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Anatomy and Physiology

CH 7 Quiz / Test Review

STUDY Chapter 7 questions, labs, Packet, extra class notes. These are most of the possible questions.

TURN IN any ungraded labs

1. What are the functions of the nervous system?


The functions of the nervous system include sending signals to other cells throughout the body and
controlling the body by using sensory receptors

2. Distinguish between the following: CNS, PNS, Somatic, Autonomic, Parasympathetic, Sympathetic;
Afferent, Efferent
CNS = central nervous system; made up of the brain and spinal cord (dorsal cavity); Integrative and
control centers
PNS = peripheral nervous system ; cranial nerves and spinal nerves; communication lines between the
CNS and the rest of the body

Somatic = voluntary ;somatic motor; conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles

Autonomic = involuntary; Somatic motor; Conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth
muscles, and glands

Parasympathetic- Converses energy; Promotes “housekeeping” functions during rest

Sympathetic- mobilizes body systems during activity (“fight or flight”)

Afferent = sensory division; Somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers; conducts impulses from
receptors to the CNS (towards)

Efferent = motor division; Motor nerve fibers; Conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles

3. Distinguish between the characteristics of neurons and neuroglia. What are the functions of the
neuroglia?
-Neurons have TWO processes called axons and dendrites while glial cells only have one.
-Neurons CAN generate action potentials, while glial cells do NOT have chemical synapses
-Neurons HAVE synapses that use neurotransmitters… glial cells do NOT have chemical synapses

-There are many MORE glial cells in the brain compared to the number of neurons

What is the function of a neuron?

They are specialized to carry “messages” through an electrochemical process away from the cell
process

What are the functions of: ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes, microglia, astrocytes, Schwann cells?
astrocyte- form a living barrier between neurons and capillaries in the CNS
oligodendrocytes- from myelin sheaths around the nerve fibers in the CNS
microglia- are phagocytes that dispose of debris including dead brain cells and bacteria
ependymal cells-cells that line the cavities of the brain and spinal cord to help circulate the
cerebrospinal fluid that fills those cavities and forms a protective cushion around the CNS
Schwann cells- form myelin sheaths around the nerve fibers that are cound in the PNS
What cells in the CNS are responsible for myelinating the axons of some neurons? oligodendrocytes
What cells in the PNS perform the same function? Schwann cells
4. Identify structure and function of parts of typical neuron (dendrites, axon, cell body, myelin sheath,
schwann cells, synapse, etc.)

Dendrites- bring information to the cell body; usually


many dendrites per cell; no myelin insulation; branch
near the cell body

Axon-take info AWAY from the cell body, usually one


axon per cell, have myelin, branch further from the cell
body

Cell body- the metabolic center of the neuron

Myelin sheath- wrapped membranes that enclose the


axon

Schwann cells- specialized supporting cells that wrap


themselves around the axon, consists of:

-Presynaptic endings that contain neurotransmitters, mitochondria, and other cell

