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ASSIGNMENT 2: THE HUNT FOR SOLUTIONS

Climate Literacy: Navigating Climate Change Conversations 2013 Class


Copyright 2013 Engr. Candido R. Talosig, Jr.

DESCRIPTION OF AREA OR REGION:

Pasig City, Philippines is a highly urbanized area with mixed land use of residential, commercial
and industrial zones wherein one of the Business District in the Philippines is located. Informal
settlers or squatters converge in the city for economic reasons in order to survive the daily
struggles of life. Second hand or used cars from developed countries are being sold and
commonly used in this region because they cost cheaper than that of brand new cars.
Furthermore, because of the potential market of the growing population of this city, all sorts of
carbon emitting products from developed countries are being sold without regulation just to
earn profit from our population. Carbon emission is very high because of these products from
developed countries aside from the fossil fuel being exported to this country to fuel those
second hand and used cars also imported from the developed countries, factories in the area,
machines used by businesses and offices, and the pile of daily garbage produced by its growing
population.

The Philippines is an archipelago and a developing tropical country located in Southeast Asia
composed of approximately 7,100 islands. These geographic location, level of economy, tropical
climate and topography make the Philippines as a strategic location and station in monitoring
and in fighting climate change. Page 517, Life The Science of Biology, Volume II, Fifth Edition,
Purves, Orians, Heller and Sadava, Ozone is produced by the action of sunlight on atmospheric
oxygen in tropical regions and is transported to high latitudes.

ADAPTATIONS AND MITIGATION THAT ARE ALREADY BEING TAKEN IN THE REGION:
[1] The Philippine government has already passed a Clean Air Act Law regulating carbon
emission.
[2] Garbage Segregation Scheme is being implemented in government agencies, hospitals,
educational institution, private sectors and local governments.
[3] There are Materials Recycling Facilities MRF in the region that buy used plastic, bottles and
cartons intended to be recycled or used again. Some MRF went further and developed bricks
out of discarded shopping plastic bags as an alternative to hollow blocks.

[4] Unified Vehicle Volume Reduction Program or the Color Coding Scheme of vehicles is being
implemented in the city wherein a specific vehicle plate number cannot travel the streets on
specified days.
[5] Electric powered Mass Rail Transit MRT was built as a means of public transportation.
[6] Some cities have passed an ordinance for markets, malls and stores banning the use of
plastic shopping bags and required them to use paper bags instead and urge the people to bring
their own bags
[7] Some agricultural products sold in the city came from organic farms.
[8] The use of units that contain CFC are banned in this region.
[9] One has to procure a permit from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources
DENR, a government agency in the Philippines, before one can cut a tree in the Philippines.
[10] There are wind farms as a source of energy in the northern part of the country specifically
in Ilocos Province.
[11] Gasoline station are selling 10% ethanol fuels.
[12] Some enterprising individuals process and use biodiesel from discarded used oil of
restaurants and food processing plants.
[13] In terms of sea vessels, the local ship owners are required by the MARINA of the Philippines
to comply and to follow the International Maritime Organization IMO Rules and Regulation on
sea navigation specifically on waste disposal at sea, control of operational pollution by oil,
transport of hazardous materials, the sea worthiness of the vessel and the safety of life at sea
by seafarers.
[14] With respect to aviation, CAAP of the Philippines is responsible for regulating aviation
activities in terms of safety and the well being of the environment.

EDSA, PASIG CITY PHILIPPINES 2013


Despite these measures, the city remains to have high carbon emission level and relatively
polluted, and, these measures are not enough because there is no regular and no strict
enforcement of the Clean Air Act law except in vehicle's registration requiring emission test
which is however a source of income for corrupt government officials and law enforcement
personnel that is why even though a vehicle did not pass the emission test, it still roams the
streets of this city and catching that vehicle on the street violating the Clean Air Act Law is
another source of income for these corrupt officials and law enforcement personnel when
apprehended. The other ordinances such as the garbage segregation scheme are not strictly
implemented and garbage can be seen strewn all over street corners, drainage canals, rivers and
its tributaries. The Philippines lacks the technological capability to efficiently recycle its garbage
and the main customers of the Materials Recycling Facilities MRF are the vagabonds who sift
through piles of garbage with the only intent to make money from it to buy their day's meal to

survive. Though, the Unified Vehicle Volume Reduction Program is strictly implemented, its
coverage is only within the city streets while the suburban areas up to the rural areas of this
region are not covered by this program thereby making it mainly as a traffic solution rather than
a solution in reducing carbon emission level. The electric powered Mass Rail Transit MRT is not
enough to serve the growing population of the region making it very difficult to board and is
fully packed during rush hours.
Anent thereto, some regions in the country are experiencing coastal erosion due to sea level
rising bringing shorelines up to 10 meters deeper into the land.

