so long as the person is in
that state of meditation but has no permanent effect which can give an individual peace of
mind in a practical way.

Transcendental meditation (TM) without any conscious objective cannot bring permanent
peace of mind. It is a negative approach to human problems and history bears witness to
the fact that such intellectual and mental exercises have never achieved anything
permanent. It has, however, a temporary effect. It is true that one experiences a soothing
effect when in the state of transcendental meditation, but this effect is not confined to this
method alone. Any kind of mental exercise, in TM in Subud, or in any other form, will
affect the body's physiology and thereby cause changes in an electroencephalogram (EEG
or brain waves) and produce similar effects. But it is yet to be proved that such changes
do produce any effect of a permanent nature. The human mind is affected by various
kinds of creative mental exercises (based on the science of creative intelligence) but such
exercises have long been confined to intellectuals or hermits among Hindus or Christians.
They are beyond the comprehension of ordinary individuals. Moreover, mental exercises
which provide some temporary comfort to an individual cannot be effectively used to
solve the complicated problems of mankind.

Above all, it is a mental exercise in a vacuum without any conscious objective or goal.
One practices T.M without any clear goal before him going from nowhere to nowhere
and such an exercise cannot really be expected to produce fruitful and beneficial results
of any permanent value. In the olden days, Rishis and hermits did practice it, but they had
a clear vision of their objective. They wanted to achieve nearness to their Creator through
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creative reflections (meditations) O It was not an exercise in a vacuum, like modern T.M.
But even this did not achieve very encouraging results for it remained an intellectual
luxury of the few and was never considered a recipe for the ills of mankind..

Now the question arises: do we need such mental exercises for fun, or momentary
excitement and comfort, or something which may provide a real solution to our
problems? Obviously mankind is in need of something positive, practical and realistic
that may help to secure peace, and happiness at individual as well as at national level.
People have lost peace of mind through over-indulgence in pleasures and neglect of their
celestial and spiritual needs.

A philosophy of life which can bring proper coordination and understanding between the
physical and spiritual needs of man could solve many of the problems that face him
today. Man has lost his relationship with the Creator and is new wandering around in the
wilderness of abstract thinking in search of peace. Surely he can regain his peace of mind
through re-establishing his link with his Creator. And the shortest route to renew their
relationship is to open dialogue with Him through prayers.

It seems very likely that there exists every intimate relationship between the performance
of prayer and Divine favors. Presumably the physical postures and movements of prayer
have a deep significance and important function in revitalizing and re-igniting the
potential of enlightenment and energy inherent in every man. Prayer is composed of four
main postures or movements of the body, i.e., qiy'am, ruku, sajdah and qaadah. It is very
important that these four movements in the prayer are performed exactly in the same
manner as taught by the Messenger of God. We offer our prayer to God because the
Holy Prophet told us to do so. It is, therefore, absolutely essential that it must be
performed in its every detail in the way it was performed by the Messenger of God
himself.

Prayer is an obligatory duty and mere performance of it will no doubt absolve a believer
of his duty to God, but if he wants to nourish and develop his self and soul, he must
perform it in the way it was performed by the Messenger of God himself. The Holy
Prophet laid great emphasis on the right performance of every act of prayer.

Qiy'am must be performed properly; one must not bend forward or backward or lean
side wards but stand straight with eyes fixed at the place of sajdah and not looking
around.

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Ruku must be moderate, neither too low nor too high but in line with the body as taught
by the Holy prophet. There must be a reasonable gap between ruku and sajdah and
between the two sajdahs, as advised by the Holy Prophet.

The importance of the proper performance of each part of prayer is emphasized by the
Holy Prophet o Anas reported God's Messenger as saying, " perform the bowing and the
prostration properly, for I swear by God that I can see you behind me" According to Abu
Masud A1 Ansari the Messenger of God said, "A man's prayer do not avail him unless he
keeps his back steady when bowing and prostrating himself."(1) Abu Qatada reported the
Messenger of God as saying, "The one who commits the worst theft is he who steals from
his prayer." When asked how one could steal from his prayer, he replied, "By not
performing his bowing and prostration perfectly".

There are details of qiy'am, ruku and sajdah in the hadith to help the believers to offer
their prayer perfectly. According to A'isha, "God's Messenger used to begin prayer with
takbir and the recitation of Surah Fatiha when he bowed, he neither kept his head up nor
bent it down, but kept it between these extremes; when he raised his head after bowing he
did not prostrate himself until he had stood erect; when he raised his head after
prostration he did not prostrate himself again until he was in the proper sitting position."

If there is any slackness on the part of a believer in performance of any part of prayer, his
prayer becomes void and he does not gain anything from it.

According to Abu Hurairah, a man entered the mosque when the Messenger of God was
sitting in it and offered his prayer. He then came and said, "Peace be upon you" and
God's Messenger replied, "peace be upon you. Go back and offer your prayer, for you
have not prayed." He returned and prayed, then came and said, "Peace be upon you." The
Messenger of God replied, And peace be upon you. Go back and pray again, for you have
not prayed." On the third or fourth occasion he said, "Teach me, Messenger of good
God." So he said, "When you turn to the qibla and say, Allahu-Akbar, then recite a
convenient portion of the Qur’an; then bow and remain quietly in that position; then raise
yourself and stand erect; then prostrate yourself and remain quietly in that position; then
raise yourself and sit quietly."

This hadith confirms our assumption that performance of each part of prayer properly and
perfectly as taught by the Holy Prophet is essential. Any variation or alteration in the

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performance of any part of prayer from what was taught by the Holy Prophet renders it a
meaningless exercise.

This great emphasis on the proper performance of prayer, even in minute details, is a
testimony to the fact that there is a close relationship between the various postures and
movements in prayer and the acquisition of Divine favors and enlightenment. The Holy
Prophet emphasized again and again the deep significance of the actual performance of
the different parts of prayer. It must therefore be performed exactly in the way it was
taught by the Holy Prophet, otherwise it will not be a prayer but an exercise of the body
performed to please yourself or just an habitual act.

There seems to be an intimate relationship between the movements of prayer and Divine
blessings. If it is offered perfectly, then it helps man to benefit from his inner potential
energy in the development of his self and his soul. In daily prayer, God has given man the
shortest and the quickest method of obtaining His Grace and Blessings. People in the past
have spent ages, and sometimes, all their lives, to obtain a glimpse of His Glory and
many have failed and died in the wilderness of disillusionment. A very few have received
some form of enlightenment after years of hard and strenuous effort.

People have starved themselves to annihilate their physical self in order to strengthen
their soul and receive Divine Enlightenment, but without success.

Some have spent all their lives with very little food and water in the jungles and in the
valleys of mountains in the hope of rekindling and rejuvenating the dying light in their
souls but with no, or Only partial success.

Prayer is a wonderful gift of God. There is no need in Islam to go to the mountains or


jungles to kill your physical self in order to obtain dhyan (unbroken concentration) and
through these forms of self-annihilation to reach for salvation. Prayer provides all the
essential requisites for preparing the mind and transforming it into an extraordinary state
capable of receiving the Divine Light. It provides physical as well as mental exercise in
such a balanced way that neither is ignored orover emphasized.

This harmonious functioning of body and mind at the correct level and in the most
balanced way is achieved only through prayer. All the movements of the body from the
standing position to the prostrating position are the expression of the extreme humility of

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the body before the Supreme Being. It is, in fact, total submission of the physical self
before the Supreme Authority. Recitation of Divine words and praises of God in prayer
have a cumulative effect on the mental powers of man, And in this process of
submission of the body and the mind to the Divine Will through the synchronization of
movements and recitation of the Qur'anic verses in prayer, the spiritual power of man
becomes stronger and gains full control over the physical self and gradually lifts it up to
the Supreme Being.

This process of the total submission of the body and the mind before the Ultimate
Authority is explained in the words of the Holy Qur 'an: "When you threw (a handful of
dust), it was not your act, but God's."(8:17). The action of the Holy Prophet in throwing
stones at his enemies was entirely in obedience to the Command of God and there was
no personal motive or any realization of his own physical self. In fact every action of the
faithful servants of God, performed in obedience to His Command, can be ascribed to
God Himself.

According to Abu Hurairah, the Holy Messenger said: "God says, 'My servant becomes
closer to Me by performing those deeds which are obligatory on him And he gets close to
Me through constant observance of optional (nafila) prayer until he becomes My beloved.
When he becomes My beloved, I become his ears through which hears, his eyes through
which he sees, and his hand with which he holds, and his feet with which he walks." This
hadith shows that all the powers of his body and mind come under the Guidance of God
and man attains very close relationship with his Lord.

This harmonious working of the body and the mind helps in concentrating and thereby
activating the latent energies of the physical self. This process gradually transforms the
centrifugal (out-going) forces operating in mind and body into centripetal (inward-going)
and unifying forces which lift man from the world of matter into the world of spirit and
show him glimpses of the boundless spiritual world. In the course of the transformation
of the concealed energies of the physical self into active unifying forces, the mind is
slowly but surely released from the limitations of the physical self and is then able to
conceive and grasp the meaning of the manifestations of the Supreme Being.

At this stage, man is fully prepared and ready, provided he maintains the standard of
performance of his prayer, to receive the Blessings and Favors of the Supreme Power. In

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other words, he has reached the stage where he is in a position to establish close
communion with God. And why not? After all, man represents the two important aspects
of God's Creation, as stated by the Holy Qur’an in these words "That which I have
created with both My Hands." (38:75)

"Both hands" refers to the two aspects of God's Creation. He has a physical body, which
makes him one of the animals, and he has a soul, which makes him supreme over all
other creation, including angels. When he is at his best in prayer, he leaps towards his
spiritual world and establishes close contact with his Lord. And this is confirmed by a
hadith, according to which a Muslim achieves audience with God (hudhur) in prayer.
"Prayer is Miraj of the believers" Muslim jurists have taken this hadhur to mean the
presence of angels in prayer.

This may be explained in another way. The harmonious working of body and mind helps
to awaken the Spiritual or super-sensory powers in man. The greater the harmony
between the former two forces of man, the stronger the awakening of the super-sensory
power in man. The proper balance between the triangular forces of body, mind and spirit
acts like an electrical wire, which transfers the necessary electrical current from the main
generating station to the electrical lamp. Just as it is unthinkable to transfer electricity
direct from the main power house to a small electric lamp, similarly it is inconceivable to
receive Divine Light or communion with God without proper harmony between the afore
said forces.

It may, therefore, be said that a harmonious functioning of the triangular forces in man is
absolutely necessary before any progress can be made in this direction. Unless body,
mind and spirit (or the soul) are properly functioning in harmony, it is not possible for
man to rekindle his soul from the Light of the Power of God or to achieve any sort of
close communion with Him. People have in the past adopted various methods to achieve
this harmonious functioning of the triangular forces within the self but have often taken
years for very little or partial success.

Islam has given man a very short but effective recipe in the form of prayer to achieve the
required harmony between the triangular forces within him. Just study the form and the
words of the prayer and how it is performed, and you will notice the wonderful
combination it provides for body, mind and soul which no other religion or system has
yet suggested. This process of the activation of spiritual or super-sensory powers in man

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can also be explained in this way. Man is a psychosomatic organism- he has a body,
which is the external part of him and a mind, which is the internal part of him His body is
composed of matter which, in the ultimate physical analysis, consists of atoms. His mind
represents the entire world of ideas, beliefs, hopes, fears and aspirations. All these belong
to the world of consciousness, i.e. the inner side of man. This consciousness (mind) of
man plays a vital role in relating the soul of man to his environment. In other words, it is
a vital factor in relating spirit to matter.

There are thus two worlds in man: the physical, represented by body and, the spiritual,
represented by mind. The latter belongs to the invisible world which exists side by side
with the visible world disclosed by sense perception. The latter is dimensional while the
former is extra-dimensional. Internally man belongs to the invisible world, that is to say,
his soul or spirit belongs to that world, externally he belongs to the visible world, that is
to say, his body belongs to that world, but through consciousness man is related to both
the Worlds. If a man looks within his self he moves towards higher levels of
consciousness and a deeper understanding of spiritual values. If, on the other hand, he
devotes himself to the external world of matter, he tends to move away from the higher
Spiritual values to the lower values of the visible world.

Regular prayer helps to attain the right equilibrium between the spiritual and the material
worlds of man. He lives in the world of matter, works in it for his livelihood and satisfies
all his material

Needs, but, at the same time, he keeps his link with the spiritual world and further
strengthens it. Prayer enables him to develop and widen his perception of the extra
dimensional spiritual world to such an extent that he is able to perceive and understand
the things of a higher level of consciousness which he could hardly visualize before.
Establishment of prayer will strengthen the extra dimensional powers of man to such a
degree that he will be able to establish close relationship with the Ultimate Power.

It must, however, be emphasized that this link can not be maintained without the
establishment of regular prayer. Prayer is the means as well as the end. It helps man to
establish and maintain his link with God. If the institution of prayer or its proper
performance is lost, the link with the spiritual world will automatically be cut off. Man
has not yet known any other effective means of establishing and then maintaining his

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relationship with God. It is like a wire, as explained before, connected with the main
Generator. As soon as the wire is disconnected from the main source of power, the light
goes off, and all is darkness again. This wire is prayer.

Thus prayer, through multifarious ways beyond human comprehension, acts and reacts on
the human mind until the latter is enlightened spiritually with the Nur (Ultimate Light) of
the Universe. As all men do not possess similar or equal power, their personal
experiences may very considerably. Each man gains this experience according to his
own internal as well as external powers. But regular prayer does provide opportunities to
every believer to develop his latent energies within his self according to his potentialities
and thereby establish his link with God. The greater the perfection in the performance of
prayer, the closer the relationship with God.

Communion with the Divine Being is attained when prayer is performed perfectly and
properly in body, mind and soul as instructed by the Holy Prophet. This is why the Holy
Prophet said that prayer was a mi’raj for believers. It provides an opportunity to believers
to have direct and close relationship with God as did the Holy Prophet during the night
of the mi’raj. This is also explained by an- other hadith when the Holy Prophet said
"When you perform prayer, think that you are standing in front of God and seeing Him
with your eyes. And if it is not possible for you to see Him, at least think that He is
seeing you" When one achieves this mi’raj in prayer, he is bound to rise far above the
physical barriers of this ethereal world and enter into the world of the unknown,
experiencing new and wonderful things which he could never think of in his ordinary
state of mind. The Companions of the Holy Prophet often experienced this in their prayer.

Anas used to perform long ruku and sujud; people often thought he had forgotten that
he was offering his prayer. Abdullah bin Zubair often stood in qiyam like a lifeless pillar
and spent so much time in sajdah that pigeons of Baitullah sat on his back taking it to be
an inanimate object. Once, two Companions of the Holy Prophet were on night sentry
duty on the battlefield. One was sleeping and the other stood in prayer. One arrow
struck him while he was in prayer. He was bleeding but he completed prayer. After
completing his prayer, he woke up his colleague on duty and told him that he was reciting
one Surah of the Holy Qur’an when the arrow struck him but he did not want to finish
prayer without completing that Surah. Once an arrow struck Ali; It was very deep and
could not be pulled out. Ali asked his companion to pull it out while he was in prayer. He

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offered two rakat prayers and the arrow was pulled out of his leg, but he continued his
prayer without feeling any pain.

Dr. Iqbal recognizes the human quest for a Divine mission in these words. "But as I have
said before, religious ambition sees higher than the ambition of philosophy. Religion is
not satisfied with mere conception; it seeks a more intimate knowledge of and association
with the object of its pursuit (God). The agency through which this association is
achieved is the act of worship, ending in a spiritual illumination. The act of worship,
however, affects different types of consciousness differently. In the case of the prophetic
consciousness, it is mainly creative, i.e. tends to create a fresh ethical world wherein the
Prophet, so to speak, applies the pragmatic test to his revelations.

Thus you will see that, psychologically speaking, prayer is instructive in its origin. The
act of prayer, aiming at knowledge, resembles reflection Yet prayer at its highest is much
more than abstract reflection. Like reflection it too is a process of assimilation, but the
assimilative process in the case of prayer draws itself closely together and thereby
acquires a power unknown to pure thought. In thought, the mind observes and follows the
working of reality; in the act of prayer it ceases to be a seeker of slow-footed
universability and rises higher than thought towards Reality itself, becoming a conscious
participator in its life. There is nothing mystical about it. Prayer, as a means of spiritual
illumination, is a normal, vital act by which the little island of our personality suddenly
discovers its situation in a larger whole."

"Do not think I am talking of auto-suggestion. Auto suggestion has nothing to do with the
opening up of the sources of life that lie in the depths of the human ego. Unlike spiritual
illumination which brings fresh power by shaping the human personality, it leaves no
permanent life. Nor I am speaking of some occult and special way of knowledge. All that
I mean is to fix your attention on a real human experience which has a history behind it
and a future before it. The quest of nameless nothing, as disclosed in Neo-Platonism
mysticism be it Christian or Muslim-cannot satisfy the modern mind which, with its
habits of concrete thinking, demands a concrete living experience of God. And the
history of the race shows that the attitude of the mind embodied in the act of worship if a
condition for such an experience. In fact prayer must be regarded as a necessary
complement to the intellectual activity of the observer of Nature. (5)

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While discussing the real object of prayer, Dr, Iqbal says," prayer, then, whether
individual or associative, is an expression of man's inner yearning for a response in the
awful silence of the universe.

It is a unique process of discovery whereby the searching ego affirms itself in the very
moment of self negation, and thus discovers its own worth and justification as a dynamic
factor in the life of the universe. True to the psychology of mental attitude in prayer, the
form of worship in Islam symbolizes both affirmation and negation. Yet, in view of the
fact borne out by the experience of the race that prayer, as an inner act, has found
expression in a variety of forms, the Qur’an says: "To every people We have appointed
ways of worship which they observe. Therefore let them not dispute this matter with you,
but invite them to your Lord for you are on the right way, but if they dispute with you,
then say, God best knows what you do; He will judge between you on the Day of
Judgment, in the matters wherein you differ. (22:66-69)."

"The form of prayer ought not to become a matter of dispute. Which side you turn your
face is certainly not essential to the spirit of prayer. The Qur’an is perfectly clear on this
point: 'The East and West is God's, therefore whichever direction you turn, and there is
the face of God (2:109). And again, 'There is no piety in turning your faces towards the
East or West, but he is pious who believes in God, and the Last Day, and the Angels, and
the Books and the Prophets, who for the love of God gives his wealth to his kindred, and
to the orphans, and to ransom the slaves; who observes prayer and pays zakat, and fulfils
the contracts which he has made; and is patient in pain and hardship, and in time of
trouble; those are they who are just, and those are they who fear the Lord (2:177).' "Yet
we cannot ignore the important consideration that the posture of the body is a real factor
in determining the attitude of mind".

To sum up, prayer is the key which opens the gate of the kingdom of God. And,
according to Ibn 'Arabi, creative prayer becomes a dialogue between man and God and
provides an opportunity to the earthly creature to open up his heart before his creator. It is
creative because it is at once God's prayer and man's prayer. Such an effective prayer
opens up new horizons for man beyond the comprehension of an ordinary being. Surah
Fatiha in the prayer provides this opportunity to man to enter into such a dialogue and
enjoy the excitement and ecstasy of Divine vision.

