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SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


SASO ../2009

SAUDI STANDARD
DRAFT NO:
4520

Code for Lighting


Of
Indoor Work Places

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS ORGANIZATION

SAUDI STANDARDS AND QUALITY ORGANIZATION


_________________________________ ______
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT SAUDI STANDARD CIRCULATED FOR
COMMENTS. IT IS, THEREFORE, SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY NOT BE
REFERRED TO AS A SAUDI STANDARD UNTIL APPROVED BY THE BOARD
OFDIRECTORS.

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FOREWORD
The Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) has adopted the
International Standardization Organization ISO8995:2002(E) which was originally
produced by the International Commission of Illumination CIE S 088/E-2001.It
has been adopted as local national standard with some modifications added to
consider the energy efficiency issue.

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Table of contents
Page no.
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 4
1. SCOPE..............................................................................................................4
2. NORMATIVE REFERENCES........................................................................... 5
3. DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................................5
4. LIGHTING DESIGN CRITERIA ....................................................................... 6
4.1 Luminous environment............................................................................ 6
4.2 Luminance distribution.............................................................................7
4.3 Illuminance............................................................................................... 7
4.3.1 Recommended illuminances at the task area ...................... 8
4.3.2 Scale of illuminance. ............................................................... 8
4.3.3 Illuminances of immediate surroundings ........................................ 9
4.34 Uniformity ........................................................................................ 9
4.4 Glare......................................................................................................10
4.4.1 Shielding against glare.....................................................................10
4.4.2 Discomfort glare.............................................................................. 10
4.4.3 Veiling reflections and reflected glare............................................11
4.5 Directionality......................................................................................... 12
4.5.1 Modeling .....................................................................................12
4.5.2 Directional lighting of visual tasks.................................................. 12
4.6 Color aspects .................................................................................... 12
4.6.1 Color appearance....................................................................... 12
4.6.2 Color rendering ............................................................................ 13
4.7 Daylight................................................................................................13
4.8 Lighting of workstations with visual display terminals VDT...................14
4.9 Flicker and stroboscopic effect ............................................................15
4.10 Emergency lighting..............................................................................15
5. SCHEDULE OF LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS.................................15
6. Energy Efficiency Recommendation.29
6.1 Power and Time ..29
6.2 Energy Efficient Equipment .. 29
6.3 Lighting Energy Targets .30
6.4 Energy Management ..32
6.5 Lighting Controls .36
7. VERIFICATION PROCEDURES ................................................................... 38
7.1 Illuminance......................................................................................... 38
7.2 Unified glare rating............................................................................. 38
7.3 Color rendering index (Ra)................................................................. 38
7.4 Color apparence (Tcp)......................................................................... 38
7.5 Maintenance factors .......................................................................... 39
7.6 Luminaire luminance.......................................................................... 43
7.7 Tolerances in measurements............................................................. 43
7.8 Lighting commissioning .43

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Code of LGHTING
For
INDOOR WORK PLACES
Introduction
Good lighting will create a visual environment that enables people to see, to
move about safely and to perform visual tasks efficiently, accurately and safely
without causing undue visual fatigue and discomfort. The illumination may be
daylight, electric light or combination of both.
Good lighting requires equal attention to the quantity and quality of the
lighting. While the provision of sufficient illuminance on the task is necessary, in
many instances the visibility depends on the way in which the light is delivered,
the color characteristics of the light source and surfaces together with the level of
glare from the system. In this standard opportunity was taken to specify for
various work places and task types not just the illuminance but also the limiting
discomfort glare and minimum color rendering index of the source. Parameters to
create comfortable visual conditions are proposed in the body of this standard.
The recommended values are considered to represent a reasonable balance,
having regard to the requirements for safe, healthy and efficient work
performance. The values can be achieved with practical energy efficient
solutions.
There are also visual ergonomic parameters such as perceptual ability
and the characteristics and attributes of the task, which determine the quality of
the operators visual skills, and hence performance levels. In some cases
enhancement of these influencing factors can improve performance without the
need to raise illuminance. For example by improving the contrast of the task
attributes, enlarging the task by the use of up to date visual aids (glasses) and by
the provision of special lighting systems with local directional lighting capability.

