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Measures of Central

Tendency and Range

MAIN IDEA

Describe a set of data

using mean, median,

mode, and range.

five math quizzes.

New Vocabulary

measures of central

tendency

mean

median

mode

Math Online

glencoe.com

Extra Examples

Personal Tutor

Self-Check Quiz

10

Move the pennies among the cups so that each cup has the same

number of pennies.

1. What was Jacks average score for the five quizzes?

8 points

2. If Jack scores 14 points on the next quiz, how many pennies would

be in each cup? 9

A number used to describe the center of a set of data is a measure of

central tendency. The most common of these measures is the mean.

Mean

Words

Key Concept

the number of items in the data set. The mean is also referred

to as average.

Examples data set: 1 cm, 1 cm, 5 cm, 2 cm, 2 cm, 4 cm, 2 cm, 5 cm

mean:

1+1+5+2+2+4+2+5

___

or 2.75 cm

8

1 QUIZ SCORES The table shows the quiz scores

for 16 students. Find the mean.

47 + 40 + ... + 44

mean = __

16

714

= _ or 44.625

16

sum of data

number of data items

Quiz Scores

47

40

43

45

49

41

49

44

43

41

44

49

44

50

41

44

a. MONEY Adam earned $14, $10, $12, $15, and $13 by doing chores

around the house. What is the mean amount Adam earned doing

these chores? $12.80

402

Two other common measures of central tendency are median and mode.

Median

Vocabulary Link

Median

Everyday Use the middle

paved or planted section of

a highway, as in median

strip.

Key Concept

Words

In a data set that has been ordered from least to greatest, the

median is the middle number if there is an odd number of

data items. If there is an even number of data items, the

median is the mean of the two numbers closest to the middle.

Example

number of the ordered data.

15 + 17

_

or 16 yd

median:

the data in half.

Mode

Words

often. If there are two or more numbers that occur most often,

all of them are modes.

Example

modes: 45 mi and 56 mi

2 MOVIE RENTALS The number

of DVDs rented during one

week at Star Struck Movie

Rental is shown in the table.

What are the mean, median,

and mode of the data?

Daily DVD Rentals

S

TH

55

34

35

34

57

78

106

mean:

55 + 34 + 35 + 34 + 57 + 78 + 106

399

___

=_

or 57

median:

median

mode:

34

34 DVDs.

class are listed in the table. What are the

mean, median, and mode of the data?

24.25 in., 24 in., 24 in.

20

24

20

26

24

24

24

26

24

29

26

24

Schools football team for 9 games are 21, 35, 14, 17, 28, 14, 7, 21,

and 14. Find the mean, median, and mode. 19, 17, 14

Lesson 8-2 Measures of Central Tendency and Range

403

46, 53, 33, 53, 79

Comparing Measures

Another way to solve

Example 3 is to find

the measures before

98 is added to the data

set. Then find the

measures after 98 is

added to the data set.

Then compare.

list, which of the following statements would be true?

A The mode would decrease.

You are asked to identify which statement would be true if the data

value 98 was added to the data set.

Use number sense to eliminate possibilities.

The mode, 53, will remain unchanged since the new data value

occurs only once. So, eliminate answer choice A.

Since the new data value is greater than each value in the data set, the

median will not decrease. So, eliminate answer choice B.

The remaining two answer choices refer to the mean. Since 98 is

greater than each value in the data set, the mean will increase, not

decrease. So, the answer is C.

F The mode would decrease.

H The mean would increase. J

G The median would increase.

In addition to the mean, median, and mode, you can also use the range to

describe a set of data. Below are some guidelines for using these measures.

404

Concept Summary

Measure

Mean

Median

there are no big gaps in the middle of the data

Mode

Range

4 PLANTS The line plot

Median

When there is an odd

number of data, the median

is the middle number of the

ordered set. When there is

an even number of data,

the median is the mean of

the two middle numbers.

desert cacti. Would the

mean, median, mode,

or range best represent

the heights?

mean:

median:

)FJHIUTPG%FTFSU$BDUJ GU

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

1 + 2 + 2 + ... + 30

__

or 8.8

14

7th term + 8th term

5+5

__

= _ or 5

2

2

mode:

range:

30 - 1 or 29

represents the height of the cacti well.

the median is $18.50,

the mode is $40, and

the range is $28. The

mean or median could

be used to represent

the data.

e. GAMES The table shows the cost of

mean, median, mode, or range best

represent the costs? Explain.

12

15

40

22

14

40

15

17

20

18

40

19

16

21

19

16

Examples 1, 2

(pp. 402403)

Find the mean, median, and mode for each set of data. Round to the nearest

tenth if necessary.

1. 52.3; 57; 59

1. Miles traveled on the weekend: 29, 14, 80, 59, 78, 30, 59, 69, 55, 50

3. 26.5, 25.5, 23

and 25

2.

Team

Number of Wins

Eagles

10

Hawks

Zipps

Falcons

11

.JOVUFT4QFOU8BMLJOH

3.

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Example 3

4. MULTIPLE CHOICE During the week, the daily low temperatures were 52F,

(p. 404)

45F, 51F, 45F, and 48F. If Saturdays low temperature of 51F is added,

which statement about the data set would be true? C

Example 4

(p. 405)

the price of athletic shoes.

Which measure best describes

the data: mean, median, mode,

or range? Explain. See margin.

