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Corruption..! Hunger for power..! Ego..!

These are such characteristics of a politician which are playing an important role for
corrupting and manipulating the entire democratic system, causing its failure.

Now..! If we have a look on History, History has shown us experimenting with


various different forms of government, with none of them being successful. The
primary cause of failure of democracy in Pakistan is that democratically elected
governments have not been allowed to function and to serve out their tenures,
which in turn leads to a lack of strong democratic institutions. Another cause may
be low literacy rates amongst the masses. However, given that the situation will not
change dramatically in the near future, we should also analyze another important
factor that contributes to the failure of democracy, that being the parliamentary
form of government.

So..! For that very reason our topic today is very thoughtful, meaningful and full of
reasons which contains factual information and somehow we will highlight the ways
to end such a things which are causing the democratic system to stop the work .

Now..! After listening the word democracy so many times the first question that
comes in our mind is,

Q. What is Democracy?

Basically it is a form of government elected by people for the people to attain their
rights.

Alas..! Those elected ones are not completing their tasks. People elected them after
great concern so that they (elected people) should do their job according to the
need of people but these peoples forgot their rules of serving people only because
of money and started fulfilling their desires which results in the form of corruption
and many other such types of activities which the people do to fulfill their needs
because everyone have some desires and if they don’t get (legally) what they want,
then they use alternate ways.

Now if we have a glance on the history there are many causes of failure of
democracy which includes,

• Illiteracy
• Lack of Democratic culture
• Parliamentary form of government
• Corruption
• Election arrangement
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• Poverty
• Ileit class
• Feudalism

Due to these causes democratic governments have not been allowed to function
and to serve out there tenures, which in terms lead to the lack of strong
democratic government.

ILLITERACY AS A MAJOR FACTOR


There are many factors for the failure of democracy in Pakistan but the main factor
is illiteracy. The plant of democracy can thrive only where the people are well
educated, intelligent. Democracy does not mean merely counting of votes. It must
be real both in sense and the spirits. Real democracy stands for civil freedom,
justice and equality. This could only be achieved by means of education.

NEVER EDUCATE THE CHILD TO BE A GENTLEMAN OR A LADY

ONLY BUT TO A MAN OR WOMAN.

The elected members are mostly yes man who blindly follows their leaders.

TO NEGLECT THE EDUCATION OF YOUNGSTERS IS TO


WEAKEN

THE CONSTITUTION OF COUNTRY.

(QUAID-E-
AZAM)

Without proper education there can’t be true democracy. In fact democracy is the
function of education. In Pakistan democracy is failed to be prospered because 80%
of ballad forces are poor and illiterate. They are influenced by rich land lords,
government officials and the people. Such an indirect democracy has made
mockery of the whole Pakistan. Those who call themselves to be the champions of
democracy are the least democratic in words and actions. What democracy is can’t
be separated from what democracy should be.

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It is not the quantity that counts but it is the quality both of the voters and their
representatives that is important. Quality depends on character, education and an
action and above all sense of duty. Wealth and power doesn’t make real
democracy. It is only the man of people who can deliver the goods.

Where lies the fault? Why democracy couldn’t thrive in Pakistan? The answer is
only the illiteracy.

EDUCATION IS SHIELD AGAINST IGNORANCE.

WHAT PAKISTAN NEEDS IS QUICK PROGRESS IN


SCIENTIFIC

AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

The aim of education is not to make the child this or that but to make him a man of
true sense of the world. In short democracy is farce without education.

PARLIAMENTARY FORM OF
GOVERNMENT
We should also analyze another important factor that contributes to the
failure of democracy, that being the parliamentary form of government.

Under a parliamentary form of government, the masses vote for their


representatives, who are then elected to the various provincial and the
national assemblies. The parliamentarians from the majority party then
nominate an individual, usually the party leader, as the leader of the house in
the assembly. The nomination of these individuals is then ratified by a simple
majority vote in the assembly and then they are elected Prime Minister and
Chief Ministers.

The major issue with the parliamentary form of government is that even
though the Prime Minister is the Chief Executive of the country, a President
who is appointed by the Prime Minister is the official Head of State. The same
holds true of the provincial governors. Hence we see that even though the
President and the Governors are heads of the country and the provinces, they
are appointed and not elected. At the same time the people do not directly
elect the Prime Minister who is the Chief Executive, either. A fallacy here is
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that a President who is appointed by the Prime Minister can throw them out
of office and can unilaterally dissolve the elected assemblies. Another
problem that comes up is the power sharing between the troika of the
President, the Prime Minister and the Chief of Army Staff, thereby lending
credence to the maxim

"Too many cooks spoil the broth".