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1. Scope
This standard specifies lighting requirements for indoor work places and for
people to perform the visual tasks efficiently, in comfort and safety throughout the
whole work period.
This standard does not explain how lighting systems or techniques should
be designed to optimise solutions for specific work places. These may be found
in the relevant CIE guides and reports.

2. Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text,
constitute provisions of this national Standard. At the time of publication, the
editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to
agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility
of applying most recent editions of the standards indicated below.
ISO 3864
ISO 6309
ISO 6385
ISO 9241

CIE 40 1978
CIE 58 1983
CIE 60 1984
CIE 62 1984
CIE 96 - 1992
CIE 97 1992
CIE 103/5 1993
CIE 117 1995
CIE 129 1998

Safety colors and safety signs


Fire protection - safety signs
Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems
Parts 6/7/8 Ergonomic requirements for office work with
visual display terminals
Method of measuring and specifying color rendering of
light sources
Daylight
International lighting vocabulary 4th ed. equivalent to
IEC 50(845)
An analytic model for describing the influence of lighting
parameters upon visual performance
Calculations for interior lighting - basic method
Lighting for sports halls
Vision and the visual display unit work station
Lighting for swimming pools
Electric light sources. State of the art - 1991
Maintenance of indoor electric lighting systems
The economics of interior lighting maintenance
Discomfort glare in interior lighting
Guide for lighting of exterior work areas

Code for lighting

CIBSE-Society of Light & Lighting in UK

CIE 13.3 1995


CIE 16 1970
CIE 17.4 1987
CIE 19.2 1981

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Code L:2003

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CIBSE-Lighting commissioning

3. Definitions
In general the terms used in this standard are defined in the CIE Lighting
Vocabulary
(CIE 17.4 1987), but there are few more terms that are defined below:
Color rendering (of a light source): Effect of a light source on the color
appearance of objects compared with their color appearance under a
reference light source.
Color temperature (TC): The temperature of a Planckian (black body)
radiator whose radiation has the same chromaticity as that of a given
stimulus.
Disability glare: Glare that impairs the vision of objects without necessarily
causing discomfort.
Discomfort glare: Glare that causes discomfort without necessarily impairing
the vision of objects.
Glare: Condition of vision in which there is discomfort or a reduction in the
ability to see details or objects, caused by an unsuitable distribution or range
of luminance, or to extreme contrasts.
Visual task: The visual elements of the task to be carried out.
Task area: The partial area in the work place in which the visual task is
located and carried out.
Immediate surrounding: A zone of at least 0,5 m width surrounding the task
area within the field of vision.
Maintained illuminance ( E m ): Value below which the average illuminance
on the specified surface should not fall.
Unified glare rating ( UGR ): The CIE discomfort glare measure.

Limiting unified glare rating ( UGRL ): The maximum allowable design UGR
value for the lighting installation.

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Shielding angle: the angle measured from the horizontal, down to which the
lamp(s) is screened by the luminaire from direct view by an observer.
Working plane: the reference surface defined as the plane at which work is
usually done.

4. Lighting design criteria


4.1

Luminous environment

Good lighting practice for work places is more than just providing good task
visibility. It is essential that tasks are performed easily and in comfort. Thus the
lighting must satisfy the quantitative and qualitative aspects demanded by the
environment. In general lighting is to ensure:
- visual comfort, where the workers have a feeling of well-being,
- visual performance, where the workers are able to perform their visual
tasks, speedily and accurately even under difficult circumstances and
during long periods,
- Visual safety, to see ones way around and detects hazards.
To satisfy these, attention to all parameters contributing to the luminous
environment is required.
The main parameters are:
-

luminance distribution,
illuminance,
glare,
directionality of light,
color aspect of the light and surfaces,
flicker,
daylight,
Maintenance.

