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1. What are the functions of the nervous system?
The functions of the nervous system include sending signals to other cells throughout the body and controlling the body by using sensory receptors
2. Distinguish between the following: CNS, PNS, Somatic, Autonomic, Parasympathetic, Sympathetic;
Afferent, Efferent CNS = central nervous system; made up of the brain and spinal cord (dorsal cavity); Integrative and control centers PNS = peripheral nervous system ; cranial nerves and spinal nerves; communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body Somatic = voluntary ;somatic motor; conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles Autonomic = involuntary; Somatic motor; Conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands Parasympathetic- Converses energy; Promotes “housekeeping” functions during rest Sympathetic- mobilizes body systems during activity (“fight or flight”) Afferent = sensory division; Somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers; conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS (towards) Efferent = motor division; Motor nerve fibers; Conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
3. Distinguish between the characteristics of neurons and neuroglia. What are the functions of the
neuroglia? -Neurons have TWO processes called axons and dendrites while glial cells only have one. -Neurons CAN generate action potentials, while glial cells do NOT have chemical synapses -Neurons HAVE synapses that use neurotransmitters… glial cells do NOT have chemical synapses -There are many MORE glial cells in the brain compared to the number of neurons What is the function of a neuron? They are specialized to carry “messages” through an electrochemical process away from the cell process What are the functions of: ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes, microglia, astrocytes, Schwann cells? astrocyte- form a living barrier between neurons and capillaries in the CNS oligodendrocytes- from myelin sheaths around the nerve fibers in the CNS microglia- are phagocytes that dispose of debris including dead brain cells and bacteria ependymal cells-cells that line the cavities of the brain and spinal cord to help circulate the cerebrospinal fluid that fills those cavities and forms a protective cushion around the CNS
Schwann cells- form myelin sheaths around the nerve fibers that are cound in the PNS What cells in the CNS are responsible for myelinating the axons of some neurons? oligodendrocytes What cells in the PNS perform the same function? Schwann cells 4. Identify structure and function of parts of typical neuron (dendrites, axon, cell body, myelin sheath, schwann cells, synapse, etc.) Dendrites- bring information to the cell body; usually many dendrites per cell; no myelin insulation; branch near the cell body Axon-take info AWAY from the cell body, usually one axon per cell, have myelin, branch further from the cell body Cell body- the metabolic center of the neuron Myelin sheath- wrapped membranes that enclose the axon Schwann cells- specialized supporting cells that wrap themselves around the axon, consists of: -Presynaptic endings that contain neurotransmitters, mitochondria, and other cell organelles -A postsynaptic ending that contains receptor sites for neurotransmitters -A synaptic cleft or space between the presynaptic and post synaptic endings
5. Voluntary control of the skeletal muscles is provided by which part of the nervous system? somatic 6. What part of the nervous system brings information to the CNS?
Sensory (afferent) neuron What part of the nervous system brings information from the CNS? Motor (efferent) neuron What is the site of intercellular communication between neurons? Synaptic cleft What substance travels across this gap to signal a response in the next cell? Neurotransmitters Distinguish between monopolor, bipolar, and multipolar neurons. Neurons with several dendrites and a single axon are called __________ neurons. Neurons with one axon and one dendrite with the soma (cell body) between them are called ________. What is meant by the all-or-none principle? Remember all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials. So how do action potentials relay different intensities of information? Added to Quiz: From Action Potential Lab: Once an action potential is triggered, what is the first major chemical change? Stepwise explain what happens in each step of an action potential: resting potential, depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, sodium/potassium pump (how many Na+ and K+ ions
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are transported for each ATP?) Distinguish between what happens in continuous conduction vs saltatory conduction (with myelin sheeth) / which is faster? From Nerve impulse lab). What are the functions of the dendrites, axons, synaptic knobs? Dendrites- transmits information TO the cell body Axons- transmits information FROM the cell body Synaptic knobs- the junction between the axon and the dendrites of the next neuron but they DO NOT TOUCH, the synaptic knobs are responsible for releasing the neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft What are collaterals? What is the synapse? The synapse is the gap between the dendrites and axons where they meet to exchange information. The synapse consists of: -a presynaptic ending that contains neurotransmitters, mitochondria, and other cell organelles -a postsynaptic ending that contains receptor sites for neurotransmitters -a synaptic cleft or space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic endings Where are neurotransmitters released from? Neurotransmitters are released from one neuron at the presynaptic nerve terminal. Which direction do action potentials normally travel along an axon? They usually travel AWAY from the cell body The major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and digestive activities are located in the medulla oblongata. What large region of the brain is involved in conscious thought and intellectual function as well as