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8-2

Measures of Central
Tendency and Range

MAIN IDEA
Describe a set of data
using mean, median,
mode, and range.

The number of pennies in each cup represents Jacks scores for


five math quizzes.

New Vocabulary
measures of central
tendency
mean
median
mode

Math Online
glencoe.com
Extra Examples
Personal Tutor
Self-Check Quiz

10

Move the pennies among the cups so that each cup has the same
number of pennies.
1. What was Jacks average score for the five quizzes?

8 points

2. If Jack scores 14 points on the next quiz, how many pennies would

be in each cup? 9
A number used to describe the center of a set of data is a measure of
central tendency. The most common of these measures is the mean.

Mean
Words

Key Concept

The mean of a set of data is the sum of the data divided by


the number of items in the data set. The mean is also referred
to as average.

Examples data set: 1 cm, 1 cm, 5 cm, 2 cm, 2 cm, 4 cm, 2 cm, 5 cm
mean:

1+1+5+2+2+4+2+5
___
or 2.75 cm
8

Find the Mean


1 QUIZ SCORES The table shows the quiz scores
for 16 students. Find the mean.
47 + 40 + ... + 44
mean = __
16
714
= _ or 44.625
16

sum of data
number of data items

Quiz Scores
47

40

43

45

49

41

49

44

43

41

44

49

44

50

41

44

a. MONEY Adam earned $14, $10, $12, $15, and $13 by doing chores

around the house. What is the mean amount Adam earned doing
these chores? $12.80
402

Chapter 8 Statistics: Analyzing Data

Two other common measures of central tendency are median and mode.

Median
Vocabulary Link
Median
Everyday Use the middle
paved or planted section of
a highway, as in median
strip.

Key Concept

Words

In a data set that has been ordered from least to greatest, the
median is the middle number if there is an odd number of
data items. If there is an even number of data items, the
median is the mean of the two numbers closest to the middle.

Example

data set: 7 yd, 11 yd, 15 yd, 17 yd, 20 yd, 20 yd

Math Use the middle


number of the ordered data.

15 + 17
_
or 16 yd

median:

The median divides


the data in half.

Mode
Words

The mode of a set of data is the number that occurs most


often. If there are two or more numbers that occur most often,
all of them are modes.

Example

data set: 50 mi, 45 mi, 45 mi, 52 mi, 49 mi, 56 mi, 56 mi


modes: 45 mi and 56 mi

Find the Mean, Median, and Mode


2 MOVIE RENTALS The number
of DVDs rented during one
week at Star Struck Movie
Rental is shown in the table.
What are the mean, median,
and mode of the data?

Star Struck Movie Rental


Daily DVD Rentals
S

TH

55

34

35

34

57

78

106

mean:

55 + 34 + 35 + 34 + 57 + 78 + 106
399
___
=_
or 57

median:

34, 34, 35, 55, 57, 78, 106

First, write the data in order.

median

mode:

34

It is the only value that occurs more than once.

The mean is 57 DVDs, the median is 55 DVDs, and the mode is


34 DVDs.

b. BICYCLES The sizes of the bicycles

owned by the students in Ms. Garcias


class are listed in the table. What are the
mean, median, and mode of the data?
24.25 in., 24 in., 24 in.

Students Bicycle Sizes (in.)


20

24

20

26

24

24

24

26

24

29

26

24

c. FOOTBALL The points scored in each game by Darby Middle

Schools football team for 9 games are 21, 35, 14, 17, 28, 14, 7, 21,
and 14. Find the mean, median, and mode. 19, 17, 14
Lesson 8-2 Measures of Central Tendency and Range

403

3 The maximum length in feet of several whales is listed below.


46, 53, 33, 53, 79
Comparing Measures
Another way to solve
Example 3 is to find
the measures before
98 is added to the data
set. Then find the
measures after 98 is
added to the data set.
Then compare.

If the maximum length of the Blue Whale, 98 feet, is added to this


list, which of the following statements would be true?
A The mode would decrease.

C The mean would increase.

B The median would decrease.

D The mean would decrease.

Read the Item


You are asked to identify which statement would be true if the data
value 98 was added to the data set.

Solve the Item


Use number sense to eliminate possibilities.
The mode, 53, will remain unchanged since the new data value
occurs only once. So, eliminate answer choice A.
Since the new data value is greater than each value in the data set, the
median will not decrease. So, eliminate answer choice B.
The remaining two answer choices refer to the mean. Since 98 is
greater than each value in the data set, the mean will increase, not
decrease. So, the answer is C.

d. If the maximum length of the Orca Whale, 30 feet, is added to the

list in Example 3, which of the following statements would be true?


F The mode would decrease.
H The mean would increase. J
G The median would increase.

The mean would decrease.

In addition to the mean, median, and mode, you can also use the range to
describe a set of data. Below are some guidelines for using these measures.