Design values for the quantifiable parameters of illuminance, discomfort glare


and color rendering are given in clause 5 for the various activities.
Note: In addition to the lighting there are other visual ergonomic parameters
which influence operators visual performance, such as:

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a) The intrinsic task properties (size, shape, position, color and reflectance
of detail and background)
b) Ophthalmic capacity of the operator (visual acuity, depth perception,
color perception).
Attention to these factors can enhance visual performance without the need for
higher illuminance.

4.2

Luminance distribution

The luminance distribution in the field of view controls the adaptation level of the
eyes, which affects task visibility.
A well balanced adaptation luminance is needed to increase:
-

visual acuity (sharpness of vision),


contrast sensitivity (discrimination of relatively small luminance
differences),
efficiency of the ocular functions (such as accommodation, convergence,
papillary contraction, eye movements, etc.).

Diverse luminance distribution in the field of view also affects visual comfort and
should be avoided:
Too high luminances can give rise to glare.
too high luminance contrasts will cause visual fatigue due to continuous
re-adaptation of the eyes.
- Too low luminances and too low luminance contrasts result in a dull and
nonstimulating working environment.
- Attention should be given to adaptation in moving from zone to zone within
a building.
The luminances of all surfaces are important and will be determined by the
reflectance of and the illuminance on the surfaces.
The range of useful reflectances for the major interior surfaces are:
- Ceiling: 0,6 - 0,9
- Walls: 0,3 - 0,8
- working planes: 0,2 - 0,6
- Floor: 0,1 - 0,5
-

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4.3

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

Illuminance

The illuminance and its distribution on the task areas and the surrounding area
have a major impact on how quickly, safely and comfortably a person perceives
and carries out the visual task. For spaces where the specific area is unknown
the area where the task may occur is taken as the task area.
All values of illuminances specified in this standard are maintained
illuminances and will provide for visual safety at work and visual performance
needs.
4.3.1 Recommended illuminances at the task area
The values given in clause 5 are the maintained illuminances over the task area
on the reference surface which may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. The
average illuminance for each task shall not fall below the values given in clause 5
regardless of the age and condition of the installation. The values are valid for
normal visual conditions and take into account the following factors:
- requirements for visual tasks,
- safety,
- psycho-physiological aspects such as visual comfort and well-being,
- economy,
- Practical experience.
The value of illuminance may be adjusted, by at least one step on the scale of
Illuminance, if the visual conditions differ from the normal assumptions. The
illuminance should be increased when:
-

unusually low contrasts are present in the task,


visual work is critical,
errors are costly to rectify,
accuracy or higher productivity is of great importance,
The visual capacity of the worker is below normal.

The required maintained illuminance may be decreased when:


-

the details are of an unusually large size or high contrast,


The task is undertaken for an unusually short time.

In areas where continuous work is carried out the maintained illuminance shall
not be less than 200 lux.

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4.3.2 Scale of illuminance


A factor of approximately 1,5 represents the smallest significant difference in
subjective effect of illuminance. In normal lighting conditions approximately 20 lux
of horizontal illuminance is required to just discern features of the human face
and is the lowest value taken for the scale of illuminances. The recommended
scale of illuminance is:
20 - 30 - 50 - 75 - 100 - 150 - 200 - 300 - 500 - 750 - 1000 - 1500 - 2000 - 3000 5000 lux.

4.3.3 Illuminances of immediate surroundings


The illuminance of immediate surrounding areas shall be related to the
illuminance of the task area and should provide a well-balanced luminance
distribution in the field of view.
Rapid spatial changes in illuminances around the task area may lead to visual
stress and discomfort.
The maintained illuminance of the immediate surrounding areas and
background may be lower than the task illuminance but shall not be less than the
values given in the table below.
Task illuminance
lux
1000
750
500
300
200

Illuminance of immediate
Illuminance of
surroundings lux
Background lux
750
500
500
300
300
200
200
200
Same as task illuminance Same as task illuminance

In addition to the task illuminance the lighting shall provide adequate adaptation
Luminance in accordance with clause 4.2.
4.3.4 Uniformity
The uniformity of the illuminance is the ratio of the minimum to average value.
The illuminance shall change gradually. The task area shall be illuminated as
uniformly as possible. The uniformity of the task illuminance shall not be less
than 0,7. The uniformity of the illuminance of the immediate surrounding areas
shall be not less than 0,5 , The uniformity of the illuminance of background also
shall be not less than 0,5 (see the figure below).