processing somatic sensory and motor information? The cerebral cortex Externally the two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the longitudinal fissure They are connected internally by the corpus calluosum which allows communication between the hemispheres. Where is the primary motor cortex located? It is located on the precentral gyrus The primary sensory cortex? It is located on the postcentral gyrus In what lobe of the cerebrum is the visual cortex located? It is located in the occipital lobe in the back of the brain Auditory cortex? The auditory cortex is located on in the center of the temporal lobe. Location and function of Broca’s area. Broca’s area is the region of the brain with functions linked to speech production. It is located on the frontal lobe, on the lower left of the precentral gyrus Added to Quiz: What region of the brain is associated with overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium? What part of the brain regulates water balance and body temperature? Hypothalamus (also responsible for emotion, hunger, thirst, and Ciracdian Rhythms) The right side of the brain controls movement in the left side of the body. The left side of the brain controls movement in the right side of the brain. What is the role of each: bare nerve endings, Meissner’s corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles? Bare nerve endings- responsible for pain and temperature receptors Messiner’s corpuscles- touch receptor Pacinian corpuscles- deep pressure receptors
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Golgi tendon organ- proprioceptor (meaning “one’s own” and perception, it provides feedback solely on the status of the body internally) Muscle spindle- also a proprioceptor The loss of memory associated with disease or trauma is referred to as amnesia. What brain waves found in a normal adult under resting conditions? Alpha waves Under times of intense concentration? Gamma waves What are reflexes and what are their characteristics? Autonomic and somatic Trace the pathway of a typical reflex from stimulus to response: 1) receptor (skin) → 2) sensory (afferent) neuron → 3) integration center (spinal cord) → 4) motor (efferent) neuron → 5) effector (muscle) Which kind of reflex would you expect a greater delay between stimulus and response (monosynaptic / polysynaptic)? the more synapses there are the slower it will be Distinguish and identify examples of somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) reflexes. Lab: be able to identify what happened in the following reflexes: patellar, Achilles tendon, pupillary light, corneal, gag and plantar reflexes. What was the effect of muscle fatigue on the ability to produce a patellar reflex? What the pupillary response contralateral or ipsilateral? Why would this response be valuable? The area of sensory cortex devoted to a particular region of the body is relative to what? the left side of the sensory cortex receives impulses from the right side of the body, and vice versa For what conditions does the sympathetic system of the ANS prepare the body? It prepares the body for emergencies The parasympathetic system? Daily “housekeeping” (digestion, defecation, ) Increased sympathetic stimulation causes what changes to the body? Increased heart rate, breathing rate, ect. Increased parasympathetic stimulation? Back to normal What term is used to refer to a number of disorders affecting voluntary motor performance that appear during infancy and persist for the rest of the life of the individual? What is a peripheral nerve palsy (peripheral nerve neuropathy)? Complete loss of strength in an affected limb or muscle group How does age affect the nervous system? Brain shrinks Distinguish between the following: Alzheimers- progressive degenerative disease of the brain that ultimately results in dementia (mental deterioration) Concussion- occurs when brain injury is slight; no permanent damage to the brain has been done Contusion- the result of marked tissue destruction; results in severe brain damage Coma- profound state of unconsciousness CVA- cerebrovascular accident, commonly called strokes; occurs when blood circulation to a brain area is blocked, as by blood clot or a ruptured blood vessel, and vital tissue dies Multiple Sclerosis- is a disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged; TIA- transient ischemic attack, often called a mini-stroke; it is a change of blood supply to a particular area of the brain Cerebral edema- swelling of the brain due to inflammatory response to injury Intracranial hemorrhage- bleeding from ruptured vessels Hydrocephalus- liteally means “water on the brain”; occurs if something obstructs the brain’s drainage and CSF begins to accumulate and exert pressure on the brain; if occurs in newborns, the head will swell because the skull bones have not yet fused, can be fixed through surgery by inserting a shunt to direct the excess fluid into a vein in the neck
30. Added to Quiz: Distinguish between (location and function): the dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater, cerebrospinal fluid. Where is cerebrospinal fluid produced? By what type of neuroglia? Reabsorbed? Labeling: 42. Label the parts of a typical motor neuron.
43. Label the parts of a typical reflex arc: stimulus, receptor, sensory neuron, effector, associative / interneuron, motor neuron
44. Label the major parts of the human brain: cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons, cerebrum, spinal cord, gyrus, sulcus, fissure, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe,
optic tract, corpus callosum, pineal gland, thalamus, pituitary gland
olfactory bulb, optic chiasm(a), optic nerve, optic tract, corpus callosum, pineal gland, thalamus, pituitary gland
45. Label the major parts of the sheep brain: cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons, cerebrum, spinal cord, gyrus, sulcus, fissure, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe, olfactory bulb, optic chiasm(a), optic nerve, optic tract, corpus callosum, pineal gland, thalamus
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