organelles

-A postsynaptic ending that contains receptor sites for neurotransmitters

-A synaptic cleft or space between the presynaptic and post synaptic endings

5. Voluntary control of the skeletal muscles is provided by which part of the nervous system? somatic
6. What part of the nervous system brings information to the CNS?
Sensory (afferent) neuron
What part of the nervous system brings information from the CNS?
Motor (efferent) neuron
7. What is the site of intercellular communication between neurons? Synaptic cleft
What substance travels across this gap to signal a response in the next cell? Neurotransmitters
8. Distinguish between monopolor, bipolar, and multipolar neurons. Neurons with several dendrites and a
single axon are called __________ neurons. Neurons with one axon and one dendrite with the soma
(cell body) between them are called ________.
9. What is meant by the all-or-none principle?
Remember all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action
potentials. So how do action potentials relay different intensities of information?
10. Added to Quiz: From Action Potential Lab: Once an action potential is triggered, what is the first major
chemical change? Stepwise explain what happens in each step of an action potential: resting potential,
depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, sodium/potassium pump (how many Na+ and K+ ions
are transported for each ATP?) Distinguish between what happens in continuous conduction vs
saltatory conduction (with myelin sheeth) / which is faster? From Nerve impulse lab).
11. What are the functions of the dendrites, axons, synaptic knobs?
Dendrites- transmits information TO the cell body
Axons- transmits information FROM the cell body
Synaptic knobs- the junction between the axon and the dendrites of the next neuron but they DO NOT
TOUCH, the synaptic knobs are responsible for releasing the neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft
What are collaterals?
What is the synapse?
The synapse is the gap between the dendrites and axons where they meet to exchange information.
The synapse consists of:
-a presynaptic ending that contains neurotransmitters, mitochondria, and other cell organelles
-a postsynaptic ending that contains receptor sites for neurotransmitters
-a synaptic cleft or space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic endings
Where are neurotransmitters released from?
Neurotransmitters are released from one neuron at the presynaptic nerve terminal.
Which direction do action potentials normally travel along an axon?
They usually travel AWAY from the cell body
12. The major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and
digestive activities are located in the medulla oblongata.
14. What large region of the brain is involved in conscious thought and intellectual function as well as
processing somatic sensory and motor information? The cerebral cortex
15. Externally the two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the longitudinal fissure
They are connected internally by the corpus calluosum which allows communication between the
hemispheres.
16. Where is the primary motor cortex located? It is
located on the precentral gyrus
The primary sensory cortex? It is located on the
postcentral gyrus
17. In what lobe of the cerebrum is the visual cortex
located? It is located in the occipital lobe in the
back of the brain
Auditory cortex? The auditory cortex is located
on in the center of the temporal lobe.
Location and function of Broca’s area. Broca’s
area is the region of the brain with functions
linked to speech production. It is located on the frontal lobe, on the lower left of the precentral gyrus
18. Added to Quiz: What region of the brain is associated with overseeing the postural muscles of the body
and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium?
What part of the brain regulates water balance and body temperature? Hypothalamus (also
responsible for emotion, hunger, thirst, and Ciracdian Rhythms)
19. The right side of the brain controls movement in the left side of the body. The left side of the brain
controls movement in the right side of the brain.
20. What is the role of each: bare nerve endings, Meissner’s corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Golgi tendon
organs and muscle spindles?
Bare nerve endings- responsible for pain and temperature receptors
Messiner’s corpuscles- touch receptor
Pacinian corpuscles- deep pressure receptors
Golgi tendon organ- proprioceptor (meaning “one’s own” and perception, it provides feedback solely on
the status of the body internally)
Muscle spindle- also a proprioceptor
21. The loss of memory associated with disease or trauma is referred to as amnesia.
22. What brain waves found in a normal adult under resting conditions? Alpha waves
Under times of intense concentration? Gamma waves
23. What are reflexes and what are their characteristics? Autonomic and somatic
Trace the pathway of a typical reflex from stimulus to response:
1) receptor (skin) → 2) sensory (afferent) neuron → 3) integration center (spinal cord) → 4)
motor (efferent) neuron → 5) effector (muscle)
Which kind of reflex would you expect a greater delay between stimulus and response (monosynaptic /
polysynaptic)? the more synapses there are the slower it will be
Distinguish and identify examples of somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) reflexes. Lab: be
able to identify what happened in the following reflexes: patellar, Achilles tendon, pupillary light,
corneal, gag and plantar reflexes.
What was the effect of muscle fatigue on the ability to produce a patellar reflex?
What the pupillary response contralateral or ipsilateral?
Why would this response be valuable?
24. The area of sensory cortex devoted to a particular region of the body is relative to what? the left side of
the sensory cortex receives impulses from the right side of the body, and vice versa
25. For what conditions does the sympathetic system of the ANS prepare the body? It prepares the body
for emergencies
The parasympathetic system? Daily “housekeeping” (digestion, defecation, )
26. Increased sympathetic stimulation causes what changes to the body? Increased heart rate, breathing
rate, ect. Increased parasympathetic stimulation? Back to normal
27. What term is used to refer to a number of disorders affecting voluntary motor performance that appear
during infancy and persist for the rest of the life of the individual?
What is a peripheral nerve palsy (peripheral nerve neuropathy)? Complete loss of strength in an
affected limb or muscle group
28. How does age affect the nervous system? Brain shrinks
29. Distinguish between the following:
Alzheimers- progressive degenerative disease of the brain that ultimately results in dementia (mental
deterioration)
Concussion- occurs when brain injury is slight; no permanent damage to the brain has been done
Contusion- the result of marked tissue destruction; results in severe brain damage
Coma- profound state of unconsciousness
CVA- cerebrovascular accident, commonly called strokes; occurs when blood circulation to a brain area
is blocked, as by blood clot or a ruptured blood vessel, and vital tissue dies
Multiple Sclerosis- is a disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and
spinal cord are damaged;
TIA- transient ischemic attack, often called a mini-stroke; it is a change of blood supply to a particular
area of the brain
Cerebral edema- swelling of the brain due to inflammatory response to injury
Intracranial hemorrhage- bleeding from ruptured vessels
Hydrocephalus- liteally means “water on the brain”; occurs if something obstructs the brain’s drainage
and CSF begins to accumulate and exert pressure on the brain; if occurs in newborns, the head will
swell because the skull bones have not yet fused, can be fixed through surgery by inserting a shunt to
direct the excess fluid into a vein in the neck
30. Added to Quiz: Distinguish between (location and function): the dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater,
cerebrospinal fluid. Where is cerebrospinal fluid produced?
By what type of neuroglia? Reabsorbed?

Labeling:
42. Label the parts of a typical motor neuron.

43. Label the parts of a typical reflex arc: stimulus, receptor, sensory neuron, effector, associative /
interneuron, motor neuron

44. Label the major parts of the human brain: cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons, cerebrum, spinal cord,
gyrus, sulcus, fissure, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe,
optic tract, corpus callosum, pineal gland, thalamus, pituitary gland
olfactory bulb, optic chiasm(a), optic nerve, optic tract, corpus callosum, pineal gland, thalamus, pituitary gland

45. Label the major parts of the sheep brain: cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons, cerebrum, spinal cord,
gyrus, sulcus, fissure, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe, olfactory bulb, optic
chiasm(a), optic nerve, optic tract, corpus callosum, pineal gland, thalamus