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4.4

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Glare

Glare is the visual sensation produced by bright areas within the field of view and
may be experienced either as discomfort glare or disability glare. Glare may also
be caused by reflections in specular surfaces usually known as veiling reflections
or reflected glare.
It is important to limit the glare to avoid errors, fatigue and accidents.
Disability glare is more common in exterior lighting but may also be
experienced from spotlights or large bright sources such as a window in a
relatively poorly lit space.
In interior workplaces discomfort glare usually arises directly from bright
luminaires or windows. If the discomfort glare limits are met then disability glare
is not usually a major problem.
4.4.1 Shielding against glare
Glare is caused by excessive luminances or contrasts in the field of view and can
impair the vision of objects. It should be avoided for example by suitable
shielding of lamps or shading of windows by blinds.
For electric lamps the minimum shielding angle for lamp luminances shall
be not less than the values given in the table below:
Lamp luminance
Kcd/m2
1 to 20
20 to 50
50 to 500
500

Shielding angle
10
15
20
30

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The above mentioned shielding angle should not be applied to luminaires which
do not appear in the field of view of a worker during usual work and/or do not
give the worker any noticeable disability glare.
4.4.2 Discomfort glare
The discomfort glare rating of the lighting installation shall be determined by the
CIE Unified Glare Rating (UGR) tabular method, based on formula (1).

0.25
L2
2
UGR = 0.8. log

Lb
where
-

Lb is the background luminance (cd/m2),

L is the luminance of the luminous parts of each luminaire in the direction of


the observers eye (cd/m2),

is the solid angle of the luminous parts of each luminaire at the observers
eye (steradian),

is the Guth position index for each individual luminaire which relates to its
displacement from the line of sight.

Details of the UGR method are given in CIE 117 - 1995.


In this standard all UGR values in clause 5 are based on the standard observers
position which have been validated by the UGR tabular method at a 1:1 spacing
to height ratio. The UGR data shall be corrected for the initial luminous flux of the
lamps used. If the lighting installation is composed of different types of luminaires
with different photometry and/or lamps, the determination of the UGR value shall
be applied to every lamp/luminaire combination in the installation. The highest
UGR value thus obtained shall be taken as typical value of the entire installation
and shall conform to the UGR limit. All assumptions made in the determination of
UGR shall be stated in the scheme documentation.
The UGR value of the lighting installation shall not exceed the value given
in clause 5.
Note: The variations of UGR within the room may be determined using the
tabular method or the formula for different observer positions.

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The values of UGR limits in clause 5 were taken from the UGR scale where each step in the scale represents one significant change in glare effect
and 13 represents the least perceptible discomfort glare.
The UGR scale is: 13 - 16 - 19 - 22 - 25 - 28
4.4.3 Veiling reflections and reflected glare

Specular reflections in the visual task, often called veiling reflection or reflected
glare, may alter task visibility, usually detrimentally. Veiling reflections and
reflected glare may be prevented or reduced by the following measures:
-

arrangement of luminaires and work places (avoid placing luminaires in the


offending zone),
surface finish (use low gloss surface materials),
luminance of luminaires (limit),
increased luminous area of luminaire (enlarge luminous area),
ceiling and wall surfaces (lighten, avoid bright spots).