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According to the hadith reported by Abu Hurairah, the Holy Messenger said, "God says
that I have divided the prayer between Myself and My servant into two parts. Half of it is
for Me and half for MY servant and I give whatever he asks me for. When the servant
says 'All praise is for the Lord of the universe,' God replies, 'My servant is grateful to me'.

When he says, 'Most Gracious, Most Merciful,' God says 'My servant has praised Me.'
When he says 'Master of the Day of Judgment, 'God says, "My servant has exalted Me'
When the servant says, 'You do we worship and Your help do we seek,' God says This
portion is shared between Me and My servant. I bestow whatever he asks.' When he says,'
Guide me to the straight path, the path of those whom You blessed, not of those who
earned Your anger or went astray.' God says, 'This is for My servant and bestow what he
has asked for."

This hadith throws some light on the unusual greatness and effectiveness of this prayer.
First, nothing can be better and more exalted than what is demanded in the prayer: the
servant is asking from God guidance to the right path to reach Him In other words, he is
requesting God to show him the way to get closer to Him. Second, it starts with thanks-
giving and those attributes of God which entitle him to His blessings Third, by saying,
'We obey You and ask Your help alone' he puts himself completely in the hands of God.
He has put his entire trust in Him and thrown himself at His door. He has cut all his
relations and come to build only one relation, i.e. with God. There is no reason why his
request should not be granted. The final words of the prayer provide the best intercession.

The servant prays for guidance to God and requests to be granted the ability and power to
tread that path which leads to Him. In these words, God has Himself taught man how to
reach Him, get near to Him and open a dialogue with Him.

[Prayer Its Significance and Its Benefits, Chapter-3: Afzalur Rahman:


Reference: 1. Mishkat; 2. Forty hadith; 3. Reconstruction of Religious Thought, Iqbal; 4.
Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn Arabi, Henry Corbin; 5. Tadabbur e Qur’an]

For the Muslims Who Pray Five times a day

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25.00.00
The Fourth Major Sin Not Praying
Here is some evidence that we not only have to pray 5 times a day, but that we have to do
it on time.

The following is from: Al Kabaair -The Major Sins by Sh. Adh-dhahabi

Allah most High says:

َ‫سففْوف‬ َ ‫شَهَواتِ َف‬ ّ ‫لَة َواّتَبُعوا ال‬


َ‫ص‬ّ ‫عوا ال‬ ُ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ف َأ‬ٌ ‫خْل‬َ ‫ن َبْعِدِهْم‬
ْ ‫ف ِم‬َ ‫خَل‬َ ‫َف‬
‫ن‬
َ ‫خُلو‬
ُ ‫ك َي فْد‬
َ ‫حا َف فُأوَلِئ‬
ً ‫صاِل‬
َ َ‫عِمل‬ َ ‫ن َو‬
َ ‫ب َوَآَم‬َ ‫ن َتا‬
ْ ‫ل َم‬ّ ‫﴾ ِإ‬19:59﴿ ‫غّيا‬
َ ‫ن‬ َ ‫َيْلَقْو‬
﴾19:60﴿ ‫شْيًئا‬
َ ‫ن‬
َ ‫ظَلُمو‬ْ ‫ل ُي‬
َ ‫جّنَة َو‬
َ ‫اْل‬
Then there succeeded them a generation which neglected prayers and followed lusts.
They will meet with destruction (Ghayy), excepting the one who repents and believes and
acts righteously. [Surah Maryam, 19:59-60]

Ibn abbas (RAA) explained that here does not mean that they completely abandoned
prayers, but that they delayed them to the end of their prescribed times. Sa'id bin
Musayyab, a great Imam following the generation of the Companions, elaborated on this,
saying: "A person neglects if he delays the

noon prayer up to the afternoon prayer time, afternoon prayer up to almost sunset prayer
time, sunset prayer up to evening prayer time, and evening prayer up to morning prayer
time, while delaying morning prayer until just before sunrise. If anyone dies without
repentance while continuing in this manner, Allah has promised Ghayy for him, and that
is a valley in Hell which is very deep and has foul food."

Allah Most High says:

﴾107:5﴿ َ ‫ساُهو‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫لِتِهْم‬
َ‫ص‬َ ‫ن‬
ْ‫ع‬
َ ‫ن ُهْم‬
َ ‫﴾ اّلِذي‬107:4﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫صّلي‬
َ ‫ل ِلْلُم‬
ٌ ‫َفَوْي‬
Woe to the worshippers who are unmindful of their prayer. [Surah Al-Ma'un,107:4-5]

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Saad bin Abi Waqqas said: "I asked Allah's Messenger (SAW) about the meaning of
'unmindful,' and he replied: 'It is delaying it (the prayer) up to the end of its prescribed
time.' (Bazar)

While Allah calls such people , they are lazy and perform the prayer very late. He has
promised them (Wayl), which signifies a great punishment.

Some say, "Wayl is a valley in Hell, exceedingly hot, and that is the place for those who
delay or miss the prayer, excepting the ones who repent and correct their habits."

Allah Most High says:

ْ ‫ل َوَمفف‬
‫ن‬ ِّ ‫ن ِذْكِر ا‬
ْ‫ع‬
َ ‫لُدُكْم‬
َ ‫ل أَْو‬
َ ‫ل ُتْلِهُكْم َأْمَواُلُكْم َو‬
َ ‫ن َآَمُنوا‬
َ ‫َيا َأّيَها اّلِذي‬
﴾63:9﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫سُرو‬ ِ ‫خا‬َ ‫ك ُهُم اْل‬
َ ‫ك َفُأوَلِئ‬
َ ‫ل َذِل‬
ْ ‫َيْفَع‬
O you who bleieve, let neither your wealth nor your children distract you from the
remembrance of Allah. And those who do so, they will be the losers (Qur’an, Surah Al-
Munafiqoon, 63:9)

The commentators say: "The 'remembrance of Allah' in this verse means the five daily
prayers. If anyone is so busy in buying and selling, or with his daily work of earning a
livelihood, or with his children, that he cannot perform prayers on time, he will be among
the losers."

The Prophet (SAW) said in this regard: "The first thing which will be judged among a
person's deeds on the Day of Resurrection is the prayer. If that is in good order, he will
pass the test and prosper, and if that is defective, he will fail the test and be a loser."
(Tirmidhi)

Informing us about the inhabitants of Hell, Allah Most High says:

‫ن‬
َ ‫مشش‬ ِ ‫ك‬ ْ ‫﴾ َقششاُلوا َلشش‬74:42﴿ ‫قَر‬
ُ ‫م َنشش‬ َ ‫سشش‬َ ‫م ِفششي‬ ْ ُ ‫سششل َك َك‬
َ ‫مششا‬ َ
‫﴾ وَك ُن ّششا‬74:44﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫كي‬ ِ ‫س‬ْ ‫م‬ ِ ْ ‫م ال‬ُ ِ‫ك ن ُط ْع‬ُ َ‫م ن‬ْ َ ‫﴾ وَل‬74:43﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫صّلي‬ ُ ْ ‫ال‬
َ ‫م‬
﴿ ‫دين‬
ِ ّ ‫ب ب ِي َوْم ِ ال‬ ُ ّ ‫﴾ وَك ُّنا ن ُك َذ‬74:45﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ضي‬ ِ ِ ‫خائ‬َ ْ ‫معَ ال‬ َ ‫ض‬ ُ ‫خو‬ ُ َ‫ن‬

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ْ َ ‫﴾ حتى أ‬74:46
‫ة‬
ُ َ ‫فاع‬ َ ‫م‬
َ ‫شش‬ ْ ‫فعُهُش‬ َ َ‫ف‬
َ ْ ‫مششا ت َن‬ ﴾74:47﴿ ‫ن‬
ُ ‫ش‬ ‫قي‬
ِ َ ‫ي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫شا‬
‫ش‬َ ‫ن‬ ‫تا‬
َ ّ َ
﴾74:48﴿ ‫ن‬ ّ ‫ال‬
َ ‫شافِِعي‬
(The people in Hell will be asked): "What caused you to enter Hell-fire?" They will say:
"We were not among those who prayed, nor did we feed the needy. We used to engage in
vain discourse with the vain-talkers, and we used to deny the Day of Judgment, until
there came to us that which is certain (ie. Allah's judgment)." Then no intercession by
any intercessors will benefit them. [Surah Muddathir, 74:42-48]

The Prophet (SAW) said: "The convenant between us and them (that is, believers) is
prayer, so if anyone abandons it he has become an infidel." (Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Abu
Dawood, Nisai, Tirmidhi). He also said: "What lies between a man and infidelity is the
abandonment of prayer." (Muslim)

Allah's Messenger (SAW) is reported to have said: "If anyone abandons the afternoon
prayer, his deeds are of no avail." (Bukhari). And he said: "If anyone abandons prayer
deliberately he has no claim upon Allah" (Sunan).

Abdullah bin amr bin al-As (RAA) said that the Prophet (SAW) mentioned prayer one
day saying, "If anyone keeps to it, it will be light, evidence, and salvation for him on the
day of Resurrection; but if anyone does not keep to it, it will not be for him light,
evidence, or salvation; and on the Day of

Resurrection, he will be associated with Qaran, Pharoah, Haman, and Ubayy bin Khalaf
(a great enemy of Islam from among the Quraish)." (Ahmad, Darimi and Baihaqi)

Some scholars have explained that the person who abandons prayer will be raised with
such a foursome because his neglect of prayer may be due to his involvement with his
property, his country, his administrative work, or his trade, Therefore, if he was involved
with his property, he will be resurrected with Qarun; if with his country, then with
Pharoah; if with his administrative work, then with Haman; and if with his trade, then
with Ubayy bin Khalaf, the trader among the unbelievers of Mecca.

Mu'adh bin Jabal (RAA) reported Allah's Messenger (SAW) as saying: "If anyone
abandons prayer intentionally he has no claim to Allah Most High." (Ahmad)

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Umar ibn al-Khattab (RAA) reported that a man asked the Prophet (SAW): "Messenger
of Allah, what action is dearest to Allah Most High?" The Prophet (SAW) replied:
"Prayer at its proper time. The one who does not pray has no religion. Prayer is the main
pillar of the religon (of Islam)." (Baihaqi)

After Umar had been stabbed, it was said to him, "As-salat, ya amir ul-mumineen!" (The
prayer, Leader of the Believers!) He said, "Yes, truly! If anyone misses the prayer, he
has no share in Islam," and thereupon he prayed while his wounds were bleeding.

Abdullah bin Shaqiq (RAA) said that the Companions of the Prophet (SAW) did not
consider the abandonment of any good deeds to be unbelief excepting the abandonment
of prayer.

When Ali (RAA) was asked about a woman who did not pray, he replied: "The one who
does not pray is an unbeliever." Ibn Masood said that the one who does not pray has no
religion, and Ibn Abbas said: "The one who leaves off a single prayer deliberately will
find, when he meets Allah Most High, that He is angry with him."

Allah's Messenger (SAW) said: "When a person meets Allah after neglecting his prayer,
he will meet him as if he had not worshipped him at all, nor done any good deeds." And
Ibn Hazm said: "There is no greater sin after polytheism than missing a prayer [That is to
say, if one deliberately delays a prayer until its time has passed, although he was able to
pray it on time, without any valid reason which permits delaying it before its time.] and
killing a believer without just cause."

Ibrahim Nakahi said: "The one who has left off the prayer has become a disbeliever."
Awn bin Abdullah said: "When a person is buried, the first question which will be asked
him will be concerning the prayer. If that is accepted from him, his other deeds will be
looked at, but if that is not accepted form him, no other deeds will be looked at."

Abdullah bin al-As reported Allah's Messenger (SAW) as saying: "A person who
combines two prayers without excuse, enters a gate among the major sins."

We seek Allah's guidance and help, for indeed. He is the Generous, the Magnanimous,
and the Most Merciful of all merciful ones!

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26.00.00
Has the Prayer Lost its Power?
[Syyid Abul A’la Mawdudi]

Brothers in Islam! Undoubtedly you often ask yourselves: Why is it that the Prayer, good
and beneficial as it is, seems to make no difference to our lives? Why does it neither
improve our morals, nor transform us into a force dedicated to Allah? Why do we
continue to live disgraced and subjugated?

The usual answer will be that you are not offering the Prayer regularly or in the manner
prescribed by Allah and the Messenger. Such an answer may not satisfy you. I shall
therefore try to explain the matter in some detail.

Parable of the Clock

Look at the clock fixed to the wall: there are lots of small parts in it, joined to each other.
When you wind it, all the parts start working and, as these parts move, the result appears
on the clock face outside it which you observe. Both hands move to denote each second
and each minute. The purpose of the clock is to indicate correct time. All those parts
which are necessary for this purpose have been fitted together and the winding system
has been made so that each of them moves as required. Only when all the parts have been
assembled correctly and the clock wound up properly will it begin fulfilling the purpose
for which it is made.

If you do not wind it, it will not show the time. If you wind it but not according to the
prescribed method it will stop or, even if it works, it will not give the correct time. If you
remove some of the parts and then wind it, nothing will happen. If you replace some of
the parts with those of a sewing

machine and then wind it, it will neither indicate the time nor sew the cloth. If you keep
all the parts inside the case but disconnect them, then no part will move even after
winding it up. The presence of all the parts will not serve the purpose for which the clock
is made because you will have disrupted their arrangement as well as their connection.

In all these situations, both the existence of the clock and the act of winding it become
useless, although an observer from a distance cannot say that it is not a clock or that you
are not winding it. He will surely consider that it is a clock and will expect it to be useful
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as a clock. Similarly, when from a distance he observes you winding it, he will take it as
a genuine effort on your part to do the job, hoping to notice the result which comes from
winding the clock. But how can this expectation be fulfilled when what looks like a clock
from a distance has in reality lost its 'existence'?

Aim of Muslim Ummah

Imagine Islam like this clock. Just as the purpose of the clock is to indicate the correct
time, so the aim of Islam is that you should live in this world as the vicegerents of God,
as witnesses of God unto mankind and as standard-bearers of truth. You must yourselves
follow the commandments of God and bring all other people under Him:

ِ‫عفن‬
َ ‫ن‬
َ ‫ف َوَتْنَهفْو‬
ِ ‫ن ِبففاْلَمْعُرو‬
َ ‫س َتفْأُمُرو‬
ِ ‫ت ِللّنففا‬
ْ ‫جف‬َ ‫خِر‬ْ ‫ُكْنُتْم خَْيَر ُأّمٍة ُأ‬
﴾3:110﴿ ‫ل‬ ِّ ‫ن ِبا‬
َ ‫اْلُمْنَكِر َوُتْؤِمُنو‬
You are indeed the best community brought forth for mankind: you enjoin the doing of
right and forbid the doing of wrong, and you believe in God. [Al- Imran, 3:110].

﴾2:143﴿ ِ ‫عَلى الّنا‬


‫س‬ َ ‫شَهَداَء‬
ُ ‫طا ِلَتُكوُنوا‬
ً‫س‬
َ ‫جَعْلَناُكْم ُأّمًة َو‬
َ ‫ك‬
َ ‫َوَكَذِل‬
And thus We have made you a just community, that you might be witnesses unto
mankind. [Al-Baqarah, 2:143]

‫خِلَفّنُهْم ِفففي‬
ْ ‫سفَت‬
ْ ‫ت َلَي‬
ِ ‫حا‬
َ ‫عِمُلففوا الصّففاِل‬
َ ‫ن َآَمُنففوا ِمْنُكفْم َو‬
َ ‫لف اّلفِذي‬
ُّ ‫عفَد ا‬
َ ‫َو‬
﴾24:55﴿ ‫ض‬ ِ ‫لْر‬ َْ ‫ا‬
God has promised those of you who believe and do righteous deeds that He will surely
make you to accede to power on earth. [Al-Nur, 24: 55]

ِ ‫ه ل ِّلشش‬
‫ه‬ ُ ّ ‫ن ك ُل‬
ُ ‫دي‬
ّ ‫ن ال‬ ُ َ ‫ة وَي‬
َ ‫كو‬ ٌ َ ‫ن فِت ْن‬ ُ َ ‫حّتى َل ت‬
َ ‫كو‬ ْ ُ‫وََقات ُِلوه‬
َ ‫م‬
﴾8:39﴿

And fight them, until there is no rebellion [against God], and all submission is to God
alone. [Al-Anfal, 8: 39]

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Wholeness of Islamic Teachings

To fulfill this purpose, various parts as were required, like those of the clock, have been
brought together in Islam. Beliefs and principles of morality; rules for day-to-day
conduct; the rights of God, of His slaves, of one's own self, of

everything in the world which you encounter; rules for earning and spending money;
laws of war and peace; principles of government and limits of obedience to it - all these
are parts of Islam. As in a clock, they are linked to each other in such a way that as soon
as the winding is done, every part starts moving and, with the movement of all these
parts, the desired result is obtained. Rule of God’s law in the world, domination of Islam,
start manifesting just as, with the movement of the parts of the clock in front of you, the
time appears on its face.

In order to fasten together different parts of the clock, screws and small pieces of metal
have been used. Similarly, to join all the parts of Islam together, there is an arrangement
called the Jama'ah or organization. Muslims should organize themselves, and have
leaders equipped with proper

knowledge and endowed with taqwa; the brains should help them and the limbs should
obey them, as they all strive to live under God.

When all the parts have been brought together and properly assembled, regular winding is
necessary to set them in motion and to continue their movement: Salah which is offered
five times a day provides that winding, creating the energy which sets an Islamic life in
motion. Cleaning this clock is also necessary: fasting observed for thirty days a year
cleanses hearts and morals. Lubrication, too, is required: Zakah is like the oil which is
applied to its parts once a year. Then it is also necessary to overhaul it periodically: Hajj
is that overhauling which should be performed at least once in a lifetime. And the more
often it is done, the better.

Abusing the Clock

The processes of winding, cleaning, lubricating and overhauling are of use only when all
the parts are present in the frame, when they are linked in the order designed by the

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clock-maker, and when all are so trained that immediately on winding they start moving
and begin showing results.

Alas, today the situation has become very different. For a start, the very Jama'ah, the
organizational structure, which was supposed to link the parts of the clock together has
ceased to exist. The result is that all the fittings have come apart, each has gone its own
way. Everybody does whatever takes his fancy. There is nobody to question anything.
Everyone is autonomous. If someone wants to follow the Islamic code, he can; if he does
not want to, he need not.

Since even this so-called freedom has not satisfied you, you have pulled out many parts
of the clock and in their place put anything and everything: a spare part from a sewing
machine, perhaps, or from a factory or from the engine of a car. You call yourselves
Muslims, yet you render loyal service to Kufr, yet you take interest, you insure your
lives, you file false law suits, your daughters, sisters and wives are forsaking Islamic
manners and your children are being given secular materialistic educations. Some have
become disciples of Gandhi; others are following Lenin. Which un-Islamic gadget is
there that you have not fixed into the frame of the clock of Islam?