2009 TYPHOON ONDOY


PASIG CITY PHILIPPINES
With its developing economy and growing population, the Philippines remains to be a vibrant
market for used second hand vehicles, sea vessels and planes imported from abroad and cars
and brand new cars run by fossil fuel because they cost cheaper than hybrid cars, brand new sea
vessels and brand new planes aside from the fact that fossil fuel is readily and conveniently
available on the streets which is the same as with aviation fuel and fuel for sea vessels.

PASIG CITY, PHILIPPINES 2013

MAIN POINT:

OXYGENATE THE ATMOSPHERE : BIOTECHNOLOGY AS A SOLUTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE


As a response thereto, I hereby present and propose in this paper the use of biotechnology to
oxygenate the atmosphere as a solution to climate change. The first synthetic cell was already
developed by scientists at the J. Craig Venter Institute in 2010 and I propose that we insert into
this synthetic cell the plant genes that will enable this synthetic cell to develop chlorophyll and
perform the process of photosynthesis, absorb carbon dioxide and emit oxygen. Then, I propose
further that we insert into this synthetic cell a virus genes in order for this synthetic cell to
exhibit viral characteristics in terms of recombinant reproduction and to program its viral
Infecting characteristics to attack and break down airborne inorganic carbon atoms or airborne
inorganic molecules containing carbon atoms and emit oxygen in the process through
photosynthesis and oxygenate the atmosphere. If we release this type of transgenic synthetic
virus cell in the atmosphere, we can increase the supply of oxygen in the atmosphere, neutralize
the emitted carbon and control the carbon-oxygen ratio of the atmosphere that will be suitable
to support life, to preserve and to ensure the biodiversity of life on Earth together with the
ecosystems that supports it.
In the same manner and in addition thereto, I present and propose that we further develop a
transgenic synthetic virus cell that is capable of producing ozone, O 3, to replenish, to revitalize
and to support the well-being of the ozone layer of the Earth.
With this biotechnology, we can also further develop a transgenic synthetic virus cell emitting
fuel to replace the carbon emitting fossil fuel whereby creating a regenerative fuel for vehicle,
sea vessel and aviation.
This solution will not just reduce the damage brought about by climate change but it will make
us better not less bad as mentioned in the interview with John Robinsons by Prof. Sarah Burch
in the Climate in the Public Sphere Module of this Climate Literacy Course. This solution has the
potential in consolidating together all the boundaries that divides all the diverse interests in this
world, and the world economy, when it comes to solving the issue on climate change and this
solution will reduce to a desirable level and eliminate the deleterious effects of the carbon
emissions emanating from fossil fuels usage by releasing in the atmosphere agents in the form
of a transgenic synthetic single virus cell that will ingest and break down airborne inorganic
Carbon and airborne inorganic molecules containing Carbon and give-off Oxygen in the process
and oxygenate the atmosphere. This transgenic synthetic cell reproduces like a virus and
behaves like a parasitic virus that is programmed to seek and to destroy airborne inorganic
carbon or any airborne inorganic molecules that contains carbon in the atmosphere and
oxygenate the atmosphere in the process.
Anent thereto and to provide the factual basis to the main point stated and presented in this
paper, I hereby present, state and enumerate herein below, but not limited to, the following
evidences to support the use of biotechnology to oxygenate the atmosphere as a viable and
potent solution to climate change.

EVIDENCE NO. 1: In 2010, scientists at the J. Craig Venter Institute, announced that they had created
the first synthetic bacterial genome, and added it to a cell containing no DNA. The resulting
bacterium, named Synthia, was the world's first synthetic life form.
EVIDENCE NO. 2: The Genome Project of the United States.