4.5

Directionality

Directional lighting may be used to highlight objects, to reveal texture and


improve appearance of people within the space. This is described by the term
modeling. Directional lighting of a visual task may also enhance its visibility.
4.5.1 Modeling

Modeling refers to the balance between diffuse and directional light. It is a valid
criterion of lighting quality in virtually all types of interiors. The general
appearance of an interior is enhanced when its structural features, the people
and objects within it are lit so that form and texture are revealed clearly and
pleasingly. This occurs when the light comes noticeably from one direction; the
shadows formed are essential to good modeling and are formed without
confusion.
The lighting should not be too directional as it can produce harsh shadows,
neither should it be too diffuse or the modeling effect will be lost entirely, resulting
in a very dull luminous environment.
4.5.2 Directional lighting of visual tasks

Lighting from a specific direction can reveal details within a visual task,
increasing their visibility and making the task easier to perform, particularly
important for fine textured tasks and scribes/grooves.

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4.6

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

Color aspects

The color qualities of a near-white lamp are characterized by two attributes:


- the color appearance of the lamp itself,
- its color rendering capabilities, which affect the color appearance of objects
and persons illuminated by the lamp.
These two attributes must be considered separately.
4.6.1 Color appearance

The color appearance of a lamp refers to the apparent color (lamp chromaticity)
of the light it emits. It may be described by its correlated color temperature.
Lamps are usually divided into three groups according to their correlated color
temperature (Tcp).
Color appearance
Warm
Intermediate
cool

Correlated color temperature


below 3300 K
3300 K to 5300 K
above 5300 K

The choice of color appearance is a matter of psychology, aesthetics and of what


is considered to be natural. The choice depends on illuminance, colors of the
room and furniture, surrounding climate and the application. In warm climates
generally a cooler light Color appearance is preferred, and in cold climates a
warmer light color appearance is preferred.
4.6.2 Color rendering

It is important for both visual performance and the feeling of comfort and well
being that colors in the environment of objects and human skin are rendered
naturally, correctly and in a way that makes people look attractive and healthy.
Safety colors according to ISO 3864 shall always be recognizable and
clearly discriminated.
To provide an objective indication of the color rendering properties of a
light source the general color rendering index Ra has been introduced. The
maximum value of Ra is 100. This figure decreases with decreasing color
rendering quality.
Lamps with Ra less than 80 should not be used in interiors where people work or
stay for long periods. Exceptions can be high-bay lighting and outdoor lighting.
(Industrial downlights used at mounting height in excess of 6 m.) But even here
suitable measure must be taken to ensure that higher color rendering lamps are

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used in continually occupied work places and where safety colors have to be
recognized.
The recommended minimum value of the general color rendering index for
different types of interiors, tasks or activities are given in clause 5.

4.7

Daylight

Daylight may provide all or part of the lighting for visual tasks.
Daylight varies in level and spectral composition with time and therefore
provides variability within an interior. Daylight may create a specific modeling and
luminance distribution due to its nearly horizontal flow from side windows.
Daylight can also be provided by roof lights and other fenestration elements.
Windows can also provide a visual contact with the outside world, which is
preferred by most people. Avoid excessive contrast and thermal discomfort
caused by direct sunlight in work areas. Provide adequate sun control such as
blinds or shades, so that direct sunlight does not hit workers and/or surfaces
within their field of view.
In interiors with side windows the available daylight decreases rapidly with
distance from the window. In these interiors the daylight factor should not fall
below 1% on the working plane 3 m from window wall and 1 m from side walls.
Supplementary lighting should be provided to ensure the required illuminance at
the work place and to balance the luminance distribution within the room.
Automatic or manual switching and/or dimming can be used to ensure
appropriate integration between electric lighting and daylight.
To reduce glare from windows, screening shall be provide

4.8 Lighting of workstations with visual display terminals VDT


(also known as visual display units VDU and display screen equipment DSE)
The lighting for the VDT work stations shall be appropriate for all tasks performed
at the workstation, e.g. reading from screen, printed text, writing on paper,
keyboard work, etc.
For these areas therefore the lighting criteria and systems shall be chosen
in accordance with activity area, task type and type of interior from the schedule
in clause 5.
The VDT screens and in some circumstances the keyboard can suffer
from reflections causing disability and discomfort glare. It is therefore necessary
to select, locate and manage
the luminaires to avoid disturbing high brightness reflections.