Despite this, you expect the clock to work when you wind it! And you suppose that
cleaning, lubricating and overhauling it will also be of use. With a little reflection,
however, you should see that in the condition to which you have reduced the clock you
can wind it, lubricate it, and overhaul it, for the whole of your lives without any effect.
Nothing will happen until you remove the parts brought in from other appliances, replace
them with the original parts, and restore the original priorities. Then, and only then, will
the winding and so forth produce any results.

Why Worship Rites Are Ineffective

This state of affairs is the real reason why your Salah, Sawm, Zakah and Hajj make no
impact upon your lives.

First, there are so few among you who perform these acts of worship. Due to the
dissolution of Islamic Jama'ah everybody has become autonomous. Whether you fulfil
your obligations or not, there is nobody to care. Nor do those who do apparently carry out
their obligations do so in a proper manner. They are not constant in attending the
congregational Prayer. People are selected to lead the Prayers in the mosques simply

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because they are fit for no other work: people who exist on the free bread doled out to
mosques, who are uneducated, who lack moral calibre. How can congregations led by
them turn you into the leaders of mankind? Similar is the situation regarding your
Fasting, Almsgiving andPilgrimages.

Despite all these facts, you may argue, there are nonetheless many Muslims who do
discharge their religious duties conscientiously. Why does that make no difference? But,
as I have said, when the parts of the clock have become unhinged and numerous foreign
bodies have been inserted in it, it makes no difference if you wind it or not, clean it or
not, lubricate it or not. From a distance it does look like a clock. An outside observer may
say: This is Islam and you are Muslims. But what he cannot see is how badly its inside
machinery has been tampered with.

Our Deplorable Condition

Brothers! You understand why it is so that you pray and fast and yet remain trampled
under the heel of cruel tyrants. But, should I tell you something even more distressing?
Although most of you no doubt regret this situation but, I would say, 999 people out of
1000 are not prepared to change their situation. They have no urge in their hearts to
assemble the clock of Islam again properly. They are afraid that any such reconstruction
would mean that their own favourite imported parts would be thrown out, and this they
are not prepared to accept. They are afraid that any tightening of various parts would
mean that they will have to discipline themselves, and this they are not willing to
undertake.

Instead, they prefer that the clock remains a piece of decoration on the wall for people to
be shown and told how wonderful Islam is, what miracles it can perform. Those who are
supposed to love this clock more than others would like to wind it repeatedly and
zealously and to clean it most laboriously; but they want to do nothing to reset its parts
properly or tighten them, nor will they seek to get rid of the extraneous parts.

I wish I could endorse your attitudes and behaviour, but I cannot say anything which I
believe is wrong. I assure you that if, in addition to praying five times a day, you were to
offer Tahadjud (pre-dawn), Ishraq (post-sunset) and Chasht

(mid-morning) Prayers, read the Qur'an for hours every day, and observe, over and above
Ramadan, extra fasts for five and a half months in the remaining eleven months, you

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would still achieve nothing. What is needed is to restore the original parts to the clock
and fix them firmly. Then even the little necessary winding will make it work smoothly;
and the minimal amount of required cleaning and lubrication will be needed.

Wa ma 'alayna illa 'l-balagh

There is no responsibility on us except conveying the truth.

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27.00.00
GO BACK AND PRAY,
FOR YOU HAVE NOT PRAYED!
By: Muhammad Al-Shareef, LL.B. Shari’ah
http://alshareef.homepage.com/khutbah.html

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful


During the night, Abu Lu’lu’ Al Majoosi hid in the shadows in preparation for the Fajr
Salah where he would execute his satanic mission: to Murder the Ameer of the Believers
‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab(Radi Allahu Anhu).’ Umar would lead the Fajr with a long surah,
giving time for the community to join the congregation. As he led that Salah, Abu Lu’lu
advanced from a dim pillar, a poisoned dagger hidden in his sleeve. He jumped in front
of Umar(Radi Allahu Anhu) and tore open his stomach with the dagger. Abu Lu’lu’ then
attempted an escape through the congregation, slashing left and right, murdering in his
path many others. One Companion threw a cloth over and – realizing that he was caught
– Abu Lu’lu’ killed himself. Umar completed the Fajr Salah and passed away later in his
bed(Radi Allahu Anhu).

The importance of the prayer in Islam cannot be understated. It is the first pillar of Islam
that the Prophet (peace be upon him) mentioned after mentioning the testimony of faith,
by which one becomes a Muslim. It was made obligatory upon all the prophets and for all
peoples. Allah declared its obligatory status under majestic circumstances. For example,
when Allah spoke directly to Moses, He said:

"And I have chosen you, so listen to that which is inspired to you. Verily, I am Allah!
There is none worthy of worship but I, so worship Me and offer prayer perfectly for My
remembrance." [Taha 13-14]

Similarly, the prayers were made obligatory upon the Prophet Muhammad (peace be
upon him) during his ascension to heaven. Furthermore, when Allah praises the believers,
such as in the beginning of surah al-Muminoon, one of the first descriptions He states is

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their adherence to the prayers. [Successful are the believers, those that offer their Salah
with all earnestness and full obedience. Al-Mu’minoon, 23:1-2]

The importance of prayer is demonstrated in many of the Prophet’s statements. For


example, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

"The first matter that the slave will be brought to account for on the Day of Judgment is
the prayer. If it is sound, then the rest of his deeds will be sound. And if it is bad, then the
rest of his deeds will be bad." [Recorded by al-Tabarani. According to al-Albani, it is
sahih. Al-Albani, Sahih al-Jami, vol.1, p. 503]

In reality, when the prayer is performed properly – with true remembrance of Allah and
turning to Him for forgiveness – it will have a lasting effect on the person. After he
finishes the prayer, his heart will be filled with the remembrance of Allah. He will be
fearful as well as hopeful of Allah. After that experience, he will not want to move from
that lofty position to one wherein he disobeys Allah. Allah mentioned this aspect of the
prayer:

"Verily, the prayer keeps one from the great sins and evil deeds" (Al-Ankaboot 45).

However amongst our community of Musalleen (those who perform Salah) we find some
hazy actions that need to be brought back into focus.

Some do not concentrate on what they are saying.

Some speed when they pray.

Some wander with their gaze during Salah,

· The number of raka’aat performed is constantly forgotten.

· For some, the Dunya hugs their hearts during Salah and clouds their minds.

· Sometimes, before the Imam says Allahu Akbar, some in the congregation are already
in the next prostration.

Compare this to those that came before us: People used to think that ar-Rabee' bin
Khaitham, due to his constant lowering of his gaze and keeping his head low (in Salah),
was blind. He used to live behind the house of Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood for twenty years

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and when his servant girl used to see him she would say: Your blind friend is coming,
and Abdullaah used to laugh at her speech.

In Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurayrah - Radi Allahu Anhu, a man entered the
Masjid and the Messenger of Allah - Sal Allaahu alayhi wa Sallam - was sitting. The
man prayed (2 raka’) and then came to the Prophet - Sal Allaahu alayhi wa Sallam - and
said salam. The Prophet - Sal Allaahu alayhi wa Sallam - replied the salam and then said,
“Go back and pray for you have not prayed.” So the man went back, prayed (2 raka’)
like he did the first time and then came back and repeated the salam. The Prophet - Sal
Allaahu alayhi wa Sallam - replied the salam and then said, “Go back and pray for you
have not prayed.” So the man went back, prayed (2 raka’) like he did the first time and
then came back and repeated the salam. The Prophet - Sal Allaahu alayhi wa Sallam -
replied the salam and then said, “Go back and pray for you have not prayed.” He said it
three times until – on the third time the man said, “By He who sent you with the truth O
Messenger of Allah, I do not know any better than this. Teach me.” The Prophet - Sal
Allaahu alayhi wa Sallam - then said, “If you stand up for Salah say ‘Allahu Akbar.’
Then read what comes easy for you from the Quran. Then bow until you are comfortable
in your ruku’. Then stand up until you are standing up straight. Then prostrate until you
are comfortable in your Sujood. Then sit until you are comfortable in your Juloos. Then
prostrate until you are comfortable in your Sujood. And do this in your entire Salah.”

Let’s go back and do our Salah again. This is our topic for today.

Why do we come to the Masjid, why do we perform Salah? We do it in application of


the command of our Creater Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala. Why should we then lose the
blessing and reward because of a wandering heart and an itchy hand? Concentration is
the soul of our Salah. Concentration is the fruit of our Eeman. Yet regardless of this
understanding, people still leave their Salah and only a small portion of it is written for
them because of their imperfection of it.

The Prophet - Sal Allaahu alayhi wa Sallam - said, “Verily, a man will leave from (his
Salah) and only a tenth of his Salah is written for him, a ninth, an eighth, a seventh, a
sixth, a fifth, a forth, a third, half.” [Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi]

Uthman ibn Abi Dahshah said, “I have never prayed a Salah that I have not asked Allah
Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala to forgive for my shortcomings in that Salah.”

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Someone who short changes his Salah is a thief. The Prophet(Sal Allaahu alayhi wa
Sallam) said: “The evilest thief is he who steals from his Salah.” They asked, “O
Messenger of Allah, how does he steal from his Salah?” He - Sal Allaahu alayhi wa
Sallam - said, “He does not perfect it’s ruku’ and Sujood.” – Authentic

Because of the speed some apply to their Salah, it is as if they are pecking up and down
like a bird. Narrated Ahmad, Abu Dawood and others, the Prophet(Sal Allaahu alayhi wa
Sallam) forbade that someone should peck (in Salah) like a crow…”

Umar(Radi Allahu Anhu) once stood on the pulpit and addressed the community with a
loud powerful voice, “A man may grow old in Islam and never have completed to Allah a
single Salah!” They said, “How is this?” He said, “He does not perfect his
concentration, or his humbleness, or his focus on Allah - Azza wa Jall.”

Once, Ma’roof Al-Karkhee – Rahimahu AllahimahUllah – stood amongst some of his


students and one said to the other, “Please lead the Isha Salah.” The first student
accepted but said, “I shall lead the Isha’ Salah on condition that you lead the Fajr Salah
and not me.” Ma’roof Al-Karkhe was shocked at what he said and commented, “By
Allah, if you think that you’ll be alive at Fajr then – by Allah – you have not yet
perfected your Salah.”

Part II How to Concentrate in Salah:

Al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad(Rahimahu Allah) said, “I went out one day, and whenever I
would go out I would always pass by Aisha - Radi Allahu Anha - and give her my
Salam. That day I went out and when I found Aisha she was praying Salat al-Duha,
reciting over and over the verse of Allah Saying:

‘Aforetime we were afraid with our families (from the Punishment of Allah). But Allah
was gracious on us and saved us from the torment of the Fire.” [At-Tur, 52:26-27]

She was crying and invoking Allah - Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala - and repeating the verse. I
stood there waiting until I got tired; she remained as I found her. When I saw this I said
to myself, ‘let me go to the market, do what I have to do and come back.’ So, after I had
finished what I needed to do at the market, I returned to Aisha - Radi Allahu Anha. She
was as I left her, repeating the verse, invoking Allah, and crying.

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How do we concentrate in Salah?

From the Sunnah, the Prophet(Sal Allahu Alayhi wa sallam)taught the following:

1. Come early for Salah and prepare yourself to concentrate. Repeat the Adhan to
yourself with the Mu’adhdhin, and - after the adhan - say the prescribed supplication.
Between the Adhan and Iqamah make dua’. Do Wudu properly, cleanse your mouth, and
wear your finest clothes.

2. Aim to get the entire reward of your Salah.

Abu Bakr ibn ‘Iyaash said, “I saw Habeeb ibn Thabit in Sujood. If you saw him you
would think he was dead (by how long he held his Sujood).”

3. Contemplate the aayaat and adhkaar being recited during the prayer.

Think about the meanings of the verses that you are reciting. Isn’t is disheartening that
someone may perform Salah for decades, day after day, and he/she still does not know
what they are saying?

The Qur’aan was revealed to be pondered over! Allaah revealed: “(This is) a Book (the
Qur’aan) which We have sent down to you, full of blessings that they may ponder over
its Verses, and that men of understanding may remember.” [Saad 38:29].

4. Pray in congregation. Allah Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala commands:

And perform Salah, give Zakah, and bow with those that bow. [Al-Baqarah, 2:43]

5. Never miss your Nafl Salah, especially those that the Prophet(Sal Allaahu alayhi wa
Sallam) used to pray constantly, especially Witr and the sunnah of Fajr.

6. Do not speed up your Salah. Take your time and do not allow your Salah to become
the most invaluable action of your day.

Ibn Wahb said, “I saw Ath-Thowree at the Ka’bah. After Maghrib, he got up to pray and
then prostrated. He did not come out of that prostration until the Adhan for Isha’ was
given.”

7. Know that Allah responds to your prayer:

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The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Allah, the Blessed and
Exalted has said: ‘I have divided the prayer between My-self and My slave, into two
halves, and My slave shall have what he has asked for.” When the slave says ‘Praise be to
Allah, Lord of the Worlds,’ Allah says, ‘My slave has praised Me.’ When the slave says,
‘The Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy,’ Allah says, ‘My slave has extolled me.’
When the slave says, ‘Master of the Day of Judgment,’ Allah says, ‘My slave has
glorified me.’ When the slave says, ‘It is You alone we worship and it is You alone we
ask for help,’ Allah says, ‘This is between Me and My slave, and My slave shall have
what he asked for.’ When the slave says, ‘Guide us to the Straight Path, the path of those
whom You have favoured, not the path of those who receive Your anger, nor of those
who go astray,’ Allaah says, ‘All these are for My slave, and My slave shall have what he
asked for.’” [Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab al-Salaah, Baab wujoob qiraa’at al-Faatihah fi kulli
rak’ah).

8. Pray with a barrier (sutrah) in front of you and pray close to it:

Another thing that will help one to have khushoo’ is paying attention to the matter of
having a sutrah and praying close to it, because this will restrict your field of vision,
protect you from the Shaytaan and keep people from passing in front of you, which
causes a distraction and reduces the reward of the prayer.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “When any one of you
prays, let him pray facing a sutrah, and let him get close to it.” (Reported by Abu
Dawood, no. 695, 1/446; Saheeh al-Jaami’, no. 651).

9. Seeking Refuge in Allah from the Shaytaan.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught us the following
methods of combatting the whispers of Shaytaan.

Abul-‘Aas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that he said, “O Messenger of
Allah, the Shaytaan interrupts me when I pray, and I get confused in my recitation.” The
Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “That is a shaytaan
whose name is Khanzab. If you sense his presence, seek refuge with Allah from him, and

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spit [dry spitting] towards your left three times.” [Abul-‘Aas] said: “I did that and Allah
took him away from me.” (Reported by Muslim, no. 2203)

10. Pray as if you were told that after Salah you would be going back to Allah.

Abu Bakr Al-Muzanee said, “If you want your Salah to benefit you, and then say, ‘I shall
die after this Salah!’”

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28.00.00
Why are we not able to wake up for Fajr?
Our Prophet (sallallaahu-alaihi-wasallam) is our exemplar who provided the best example
in spending long hours of the night in prayer and waking in time for Fajr Prayer. This
record was authentically known of him both in his teachings and his living example as he
did not like sleeping before Ishaa [night] Prayer and discouraged his followers from
useless talk after it.

In this he was followed by his companions and all the Muslims up to a time not very far
from our own days. They knew the reasons which cause laziness and lessen motivation to
observe prayers in time (be such prayers Fard [obligatory] or Nafla [optional]) and
warned people against them so much that some of them are reported to have said: "If you
are unable to pray at night, then that is a clear sign that your sins have shackled you and
deprived you of good deeds". Al-Hasan al-Basri was once asked: "Why is it that we
cannot uphold prayers at night?" He answered: "You are shackled in your own sins".

Motivation is presently lacking among Muslims. Otherwise they would not have given in
to sleep even if they had to stay awake in the first part of the night. When one of them is
required by his work arrangements or for his own worldly benefit to wake early at dawn,
he would no doubt take the necessary precaution not to miss his appointment. He will
forsake his peace of mind and have a restless sleep just for fear he might be punished or
have his salary reduced. When it comes to prayer, they have no excuse especially when in
our modern times Allah has provided us with alarm clocks which would be set at any
time we wish. The problem therefore, is one of laziness. Such people do not know what
they are missing. The Prophet (sallallaahu-alaihi-wasallam) said with respect to those
who do not observe Ishaa and Fajr prayers: "Had one of them known that he would find
a wholesome meal or two good targets, he would have come for Ishaa prayer."

All in all, for him who sincerely wants to purify his soul from the attributes of the
hypocrites, let him steer clear of laziness, be active, put into practice the action inspiring
instructions laid out in our religion, accustom himself to take the initiative and realize
what he and everybody in his position are missing in terms of the health of the body and
great reward from Allah. Only then will his performance improve, Allah willing, and he
will make up for what he has missed and follow the lead of the best of generations.

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Allah, the Most High and Exalted, is the Provider of success and assistance. Peace and
Blessings be upon Prophet Muhammed, his household and followers. [Signed: Abdullah
Ibn Abdur-Rahmaan al-Jibreen]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Text

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Most surely all praise belongs to Allah, we praise Him and we seek His Aid and
Forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah from the evils of our souls and from the evils of our
actions. Whomsoever Allah guides there is none to misguide and whomsoever He
misguides there is none to guide. I send prayers and blessing upon our leader Muhammed
with the best of prayers and the most complete submission.

To proceed: One of the ill-seeming phenomena and most serious precedents boding
impending danger and punishment, giving reason to fear and calling for most urgent
consideration on our part requiring immediate investigation into its causes and treatment
of its symptoms is the fact that a growing number of observers of prayer deliberately
shun Fajr prayer in congregation and only perform it at times other than its lawful time.

It may be the case that this is due to their wasting away long hours at night engaged in
idle and leisure pursuits. Our ancestors not very long ago used to make a point of going to
bed early, to lock their doors after Ishaa prayer and to make their dinner light so as to be
able to wake up for Fajr prayer in an energetic state. That is why they led a happy,
peaceful and healthy life experiencing the real taste of life.

The advent of modern civilization spoiled both our religious observances and our worldly
arrangements. As a result, we have fallen into laziness and inertia; our bodies grew fat
and flabby; we move about less frequently whilst showing a greater readiness to sleep
and a marked inability to perform the most trivial of manual actions.

The present paper attempts therefore to suggest ways which may be of help in inducing
us to wake up for Fajr Prayer; for instance:

ONE: To make sure to go to bed early as the Prophet (sallallaahu-alaihi-wasallam)used


to discourage sleep before performing Ishaa prayer and especially engaging in
conversation after it. Certain cases were accepted, some of which are enumerated by

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Imam Nawawi in his explanation of Muslim's account. Nawawi, may Allah have mercy
upon him says:

The reason why conversation after it is discouraged is the fear lest it leads to staying
awake for long , which might induce drowsiness and difficulty with observing night
prayers or Subh [dawn] prayer in their permitted, preferred or best times. The topics
covered by this restriction are all fulfilling no good useful purpose. However, as to useful
verbal activities, such as the pursuit of knowledge, listening to the wise tales of righteous
people, talking to one's guest or bride, or members of one's family for the sake of
company, interacting with travelers with a view to protect themselves and their goods,
embarking on talks designed to conciliate between people or intercede before them in a
good cause or to enjoin good and forbid evil and admonish people by pointing to a
beneficial course of action to follow etc. there are no such restrictions.