Once the Prime Minister and the Chief Minister are appointed the power play
comes into place in the assemblies for the appointment of ministers. Since
the Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers are not elected directly by the
public, but by the members of the assemblies, in order to keep their
positions; they have to keep the elected members happy. One result of this is
the burgeoning of ministries leading to subsequent confusion and cost. The
main motive of each elected member is to become a minister in order to
wield power, which leads to subsequent corruption. Even if the Prime and
the Chief Ministers are honest and sincere, in order to keep their jobs; they
have to pay heed to the members of the assemblies. Thus we see that the
elected representatives of the people end up detracting from their primary
job of legislation and concentrate on filling their own coffers.

Under the Presidential form of government the President is elected through


direct adult franchise or as in the case of the USA through the Electoral
College, which in turn depends upon the population of each state. The
President is not only the Chief Executive, but is also the Head of State. State
governors are also elected directly by the public. Similarly, the members of
the Congress and the Senate are also elected directly by the public. The
president then appoints his cabinet members, who are not part of the elected
representatives. The members of the Congress and Senate perform their
primary function of legislation and act as watchdogs on the President and the
Cabinet. The cabinet members are usually technocrats who are experts in
their respective fields.

In the case of Pakistan we see that most political parties have no manifestos
and in many cases the elected representatives routinely switch political
parties, depending on which side their bread is buttered. At the same time
the public votes for Bhutto’s party or Nawaz Sharif’s party and in the absence
of a clear manifesto, the success or failure of a party depends upon the
charisma of its leader or the individual influence of the candidates.

Looking at the above analysis, why should we not revisit the issue of the form
of government for Pakistan? In my opinion, the presidential form of
government is a truer form of democracy and is more suited to the Pakistan
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environment rather than the parliamentary form, which is not only
cumbersome but also very expensive.

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF PARLIAMENTARY FORM OF GOVERNMENT:-

There are various negative effects of parliamentary form of government like this
government is afraid of making any strong decision because it got insecure to
maintain its position for the next elections. Parliamentary form of government has
to follow electorate to get vote next time. In this way some decisions of the
government can be biased. Secondly, it is very important for any state to have
stable economy and politics but parliamentary form of government is not
constitutionally stable. Thirdly, even if the government is a failure, still there is a
resistance in removing the president, which creates oppositions. Moreover, in
parliamentary form of government, if legislature and presidency is kept separate
then there is no unity and lack of accountability. Another disadvantage of the
parliamentary form of government is that the democratically elected Governments
may be reluctant to address some of the harder issues because of fear that if they
raise taxes too high , again in the future they will not be voted.

ELECTION ARRANGEMENT IN OUR


COUNTRY

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Another causes of failure of democracy is to how we enforced, oh implemented in
our peaceful, beloved country. election method is the factor which effect the
democracy in the country.

You have heard about land-lords and zamindars, what kind of majority people they
have, people under their rule who had to vote without knowing just had to vote.
Secondly the political parties have some corrupted leaders who want their own
interest, forget what people think. The major factor is the industrialist and business
men, who vote for their own benefit. They are not linked with the parties but take
sides for their profit in business.

History has shown us experimenting with various different forms of government,


with none of them being successful. The primary cause of failure of democracy in
Pakistan is that democratically elected governments have not been allowed to
function and to serve out their tenures, which in turn leads to a lack of strong
democratic institutions. Another cause may be low literacy rates amongst the
masses. However, given that the situation will not change dramatically in the near
future, we should also analyze another important factor that contributes to the
failure of democracy, that being the parliamentary form of government.

Under a parliame ntary form of government, the masses vote for their
representatives, who are then elected to the various provincial and the national
assemblies? The parliamentarians from the majority party then nominate an
individual, usually the party leader, as the leader of the house in the assembly. The
nomination of these individuals is then ratified by a simple majority vote in the
assembly and then they are elected Prime Minister and Chief Ministers. The
respective chief ministers and the Prime Minister have the authority to appoint
ministers to their respective cabinets from within the elected members of the
different houses. A non-elected member may also be appointed a minister or even a
Chief or Prime Minister, but he/she will have to get elected to the assembly within a
specified period of time in order to maintain his/her position. The Prime Minister
essentially appoints the President.

The major issue with the parliamentary form of government is that even though the
Prime Minister is the Chief Executive of the country, a President who is appointed by
the Prime Minister is the official Head of State. The same holds true of the provincial
governors. Hence we see that even though the President and the Governors are
heads of the country and the provinces, they are appointed and not elected. At the
same time the people do not directly elect the Prime Minister who is the Chief
Executive, either. A fallacy here is that a President who is appointed by the Prime
Minister or a Governor who is appointed by a Chief Minister can throw them out of
office and can unilaterally dissolve the elected assemblies. Another problem that

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comes up is the power sharing between the troika of the President, the Prime
Minister and the Chief of Army Staff, thereby lending credence to the maxim "Too
many cooks spoil the broth".