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The designer shall determine the offending mounting zone and shall
choose suitable luminance controlled equipment and plan mounting positions
which will cause no disturbing reflections.
The luminance limits for downward flux of luminaires which maybe
reflected in the VDT screens for normal viewing directions are shown in the table
below. The limits of the average luminaire luminance are given at elevation
angles of 65 and above from the downward vertical radially around the
luminaires for work places where display screens which are vertical or inclined up
to 15 tilt angle are used.
Screen classes
based on ISO 9241-7
Screen quality
Limit of average luminance
of luminaires

II

III

Good

Medium

poor

1000 cd/m2

200 cd/m2

Note: For certain special places using for example sensitive screens or variable
inclination the above luminance limits should be applied for lower
elevation angles (e.g. 55) of the luminaire.

4.9

Flicker and stroboscopic effect

Flicker causes distraction and may give rise to physiological effects such as
headaches. The lighting system should be designed to avoid flicker and
stroboscopic effects. Stroboscopic effects can lead to dangerous situations by
changing the perceived motion of rotating or reciprocating machinery.
Note: This can be achieved by use of DC electrical supply or by operating
lamps at high frequency ( 40 kHz) or distribute the connection of the
lighting over more than one phase of the supply.

4.10 Emergency lighting


Emergency lighting shall be installed; the details are to be found in SASO 2012
Emergency lighting in public buildings.

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5. Schedule of lighting requirements


The lighting requirements recommended for various rooms and activities are
given in the tables of this clause in the following manner.
Column 1:

List of interior (areas) tasks or activities


Column 1 lists those interiors, tasks or activities for which specific
requirements are given. If the particular interior, task or activity is
not listed, the values given for a similar, comparable situation
should be adopted.

Column 2:

Maintained illuminance ( E m , lux)


Column 2 gives the maintained illuminance on the reference
surface for interior, task or activity given in column 1 (see 4.3).

Column 3:

Limiting unified glare rating (UGRL)


Column 3 gives the UGR limits applicable to the situation listed in
column 1, (see 4.4).

Column 4 :

Minimum color rendering index (Ra)


Column 4 gives the minimum color rendering indices for the
situation listed in column 1, (see 4.6.2).

Column 5:

Remarks
Advice and footnotes are given for exceptions and special
applications of the situations listed in column 1.
For VDT applications see 4.8.

THE SCHEDULE OF INTERIORS (AREAS) TASKS AND ACTIVITIES WITH


SPECIFICATION OF ILLUMINANCE, GLARE LIMITATION AND COLOR
QUALITY
Type of interior, task of
activity
1- General Area
Entrance halls
Lounges
Circulation area and
corridors

Stairs, escalators,
travelators
Loading ramps/bays

Em

UGRL

Ra

100
200
100

22
22
28

60
80
40

150

25

40

150

25

40

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Remarks

At exits and entrances


provide a transition zone
and avoid sudden
changes

SASO/2009

Canteens
Rest rooms
Rooms for physical
exercise
Cloakrooms, washrooms,
bathrooms, toilets
Sick bay
Rooms for medical
attention1
Plant rooms, switch gear
rooms
Post room, switchboard

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

200
100
300

22
22
22

80
80
80

200

25

80

500
500

19
16

80
90

500

19

80

500

19

80

300

25

60

150

22

60

200

25

80

Building for livestock


50
Sick animal pens, calving
200
stalls
Feed preparation, dairy,
200
utensil washing
3.Bakeries
Preparation and baking
300
Finishing, glazing,
500
decorating
4.Cement, concrete, & bricks industry

28
25

40
80

25

80

22
22

80
80

Drying

50

28

20

Preparation of materials,
work on kilns and mixers
General machine work

200

28

40

300

25

80

Rough forms

300

25

80

28

20

Dispatch packing handling


areas
Control station
2. Agriculture building
Loading and operating of
goods handling equipment
and machinery

5.Ceramics and glass industry


Drying
50

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TCP at least 4000 K

200 lux if continuously


occupied

200 lux if continuously


occupied

Safety colors shall be


recognizable.