TWO: To be assiduous in observing the Aadaab [good manners prescribed in Islam] as


to what to do before sleep such as making Du'aa [supplication], bringing one's palms
together, very mildly spitting into them and reciting the last three soorah's of the Qur'an
into them and them wiping them over one's face, head and body, being physically and
religiously pure and performing a two rakah voluntary prayer after wudhoo [ablution].

A muslim has to ask his wife, parents, relatives or neighbors to help waking him up.
Once waken up, he should not linger lazily for long in bed, lest he acquires the vices of
the hypocrites who come to prayer showing ample signs of laziness and lack of
enthusiasm.

THREE: To fill one's heart with faith and good deeds. Once faith is alive in the heart, it
induces the person to do good deeds and strive unremittingly hard. Faith is like a tree
which only yields good fruit when irrigated from the streamlets of good deeds, thus
bringing about an improvement both in personal conduct and at the international level
with society at large.

The lack of such streamlets or water supplies proportionately causes faith to wither and
wilt. The heart is highly sensitive to external hardening stimuli, such as excess food or
drink or aberrations in watching or listening (letting your eyes and ears loose to what is
unlawful for them). You should therefore protect your heart from such external
allurements.

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FOUR: To keep away from Ma'aasi [acts of disobedience to Allah] by protecting the
eyes, the tongue, the hearing and all the senses from indulging in the perception of
objects that Allah has made unlawful for us. As an alternative, one should concern
himself with matters pertaining to the worship of Allah, such as devoting one's sight to
the reading of Allah's Book, meditating over the creatures that Allah has created in this
universe, reading books of knowledge etc. One member of the rightly guided early
generations was asked about the reason why people found it difficult to uphold voluntary
prayers at night. He answered: "Your sins have shackled you". No doubt sins can be a
major cause for a persons inability to enjoy the blessings of piety. As Imaam Ibn ul-
Qayyim said, sins are wounds and some wounds can be fatal.

FIVE: To bear in mind the great reward for attending Fajr prayer in congregation on
time, and the strong rebuke for him to fails to observe it and to satisfy its conditions.

Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan related: I heard Allah's Messenger (sallallaahu-alaihi-wasallam)


say: "He who prays Ishaa in Jamaa'ah [congregation] is as if he has prayed for half the
night. As to him who (also) prays Fajr in congregation, it is as if he has prayed all night."
[narrated by Maalik and the wording is that of Muslim who also reported it].

Similarly, Bukhaaaree and Muslim and An-Nasaaee related on the authority of Ibn
Mas'ud (radiallaahu-anhu) that he said: The case of a man who slept all the night up to
sunrise (without waking up for Fajr) was related to the Prophet(sallallaahu-alaihi-
wasallam) whereupon he said: "That was a man in whose ear Shaytaan has urinated", or
he said "in both his ears".

The urinating is literally true, as Imaam Qurtubi says, since Shaytaan urinates and has
sexual intercourse and procreates in a manner that Allah alone knows (1). To ascertain
for yourself the truth of this assertion, look at the faces of those who come to deal in their
daily business without having prayed Fajr in congregation at due time; look at their faces
at working hours. You will surely ask Allah for refuge from a lot as miserable as theirs.
But, after all what do you expect from a person in whose heart Shaytaan has urinated!!!

SIX: To realise the bad effects resulting from one's failure to pray Fajr, such as the
melancholic and depressive state of mind and the loss of many religious and worldly
benefits, and the good effects resulting from managing to perform it. In this respect the
Prophet (sallallaahu-alaihi-wasallam) said:

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"Shaytaan ties three knots on the crown of any one of you in your sleep. He says upon
each knot that he ties: "You have a long night before you, therefore sleep". But if you
wake up and mention Allah, Most Exalted in remembrance one knot will be untied. If
you then make ablution another knot will be undone. If you then proceed to pray the last
knot will be disentangled. Thus, you will feel in the morning energetic and in good
spirits. Otherwise you will feel in a despicable state, lazy". [Narrated by Maalik,
Bukhaaree, Muslim and Abu Dawood]

The time following Fajr prayer is full of goodness and blessings. At-Tirmidhee narrated
upon the authority of Al-Ghamdi that the Prophet (sallallaahu-alaihi-wasallam) said: "O
Allah blesses my Ummah in its early rising!" and whenever he dispatched an expedition
or army he sent them early at the beginning of the day. Sakhr was a merchant who always
sent his merchandise early in morning thus, becoming wealthy (3). That is why we find
the craftsmen and traders are particular about making good use of this time. Those who
sleep up to the late morning have denied themselves the blessings of this early hour.

There are many benefits to the health derived from waking up for Fajr prayer. For
instance, the highest proportion of ozone gas (O3) in the atmosphere is registered at
dawn. It then gradually fades away until complete disappearance by sunrise. This gas has
a very beneficial effect on the nervous system as it vivifies the brain and energizes the
muscles such that when a person inhales the beautiful breeze of the dawn, known as the
SABAA wind, he will experience a pleasure that is unparalleled at any other time of the
day or night (4).

SEVEN: To lose no time to categorically clear yourself from the stigma of hypocrisy.
Because of the difficulty of waking for this time, praying Fajr in congregation provides
evidence that a person has firm faith and is free from hypocrisy. That is why in a hadeeth
narrated by Bukhaaree and Muslim, the Prophet (sallallaahu-alaihi-wasallam) said:

"Indeed, the most difficult of prayers to bear, for the hypocrites, are Ishaa [night] and Fajr
prayers. If only they knew what they are missing, they would sooner come, even if
crawling on their knees".

The most worthy companion, Abdullaah and Ibn Mas'ood (radiallaahu-anhu) asserts "The
only one indeed who misses them [i.e. Ishaa and Fajr prayers] is a confirmed hypocrite"
(5).

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Ibn Umar (radiallaahu-anhu) said "When we find a man missing from the Ishaa and Fajr
prayers we nurture suspicions about him"(6).

If you want a criterion for evaluating a person's degree of faith and truthfulness monitor
his observance of Fajr prayer. If he passes the test, that should be taken as a sign
indicating the strength of his Eeman [belief, faith]. Let us then testify to his truthfulness
since he managed to achieve the greatest victory over himself and to be superior to the
pleasure of sleeping in bed. If he fails the test, this is an index to his weakness in faith,
hardness in his heart, an indulgence in Self-gratification and a defeat against his own
whims.

How is it then that he who indulges in sleep and misses prayer should conceivably feel
comfortable while people are delighting in the mosques in the company of the Qur'aan,
listening rapturously to Allah's message, and basking happily in His gardens. He who
prefers the pleasures of the bed to the pleasure of the communion with Allah is the real
loser.

These are a few suggestions to help you wake up for Fajr prayer. May Allah make them
useful. Glory be to Allah, Most Exalted over any false attributions and thanks be to Allah,
the Lord of all Beings.

[Written by an anonymous student of Islamic knowledge with an introduction by Sheik


Abdullah Ibn Jibreen]

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29.00.00
Why Does man need to Pray?
After a long and hectic day at work, how difficult it is for a tired person to stand on the
prayer-mat and concentrate on his prayers to Allah Almighty. Snuggled in a warm and
cozy bed, how difficult it is to get up at the call of Mu'adhdhin: "Come to prayer, come to
success." The famous doctor and philosopher Ibn Sina (Avicenna), recalls such a moment
in his life. Once cold and icy night, he and his slave were resting in an inn in a remote
part of Khurasan. During the night he felt thirsty and shouted out to his slave to get him
some water. The salve had no desire to leave his warm bed, so he pretended not to hear
Avicenna's call. But finally after repeated calls he reluctantly got up and went to fetch the
water. A little while later, the melodious sound of the Adhan filled the air. Avicenna
began to think about the person calling the believers to prayer. My slave Abdullah, he
mused, has always respected and admired me. He seizes any opportunity to lavish praise
and affection on me but tonight, he preferred his own comfort to my needs. On the other
hand, look at this Persian slave of Allah. He left his warm bed to go out in the chilly
night, he made ablution in the icy water of the stream, and then he ascended the high
minaret of the mosque to glorify He Whom he truly serves.

"I bear witness that there is none to be worshipped except Allah." "I bear witness that
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."

Tonight, Avicenna records, I learned the essence of true love; that love which results in
complete obedience. The love of Allah demands total and unconditional obedience.

Allah almighty says:

ُّ ‫ل َوَيْغِفْر َلُكْم ُذُنوَبُكْم َوا‬


‫ل‬ ُّ ‫حِبْبُكُم ا‬
ْ ‫ل َفاّتِبُعوِني ُي‬
َّ ‫ن ا‬
َ ‫حّبو‬ِ ‫ن ُكْنُتْم ُت‬
ْ ‫ل ِإ‬
ْ ‫ُق‬
﴾3:31﴿ ‫م‬ٌ ‫حي‬
ِ ‫غُفوٌر َر‬ َ
"Say (O Muhammad (pbuh) to mankind): 'If you (really) love Allah then follow me (i.e.
accept Islamic monotheism, follow the Quran and the Sunnah), Allah will love you and
forgive you your sins.' And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." Surah Al-Imran,
3:31]

PRAYER: A CRY OF THE INNER SOUL


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His arrogance and pride has often led man to behave as an oppressor and a tyrant. Some
men have been so carried away by their own self-importance that they have even claimed
divinity. Pharoah (Firaun), the ruler of Egypt, was among those who announced:

"I am your supreme lord."

With his sense of greatness and pride, Firaun subjugated the Israelites and made their
lives wretched and miserable.

But is man really as strong and great as his ego tells him? The Quran tells us the reality of
man's nature.

‫ل‬
َ ‫جَعف‬
َ ‫ف ُقفّوًة ُثفّم‬ٍ ‫ضفْع‬ َ ‫ن َبْعفِد‬ ْ ‫ل ِم‬َ ‫جَع‬
َ ‫ف ُثّم‬ٍ ‫ضْع‬ َ ‫ن‬ ْ ‫خَلَقُكْم ِم‬
َ ‫ل اّلِذي‬ُّ ‫ا‬
﴾30:54﴿ ‫ر‬
ُ ‫شاُء َوُهَو اْلَعِليُم اْلَقِدي‬َ ‫ق َما َي‬
ُ ‫خُل‬
ْ ‫شْيَبًة َي‬
َ ‫ضْعًفا َو‬
َ ‫ن َبعِْد ُقّوٍة‬
ْ ‫ِم‬
"Allah is He Who created you in (a state of) weakness, then gave you strength after
weakness, then after strength gave (you) weakness and gray hair. He creates what He
wills. And it is He Who is the All-Knowing, the All-Powerful (i.e. Able to do all things)."
[Surah Ar-Rum, 30:54]

Weakness in the beginning and weakness in the end: this is the essence of man. He is so
weak and helpless at birth that his entire existence depends on his parents and family. If
he were to be abandoned in these crucial first years, he could not survive on his own. He
needs a gentle and loving hand, not only in his infancy but in his childhood and even in
the teenage years.

As this child enters the years of youth and independence, he begins to take control of his
own life. He looks with pride at his strong physique, his handsome features and his many
talents. He begins to despise those of lesser abilities, even scorning those parents who
exhausted their own health to nurture him. He becomes unjust and cruel, using his
strength and vigor to dominate others. He thinks he is a master, free to act as he wills. but
does this youth, these good looks and this strength last forever? Only in a few decades he
begins to lose his strength. His health begins to deteriorate, gray hair covers his head and
slowly, his youth is replaced by old age. This transformation from young to old is slow,
but it is there. The seconds of time are ticking away mercilessly, taking every young
person towards their old age. The young dictator will one day be as feeble and weak as
the day he was born. But this time there will be no parents to nurture him; if, as is often
the case, he is rejected by his own family, his future will be a desolate one in some
persons' home.

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"Weakness in the beginning, weakness in the end." The message is clear: the real Master
is Allah. He alone is Mighty, He Alone is Great.

He alone is never tired, never needs rest, is never dependent upon anyone.

Allahu Akbar - Allah is the Greatest.

With this message clear in his mind, man realizes that he should show his humility to the
Almighty Lord, the One Who created him. And what can be a better way to show one's
humility than to stand like a slave before Him; to bow and prostrate to Him; to raise
hands in supplication to Him.

Prayer is not a burden forced upon man but is the inner cry of every soul. A cry of each
heart to recognize its Creator. It is but a small token of gratitude for all the innumerable
bounties bestowed upon mankind by the Creator.

In our everyday lives, we smile and say a warm thank-you to the small acts of kindness
which others do for us. so what about thanking Allah, Who in His infinite Mercy has
provided for every single one of our needs. Just observe the beauty and perfection of the
earth around you, and fall down in gratitude to you Lord.

PRAYER: THE ASCENSION FOR A BELIEVER

After Allah's Messenger (pbuh) was commissioned for Prophethood, the first thing he
was commanded to do by Allah was to pray. The angel Jibrail (Gabriel) came to him, and
a spring of water gushed out from the rocks in front of them. Jibrail then showed the
Prophet (pbuh) how to do ablution. He then showed him how to offer prayers to Allah.
The Messenger (pbuh) of Allah began to pray two Raka twice a day; once in the morning
and once in the evening. He then went home and showed his wife Khadija what he had
learned from angel Jibrail. Since that time, the Prophet never went through a day without
praying. Just before his migration (Hijrah) to Al-Madinah, Allah's Messenger (pbuh) was
taken by night to Jerusalem and then to the heavens (Miraj). during this journey, Allah
almighty commanded him to pray five times a day. This prayer was a gift given to every
believer to enable him to experience a spiritual ascension five times in every day. The
Prophet (pbuh) explained that " The prayer is the Miraj of the believer." It gives every
Muslim the opportunity to communicate with his Lord.

During each prayer, the worshipper recites Surah Al Fatiha. This recitation is not a dull
monologue by the believer, but Allah promises that it is a conversation between Him and
the worshipper. The Messenger (pbuh) reported that Allah Almighty says:

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"When My slave says (in his sprayer): 'All praise is for Allah, the Lord of the worlds', I
say : 'My slave has praised Me.' when he says: ' the Merciful, the Compassionate, Master
of the Day of Judgment', I say: 'My slave has praised and glorified Me'. When he says: '
You Alone we worship, and Your Aid we seek, ' I say: 'This is between My slave and
Myself.' When he says: 'Show us the Straight Path, the path of those on whom You have
bestowed Your Grace, not of those who earned Your anger nor of those who went astray.'
I say: 'This is for My slave, and I give My slave what he wants." (Hadith Qudsi)

The number of prayers in a day have been set at five by Allah almighty. The believer has
no choice in the matter but to obey. To reduce the number of prayers would not only be
disobedience, it would also lose the benefits of prayer.

For example, a room is only good fro residence if it has four walls and a roof. If only one
wall or the roof were to be removed, what use could it be? Similarly, the prayer will only
achieve its purpose and be of use on the Day when nothing except one's deeds will be of
use, if it is observed in the prescribed manner.

PRAYER: A PILLAR OF ISLAM

Allah's Messenger (pbuh) once said:

"Prayer is the pillar of religion." (Al-Baihaqi)

The Prophet (pbuh) also said:

"Islam is erected on five pillars: to testify that there is no God but Allah and that
Muhammad is His slave and Messenger; to establish prayer; to pay Zakat; to perform
Hajj to the Sacred House, and to fast in the month of Ramadan." (Bukhari, Muslim)

This Hadith makes the image very clear. Islam is like a building, supported by five
columns. Remove just one column, and the entire building weakens.

If strong winds batter the town, the building which will certainly collapse is the one with
a pillar missing. In the same way, when a person stops praying, his Faith becomes weak
and the mildest of blows can cause it to crumble.

The prayer is of such vital importance that the Prophet (pbuh) said: "Verily, between man
and between polytheism and unbelief is the negligence of prayer." (Muslim)

How true is this statement! If you look at people walking down the road, it may be
difficult to distinguish Muslims from non-Muslims. Islam is not marked upon a believer's

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forehead, and neither is Kufr stamped on an infidel's face. But at the time of prayer, you
can separate the two groups with ease. The believer will abandon his work, his business
to join the rows of Muslims in prayer, while the disbeliever will carry on with his worldly
affairs.

Surah Al-Muddathir narrates an interesting dialogue which will take place on the Day of
Judgement. The believers will ask the people of Hell-fire:

ُ‫﴾ َوَل فْم َن فك‬74:43﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ص فّلي‬


َ ‫ن اْلُم‬ َ ‫ك ِم ف‬
ُ ‫﴾ َقاُلوا َلْم َن‬74:42﴿ ‫سَقَر‬َ ‫سَلَكُكْم ِفي‬ َ ‫َما‬
‫﴾ َوُكّنففا‬74:45﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫ضففي‬ ِ ‫خاِئ‬ َ ‫ض َم فَع اْل‬ُ ‫خففو‬ ُ ‫﴾ َوُكّنففا َن‬74:44﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫س فِكي‬
ْ ‫طِع فُم اْلِم‬ْ ‫ُن‬
‫عُة‬َ ‫شفَفا‬ َ ‫﴾ َفَمففا َتْنَفُعُهفْم‬74:47﴿ ُ‫حّتى َأَتاَنا اْلَيِقيفن‬َ ﴾74:46﴿ ‫ن‬ ِ ‫ب ِبَيْوِم الّدي‬
ُ ‫ُنَكّذ‬
﴾74:48﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫شاِفِعي‬ ّ ‫ال‬
"What has caused you to enter Hell?" They will say: "We were not of those who used to
offer their prayers. Nor we used to feed the poor; and we used to talk falsehoods (all that
which Allah hated) with vain talkers, and we used to belie the Day of Recompense. Until
there came to use (the death) that is certain." [Surah Al-Muddathir, 74:42-47]

The rejecters of truth are silent in this world, but in the next world they will themselves
speak the truth.