EVIDENCE NO. 3: Bacteria were the first organisms to be genetically modified. Plants have been
modified for insect protection, herbicide resistance, virus resistance, enhanced nutrition,
tolerance to environmental pressures and the production of edible vaccines. Most
commercialised GMO's are insect resistant and/or herbicide tolerant crop plants. Genetically
modified animals have been used for research, model animals and the production of
agricultural or pharmaceutical products. They include animals with genes knocked out, increased
susceptibility to disease, hormones for extra growth and the ability to express proteins in their
milk.
EVIDENCE NO. 4: BioSteel is a product created from an animal-animal transgenic combination.
Scientists at Nexia Biotechnologies, a company based in Montreal, isolated the gene for silk
protein from a spider capable of spinning silk fibersone of the strongest yet most resilient
substances knownand inserted it in the genome of a goats egg prior to fertilization. When
the transgenic female goats matured, they produced milk containing the protein from which
spider silk is made. The fiber artificially created from this silk protein has several potentially
valuable uses, such as making lightweight, strong, yet supple bulletproof vests. Other industrial
and medical applications include stronger automotive and aerospace components and stronger,
more biodegradable sutures for closing wounds.
EVIDENCE NO. 5: Bacteria have been engineered to function as sensors by expressing a fluorescent
protein under certain environmental conditions.
EVIDENCE NO. 6: Many animals, including humans, harbor a variety of bacteria and archaea in
their digestive tracts. Only a tiny percentage of bacteria are pathogens. Much later in
evolutionary history, some plants learned to form associations with bacteria of the genus
Rhizobium to form cooperative nitrogen-fixing nodules on their roots. Page 539, Life The
Science of Biology, Volume II, Fifth Edition, Purves, Orians, Heller and Sadava.
EVIDENCE NO. 7: Three major types of anaerobic photosynthetic prokaryotes live today in
sediments that lack oxygen: green sulfur bacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, and purple nonsulfur
bacteria. These bacteria contain types of chlorophyll, called bacteriochlorophyll a, c and d.
Anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria also contain red and yellow carotenoids. These pigments
absorb wavelengths of light that are not absorbed by chlorophyll and pass the absorbed energy
along to chlorophyll for conversion into chemical energy. The photosynthetic system of these
bacteria is embedded in membrane complexes that also possess the electron transport chains
and enzymes by which captured solar energy is converted to chemical energy and used to
generate ATP. Page 523, Life The Science of Biology, Volume II, Fifth Edition, Purves, Orians,
Heller and Sadava.
EVIDENCE NO. 8: To reduce carbon dioxide, a photosynthetic cell needs a source of electrons
(hydrogen atoms). Many photosynthetic prokaryotes use light energy to generate ATP and
NADPH+H. Page 523, Life The Science of Biology, Volume II, Fifth Edition, Purves, Orians, Heller
and Sadava.
EVIDENCE NO. 9: Extreme halophiles are salt lovers that often lend a pinkish color to salty
environments; some halophiles also grow in extremely alkaline environments. Extreme
halophiles live exclusively in very salty environments. Extreme halophiles contain pink
carotenoids. Halophiles grow in the Dead Sea and in brines of all types.

Some of the extreme halophiles have a unique system for trapping light energy and using it to
form ATP without using any form of chlorophyll when oxygen is in short supply. They use the

pigment retinal (also found in vertebrate eye) combined with a protein to form
bacteriorhodopsin, and form ATP by a chemiosmotic mechanism.
EVIDENCE NO. 10: Cyanobacteria