For high-bay: see also


clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.

SASO/2009

Preparation, general
machine work
Enameling, rolling,
pressing, shaping simple
parts, glazing, glass
blowing
Grinding, engraving, glass
polishing, shaping
precision parts,
manufacture of glass
instruments
Decorative work
Grinding of optical glass,
crystal hand grinding and
engraving, work on
average goods

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

300

25

80

300

25

80

750

19

80

500
750

19
16

80
80

Precision work e.g


1000
16
decorative grinding, hand
painting
Manufacture of synthetic
1500
16
stones precious
6.Chemicals, plastics and rubber industry
Remote operated
50
processing installations
Processing installations
150
28
with limited manual
intervention
Constantly manned work
300
25
places in processing
installations
Precision measuring
500
19
rooms, laboratories
Pharmaceutical production
500
22
Tire production
500
22
Color inspection
1000
16
Cutting, finishing,
750
19
inspection
7.Electrical industry
Cable and wire
300
25
manufacture
Wending:
- large coils
300
25

90

TCP at least 4000 K

90

TCP at least 4000 K

20

Safety colors shall be


recognizable.

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For high-bay: see also


clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.

40
80

80

90

TCP at least 6500 K

80

For high-bay: see also


clause 4.6.2.

80

For high-bay: see also


clause 4.6.2.

SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

- medium-sized coils

500

22

80

- small coils

750

19

80

Coil impregnating

300

25

80

Galvanizing

300

25

80

300

25

80

500

22

80

750
1000

19
16

80
80

1500

16

80

200

25

80

300

25

80

500

25

80

300

25

80

500

22

80

Assembly work:
- rough e.g. large
transformers
- medium e.g.
switchboards
- fine e.g telephones
- precision e.g. measuring
equipm.
Electronic workshops,
testing, adjusting
8. Food industry
Workplaces and zones in
breweries, malting floor,
for washing, barre, flilling,
cleaning, sieving, peeling,
cooking in preserve and
chocolate,factories, work
places and zones in sugar
factories, for drying and
fermenting raw tobacco,
fermentation cellar
Sorting and washing of
products, milling, mixing,
packing
Work places and zones in
slaughter houses,
butchers, dairies mills, on
filtering floor, in sugar
refineries
Cutting and sorting of fruit
and vegetables
Manufacture of
delicatessen foods,
kitchen

-20-

For high-bay: see also


clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.

SASO/2009

Manufacture work of
cigars and cigarettes
Inspection of glasses and
bottles, product control,
trimming, sorting
decoration
Laboratories
Color inspection

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

500

22

80

500

22

80

500
1000

19
16

80
90

9.Foundries and metal casting plants


Mansize under floor
50
tunnels, cellars etc.
Platforms
100
Sand preparation
200

28

20

25
25

40
80

Dressing room

200

25

80

Workplaces at cupola and


mixer
Casting bay

200

25

80

200

25

80

Shake out areas

200

25

80

Machine molding

200

25

80

Hand and core molding

300

25

80

Die casting

300

25

80

Model building

500

22

80

19

80

16

90

16
16
19

90
80
80

25

80

25

80

10.Hairdressers
Hairdressing
500
11.Jewellery manufacturing
Working with precious
1500
stones
Manufacture of jewellery
1000
Watch making (manual)
1500
Watch making (automatic)
500
12. Laundries and dry cleaning
Goods in, marking and
300
sorting
Washing and dry cleaning
300

-21-

TCP at least 4000 K

Safety colors shall be


recognizable.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.