PRAYER IS LIKE A FORTRESS

Prayer is the basis of all good actions. Below are quoted two passages of the Qur'an, both
of which list a number of good actions. Prayer comes before and after all good actions:-

Qualities of the Mu'min: Allah says in the Qur'an:

﴿ َ‫شففُعون‬ ِ ‫خا‬َ ‫لِتِهْم‬


َ ‫صفف‬ َ ‫ن ُهففْم ِفففي‬ َ ‫﴾ اّلففِذي‬23:1﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ح اْلُمْؤِمُنففو‬ َ ‫َقففْد َأْفَلفف‬
‫ن ُه فْم ِللّزَكففاِة‬
َ ‫﴾ َواّل فِذي‬23:3﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫ضففو‬
ُ ‫ن الّلْغ فِو ُمْعِر‬ ِ ‫عف‬ َ ‫ن ُه فْم‬ َ ‫﴾ َواّل فِذي‬23:2
‫جِهْم‬ِ ‫عَلى َأْزَوا‬َ ‫ل‬ ّ ‫﴾ ِإ‬23:5﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ظو‬ُ ‫حاِف‬
َ ‫جِهْم‬ِ ‫ن ُهْم ِلُفُرو‬ َ ‫﴾ َواّلِذي‬23:4﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫عُلو‬ِ ‫َفا‬
َ‫ن اْبَتَغى َوَراَء َذِلففك‬ ِ ‫﴾ َفَم‬23:6﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫غْيُر َمُلوِمي‬
َ ‫ت َأْيَماُنُهْم َفِإّنُهْم‬
ْ ‫أْو َما َمَلَك‬

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﴿ َ‫عففون‬ُ ‫عْه فِدِهْم َرا‬َ ‫لَماَنففاِتِهْم َو‬


َِ ‫ن ُه فْم‬ َ ‫﴾ َواّلِذي‬23:7﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫ك ُهُم اْلَعاُدو‬َ ‫َفُأوَلِئ‬
‫ن‬
َ ‫ك ُهُم اْلَواِرُثففو‬
َ ‫﴾ ُأوَلِئ‬23:9﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ظو‬ُ ‫حاِف‬ َ ‫صَلَواِتِهْم ُي‬
َ ‫عَلى‬ َ ‫ن ُهْم‬ َ ‫﴾ َواّلِذي‬23:8
﴾23:11﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫خاِلُدو‬ َ ‫س ُهْم ِفيَها‬ َ ‫ن اْلِفْرَدْو‬
َ ‫ن َيِرُثو‬َ ‫﴾ اّلِذي‬23:10﴿
"(1) Successful indeed are the believers. (2) Those who offer their Salat (prayers) with all
solemnity and full submissiveness. (3) And those who turn away from Al-Laghw (dirty,
false, evil vain talk, falsehoods and all that Allah has forbidden). (4) And those who pay
the Zakat. (5) And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts, from illegal sexual
acts). (6) Except from their wives or (the captives and slaves) that their right hands
possess, -for then, they are free from blame. (7) But whoever seeks beyond that, then
those are the transgressors. (8) Those who are faithfully true to their trusts and to their
covenants. (9) And those who strictly guard their Salat (five compulsory congregational
prayers at their fixed stated hours). (10) These are indeed the inheritors. (11) Who shall
inherit the Firdaus (Paradise). They shall dwell therein forever." [Surah al-Mu'minun,
23:1-11]

Allah says:

‫﴾ َوِإَذا‬70:20﴿ ‫عففا‬ً ‫جُزو‬ َ ‫شفّر‬ّ ‫سفُه ال‬ّ ‫﴾ ِإَذا َم‬70:19﴿ ‫عففا‬ ً ‫ق َهُلو‬ َ ‫خِلف‬
ُ ‫ن‬َ ‫سا‬َ ‫لِْن‬
ْ ‫نا‬ ّ ‫ِإ‬
‫عَلففى‬ َ ‫ن ُهففْم‬َ ‫﴾ اّلففِذي‬70:22﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫صففّلي‬
َ ‫ل اْلُم‬ ّ ‫﴾ ِإ‬70:21﴿ ‫عففا‬ ً ‫خْيففُر َمُنو‬َ ‫سففُه اْل‬
ّ ‫َم‬
‫ل‬
ِ ‫ساِئ‬ ّ ‫﴾ ِلل‬70:24﴿ ‫ق َمْعُلوٌم‬
ّ‫ح‬ َ ‫ن ِفي َأْمَواِلِهْم‬ َ ‫﴾ َواّلِذي‬70:23﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫لِتِهْم َداِئُمو‬َ‫ص‬َ
﴾70:26﴿ ‫ن‬ِ ‫ن ِبَيْوِم الّدي‬
َ ‫صّدُقو‬
َ ‫ن ُي‬ َ ‫﴾ َواّلِذي‬70:25﴿ ‫َواْلَمحُْروِم‬
ُ‫غْي فر‬َ ‫ب َرّبِه فْم‬
َ ‫ع فَذا‬ َ ‫ن‬ّ ‫﴾ ِإ‬70:27﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ش فِفُقو‬
ْ ‫ب َرّبِه فْم ُم‬ ِ ‫عَذا‬َ ‫ن‬ ْ ‫ن ُهْم ِم‬ َ ‫َواّلِذي‬
‫عَلفففى‬َ ‫ل‬ّ ‫﴾ ِإ‬70:29﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ظو‬ُ ‫حفففاِف‬
َ ‫جِهفففْم‬ِ ‫ن ُهفففْم ِلُفُرو‬ َ ‫﴾ َواّلفففِذي‬70:28﴿ ‫ن‬ ٍ ‫َمفففْأُمو‬
‫ن اْبَتَغففى‬ ِ ‫﴾ َفَم‬70:30﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫غْيُر َمُلوِمي‬ َ ‫ت َأْيَماُنُهْم َفِإّنُهْم‬
ْ ‫َأْزَواجِِهْم َأْو َما َمَلَك‬
‫عْهفِدِهْم‬
َ ‫لَماَنفاِتِهْم َو‬
َِ ‫ن ُهْم‬َ ‫﴾ َواّلِذي‬70:31﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ك ُهُم اْلَعاُدو‬ َ ‫ك َفُأوَلِئ‬
َ ‫َوَراَء َذِل‬

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‫عَلففى‬
َ ‫ن ُهفْم‬َ ‫﴾ َواّلِذي‬70:33﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫شَهاَداِتِهْم َقاِئُمو‬َ ‫ن ُهْم ِب‬
َ ‫﴾ َواّلِذي‬70:32﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫عو‬ُ ‫َرا‬
﴾70:35﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ت ُمْكَرُمو‬ٍ ‫جّنا‬
َ ‫ك ِفي‬ َ ‫﴾ ُأوَلِئ‬70:34﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫ظو‬ ُ ‫حاِف‬
َ ‫لِتهِْم ُي‬
َ‫ص‬َ
"(19) Verily, man (disbeliever) was created very impatient; (20) irritable (discontented)
when evil touches him; (21) and niggardly when good touches him. (22) Except those
devoted to Salat (prayers), (23) those who remain constant in their Salat (prayers), (24)
and those in whose wealth there is a known right, for the beggar who asks, (25) and for
the unlucky who has lost his property and wealth, (and his means of living has been
straitened). (26) And those who believe in the Day of Recompense, (27) and those who
fear the torment of their Lord. (28) Verily! The torment of their Lord is that before which
none can feel secure. (29) And those who guard their chastity (ie, private parts from
illegal sexual acts), (30) except with their wives and the (women slaves and captives)
whom their right hands possess, -for (then) they are not to be blames. (31) But whosoever
seeks beyond that, then it is those who are trespassers. (32) And those who keep their
trusts and covenants, (33) and those who stand firm in their testimonies, (34) and those
who guard their Salat (prayers) well; (35) such shall dwell in the Gardens (i.e. Paradise)
honored." [Surah Al-Ma'arij, 70:19-35]

In these passages, the believers are said to have certain characteristics, the first of which
they concentrate on their prayers. Other signs of believers are:

-They avoid vain and vulgar activities.


-They pay their Zakat regularly.
-They guard their chastity and avoid illicit relations. Their marital lives are confines to
their wives and salve-girls (assuming such a situation exists in which the presence of
slaves is justified).
-Those who do not betray covenants and trusts.
-Those who stand by their testimonies (as in Surah Al-Ma'arij.).

After mentioning these five characteristics, regularity in prayers is once again


commended.

The quotation from Surah Al-Ma'arij is similar to the one from Surah al-Mu'minun. It
shows that prayer is like a fortress which protects and preserves other good deeds. To
guard one's prayer helps guard one's other virtues. The Prophet (pbuh) said in a similar
way:

"Prayer is the pillar of the religion" (Al-Baihaqi)

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Allah's Messenger (pbuh) also said:

"The first thing about which a mans is going to be questioned on the Day of Judgment is
prayer. If it is found to be sound all his other reactions will be sound as well. If his prayer
is not sound all his remaining actions would be spoiled." (Al-Tabarani)

WHICH PRAYER IS ACCEPTABLE?

Allah says:

﴾23:2﴿ َ ‫شُعو‬
‫ن‬ ِ ‫خا‬
َ ‫لِتِهْم‬
َ‫ص‬
َ ‫ن ُهْم ِفي‬
َ ‫اّلِذي‬
"Those who offer their Salat (prayers) with all solemnity and full submissiveness."
[Surah Al-Mu'minun, 23:2]

The emphasis , in this verse, is on humility and concentration in the prayer (Khushu).
There is no doubt that as Shaitan (Satan) is the most bitter enemy of man, he always tries
to disturb the believer's prayer. As soon as a person begins his prayer, he finds his mind
suddenly engulfed with memories, problems, worries, work and his family. He may
become so engrossed in his thoughts that he has no idea where he is and what he is doing.
His prayer becomes a series of automatic actions, and he will often find himself
wondering whether he has prayed three Rakaa or four. This is how Shaitan steals the
prayer.

The Prophet (pbuh) once said that only a tiny portion of the prayer, maybe as little as a
tenth or an eighth, is accepted by Allah. The rest is lost because of the whisperings of
Shaitan.

It is reported that a Successor saw a man playing with his beard while praying. He
commented that: "If there had been Khushu (concentration) in his heart, the other organs
of his body would have concentrated as well."

Surah Al-Maun also makes a reference to lifeless prayers:

﴾107:5﴿ َ ‫ساُهو‬
‫ن‬ َ ‫لِتِهْم‬
َ‫ص‬َ ‫ن‬
ْ‫ع‬
َ ‫ن ُهْم‬
َ ‫﴾ اّلِذي‬107:4﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫صّلي‬
َ ‫ل ِلْلُم‬
ٌ ‫َفَوْي‬
"(4) So woe unto those performers of prayers (hypocrites), (5) who delay their Salat
(prayer) from its stated fixed time, " [Surah Al-Ma'un, 107:4-5]

A worshipper is neglectful of his prayers either when he delays the prayer to the last
possible minute, or when he does not concentrate fully on what he is doing and saying.
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Allah's Messenger (pbuh) was once sitting in the mosque at Al-Madinah when a bedouin
entered and began to pray. He prayed so quickly, that when he had finished, the Prophet
(pbuh) asked him to repeat the prayer. His second attempt was just as hurried, so the
Prophet (pbuh) asked him to repeat it again. After a third hurried prayer, the bedouin
said: "O Messenger of Allah. I cannot pray better than this." The Prophet (pbuh) then
showed the man how to pray. He instructed him to recite Surah Al-Fatiha while in the
standing position, then to say Tasbih in the Ruku position, to stand upright saying
Rabbana lakal hamd, to go down with Sajdah and recite Tasbih, and to sit between the
two Sajdah and recite a Du'a. The Prophet (pbuh) advised the bedouin to do this in each
Rakaa. [Musnad Ahmad]

Allah's Messenger (pbuh) used to spend a lot of time on each prayer, so that each
movement of the prayer could be offered slowly and properly. He once said: "A man's
lengthy prayer and short sermon shows that he has a good understanding of the religion."
(Muslim, Abu Dawood)

This refers to the Friday Khutbah which should not be too long while the prayer should
be lengthy.

PRAYER AS A WEAPON

Allah Almighty says in the Qur'an:

‫ن‬
َ ‫صاِبِري‬
ّ ‫ل َمَع ال‬
َّ ‫ن ا‬
ّ ‫لِة ِإ‬
َ ّ‫صْبِر َوالص‬
ّ ‫سَتِعيُنوا ِبال‬
ْ ‫ن َآَمُنوا ا‬
َ ‫َيا َأّيَها اّلِذي‬
﴾2:153﴿

"O you who believer! Seek help in patience and Salat (prayer). Truly! Allah is with the
patient." [Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:153]

Man is, by nature, weak. He needs help at times of misery and hardship. And the best aid
we can have is that of patience in adversity and prayer. Any difficulties, unhappiness and
loss should be faced with calm and wisdom. A hasty response or an unwise remark will
only cause more problems. Allah's Messenger (pbuh) used to look for solace in prayer
whenever he experienced difficulties. In prayer one seeks help from Allah, and who can
be a better helper than Allah?

The Prophet (pbuh) used to say to Bilal:

"O Bilal! Provide us with rest with prayer."

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PRAYER AS A REMINDER

A non-Muslim once asked the following question during a discussion: "I can understand
why Muslims were required to pray five times a day during the early days of Islam. They
did not have many things to do in those days so the Prophet kept them busy with prayer.
But our sophisticated and modern life leaves man with little spare time. He is much too
busy to be expected to pray five times a day."

The answer given was what is the primary objective of prayer. The Quran says:

﴾20:14﴿ ‫لَة ِلِذْكِري‬


َ‫ص‬ّ ‫عُبْدِني َوَأِقِم ال‬
ْ ‫ل َأَنا َفا‬
ّ ‫ل ِإَلَه ِإ‬
َ ‫ل‬
ُّ ‫ِإّنِني َأَنا ا‬
It is Who am AIIah: there is no god but Me: so worship Me and
establish Salat to remember Me. [Surah Taha, 20:14]

As man is by nature forgetful, prayer reminds him of the allegiance due to his Creator
and Lord. If prayer was needed fourteen hundred years ago when man did not lead such a
busy life style, the it is even more necessary in today's hectic world. On the one hand,
education and work keep people occupied constantly. And when it is time to relax.
Shaitan (Satan) has found many new channels to operate through, such as television, the
cinema and videos. Man becomes so engrossed in this life that he has no thought for
Allah and the Hereafter. The need to remind man of the realities of his existence has thus
intensified, and not declined in modern times. Prayer is still of utmost importance and
benefit in our high-tech lives.

Prayer acts as a shield against evil. Allah Almighty says in the Quran:

‫ن‬
ِ ‫عف‬
َ ‫لَة َتْنَهففى‬
َ ‫صف‬
ّ ‫ن ال‬ّ ‫لَة ِإ‬
َ‫ص‬ ّ ‫ب َوَأِقِم ال‬ ِ ‫ن اْلِكَتا‬
َ ‫ك ِم‬ َ ‫ي ِإَلْي‬
َ‫ح‬ِ ‫ل َما ُأو‬
ُ ‫اْت‬
﴾29:45﴿ ‫ن‬َ ‫صَنُعو‬
ْ ‫ل َيْعَلُم َما َت‬
ُّ ‫ل َأْكَبُر َوا‬
ِّ ‫شاِء َواْلُمْنَكِر َوَلِذْكُر ا‬
َ‫ح‬ْ ‫اْلَف‬
(O Prophet), recite the Book that has been revealed to you and
establish Prayer. Surely Prayer forbids indecency and evil. And
Allah’s remembrance is of even greater merit. *79 Allah knows all that
you do. [Surah Al-ankabut, 29:45]
As-salat (the prayer) prevents from Al-Fahsha (i.e. great sins of every kind, unlawful
sexual intercourse etc. ) and al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism, and every kind of evil
wicked deed etc.)

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The following incident will help understand this point:

In the time of Allah's Messenger (pbuh) lived a man who drank alcohol, gambled and
committed thefts habitually.. He came to the Prophet (pbuh) and asked for some advice
which would help improve his character. The Prophet's advice was simple; "don't tell any
lies." The man then left, after having been told to report back the next day. he was feeling
very pleased, as the instructions given to him seemed very easy to obey. At home the man
poured himself his usual glass of wine. As he lifted the glass to his lips, he suddenly
remembered that he had to report back to the Prophet (pbuh) the next day. he would be
asked about that day's activities, and if he admitted in front of all the Companions that he
had been drinking, it would be terribly embarrassing for him.

If, however, he did not admit to having drunk wine, it would be a lie. So he put the wine
away. The same thing happened when he was about to start gambling and go on his
robbing expedition. And once this man had taken the first positive step towards fighting
his evil habits, he was able to reform very quickly.

Prayer can have a very similar effect. If a person remembers five times a day that he will
stand on his prayer-mat and address his Lord, it will prevent him from committing the
sins that Shaitan has been encouraging him to do.

The quality of the prayer is of utmost importance as well. consider a house with solid
foundations, concrete walls and a strong roof. this house will be able to withstand all
forms of bad weather, be it winds, hail or storms. After all, the purpose of a house is to
provide shelter and protection against these elements. If, on the other hand, the house is
loosely constructed with leaves and grass, it will blow away at the slightest hint of bad
weather.

This image applies very clearly to prayer. If a prayer is offered regularly, at the correct
time, with sincerity of intention and concentration on what is being recited, it will
strengthen the person's Faith and provide comfort and strength in times of trouble.

Irregular and insincere prayers will be of little use to a person in times of distress. A
healthy body can combat viruses with more ease that can a weak body.

PRAYER: THE FIRST STEP TOWARDS ESTABLISHING THE ISLAMIC


SHARIAH AS A WHOLE

The Qur'an records the following conversation between Prophet Shuaib and his people:

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‫غْيُرُه‬
َ ‫ن ِإَلٍه‬ْ ‫ل َما َلُكْم ِم‬َّ ‫عُبُدوا ا‬ ْ ‫ل َيا َقْوِم ا‬ َ ‫شَعْيًبا َقا‬ُ ‫خاُهْم‬ َ ‫ن َأ‬
َ ‫َوِإَلى َمْدَي‬
‫عَلْيُكففْم‬
َ ُ‫خاف‬ َ ‫خْيٍر َوِإّني َأ‬ َ ‫ن ِإّني َأَراُكمْ ِب‬ َ ‫ل َواْلِميَزا‬ َ ‫صوا اْلِمْكَيا‬ُ ‫ل َتْنُق‬ َ ‫َو‬
ِ‫سفط‬ ْ ‫ن ِباْلِق‬
َ ‫ل َواْلِميفَزا‬ َ ‫﴾ َوَيا َقفْوِم َأْوُفففوا اْلِمْكَيففا‬11:84﴿ ‫ط‬ ٍ ‫حي‬ ِ ‫ب َيْوٍم ُم‬َ ‫عَذا‬ َ
﴾11:85﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫سِدي‬ِ ‫ض ُمْف‬ِ ‫لْر‬ َْ ‫ل َتْعَثْوا ِفي ا‬ َ ‫شَياَءُهْم َو‬ ْ ‫س َأ‬
َ ‫سوا الّنا‬ ُ‫خ‬ َ ْ‫ل َتب‬
َ ‫َو‬
﴾11:86﴿ ٍ ‫حِفي‬
‫ظ‬ َ ‫عَلْيُكْم ِب‬
َ ‫ن َوَما َأَنا‬
َ ‫ن ُكْنُتْم ُمْؤِمِني‬
ْ ‫خْيٌر َلُكْم ِإ‬
َ ‫ل‬
ِّ ‫َبِقّيُة ا‬
"(84) And to the Madyan (Midian) people (We sent) their brother Shuaib. He said: O my
people! Worship Allah, you have no other Ilah (god) but Him, and give not short measure
or weight, I see you in prosperity; and verily I fear for you the torment of a Day
encompassing. (85) And O my people! Give full measure and weight in justice and
reduce no the things that are due to the people, and do not commit mischief in the land,
causing corruption. (86) That which is left by Allah for you (after giving the rights of the
people) is better for you, if you are believers. And I am not sent over you as a guardian."
[Surah Hud, 11:84-86]

This was an invitation to honor the Rights of Allah (by accepting Tawhid) and honor the
rights (in daily trade and business). But Shuaib's people replied with sarcasm:

‫ل‬
َ ‫ن َنْفَع‬
ْ ‫ن َنْتُركَ َما َيْعُبُد َآَباُؤَنا َأْو َأ‬
ْ ‫ك َأ‬َ ‫ك َتْأُمُر‬
َ ‫لُت‬
َ‫ص‬ َ ‫ب َأ‬ُ ‫شَعْي‬
ُ ‫َقاُلوا َيا‬
﴾11:87﴿ ‫د‬ ُ ‫شي‬ِ ‫حِليُم الّر‬
َ ‫ت اْل‬
َ ‫لْن‬
َ ‫ك‬ َ ‫شاُء ِإّن‬
َ ‫ِفي َأْمَواِلَنا َما َن‬
"They said: O Shuaib! Does your prayer (i.e., the prayers which you offer has spoiled
your mind, so you) command that we leave off what our fathers used to worship, or that
we leave off doing what we like with our property? Verily, you are the forbearer, right-
minded!" [Surah Hud, 11:87]

Shuaib's people realized that the Prophet was not simply asking them to pray regularly
but that he wanted them to establish a whole new economic system as well, hence the
references to fair trading. The lesson to be learned from this is that in Islam, there is no
leaving "What belongs to God, for God; and what belongs to Caesar, for Caesar."
Everything belongs to God. How can a Muslim who worships Allah Almighty during his
five daily prayers, be expected to obey others in other aspects of his daily life. There can
be no duality of authority in Islam. Allah is the Creator , and His Alone is the right to
legislate and demand loyalty. Man is the slave of Allah and should obey Him Alone.
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Muslims who live in a non-Muslim state may feel that they are unable to implement the
Din of Allah in their political and economic lives, but those Muslims who live in Muslim
countries have no excuse for allowing the Din of Allah to be confined to a personal level.