45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

405

HOMEWORK

For

Exercises

611

3032

1213

HELP

See

Examples

1, 2

3

4

Exercise Levels

A: 613

B: 1424

C: 2529

Find the mean, median, and mode for each set of data. Round to the nearest

tenth if necessary. 7. 87; 90; 80 and 93 8. 92.7; 91.5; 90

6. Number of dogs groomed each week: 65, 56, 57, 75, 76, 66, 64

7. Daily number of boats in a harbor: 93, 84, 80, 91, 94, 90, 78, 93, 80

8. Scores earned on a math test: 95, 90, 92, 94, 91, 90, 98, 88, 89, 100

9. Prices of books: $10, $18, $11, $6, $6, $5, $10, $11, $46, $7, $6, $8

10.

Cost

Number of Coats

$75

$80

$85

11.

$12; $9; $6

4QSJOHEBMF.JEEMF4DIPPM

#BTLFUCBMM4DPSFT

36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56

12.

MUSIC The line plot shows the number of weeks that songs have been on

the Top 20 Country Songs list. Would the mean, median, mode, or range

best represent the data? Explain. See margin.

Country Songs

Number of Weeks in Top 20

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

13. SPACE Twenty-seven countries have sent people into space. The table

shows the number of individuals from each country. Which measure best

describes the data: mean, median, mode, or range? Explain. See margin.

Real-World Link

The International

Space Station

measures 356 feet by

290 feet, and contains

almost an acre of

solar panels.

People in Space

267

97

11

Find the mean, median, and mode for each set of data. Round to the nearest

tenth if necessary. 14. 6.4, 6.5, 7.2 15. $3.50, $3.50, $3.50

14. Weight in ounces of various insects: 6.1, 5.2, 7.2, 7.2, 3.6, 9.0, 6.5, 7.4, 5.4

15. Prices of magazines: $3.50, $3.75, $3.50, $4.00, $3.00, $3.50, $3.25

16. Daily low temperatures: -2F, -8F, -2F, 0F, -1F, 1F, -2F, -1F

REASONING Determine whether each statement is always, sometimes, or never

true about the data set {8, 12, 15, 23}. Explain your reasoning.

1719.

See margin.

18. If a value less than or equal to 8 is added, the mean will decrease.

19. If a value between 8 and 23 is added, the mean will remain unchanged.

406

A length of 960

inches is much

greater than the

other pieces of

data. So, if this

piece of data is

added, the mean

will increase.

22. Median or

mode; Mean,

median, or mode;

Sample answer:

The length of the

Brachiosaurus

is an outlier, so

the mean

misrepresents the

data if this value

is included.

shown below.

Tyrannosaurus Rex

Length: 480 inches

Corythosaurus

Length: 396 inches

Parasaurolophus

Length: 480 inches

452 inches

21. One of the largest dinosaurs ever is the Brachiosaurus. Its length was

960 inches. If this data value is added to the lengths of the dinosaurs

above, how will it affect the mean? Explain your reasoning.

22. Which measure best describes the data if the length of the Brachiosaurus is

is not included? Explain any similarities or differences.

23. SPORTS The table shows the points scored

Points Scored

team will play 14 games this season. How

11 15 12 10 10 10 13

many points need to be scored during the

14 13 13 10 15 12

last game so that the average number of

points scored this season is 12? Explain. 10 points; See margin for explanation.

EXTRA

PRACTICE

24. FIND THE DATA Refer to the Data File on pages 1619. Choose some data and

then describe it using the mean, median, mode, and range. See students work.

H.O.T. Problems

25. Sample answer:

4, 5, 2, 2, 3, 3, 1, 0,

1, 2, 4, 68, 5; the

mean, 7.7, is

not the best

representation

since it is greater

than all the data

items except one.

25. OPEN ENDED Give an example of a set of data in which the mean is not the

median, and mode

are used to

describe the center

of data. Range

describes the

spread of the data.

28. CHALLENGE Without calculating, would the mean, median, or mode be most

26. Which One Doesnt Belong? Identify the term that does not have the same

mean

median

range

mode

affected by eliminating 1,000 from the data shown? Which would be the

least affected? Explain your reasoning. See margin.

50, 100, 75, 60, 75, 1,000, 90, 100

29.

number of family members per household is 2.59. State whether this

measure is a mean or mode. Explain how you know. See margin.

Lesson 8-2 Measures of Central Tendency and Range

407

each homeroom in grade 7.

He later bought another antique

for $758.00. What is the mean cost

of all the antiques? H

Number of

Soup Labels

Classroom

Mr. Martin

138

F $151.60

H $268.00

Ms. Davis

125

G $170.00

Mr. Cardona

89

Mrs. Turner

110

Mr. Wilhelm

130

Mrs. LaBash

5, 7, 7

If the number 11 was added to this list,

which of the following statements

would be true? A

set of data in order for the mode and

median of the set to be equal? C

A 89

C 125

B 110

D 130

$321.60

B The mean would decrease.

C The median would increase.

D The median would decrease.

July Temperatures

See margin.

Find the simple interest earned to the nearest cent for each

principal, interest rate, and time. (Lesson 7-8)

34. $1,250, 3.5%, 2 years

$87.50

$10.43

the information in the graph to find how many

pounds of apples were used to make juice and

cider. (Lesson 7-1) about 2.53 billion

37. Name the property shown by the statement

4 6 = 6 4.

(Lesson 1-8)

99

98

96

98

98

97

100

103

103

103

100

95

100

103

105

Juice and

Cider

23%

Fresh

Fruit

59%

Canned

Fruit

11%

Other

7%

Commutative ()

38. 581

408

hundreds

39. 6,295

ones

40. 4,369

thousands

(p. 669)

41. 2.84

tenths

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