[1] live mainly in fresh water and form scum on ponds


[2] require only water, nitrogen gas, oxygen, a few mineral elements, light, and carbon
dioxide to survive
[3] they use chlorophyll a for photosynthesis and liberate oxygen gas
[4] their photosynthesis was the basis of the oxygen revolution that transformed
Earths atmosphere
[5] the chloroplasts of photosynthetic eukaryotes are derived from an endosymbiotic
cynobacterium
[6] Their photosynthesis converted the global environment from anaerobic to aerobic.
EVIDENCE NO. 11: The origin of Eukaryotic Cell
[1] The modern eukaryotic cell arose from an ancestral prokaryote in several steps. Probable
steps included loss of the cell wall and inward folding of the plasma membrane.
[2] In subsequent steps, an infolded plasma membrane attached to the chromosome may have
led to the formation of a nuclear envelope. A primitive cytoskeleton evolved.
[3] The first truly eukaryotic cell was larger than its prokaryote ancestor, and it may have
possessed one or more flagella of the eukaryotic type.
[4] The incorporation of prokaryotic cells as endosymbionts gave rise to eukaryotic organelles.
Peroxisomes, which protected the host cell from an oxygen-rich atmosphere, may have been
the first organelles of endosymbiotic origin. Mitochondria evolved from once free-living
proteobacteria, and chloroplasts evolved from once free-living cyanobacteria. Cells with nuclei
probably appeared before the first cell with mitochondria.
EVIDENCE NO. 12: The ease of growing and handling bacteria and their viruses permitted the
explosion of genetics and molecular biology that begun shortly after the mid-twenthieth
century. Page 239, Life The Science of Biology, Sixth Edition, Purves, Orians, Heller and Sadava.
EVIDENCE NO. 13: Although there are many kinds of viruses, most of them are composed of
nothing but nucleic acid and a few proteins. Page 240, Life The Science of Biology, Sixth Edition,
Purves, Orians, Heller and Sadava.
EVIDENCE NO. 14: In materials science, a genetically modified virus has been used in an academic
lab as a scaffold for assembling a more environmentally friendly lithium-ion battery.
EVIDENCE NO. 15: Ozone is produced by the action of sunlight on atmospheric oxygen in tropical
regions and is transported to high latitudes. Page 517, Life The Science of Biology, Volume II,
Fifth Edition, Purves, Orians, Heller and Sadava.
EVIDENCE NO. 16: Unidirectional Changes in Earth's Atmosphere, pages 434 to 435, Life The
Science of Biology, Volume II, Fifth Edition, Purves, Orians, Heller and Sadava.
The atmosphere of early Earth was a reducing one; that is, it lacked free oxygen. Perhaps the
most important environmental change since Earth cooled enough for water to condense on its
surface is the largely unidirectional increase in atmospheric O 2 concentrations that begun in the
Phanerozoic eon. The oxygen concentration increased because certain sulfur bacteria evolved

the ability to use water as the source of hydrogen during photosynthesis. The cyanobacteria
that evolved from these sulfur bacteria became very abundant. They liberated enough oxygen
to open the way for the evolution of oxidation reactions as the energy source for the synthesis
of ATP.
An oxygenated atmosphere also made possible larger cells and more complicated organisms.
Small, unicellular aquatic organisms can obtain enough oxygen by simple diffusion even when
oxygen concentrations are very low. Larger unicellular organisms have lower surface area-tovolume ratios. In order to obtain enough oxygen by simple diffusion, they must live in an
environment where concentrations of oxygen are higher than those that can support small
prokaryotic cells. Bacteria can thrive on 1 percent of current atmospheric oxygen levels, but
eukaryotic cells require oxygen levels that are at least 2 to 3 percent of current atmospheric
concentrations.
About 1,500 million years ago, oxygen concentrations became high enough for large eukaryotic
cells to flourish and diversify. Further increases in atmospheric oxygen levels some 700 to 570
million years ago enabled multicellular organisms to evolve. The fact that it took millions of
years for Earth to develop an oxygenated atmosphere probably explains why only only
unicellular prokaryotes lived on Earth for more than a billion years.

IMPLICATIONS:
With an oxygen emitting transgenic synthetic virus cell and an ozone producing transgenic
synthetic virus cell, we can regulate the composition of the gases of the Earth's atmosphere and
we can also replicate the Earth's atmosphere outside the planet Earth.
This biotechnology will give humans the capability of oxygenating the moon and the planets in
our solar system and make them habitable for humans thereby expanding our habitable
territory and bring us deeper into our probe of the universe.
Dispersing the Earth's growing 10 billion human population in the universe is a near future
possibility.

ACTION TAKEN:
I am presently doing studies and research on this biotechnology project and I am presently
coordinating with various funding groups, individuals, associations, organizations, corporations,
educational institutions and government agencies here and abroad for support and funding.

Copyright 2013 Engr. Candido R. Talosig, Jr.


Email: talosig@yahoo.com

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