Muslims should be clear that the Din of Allah does not consist simply of prayers, fasting,
charity and Hajj. It is their duty to implement all Islamic teachings in political, economic
and social fields.

﴾3:19﴿ ‫لُم‬
َ‫س‬ْ‫ل‬
ِْ ‫ل ا‬
ِّ ‫عْنَد ا‬
ِ ‫ن‬
َ ‫ن الّدي‬
ّ ‫ِإ‬
"Truly, the religion with of Allah is Islam..." [Surah Al-Imran, 3:19]

َ‫خفَرِة ِمفن‬
ِ‫ل‬
َْ ‫ل ِمْنفُه َوُهفَو ِفففي ا‬
َ ‫ن ُيْقَبف‬
ْ ‫لِم ِديًنا َفَلف‬
َ‫س‬ْ‫ل‬
ِْ ‫غْيَر ا‬
َ ‫ن يَْبَتِغ‬
ْ ‫َوَم‬
﴾3:85﴿ ‫ن‬
َ ‫سِري‬ ِ ‫خا‬
َ ‫اْل‬
"And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in
the Hereafter he will be one of the losers". [Surah Al-Imran, 3:85]

Today's false idols, which dominate over the entire world, are Democracy, Capitalism,
Socialism and communism. Instead, Islam calls for a Khilafa (caliphate) based on
consultation, and a just economic system based on Zakat and a prohibition of usury. If
you remove any of these three characteristics, you make it impossible for Islamic law to
operate properly.

The Qur'an describes clearly the first duty of a Muslim ruler:

‫لَة َوَآَت فُوا الّزَكففاَة َوَأَم فُروا‬َ ّ‫ض َأَقاُموا الص‬ ِ ‫لْر‬ َْ ‫ن َمّكّناُهْم ِفي ا‬
ْ ‫ن ِإ‬
َ ‫اّلِذي‬
﴾22:41﴿ ‫ر‬
ِ ‫لُمو‬ ُْ ‫عاِقَبُة ا‬
َ ‫ل‬
ِّ ‫ن اْلُمْنَكِر َو‬ِ‫ع‬َ ‫ف َوَنَهْوا‬ِ ‫ِباْلَمْعُرو‬
"Those (Muslim rulers) who, if We give them power in the land, (they) order for Iqamat-
as-Salat{ (i.e. to offer prayers perfectly-the five compulsory, congregational prayers (the
males in mosques)}, to pay the Zakat and they enjoin Al-Ma'ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism
and all that Islam orders one to do), and forbid Al-Munkar (i.e., disbelief, polytheism and
all that Islam has forbidden) {i.e. they make the Quran as the law of their country in all
the spheres of life}. And with Allah rests the end of (all) matters (of creatures)." [Surah
Al-Hajj, 22:41]

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A well-known Arabic saying is: "The people follow the religion of their kings." Ordinary
people enjoy imitating their rulers, and if those in authority set a good example by
praying and fasting regularly, the people will be encouraged to do so as well. Those in
power can also provide material assistance, such as the construction of mosques and
prayer facilities in public places. The Prophet (pbuh) advised the people not to rebel
against their leaders...as long as the leaders establish prayer and do not commit acts of
open disobedience to Allah. This advice will save the Muslim nation from anarchy and
useless bloodshed.

PRAYER AS AN EXPIATION OF SINS

Prayer not only stimulates a person to do good deeds, but it also takes away his minor
sins.

َ ‫ت ُيفْذِهْب‬
‫ن‬ ِ ‫سفَنا‬
َ‫ح‬َ ‫ن اْل‬
ّ ‫ل ِإ‬
ِ ‫ن الّلْيف‬
َ ‫ي الّنَهففاِر َوُزَلًفففا ِمف‬
ِ ‫طَرَف‬
َ ‫لَة‬
َ‫ص‬ ّ ‫َوَأِقِم ال‬
﴾11:114﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ك ِذْكَرى ِللّذاِكِري‬
َ ‫ت َذِل‬
ِ ‫سّيَئا‬
ّ ‫ال‬
And establish the Prayer at the two ends of the day and in the first
hours of the night. *113 Indeed the good deeds drive away the evil
deeds. This is a Reminder to those who are mindful of Allah.[Surah
Hud, 11:114]

As prayer is the best of all good actions, it can erase many sins. 'Ali narrated that Abu
Bakr heard Allah's Messenger (pbuh) saying:

"Whoever commits a sin, but performs ablution in the best way, then offers two Rakat
prayer, and he asks for the forgiveness of Allah, Allah almighty forgives his sins."
[Ahmad]

This does not mean to say that a person can commit as many sins as he likes, as long as
he follows each sin with a prayer. What Allah's Messenger (pbuh) was showing is that
repentance opens the door to forgiveness. Prayer is a form of repentance and should be
offered with sincerity and a true desire to amend one's character. After repenting, the
person's Faith should be revived, and he should fight all Satanic temptations to do evil.

In Surah Al-Furqan repentance is described as a way out for those who commit major
sins:

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‫لفف‬
ُّ ‫حّرَم ا‬َ ‫س اّلِتي‬ َ ‫ن الّنْف‬َ ‫ل َيقُْتُلو‬
َ ‫خَر َو‬َ ‫ل ِإَلًها َآ‬
ِّ ‫ن َمَع ا‬ َ ‫عو‬ ُ ‫ل َيْد‬
َ ‫ن‬ َ ‫َواّلِذي‬
‫ف َلفُه‬ْ ‫ع‬ َ ‫ضفا‬َ ‫﴾ ُي‬25:68﴿ ‫ك َيْلقَ َأَثاًمفا‬ َ ‫ل َذِل‬
ْ ‫ن َيْفَع‬
ْ ‫ن َوَم‬ َ ‫ل َيْزُنو‬ َ ‫ق َو‬ ّ َ‫ل ِباْلح‬
ّ ‫ِإ‬
‫ل‬
َ ‫عِم‬َ ‫ن َو‬َ ‫ب َوَآَم‬َ ‫ن َتا‬ ْ ‫ل َم‬
ّ ‫﴾ ِإ‬25:69﴿ ‫خُلْد ِفيِه ُمَهاًنا‬ ْ ‫ب َيْوَم اْلِقَياَمِة َوَي‬
ُ ‫اْلَعَذا‬
‫غُفففوًرا‬َ ‫لف‬ُّ ‫ن ا‬ َ ‫ت َوَكففا‬ٍ ‫سفَنا‬
َ‫ح‬ َ ‫سفّيَئاِتِهْم‬
َ ‫ل‬ ُّ ‫ل ا‬ ُ ‫ك ُيَبّد‬َ ‫حا َفُأوَلِئ‬ً ‫صاِل‬
َ ‫ل‬ ً ‫عَم‬ َ
﴾25:70﴿ ‫ما‬ً ‫حي‬ِ ‫َر‬
"(68) And those who invoke not any other Ilah (God) along with Allah, nor kill such life
as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause, nor commit illegal sexual intercourse - and
whoever does this shall receive the punishment. (69) The torment will be doubled to him
on the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide therein in disgrace. (70) Except those who
repent and believe (in Islamic Monotheism), and do righteous deeds, for those, Allah will
change their sins into good deeds, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (71) And
whosoever repents and does righteous good deeds, then verily, he repents towards Allah
with true repentance." [Surah Al-furqan, 25:68-71]

PRAYER: THE FIRST QUESTION ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT

Man was sent to this world for only one purpose:

﴾51:56﴿ ِ ‫ل ِلَيْعُبُدو‬
‫ن‬ ّ ‫س ِإ‬
َ ‫لْن‬
ِْ ‫ن َوا‬
ّ‫ج‬
ِ ‫ت اْل‬
ُ ‫خَلْق‬
َ ‫َوَما‬
"And I (Allah) created not the jinns and men except they should worship Me (Alone)."
[Surah Adh-Dhariyat, 51:56]

Man is to live in this world as a worshipper of his Creator, and the best form of worship
is prayer. On the Day of Judgment, man will have to answer for each and every deed
committed on this earth. He will be asked about the bounties bestowed upon him in this
life:

﴾102:8﴿ ‫ن الّنِعيِم‬
ِ‫ع‬
َ ‫ن َيْوَمِئٍذ‬
ّ ‫ُثّم َلُتسَْأُل‬
"Then, on that Day, you shall be asked about the delight (you indulged in, in this world)!
[Surah Att. Takathur, 102:8]

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But the first question to be asked on that Great Day will be about prayer. Man has two
Mauqif (standing positions) in front of his Creator, one in this world and one in the next.

The first is his prayer-mat when he stands in regular prayer to his Lord. The second will
be on Judgment Day when his actions will be brought forward as evidence. If his first
stand (i.e. his prayer) is found to be correct, his second stand will be made easy for him.
If his first stand was faulty, he will face immense difficulties in the second stand.

To intentionally neglect even a single prayer is a serious sin for which there can be no
compensation. A Muslim is not to miss a prayer even in the terrifying moments of battle,
so how can there be justification for missing his prayers in ordinary circumstances.
during battle, the Imam leads same ranks of the contingent in one Rakat of the prayer,
while the other soldiers continue to fight. The soldiers then change places, and the Imam
leads the second group in prayer, while the first resumes fighting. This continues until
everyone had prayed. This particular prayer is called Salat-ul-Khauf (Prayer of Fear)
because of its unusual circumstances.

Another form of prayer is the shortened prayer, which is allowed during battle and
traveling. The prayers which normally consist of four Rakaat i.e. Zuhr, Asr, and Isha) are
shortened to two Rakaat, but in no circumstances can a prayer be missed. The only
exemption available is for menstruating women, who are not required to pray during this
time. At all other times women must pray just like men. So strict is the requirement of
prayer that a person who is ill, no matter how seriously, must pray as long as he or she is
in consciousness. If the person can not stand, then the prayer is offered in the sitting
position; if the person is too ill to sit, then the prayer is offered in the lying position,
using the eyes, head, hands, etc., to signal the different movements of the prayer.

SANCTITY OF THE MOSQUES

The places of worship are symbols of security for the people. One of the benefits of Jihad
is to preserve their sanctity and keep them open for the purpose of worship.

Allah Almighty says in Surah Al-Hajj:

﴾22:39﴿ ٌ‫صِرِهْم َلَقِدير‬


ْ ‫عَلى َن‬
َ ‫ل‬
َّ ‫ن ا‬
ّ ‫ظِلُموا َوِإ‬
ُ ‫ن ِبَأّنُهْم‬
َ ‫ن ُيَقاَتُلو‬
َ ‫ن ِللِّذي‬
َ ‫ُأِذ‬
َ‫ل ف َوَل فْول‬
ُّ ‫ن َيُقوُلوا َرّبَنففا ا‬
ْ ‫ل َأ‬
ّ ‫ق ِإ‬
ّ‫ح‬ َ ‫ن ِدَياِرِهْم ِبَغْيِر‬
ْ ‫جوا ِم‬
ُ ‫خِر‬ ْ ‫ن ُأ‬
َ ‫اّلِذي‬
ٌ ‫صفَواِمُع َوِبَيفٌع َوصَفَلَوا‬
‫ت‬ َ ‫ت‬ ْ ‫ض َلُهفّدَم‬
ٍ ‫ضفُهْم ِبَبْعف‬ َ ‫س َبْع‬َ ‫ل الّنففا‬
ِّ ‫َدْفُع ا‬
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‫ل‬
َّ ‫ن ا‬
ّ ‫صرُُه ِإ‬
ُ ‫ن َيْن‬
ْ ‫ل َم‬
ُّ ‫ن ا‬
ّ ‫صَر‬
ُ ‫ل َكِثيًرا َوَلَيْن‬
ِّ ‫سُم ا‬
ْ ‫ساجُِد ُيْذَكُر ِفيَها ا‬
َ ‫َوَم‬
﴾22:40﴿ ‫ز‬ٌ ‫عِزي‬ َ ‫ي‬ّ ‫َلَقِو‬
"(39) Permission to fight is given to those (i.e. believers against disbelievers), who are
fighting them, (and) because they (believers) have been wronged, and surely, Allah is
Able to give them (believers) victory. (40) Those who have been expelled from their
homes unjustly only because they said: 'Our Lord is Allah'. - For had it not been that
Allah checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues,
and mosques, wherein the Name of Allah is mentioned much would surely have been
pulled down. Verily, Allah will help those who help His (Cause). Truly, Allah is All-
Strong, All-Mighty." [Surah Al-hajj, 22:39-40]

The Muslims are required to raise the banner of Jihad in order to make the Word of Allah
supreme in this world, to remove all forms of injustice and oppression, and to defend the
Muslims. If Muslims do not take up the sword, the evil tyrants of this earth will be able to
continue oppressing the weak and helpless, and all places of worship, including the
mosques, churches and synagogues will be annihilated. A vivid example of this in the
modern world has been the Soviet Union, which crushed religion and emptied all places
of worship.

The Characteristics of those who populate the Houses of Allah:

‫ح‬
ٌ ‫ص فَبا‬ْ ‫ش فَكاٍة ِفيَهففا ِم‬ْ ‫ل ُنففوِرِه َكِم‬ ُ ‫ض َمَث ف‬
ِ ‫لْر‬ َْ ‫ت َوا‬ِ ‫س فَمَوا‬ ّ ‫ل ف ُنففوُر ال‬ ُّ ‫ا‬
‫جَرٍة‬ َ ‫شف‬ َ ‫ن‬ْ ‫ي ُيوَقُد ِمف‬ّ ‫ب ُدّر‬ ٌ ‫جُة َكَأّنَها َكْوَك‬ َ ‫جا‬َ ‫جٍة الّز‬ َ ‫جا‬ َ ‫ح ِفي ُز‬ ُ ‫صَبا‬
ْ ‫اْلِم‬
‫ضففيُء َوَلفْو َلفْم‬ ِ ‫غْرِبّيفٍة َيَكففاُد َزْيُتَهففا ُي‬ َ ‫ل‬َ ‫شْرِقّيٍة َو‬ َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ُمَباَركٍَة َزْيُتوَنٍة‬
‫لف‬ ُّ ‫ب ا‬ُ ‫ضفِر‬ ْ ‫شاُء َوَي‬ َ ‫ن َي‬ْ ‫ل ِلُنوِرِه َم‬ ُّ ‫عَلى ُنوٍر َيْهِدي ا‬ َ ‫سُه َناٌر ُنوٌر‬ ْ‫س‬ َ ‫َتْم‬
‫ن‬ْ ‫لف َأ‬ُّ ‫ت َأِذنَ ا‬
ٍ ‫﴾ ِفففي ُبُيففو‬24:35﴿ ‫عِليفٌم‬ َ ‫يٍء‬ ْ ‫شف‬َ ‫ل‬ ّ ‫ل ِبُكف‬ ُّ ‫س َوا‬ ِ ‫ل ِللّنا‬َ ‫لْمَثا‬ َْ ‫ا‬
‫ل‬
ٌ ‫جا‬ َ ‫﴾ ِر‬24:36﴿ ‫ل‬ ِ ‫صا‬
َ ‫ل‬ َْ ‫ح َلُه ِفيَها ِباْلُغُدّو َوا‬ ُ ‫سّب‬
َ ‫سُمُه ُي‬ْ ‫ُتْرَفَع َوُيْذَكَر ِفيَها ا‬
‫لِة َوِإيَتففاِء الّزَكففاِة‬
َ ‫صف‬ ّ ‫ل َوِإَقاِم ال‬ ِّ ‫ن ِذْكِر ا‬ ْ‫ع‬ َ ‫ل َبْيٌع‬ َ ‫جاَرٌة َو‬ َ ‫ل ُتْلِهيِهْم ِت‬ َ
﴾24:37﴿ ‫ر‬ ُ ‫صا‬
َ ‫لْب‬ َْ ‫ب َوا‬ُ ‫ب ِفيِه اْلُقُلو‬ ُ ‫ن َيْوًما َتَتَقّل‬َ ‫خاُفو‬ َ ‫َي‬
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"(35) Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as (if
there were) a niche and within it a lamp, the lap is in glass, the glass as it were a brilliant
star, lit from a blessed tree, an olive, neither of the east (i.e. neither it gets sun rays only
in the morning) nor of the west (i.e. nor it gets sun rays only in the afternoon, - but it is
exposed to the sun all day long), whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself), thought no
fire touches it. Light upon Light! Allah guides to His Light whom He wills. And Allah
sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything. (36) In houses
(mosques), which Allah has ordered to be raised, to be cleaned, and to be honored, in
them His Name is glorified in the mornings and in the afternoons or the evenings. (37)
Men whom neither trade nor sale diverts them from the Remembrance of Allah (with
heart and tongue), nor from offering the prayers perfectly (Iqamat-as-Salat), nor from
giving the Zakat. They fear a Day when hearts and eyes will be overturned (from the
horror of the torment of the Day of Resurrection)." [Surah An-Nur, 24:35-37]

The infidel lives in complete darkness, but once he believes in Allah, the whole universe
becomes full of light for him. this pure light of Faith is the subject of the above verses of
Surah An-Nur. The niche, as mentioned in the parable, is understood to mean the heart of
the believer. Such a niche is not to be found everywhere but only in the Houses of Allah
which are erected for the Remembrance of Allah. Such houses (or mosques) are not
populated by ordinary men but by special and esteemed characters, who are described by
Allah Almighty thus:

i) They glorify the Name of Allah in the mosques each morning and evening.

ii) Their businesses and worldly gains do not hinder them from praying and giving
charity.

iii) The constantly fear the Last Day, the day when each soul will be resurrected to stand
before Allah and to account for every single one of his deeds.

