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HHS4M1 UNIT 1: Introduction and Review

Research Methods
Quantitative and Qualitative

1. Historical Documents Quantitative

Wills, diaries, letters
Municipal records Qualitative
Church records

2. Official Statistics Quantitative

Statistics Canada
Canadian Consensus Qualitative
All government departments
Newspapers or other media polls

3. Content Analysis Quantitative

Written resource materials
e.g. encyclopaedia, books, periodicals, standardized Qualitative

4. Case Study Quantitative

A description and detailed analysis of an
individual or event Qualitative

Created using a variety of methodologies

e.g. interview, observations, test scores

Generates questions but not intended to give a

total picture of human behaviour

5. Personal Observation Quantitative

Participant observation e.g. “Black Like Me” Qualitative
In order to minimize bias, several observers should be

Often hypothesis of the study are not revealed so that

observers cannot be accused of seeing only what the
study expects to find

6. Personal Interview Quantitative

Allows more detail than a survey
Involves open ended questions Qualitative

7. Survey Research Quantitative

An attempt to determine opinions, characteristics,
or behaviours of large groups of people Qualitative
HHS4M1 UNIT 1: Introduction and Review

Research Methods
Quantitative and Qualitative

Researcher remains distant and uninvolved so biased

results are limited

Must create a random sample  representative group

of individuals

Must use open and closed questions

E.g. Closed “Do you know what career you want?”

Yes ____ No____

Rank from 1-5 the following factors that motivate you in


1=most important 5=least important

Parents ___

OPEN “explain what you think motivates teens”