Mean, Median, Mode, and Range

404

Concept Summary

Measure

Most Useful When...

Mean

data set has no outliers

Median

data set has outliers


there are no big gaps in the middle of the data

Mode

data set has many identical numbers

Range

describing the spread of the data

Chapter 8 Statistics: Analyzing Data

Choose Mean, Median, Mode, or Range


4 PLANTS The line plot

Median
When there is an odd
number of data, the median
is the middle number of the
ordered set. When there is
an even number of data,
the median is the mean of
the two middle numbers.

shows the height of


desert cacti. Would the
mean, median, mode,
or range best represent
the heights?
mean:
median:

)FJHIUTPG%FTFSU$BDUJ GU

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

1 + 2 + 2 + ... + 30
__
or 8.8

14
7th term + 8th term
5+5
__
= _ or 5
2
2

mode:

range:

30 - 1 or 29

The mean of 8.8 misrepresents the score. The median or mode


represents the height of the cacti well.

e. The mean is $21.50,


the median is $18.50,
the mode is $40, and
the range is $28. The
mean or median could
be used to represent
the data.

Board Game Costs ($)


e. GAMES The table shows the cost of

various board games. Would the


mean, median, mode, or range best
represent the costs? Explain.

12

15

40

22

14

40

15

17

20

18

40

19

16

21

19

16

indicates multi-step problem

Examples 1, 2
(pp. 402403)

Find the mean, median, and mode for each set of data. Round to the nearest
tenth if necessary.

1. 52.3; 57; 59

1. Miles traveled on the weekend: 29, 14, 80, 59, 78, 30, 59, 69, 55, 50

2. 9.5; 9.5; none


3. 26.5, 25.5, 23
and 25

2.

Team

Number of Wins

Eagles

10

Hawks

Zipps

Falcons

11

.JOVUFT4QFOU8BMLJOH

3.

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Example 3

4. MULTIPLE CHOICE During the week, the daily low temperatures were 52F,

(p. 404)

45F, 51F, 45F, and 48F. If Saturdays low temperature of 51F is added,
which statement about the data set would be true? C

Example 4
(p. 405)

A The mean would decrease.

C The mode would increase.

B The median would decrease.

D The mode would decrease.

5. SHOES The line plot shows


the price of athletic shoes.
Which measure best describes
the data: mean, median, mode,
or range? Explain. See margin.

45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Lesson 8-2 Measures of Central Tendency and Range

405

HOMEWORK
For
Exercises
611
3032
1213

HELP

See
Examples
1, 2
3
4

Exercise Levels
A: 613
B: 1424
C: 2529

11. 46, 45, 44

Find the mean, median, and mode for each set of data. Round to the nearest
tenth if necessary. 7. 87; 90; 80 and 93 8. 92.7; 91.5; 90
6. Number of dogs groomed each week: 65, 56, 57, 75, 76, 66, 64

65.6; 65; none

7. Daily number of boats in a harbor: 93, 84, 80, 91, 94, 90, 78, 93, 80
8. Scores earned on a math test: 95, 90, 92, 94, 91, 90, 98, 88, 89, 100
9. Prices of books: $10, $18, $11, $6, $6, $5, $10, $11, $46, $7, $6, $8
10.

Cost

Number of Coats

$75

$80

$85

11.

$12; $9; $6

4QSJOHEBMF.JEEMF4DIPPM
#BTLFUCBMM4DPSFT

36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

$79.40; $80; $75


12.
MUSIC The line plot shows the number of weeks that songs have been on

the Top 20 Country Songs list. Would the mean, median, mode, or range
best represent the data? Explain. See margin.
Country Songs
Number of Weeks in Top 20

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

13. SPACE Twenty-seven countries have sent people into space. The table

shows the number of individuals from each country. Which measure best
describes the data: mean, median, mode, or range? Explain. See margin.
Real-World Link
The International
Space Station
measures 356 feet by
290 feet, and contains
almost an acre of
solar panels.

People in Space
267

97

11

Source: The World Almanac

Source: The World Almanac

Find the mean, median, and mode for each set of data. Round to the nearest
tenth if necessary. 14. 6.4, 6.5, 7.2 15. $3.50, $3.50, $3.50
14. Weight in ounces of various insects: 6.1, 5.2, 7.2, 7.2, 3.6, 9.0, 6.5, 7.4, 5.4
15. Prices of magazines: $3.50, $3.75, $3.50, $4.00, $3.00, $3.50, $3.25
16. Daily low temperatures: -2F, -8F, -2F, 0F, -1F, 1F, -2F, -1F

-1.9F, -1.5F, -2F


REASONING Determine whether each statement is always, sometimes, or never
true about the data set {8, 12, 15, 23}. Explain your reasoning.
1719.
See margin.