PRAYER: A DUTY KNOWN TO EVERY PROPHET OF ALLAH

Prophet Ibrahim recited the following Du'a when he was raising the walls of the Kabah in
Makkah:

‫حففّرِم‬َ ‫ك اْلُم‬
َ ‫عْنَد َبْيِت‬
ِ ‫ع‬
ٍ ‫غْيِر ِذي َزْر‬َ ‫ن ُذّرّيِتي ِبَواٍد‬ ْ ‫ت ِم‬ ُ ‫سَكْن‬ ْ ‫َرّبَنا ِإّني َأ‬
‫س َتْهفِوي ِإَلْيِهفْم َواْرُزْقُهفْم‬
ِ ‫ن الّنا‬
َ ‫ل َأْفِئَدًة ِم‬
ْ ‫جَع‬
ْ ‫لَة َفا‬
َ‫ص‬ ّ ‫َرّبَنا ِلُيِقيُموا ال‬
﴾14:37﴿ ‫ن‬ َ ‫شُكُرو‬ْ ‫ت َلَعّلُهْم َي‬
ِ ‫ن الّثَمَرا‬ َ ‫ِم‬
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"O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in a valley with no cultivation,
by Your Sacred House (the Kabah at Makkah); in order, O our Lord, that they may offer
prayers perfectly (Iqamat-as-Salat). So turn the hearts of the people towards
them, and provide fruits for their food : it is expected that they will
become grateful. [Surah Ibrahim, 14:37]

While he prayed for himself and his children, Prophet Ibrahim did not ask for riches and
fame. he pleaded instead:

﴾14:40﴿ ‫عاِء‬
َ ‫ل ُد‬
ْ ‫ن ُذّرّيِتي َرّبَنا َوَتَقّب‬
ْ ‫لِة َوِم‬
َ‫ص‬ّ ‫جَعْلِني ُمِقيَم ال‬
ْ ‫با‬
ّ ‫َر‬
﴾14:41﴿ ُ ‫سا‬
‫ب‬ َ‫ح‬ِ ‫ن َيْوَم َيُقوُم اْل‬
َ ‫ي َوِلْلُمْؤِمِني‬
ّ ‫غِفْر ِلي َوِلَواِلَد‬
ْ ‫َرّبَنا ا‬
"O my Lord! Make me one who offers prayers perfectly (Iqamat-As-Salat), and (also)
from my offspring, our Lord! And accept my invocation. Our Lord! Forgive me and my
parents, and (all) the believers on the Day when the reckoning will be established."
[Surah Ibrahim, 14:40-41]

Prophet Ismail has also been praised for his character in the Quran:

ً‫سففول‬ُ ‫ع فِد َوَكففانَ َر‬


ْ ‫ق اْلَو‬
َ ‫صففاِد‬
َ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ل ِإّنُه َكا‬
َ ‫عي‬
ِ ‫سَما‬ْ ‫ب ِإ‬
ِ ‫َواْذُكْر ِفي اْلِكَتا‬
‫عْنَد َرّبِه َمْرضِّيا‬
ِ ‫ن‬َ ‫لِة َوالّزَكاِة َوَكا‬
َ‫ص‬ ّ ‫ن َيْأُمُر َأْهَلُه ِبال‬
َ ‫﴾ َوَكا‬19:54﴿ ‫َنِبّيا‬
﴾19:55﴿

(54) And mention in the Book (the Qur'an) Ismail. Verily! He was true to what he
promised, and he was a Messenger, (and) a Prophet. (55) And he used to enjoin on his
family and his people As-Salat (i.e. order them to offer the prayers perfectly) and the
Zakat, and his Lord was pleased with him. [19:54-55]

Prophet Zakariya was childless in his old age and he yearned constantly for a son:

َ‫ك ُذّرّيفًة طَّيَبفًة ِإّنفك‬


َ ‫ن َلُدْن‬
ْ ‫ب ِلي ِم‬
ْ ‫ب َه‬
ّ ‫ل َر‬
َ ‫عا َزَكِرّيا َرّبُه َقا‬َ ‫ك َد‬َ ‫ُهَناِل‬
﴾3:38﴿ ‫ء‬ِ ‫عا‬
َ ‫سِميُع الّد‬ َ

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"At that time Zakariya (Zakariah) invoked his Lord, saying: 'O my Lord! Grant me from
You, a good offspring. You are indeed the All-Hearer of invocation." [Surah Al-Imran,
3:38]

And while he was praying to Allah, he received the good news:

‫ك‬
َ ‫شفُر‬ّ ‫ن الَّف ُيَب‬
ّ ‫ب َأ‬
ِ ‫حفَرا‬ ْ ‫صفّلي ِفففي اْلِم‬َ ‫لِئَكفُة َوُهفَو َقففاِئٌم ُي‬َ ‫َفَنففاَدْتُه اْلَم‬
‫ن‬
َ ‫حي‬
ِ ‫صففاِل‬
ّ ‫ن ال‬ َ ‫صوًرا َوَنِبّيا ِم‬ ُ ‫ح‬َ ‫سّيًدا َو‬
َ ‫ل َو‬
ِّ ‫ن ا‬َ ‫صّدًقا ِبَكِلَمٍة ِم‬
َ ‫حَيى ُم‬ ْ ‫ِبَي‬
﴾3:39﴿

"Then the angels called him, while he was standing in prayer in Al-Mihrab (a praying
place or a private room), (saying): 'Allah gives you glad tidings of Yahya (John)
confirming (believing in) the Word from Allah {i.e. the creation of Jesus" (Be!"- and he
was! {i.e. Jesus, son of Mary)}, noble, keeping away from sexual relations with women,
a Prophet, from among the righteous.'" [Surah Al-Imran, 3:39]

Prophet Isa received Divine communications while he was still a baby in his cradle:

‫جَعَلِنففي ُمَباَرًكففا‬
َ ‫﴾ َو‬19:30﴿ ‫جَعَلِني َنِبّيا‬
َ ‫ب َو‬
َ ‫ي اْلِكَتا‬
َ ‫ل َآَتاِن‬
ِّ ‫عْبُد ا‬
َ ‫ل ِإّني‬َ ‫َقا‬
﴾19:31﴿ ‫حّيا‬
َ ‫ت‬ُ ‫لِة َوالّزَكاِة َما ُدْم‬ َ‫ص‬ّ ‫صاِني ِبال‬ َ ‫ت َوَأْو‬ ُ ‫ن َما ُكْن‬
َ ‫َأْي‬
Whereupon the child spoke out, "I am a servant of Allah: He has given
me the Book and He has appointed me a Prophet, (31) and He has
made me blessed wherever I may be. He has enjoined upon me to
offer Salat and give Zakat so long as I shall live. [Surah Mariyam,
19:30-31]

So the daily prayer is not a new act introduced by Allah's Messenger (pbuh). It is a form
of personal communication with Allah, and it is as old as the first man on this planet.

Prayer cannot be an isolated act:

The Qur'an mentions the act of prayer about thirty-five times, but never alone. It always
couples prayer with giving Zakat or spending on the poor and needy. The two are

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inseparable. The person who gives charity but does not pray five times a day is only
earning the displeasure of Allah.

In the early days of his caliphate, Abu Bakr went to war against those people who had
stopped paying Zakat after the death of Allah's Messenger (pbuh). He said:

"By Allah! I will fight those who differentiate between Salat (prayer) and Zakat."

Another virtue which is mentioned with prayer in the Quran is patience:

‫ن‬
َ ‫صاِبِري‬
ّ ‫ل َمَع ال‬
َّ ‫ن ا‬
ّ ‫لِة ِإ‬
َ ّ‫صْبِر َوالص‬
ّ ‫سَتِعيُنوا ِبال‬
ْ ‫ن َآَمُنوا ا‬
َ ‫َيا َأّيَها اّلِذي‬
﴾2:153﴿

"O you who believer! Seek help in patience and Salat (prayer). Truly! Allah is with the
patient." [surah al-Baqarah, 2:153]

Man is surrounded by external and internal problems. To deal with these, he has been
given the two weapons of prayer and patience. Patience helps him withstand external
hostilities and opposition. Prayer strengthens his internal relationship with God.

Another requirement alongside prayer is that of sacrifice, on the day of Eid during the
time of Hajj:

﴾108:3﴿ ‫لْبَتُر‬
َْ ‫ك ُهَو ا‬
َ ‫شاِنَئ‬
َ ‫ن‬
ّ ‫﴾ ِإ‬108:2﴿ ‫حْر‬
َ ‫ك َواْن‬
َ ‫ل ِلَرّب‬
ّ‫ص‬َ ‫َف‬
"Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only). For he who makes
you angry (O Muhammad{pbuh}), - he will be cut off (from every good thing in this
world and in the Hereafter)." [108:2-3)

This association of prayer and sacrifice is explained in Surah Al-Anam:

﴾6:162﴿ َ ‫ب اْلَعاَلِمي‬
‫ن‬ ّ ‫ل َر‬
ِّ ‫ي َوَمَماِتي‬
َ ‫حَيا‬
ْ ‫سِكي َوَم‬
ُ ‫لِتي َوُن‬
َ‫ص‬
َ ّ‫ل ِإن‬
ْ ‫ُق‬
"Say (O Muhammad {pbuh}): 'Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying
are for Allah, the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)." [Surah Al-
An'am, 6:162]

Prayer is an act of life, and sacrifice symbolizes death. Whether our actions are concerned
with life or death, our sole purpose must be the Pleasure of Allah. No sacrifice may be

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offered to any being other than Allah, just as no prayer is valid except if directed to
Allah.

WHY DOES MAN ABANDON PRAYER?

Allah Almighty says:

َ‫سففْوف‬ َ ‫شَهَواتِ َف‬ ّ ‫لَة َواّتَبُعوا ال‬


َ‫ص‬ّ ‫عوا ال‬ ُ ‫ضا‬
َ ‫ف َأ‬ٌ ‫خْل‬َ ‫ن َبْعِدِهْم‬
ْ ‫ف ِم‬َ ‫خَل‬َ ‫َف‬
‫ن‬
َ ‫خُلو‬
ُ ‫ك َي فْد‬
َ ‫حا َف فُأوَلِئ‬
ً ‫صاِل‬
َ َ‫عِمل‬ َ ‫ن َو‬
َ ‫ب َوَآَم‬َ ‫ن َتا‬
ْ ‫ل َم‬ّ ‫﴾ ِإ‬19:59﴿ ‫غّيا‬
َ ‫ن‬ َ ‫َيْلَقْو‬
﴾19:60﴿ ‫شْيًئا‬
َ ‫ن‬
َ ‫ظَلُمو‬ْ ‫ل ُي‬
َ ‫جّنَة َو‬
َ ‫اْل‬
"(59) Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have given up prayers (i.e. made
their prayers to be lost, either by not offering them or by not offering them perfectly or by
not offering them in their proper fixed times, etc.) and have followed lusts. so they will
be thrown in Hell. (60) Except those who repent and believe (in the Oneness of Allah and
His Messenger Muhammad {pbuh}) and work righteousness. Such will enter Paradise
and they will not be wronged in aught." [Surah Maryam, 19:59-60]

Preceding this verse, the Quran gives the example of many previous Prophets and their
guided followers. This particular verse explains that the people who abandon prayer are
those who follow their own selfish desires. A man can either obey Allah, or he can obey
his own wishes; and this obedience is equated to worship by the Quran:

﴾25:43﴿ ً ‫عَلْيِه َوِكي‬


‫ل‬ َ ‫ن‬
ُ ‫ت َتُكو‬
َ ‫خَذ ِإَلَهُه َهَواُه َأَفَأْن‬
َ ‫ن اّت‬
ِ ‫ت َم‬
َ ‫َأَرَأْي‬
"Have you (O Muhammad {pbuh}) seen him who has taken as his Ilah (god) his own
desire? Would you then be a Wakil (a protecting guide) over him?" [Surah Al-furqan,
25:43]

Allah's Messenger (pbuh) described such people as the sales of Dirhams and Dinars, and
things have not change much since his time. Today, the Americans are described by a
western author as - 'people who worship the dollar for six days a week, and then they turn
to God on the seventh day!"

When a heart is filled with love for money, it has no room for God, and prayer is the first
thing to be abandoned.

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PRAYER: AN EVERLASTING PRESCRIPTION FOR PURITY, CLEANSING


OF SINS AND ENTERING PARADISE

(Some Ahadith on prayer)

1. Abu Huraira narrated that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said:

"Just see, can anything of his filthiness remain on the body of anyone of you if there were
a river at his door in which he washed himself five times daily?" They said, "Nothing of
his filthiness will remain (on his body)." He said, "That is like the five prayers by which
Allah obliterates sins." (Bukhari, Muslim)

2. Abu Huraira narrated that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said:

"Five (daily) prayers and from one Friday prayer to the (next) Friday prayer, and from
Ramadan to Ramadan are expiations for the (sins) committed in between (their intervals)
provided one shuns the major sins." (Muslim, Tirmidhi)

3. Rabia bin Kab narrated:

I was with Allah's Messenger (pbuh) one night, and I brought him water and what he
required. He said to me: "Ask (anything you like)." I said, "I ask your company in
Paradise." He said, "Or anything else besides it?" I said, "That is all what I require." He
said, "Then help me to achieve this for you by devoting yourself often to prostration."
(Muslim)

4. Abu Dhar narrated that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) came out in winter when the leaves
were falling. He took hold of a branch (and shook it) and its leaves started falling. Then
he said:

"O Abu Dhar!" I said, "Labbaik, O Messenger of Allah!" He said, "Whenever a Muslim
prays seeking the Pleasure of Allah, his sins start falling like the leaves of this tree."
(Musnad Ahmad)

5. 'Uqba bin Aamir narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) said:

"Your Lord is amazed by that shepherd who is at the top of a mountain (with his sheep)
and who calls for prayer and then offer his prayers. Allah Almighty says: Look at this
slave of Mine who calls for prayer, then says Iqamah for the prayer, and then prays as he
is fearful of me. I have forgiven my slave and admitted him to Paradise." (Abu Dawood,
Nasai)

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PRAYER: A DUTY ON EVERYONE

A child born into a Muslim family begins his life hearing the Adhan in his right ear and
the Iqama in his left ear. From his childhood, he should be taught the importance and
method of prayer.

'Abdullah bin Amr bin Aas narrated that Allah's Messenger said: "Command your
children to pray when they reach the age of seven and admonish them by beating (if they
don't pray) at the age of ten. And keep them (i.e. boys and girls) apart in their beds." (Abu
Dawood)

Abu Malik Al-Ashjai narrated on the authority of his father that the first thing the Prophet
used to teach a new Muslim was the prayer. (Al-Bazzar)

Prayer is just as obligatory for women as it is for men. It is recommended that women
should pray at home, but if they wish to attend the mosque for any obligatory prayer, they
should not be prevented from doing so.

Abdullah bin Umar once quoted this saying of the Prophet (pbuh) to his son: "If your
wife asks permission to go to the mosque you should not stop her." His son Bilal replied:
"By Allah, we will stop them." Abdullah was so displeased at this that he criticized his
son in strong terms, adding: "I quote to you what Allah's Messenger (pbuh) has said and
you say 'we will stop them'. (All report this except Nisai)

Another narration makes it clear that although women can go to the mosque, they must
not wear perfumes when they do so.

SUMMARY:

Prayer is an obligation upon every Muslim, man and woman.

ً ‫مششا وَقُعُششو‬
‫دا‬ ً ‫ه قَِيا‬َ ‫صشَلة َ فَششاذ ْك ُُروا الل ّش‬ ّ ‫م ال‬ ُ ُ ‫ضشي ْت‬َ َ‫ذا ق‬
َ ِ ‫فَشإ‬
َ َ ‫ذا اط ْمشأ ْننتم فَشأ‬
‫ن‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ة‬
ّ ِ َ ّ ‫ل‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ال‬ ‫موا‬ُ ِ‫قي‬ ْ َُْ َ ْ ُ ‫جُنوب ِك‬
َ ِ ‫م فَشإ‬ ُ ‫وَع ََلى‬
﴾4:103﴿ ‫تا‬ً ‫موُْقو‬ َ ‫ن ك َِتاًبا‬َ ‫مِني‬ ُ ْ ‫ت ع ََلى ال‬
ِ ْ ‫مؤ‬ ْ َ ‫كان‬َ َ ‫صَلة‬ّ ‫ال‬

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(4:103) When you have finished the Prayer, remember Allah


-standing, and sitting, and reclining. And when you become secure,
perform the regular Prayer. The Prayer is enjoined upon the believers
at stated times. [Surah An-Nisa]

Anas narrated that Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said:

"Whoever forgets a prayer, he should offer it whenever he remembers. There is no


expiation for it except this." (All six report it except Malik)

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet and upon his family and upon
all his followers.

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30.00.00
Some important matters about Salah
The Obligatory Prayer of the Muslim
According to Qur'an and Sunnah

30. 01.00: What Is Necessary for a Valid Salah

Al-Fatihah must be recited during the Salah

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said, "Whoever prays a prayer and
does not recite the opening chapter of the Qur'an has not prayed correctly." [Ahmad, al-
Bukhari and Muslim]

30.02.00: What Invalidates Salah

(1) Talking Intentionally About Something Other Than Salah

Zaid ibn Arqam relates: "We used to talk while we were in salah and a person
would speak to the person next to him until the verse was revealed: 'And stand before
Allah in devout obedience' and we were then commanded to observe silence during the
salah." [Related by the group.]

Ibn Mas'ud reports: "We used to greet the Messenger of Allah while he was in
salah and he would respond to our greeting. When we returned from Abyssinia, we
greeted him [during prayer] but he did not respond to our salutation. We said to him: 'O
Messenger of Allah, we used to greet you while you were in salah and you used to
respond to us!' He then said: 'Prayer demands one's complete attention.'" [Bukhari
and Muslim]

(2) Praying the Entire Salah Behind the Rows, All By Yourself

Wabsah relates that the Messenger of Allah saw a man praying behind the
rows by himself and the Prophet ordered him to repeat his salah. [related by the five
save an-Nasa'i].

The Messenger of Allah was asked about a man who prays by himself behind the
rows and he said: "He is to repeat his salah." [Ahmad. At-Tirmidhi called this hadith
hasan and Ahmad's chain is good.]

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'Ali ibn Shaiban relates that the Messenger of Allah saw a man praying
behind the row and he waited for him and (when he finished) told him: "Go forward (and
join the row) for the salah of a person standing alone behind the rows is not valid."
[related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and al-Baihaqi. Ahmad says it is hasan. Ibn Sayyid an-
Nass said its narrators are well-known, trustworthy people.]

The majority stick to the hadith of Abu Bakra who said that he preformed part of
the prayer, behind the row, and the Prophet did not order him to repeat his salah.
Repeating the salah signifies overzeal in practicing what is recommended and better.