Once the Prime Minister and the Chief Minister are appointed the power play comes
into place in the assemblies for the appointment of ministers. Since the Prime
Minister and the Chief Ministers are not elected directly by the public, but by the
members of the assemblies, in order to keep their positions; they have to keep the
elected members happy. One result of this is the burgeoning of ministries leading to
subsequent confusion and cost. The main motive of each elected member is to
become a minister in order to wield power, which leads to subsequent corruption.
Even if the Prime and the Chief Ministers are honest and sincere, in order to keep
their jobs; they have to pay heed to the members of the assemblies. Thus we see
that the elected representatives of the people end up detracting from their primary
job of legislation and concentrate on filling their own coffers

Under the Presidential form of government the President is elected through direct
adult franchise or as in the case of the USA through the Electoral College, which in
turn depends upon the population of each state. The President is not only the Chief
Executive, but is also the Head of State. State governors are also elected directly by
the public. Similarly, the members of the Congress and the Senate are also elected
directly by the public. The president then appoints his cabinet members, who are
not part of the elected representatives. The members of the Congress and Senate
perform their primary function of legislation and act as watchdogs on the President
and the Cabinet. The cabinet members are usually technocrats who are experts in
their respective fields.

In the case of Pakistan we see that most political parties have no manifestos and in
many cases the elected representatives routinely switch political parties, depending
on which side their bread is buttered. At the same time the public votes for Bhutto’s
party or Nawaz Sharif’s party and in the absence of a clear manifesto, the success
or failure of a party depends upon the charisma of its leader or the individual
influence of the candidates.

Looking at the above analysis, why should we not revisit the issue of the form of
government for Pakistan? In my opinion, the presidential form of government is a
truer form of democracy and is more suited to the Pakistan environment rather than
the parliamentary form, which is not only cumbersome but also very expensive.

How can something survive when it does not exist? Democracy in its true spirit has never
been allowed to take roots in Pakistan. Since its independence in 1947, a military-
bureaucratic establishment has always governed the country. Army generals usurp power

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at their own convenience and quit only when they are forced to quit by mass political
movements or by a sudden unexpected death.

When forced by external or internal pressures, democracy is given a chance but in


reality a group of army generals keep controlling the decision-making. This direct or
indirect military influence is the greatest impediment to the evolution of a stable
governing system in Pakistan.
Recalling the last 62 years of Pakistan, democracy is found only as an interval
before the next military general comes to the scene. Future of democracy was
doomed from the start when Liaquat Ali Khan, the first elected Prime Minister, was
shot at a public gathering. Nobody knows to this day who did it and why. From now
on, the balance of power was to shift in the favor of military. A comparison tells us
how this shift came up. From 1951-57 India had one Prime Minister and several
army chiefs while during the same period Pakistan had one army chief and several
Prime ministers. The same army chief, the Sandhurst trained general, Ayub Khan
was to announce the first martial law in the country in1958 and series of military
rule was to follow.
General Ayub Khan could not withstand a popular national movement against him
and transferred power to General Yahya Khan in March 1969. Under him Pakistan
lost its half which is now Bangladesh. Power was then transferred to Zulfikar Ali
Bhutto as the first civilian martial law administrator. Bhutto pursued an independent
policy, which was against what generals and the U.S wanted, and he had to pay
with his life. Charged for compliance in murder, Bhutto was hanged by the next
martial law administrator, General Zia UL Haq. Hanging of an elected Prime Minister
was shocking news to the world and Pakistan was to have the effects years later.
The general died in a mysterious plane crash. Then came a ten years gap of
experimentation with democracy and every two years each elected government
being ousted by the special discretionary powers of the president. An end to this
ten-year spell came with a new general coming to power ousting the incumbent
elected government of Mian Nawaz Sharif. This time the Prime Minister was charged
for conspiring against the state and was ousted
Is this the way to vote, is this the way to elect a desired candidate.
If the roots of the tree is not strong definitely it will fall down, similarly
elections are the roots of the tree, you people, young people, are not
strong definitely it will fall down.

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FINAL REPORT ON THE


ENCLOSED TOPIC

1.1OBJECTIVE:
YOUSUF: The motto of our topic is to draw the attention of the students and
mainly the youth towards the bad condition of PAKISTAN GOVT. whose function
is to serve the tenures of the people but is serving their owns

1.2REASON
YOUSUF: The main reason for selecting the topic is to put forward the working of
our government since the birth of our beloved country and to improve it.

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1.3MAIN POINTS
YOUSUF: The main purpose of our topic is to put forward all the reasons which
cause the failure of democracy in PAKISTAN.

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