17. If a value greater than 23 is added, the mean will increase.


18. If a value less than or equal to 8 is added, the mean will decrease.
19. If a value between 8 and 23 is added, the mean will remain unchanged.

406

Chapter 8 Statistics: Analyzing Data

21. Sample answer:


A length of 960
inches is much
greater than the
other pieces of
data. So, if this
piece of data is
added, the mean
will increase.
22. Median or
mode; Mean,
median, or mode;
Sample answer:
The length of the
Brachiosaurus
is an outlier, so
the mean
misrepresents the
data if this value
is included.

DINOSAURS For Exercises 2022, use the lengths of the dinosaurs


shown below.

Tyrannosaurus Rex
Length: 480 inches

Corythosaurus
Length: 396 inches

Parasaurolophus
Length: 480 inches

20. What is the mean length of the dinosaurs?

452 inches

21. One of the largest dinosaurs ever is the Brachiosaurus. Its length was

960 inches. If this data value is added to the lengths of the dinosaurs
above, how will it affect the mean? Explain your reasoning.
22. Which measure best describes the data if the length of the Brachiosaurus is

included: mean, median, mode, or range? If the length of the Brachiosaurus


is not included? Explain any similarities or differences.
23. SPORTS The table shows the points scored

Hawks Lacrosse Team

by a lacrosse team so far this season. The


Points Scored
team will play 14 games this season. How
11 15 12 10 10 10 13
many points need to be scored during the
14 13 13 10 15 12
last game so that the average number of
points scored this season is 12? Explain. 10 points; See margin for explanation.
EXTRA

PRACTICE

See pages 687, 711.

24. FIND THE DATA Refer to the Data File on pages 1619. Choose some data and

then describe it using the mean, median, mode, and range. See students work.

H.O.T. Problems
25. Sample answer:
4, 5, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 0,
1, 2, 4, 68, 5; the
mean, 7.7, is
not the best
representation
since it is greater
than all the data
items except one.

25. OPEN ENDED Give an example of a set of data in which the mean is not the

26. range; mean,


median, and mode
are used to
describe the center
of data. Range
describes the
spread of the data.

28. CHALLENGE Without calculating, would the mean, median, or mode be most

best representation of the data set. Explain why not.


26. Which One Doesnt Belong? Identify the term that does not have the same

characteristic as the other three. Explain your reasoning.


mean

median

range

mode

27. REASONING Determine whether the median is sometimes, always, or never

part of the data set. Explain your reasoning. See margin.

affected by eliminating 1,000 from the data shown? Which would be the
least affected? Explain your reasoning. See margin.
50, 100, 75, 60, 75, 1,000, 90, 100
29.

WR ITING IN MATH According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the typical


number of family members per household is 2.59. State whether this
measure is a mean or mode. Explain how you know. See margin.
Lesson 8-2 Measures of Central Tendency and Range

407

30. The table below shows the number of

31. An antique dealer purchased

soup labels collected in one week by


each homeroom in grade 7.

5 antiques for a total of $850.00.


He later bought another antique
for $758.00. What is the mean cost
of all the antiques? H

Number of
Soup Labels

Classroom
Mr. Martin

138

F $151.60

H $268.00

Ms. Davis

125

G $170.00

Mr. Cardona

89

Mrs. Turner

110

Mr. Wilhelm

130

Mrs. LaBash

32. Gina found the mean and median of

the following list of numbers.


5, 7, 7
If the number 11 was added to this list,
which of the following statements
would be true? A

Which number could be added to the


set of data in order for the mode and
median of the set to be equal? C
A 89

C 125

B 110

D 130

$321.60

A The mean would increase.


B The mean would decrease.
C The median would increase.
D The median would decrease.

33. TEMPERATURE The table shows record high temperatures for

July Temperatures

Kentucky in July. Make a line plot of the data. (Lesson 8-1)


See margin.
Find the simple interest earned to the nearest cent for each
principal, interest rate, and time. (Lesson 7-8)
34. $1,250, 3.5%, 2 years

$87.50

35. $569, 5.5%, 4 months

$10.43

36. FOOD The United States produced almost 11

billion pounds of apples in a recent year. Use


the information in the graph to find how many
pounds of apples were used to make juice and
cider. (Lesson 7-1) about 2.53 billion
37. Name the property shown by the statement

4 6 = 6 4.

(Lesson 1-8)

99

98

96

98

98

97

100

103

103

103

100

95

100

103

105

Uses of Apples in the United States


Juice and
Cider
23%
Fresh
Fruit
59%

Canned
Fruit
11%
Other
7%

Commutative ()

Source: U.S. Apple Association

PREREQUISITE SKILL Name the place value of the underlined digit.


38. 581

408

hundreds

39. 6,295

Chapter 8 Statistics: Analyzing Data

ones

40. 4,369

thousands

(p. 669)

41. 2.84

tenths