(3) Turning the Entire Upper Body Away from the Qiblah During Fard
(Obligatory) Salah, Without Genuine Need

'Aishah says: "I asked the Messenger of Allah about turning in salah and
he said: 'It is the portion that the Satan steals from the slave's prayer.'" [Ahmad, al-
Bukhari, an-Nasa'i, and Abu Dawud]

Abu ad-Darda' narrates from the Prophet : "O people, be careful about turning
for there is no salah for the one who turns. If you must do it, do it in the voluntary prayers
and not in the obligatory prayers." [related by Ahmad]

Anas relates that the Messenger of Allah said to him: "Be careful about
turning during the salah as turning in the salah is disastrous. If you must do it, then do it
in the voluntary prayers but not in the obligatory prayers." [related by at-Tirmidhi who
calls it sahih]

In the hadith of al-Harith al-Ash'ari , the Prophet said: "Allah gave Yahya,
son of Zakariyah, five commands that he was to abide by and was to order the tribe of
Isra'el to abide by..." One of them was, "Verily, Allah orders you to pray, and when you
pray, do not tum for Allah looks to the face of His slave in salah as long as he does not
turn." [Ahmad and an-Nasa'i]

Abu Dharr reported that the Prophet said: "Allah faces the slave while he is in
the salah and keeps facing him as long as he does not turn. If [the slave] turns, [Allah]
turns away from him." [Ahmad and Dawud. Dawud said its chain of narrators (isnad) is
sahih]

(4) Making Many Actions that Lead a Viewer To Believe That You Are Not in Salah

An-Nawawi says: "If a person performs a lot of actions that are not part of the salah, he
invalidates his salah, and, on this point, there is no difference of opinion. If the acts are

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few, then they do not invalidate the salah and, on this point, there also is no difference of
opinion. This is the exact position. However, there does exist a difference of opinion over
what exactly constitutes a few actions and many actions...". He says that the exact
definitions of too much and too little are determined by generally accepted standards.
One is not harmed in his salah by common acts such as nodding in reply to a salutation,
taking off one's shoes, raising the headdress and putting it back in place, putting on or
taking off a light garment, carrying or holding a small child, preventing someone from
passing in front of the person in prayer, covering one's spittle in one's clothing and
similar other actions. As for the other acts, those which are considered to constitute many
actions (e.g., taking many consecutive steps, performing actions repeatedly) they
invalidate the prayer.

An-Nawawi also says: "The scholars are in agreement that many actions invalidate the
prayer if they are performed consecutively [i.e., one after another]. If one separates the
actions, for instance, taking a step and then stopping for a while, then taking another step
or two, and then another two steps, after a pause (though a short one) between them, then
the salah will not be harmed, even if he in this manner should take a hundred or more
steps. There is no difference of opinion on this point. As for light actions, such as moving
one's finger in glorifying Allah or in itching, and so forth., these do not invalidate the
prayer according to the well-known, authentic opinion, even when they are done
repeatedly and consecutively, but they are disliked."

AshShaf'i says: "Even if one counts the verses on one's fingers, it would not invalidate
one's salah, but it is best to avoid [such an act]."

(5) Laughing Hearty During Salah

Ibn al-Mundhir records that there is a consensus of opinion that laughing (during the
salah) invalidates the prayer. An-Nawawi says: "This is the case if one laughs aloud, and
produces sound. Most of the scholars say that there is no problem with smiling. If one is
overcome by laughter and cannot control it, his salah will not become invalid if it is of
minor nature. If it is a hearty laughter, it will invalidate the salah. Custom would
determine whether it is a major or a minor laughter."

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30.03.00: What Does Not Invalidate Salah

1. Talking out of Necessity About the Salah

Abu Hurairah says: "The Messenger of Allah led us in either the noon or after-
noon prayers and he made the taslim after praying just two rak'at. Dhul Yadain said to the
Prophet: 'O Messenger of Allah, has the salah been shortened or have you forgotten [part
of it]?' The Prophet said: 'It has not been shortened, nor did I forget any part of it." He
said: 'Yes, O Messenger of Allah, you did forget.' Thereupon the Prophet asked (the
people): 'Is Dhul Yadain correct in what he says?' The people said: 'He is correct, you
offered only two rak'at.' Then, the Prophet prayed the two remaining rak'at and made
the taslim, said the takbir and performed the sajdah, sat and made the takbir and
performed the sajdah again, and finally said the takbir and sat again." [Bukhari and
Muslim]

One should first say "SubhanAllah" (if male) or clap (if female) to alert the imam to a
vital mistake in salah. If this is not sufficient, speaking may be necessary.

Al-Auza'i's [Rahimahu 'Llah] comments are: "Whoever intentionally speaks during the
salah, seeking some benefit to the salah, does not invalidate his salah." He said that if a
person recites aloud in the 'asr and someone behind him says: "It is the 'asr," (i.e., the
recital is not to be aloud) then the latter person would not invalidate his salah.

2. Holding/Carrying a Child During Salah

'Abdullah ibn Shidad relates that his father said: "The Messenger of Allah
came to us either during the noon or afternoon prayers and he was carrying Hassan or
Hussain. The Prophet proceeded to the front and put him down and made the takbir
for the salah. During the salah, he made a long sajdah. I raised my head and saw the child
on the back of the Messenger of Allah while he was in sajdah. I returned to my
sajdah. When the Messenger of Allah finished the salah, the people said to him: 'O
Messenger of Allah, you prostrated during your salah so long that we suspected you were
thinking about some matter or you were receiving some revelation.' He said: 'None of
that happened but my son was resting and I hated to rush him until he had finished what
he desired."' [related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, and al-Hakim]

The Prophet came out towards us, while carrying Umamah, the daughter of Abi Al-
As (his grand-daughter) over his shoulder. He prayed, and when he wanted to bow, he put
her down, and when he stood up, he lifted her up. [Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73,
Number 25: Narrated Abu Qatada]

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3. Taking Actions to Prevent an Animal, Child, or Adult from Passing Between


Praying Person and His or Her Sutrah

30.04.00: GROUP SALAH.

During group salah, women should have means to assure that her children will not
interupt the salah of others by walking in front of their sutrah. She may hold a child,
have another person watch it during salah, confine the child with a 'play pen' or
otherwise, or allow an older child to sit quietly if confident that the child is not likely to
wander away and perhaps put himself or others in danger. The point here is that she
should take responsibility and prevent her children from wandering away from
supervision.

Once while he was praying, two girls from the tribe of 'Abd al-Muttalib were fighting
behind him and he separated them with his arms while he was praying. Ahmad's version
says that they grabbed unto his knees and he separated them without leaving the salah.

The Imam who is leading the salat is responsible for making efforts to prevent anyone
from passing between him and his sutrah. However, it is permissible for individuals to
walk between the rows of the congregation. Sometimes it may be necessary for a
follower to pick up and carry or move a child out of the way, such as if it is in your place
of prostration, but know that the sunnah act of repulsing (pushing if necessary) anyone
that tries to pass in front of you only applies to the imam leading the prayer or to the
individual salah as we will explain below.

30.05.00: INDIVIDUAL SALAH.

In a person's individual salah, she may also carry a child. If she has more than one young
child, and if no older children or adults are available to monitor her small children, she
should safely and comfortably confine the children so that they cannot wander into
danger or cross her sutrah. In the event that she has no means to confine them, she
should do her best to do her salah with the children safely in her grasp and be sure that
no-one wanders off beyond a safe distance, and that she prevents anyone from crossing
her sutrah. Women often get worn out from disciplining their young children, but this is
one instance when she should not be lax... be consistent in restricting children's
movement during salah. Encourage children with a sufficient attention span and with the
patience to remain in place, to perform salah with the mother.

When he was praying, a boy came to him and he motioned to him to move back, and
he moved back. Then a girl tried to pass in front of him, he beckoned her to move back,

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but the girl passed, and when he finished, he said: "They are more determined." [Ahmad
recorded it and it is also in the Sunan.]

Abu al-Waddak said: "A young person tried to pass in front of Abu Sa'id while he was
praying. Abu Sa'id held him off and then the young man tried again. Abu Sa'id pushed
him off. This happened three times and when [Abu Sa'id] finished [the prayer], he said:
'The salah is not invalidated by anything but the Messenger of Allah said: 'Repulse
[the person who is trying to pass in front of you] to the best of your ability for he is a
devil.'" [Abu Dawud]

The Prophet said, "If while you are praying, somebody intends to pass in front of you,
prevent him; and should he insist, prevent him again; and if he insists again, fight with
him (i.e. prevent him violently e.g. pushing him violently), because such a person is (like)
a devil." [Bukhari 4.495]

Abu Saleh as-Saman said: "I will narrate to you what I heard and saw from Abu Sa'id al-
Khudri. One day I was with Abu Sa'id and he was offering salah on Friday facing
something which concealed him from the people when a young man from the tribe of
Mu'ait came and tried to pass in front of Abu Sa'id. He pushed him back. He tried again
and Abu Sa'id struck him harder. The two scuffled. The man went to Marwan to
complain. Abu Sa'id also went to Marwan. Marwan asked: 'What has happened between
you and the son of your brother that caused him to complain?' Abu Sa'id said: 'I heard the
Prophet say: 'If any of you prays toward a sutrah and someone tries to pass in front of
you, then turn him away. If he refuses, use force for he is a devil."' [Bukhari and
Muslim]

4. Clearing One's Throat to Allow Someone to Enter

'Ali ibn Abi Talib said: "I had a certain time at which I would visit the Messenger of
Allah. When I came to him, he would permit me to enter. If I found him praying, he
would clear his throat and I would enter. If he was free, he would give me permission to
enter." This is recorded by an-Nasa'i and Ahmad. Ahmad's version says: "I could enter
upon the Prophet during the day or night. If I came to him while he was praying, he
would clear his throat [as a sign that I may enter]." [related by Ahmad who used to act
by it and he was not of the opinion that clearing one's throat invalidated the salah.]

5. Returning the Greeting (As sala'amu alaikum) with a Motion of Hand or Head

'Abdullah ibn 'Umar says: "I asked Suhaib: 'How did the Messenger of Allah
respond to the people when they greeted him while he was praying?' He said: 'He would

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signal to them with his hand.'" [Ahmad, at-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and Ibn
Majah]

Jabir said: "The Messenger of Allah sent me somewhere while he was going
to the tribe of Mustaliq. I came to him and he was praying while on the back of his camel.
[When] I spoke to him, he and Zubair motioned with their hands. I heard him reciting and
saw him gesturing with his head. When he finished, he said: 'What have you done about
the thing I sent you for? Nothing kept me from talking to you save that I was in salah.'"
[Ahmad and Muslim]

6. Crying or Other Sounds of Sadness

'Abdullah ibn ash-Schikhir relates: "I saw the Messenger of Allah praying and his chest
was 'buzzing', like the buzzing of a cooking pot, due to crying." This is related by
Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, and at-Tirmidhi. The latter classifies it as sahih.

'Umar prayed fajr and recited Surah Yusuf, and when he reached the verse "I
expose my distress and anguish only unto Allah," he raised his voice in crying. [Bukhari,
Sa'id ibn Mansur, and ibn al-Mundhir]

'Abdullah ibn ash-Schikhir relates: "I saw the Messenger of Allah praying and his chest
was 'buzzing', like the buzzing of a cooking pot, due to crying." [Ahmad, Abu Dawud,
an-Nasa'i, and at-Tirmidhi. The latter classifies it as sahih]

7. Praying in a different room, or with a curtain or wall between you and the Imam,
as long as you can hear the opening takbir.

Al-Bukhari records: "Al-Hassan said: 'There is no problem if you pray and between you
and him [the imam] there is a river.' Abu Majliz said: 'Follow the imam, even if between
you and him there is a road or a wall, as long as you can hear the opening takbir.'"

Sa' id ibn Mansur, ash-Shaf'i, al-Baihaqi, and al-Bukhari, in his comments, relate from
Abu Hurairah that he prayed at the top of the mosque while following the imam. Anas
used to pray in the room of Abu Naf'i to the right of the mosque and the room was his
height's high and its door faced the mosque of Basrah and Anas would pray in it,
following the imam. The companions did not say anything about it. This is related by
Sa'id ibn Mansur in his Sunan.

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30.06.00: Disliked Acts in Salah


NO-NO's

The following are disliked, but are not believed to invalidate your salah.

1. Don't make salah if needing to relieve oneself in the bathroom. Go to the bathroom
first.

Thauban reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "There are three acts which are not
allowed: For a person to lead a people in prayer and then make supplications for himself
without including them, for then he would be dishonest to them; to look inside a house
without obtaining permission, for if he does so (it is as if) he has already entered it
(without permission); and to offer prayer while he needs to answer the call of nature until
he relieves himself." [related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidhi who calls it
hasan]

2. Don't make salah if the food is already served. Eat first.

'Aishah reported that she heard the Messenger of Allah say: "No one should pray
when the food is served nor when one needs to answer the call of nature." [related by
Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud]

Al-Khattabi says: "The Prophet ordered that one should begin with one's meal in order to
satisfy his need. In this way, he will come to the salah in calm and his desire or hunger
will not disturb the completion or perfection of his ruku' and sajjud and the rest of the
acts of the salah."

3. Don't look upwards. Don't look around. Fix your eyes downward on the area where
you will make sajda.

Abu Hurairah reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "Those who raise their sight
to the sky during the prayer should stop doing so or their sight may be taken away." This
is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and an-Nasa'i.

'Aishah reports that the Messenger of Allah prayed in a cloak which had some
designs on it. He said: "These designs have distracted me. Take [this cloak] to Abu Jahm
[i.e., the person who gave it to the Prophet] and bring me a plain cloak." [al-Bukhari and
Muslim].

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4. Don't make excessive movements, unless out of necessity.

An-Nawawi says: "...moving one's finger in glorifying Allah or in itching, and so forth.,
these do not invalidate the prayer according to the well-known, authentic opinion, even
when they are done repeatedly and consecutively, but they are disliked."

AshShaf'i says: "Even if one counts the verses on one's fingers, it would not invalidate
one's salah, but it is best to avoid [such an act]."

5. Don't intertwine your fingers while preparing for Salah or during the Salah.

Ka'b relates that the Messenger of Allah said: "When one of you makes wudu',
perfects the wudu', and leaves with the intention of going to the mosque, he should not
intertwine his fingers as he is [considered to be] in salah." [Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and
atTirmidhi]

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri says: "I entered the mosque with the Messenger of Allah while a
man was sitting in the middle of the mosque with his fingers intertwined. The Messenger
of Allah motioned to him but the man did not notice or understand him. The
Messenger of Allah turned and said: 'If one of you is in the mosque, he should not
intertwine his fingers as intertwining of the fingers is from the Satan, and you are in the
prayer while you are in the mosque until you leave it."' [Ahmad]

(1) Men should not pray with garment hanging beneath the ankle

(2) Do not tuck or fold clothes (such as in an attempt to raise the garment above the
ankle)

The Prophet was ordered (by Allah) to prostrate on seven parts and not to tuck up the
clothes or hair (while praying). Those parts are: the forehead (along with the tip of nose),
both hands, both knees, and (toes of) both feet. [Bukhari 1.773, Narrated Ibn Abbas]

6. Do not always pray without shoes.

"He used to stand (in prayer) bare-footed sometimes and wearing shoes sometimes."
[Abu Dawood & Ibn Maajah. It is a mutawatir hadeeth as Tahaawi has mentioned.

He (saaws) said: When one of you prays, he should wear his shoes or take them off and
put them between his feet, and not harm others with them. [Abu Dawood & Bazzaar (53,
az-Zawa'id); Haakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.]

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Be different from the Jews, for they do not pray in their shoes nor in their khuffs (leather
socks). [Abu Dawood & Bazzaar (53, az-Zawa'id); Haakim declared it saheeh and
Dhahabi agreed.]

The Messenger of Allah (saaws) prayed with us one day. Whilst he was engaged in the
prayer he took off his shoes and placed them on his left. When the people saw this, they
took off their shoes. When he finished his prayer he said, Why did you take your shoes
off? They said, 'We saw you taking your shoes off, so we took our shoes off.' He said,
Verily Jibreel came to me and informed me that there was dirt - or he said: something
harmful - (in another narration: filth) on my shoes, so I took them off. Therefore, when
one of you goes to the mosque, he should look at his shoes: if he see in them dirt - or he
said: something harmful - (in another narration: filth) he should wipe them and pray in
them. [Abu Dawood, Ibn Khuzaimah & Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi and
Nawawi agreed. The first one is given in Irwaa' (284)]

When he removed them, he would place them on his left [Abu Dawood, Ibn Khuzaimah
& Haakim, who declared it saheeh and Dhahabi and Nawawi agreed.]

The Prophet saaws would say: When one of you prays, he should not place his shoes on
his right nor on his left, where they will be on someone else's right, except if there is no
one on his left, but he should place them between his feet. [Abu Dawood, Nasaa'i & Ibn
Khuzaimah (1/110/2) with a saheeh isnad]

30.07.00: What to say when still learning


how to recite ayats for salah :
Says al-Khattabi, "Basically, one's prayer does not suffice if he does not recite al-
Fatihah. If one can recite neither al-Fatihah nor other portions of the Qur'an, he should
recite at least seven verses of a similar meaning from the Qur'an. If he can not learn any
part of the Qur'an (due to some innate inability, poor memory, or because it's a foreign
language), he should say the tasbeeh (Subhaan Allah - Glory be to Allah), the tamheed
(al-Hamdu lillah - All praise is due to Allah), and tahleel (La ilaha illal-lah - There is no
God except Allah). It is related that he said, "The best remembrance after the speech of
Allah is Subhaan Allah, al-Hamdu lillah, La ilaha illal-lah and Allahu akbar." This is
supported by Rafa'ah ibn Rafa', who narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of
Allah be upon him, said, "If you have something from the Qur'an, recite it. If not, then
say the tamheed, takbir and the tahleel and then bow."

This hadith is related by Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa'i and al-Baihaqi. The former
considers it as hassan.
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30.08.00: Group Fard (Obligatory) Salah:

Women cannot be denied their request to attend the masjid, but it is important to note
that women are not required to attend the masjid for salah, as it is superior in blessings
for them to perform it in their home. Perhaps this is due to the fitnah of having to prepare
and bring the children with her, and perhaps it is to supplement her right to privacy and
protect her reputation. Allahu Alam (Allah is All-Knower, i.e. Allah knows best).

Ibn 'Umar reports that the Prophet said: "Do not prevent the women from going to the
mosques, although their houses are better for them." [Ahmad and Dawud]

Umm Humaid as-Sa'diyah came to the Messenger of Allah and said: "O
Messenger of Allah, I love to pray with you." The Prophet said: "I am aware of that,
but your salah in your residence is better for you than your salah in your people's mosque.
And your salah in your people's mosque is better than your salah in the [larger]
congregational Mosque." [Ahmad and at-Tabarani]

Men, on the other hand, are required to gather for salah when there are as little as three
muslims in the community. This is to protect them from going astray and being devoured
by the Shaytaan.

Abu ad-Darda' reports that the Messenger of Allah said: "If there are three men in a
village or desert and salah is not established among them, then the Satan takes mastery
over them. So be with the congregation since the wolf devours the remote (stray) sheep."
[Abu Dawud with a hasan chain]

'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud says: "If anyone would like to meet Allah tomorrow as a Muslim,
he should persevere in abserving these five prayers whenever the call for them is made,
for Allah has chosen for your Prophet the way of right guidance. And the [five prayers in
congregation] are part of this right guidance. If you were to pray them in your houses, as
this m