TCP at least 4000 K

SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

Ironing, pressing
Inspection and repairs
13. Leather industry
Work on vats, barrels, pits
Fleshing, skiving, rubbing,
tumbling of skins
Saddlery work, shoe
manufacture stitching,
sewing, polishing,
shaping, cutting, punching

300
750

25
19

80
80

200
300

25
25

40
80

500

22

80

Sorting

500

22

90

TCP at least 4000 K

Leather dyeing(machine)
Leather dyeing(machine)
Color inspection

500
1000
1000

22
19
16

80
80
90

TCP at least 4000 K

Shoe making
500
Glove making
500
14. Metal working and processing
Open die forging
200
Drop forging, welding, cold
300
forming
300
Rough and average
machining: tolerances >
0,1 mm
Precision machining:
500
grinding: tolerances < 0,1
mm
Scribing; inspection
750
Wire & pipe drawing
300
shapes
Plate machining >5mm
200
Sheet metalwork <5mm
300
Tool making; cutting
750
equipment manufacture
Assembly:
- rough
200

22
22

80
80

25
25

60
60

22

60

19

60

19
25

60
60

25
22
19

60
60
60

25

80

- medium

300

25

80

- fine

500

22

80

-22-

For high-bay: see also


clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.

SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

- precision

750

19

80

Galvanizing

300

25

80

Surface preparation and


painting
Tool, template and jig
making, precision
mechanics,
micromechanics
15. Paper industry
Pulp mills, edge runners

750

25

80

1000

19

80

200

25

80

Paper manufacture and


processing, paper and
corrugating machines,
cardboard manufacture

300

25

80

Standard book binding


work, e.g. folding, sorting,

500

22

60

gluing, cutting, embossing,


sewing
16. Power stations
Fuel supply plant

50

28

20

Boiler house
Machine halls

100
200

28
25

40
80

Auxiliary rooms, e.g. pump


rooms, condenser rooms,
switchboard, etc.
Control rooms

200

25

60

500

16

80

500

19

80

17. Printers
Cutting, gilding,
embossing, block
engraving, work on stones
and platens, printing
machines, matrix making

-23-

For high-bay: see also


clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.

For high-bay: see also


clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.

Safety colors shall be


recognizable.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.

1. Control panels are


often vertical.
2. Dimming may be
required.
3. For VDT work see
clause 4.8.

SASO/2009

Paper sorting and hand


printing
Type setting, retouching,
lithography
Color inspection in multicolored printing
Steel and copper
engraving
18. Iron and steel works
Production plants without
manual Intervention
Production plants with
occasional manual
operation
Production plants with
continuous manual
operation
Slab store

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

500

19

80

1000

19

80

1500

16

90

TCP at least 5000 K

2000

16

80

For directional light see


clause 4.5.2.

50

28

20

Safety colors shall be


recognizable.

150

28

40

200

25

80

For high-bay: see also


clause 4.6.2.

50

28

20

Furnaces

200

25

20

Safety colors shall be


recognizable.
Safety colors shall be
recognizable.

Mill train, coiler, shear line


Control platforms, control
panels
Test, measurement and
inspection
Under floor man sized
tunnels belt sections,
cellars etc.
19. Textile industry
Workplace and zones in
baths, bale opening
Carding, washing, ironing,
drawing, combing, sizing,
card cutting, pre-spinning,
jute and hemp spinning

300
300

25
22

40
80

500

22

80

50

28

20

200

25

60

300

22

80

Spinning, plying, reeling,


winding, warping,
weaving, braiding, knitting
Sewing, fine knitting,
taking up stitches
Manual design, drawing
patterns

500

22

80

750

22

90

750

22

90

-24-

Safety colors shall be


recognizable.

Prevent stroboscopic
effects

TCP at least 4000 K

SASO/2009

Finishing, dyeing
Drying room
Automatic fabric printing
Burling, picking, trimming
Color inspection, fabric
control
Invisible mending

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

500
100
500
1000
1000

22
28
25
19
16

80
60
80
80
90

TCP at least 4000 K

1500

19

90

TCP at least 4000 K

22

80

22
22

80
80

16

90

19

80

19

80

28

40

28
25

40
60

300

25

80

750

22

80

500

19

80

Prevent stroboscopic
effects

750

22

90

TCP at least 4000 K

1000

19

90

TCP at least 4000 K

300

19

80

Hat manufacturing
500
20.Vehicle construction
Body work and assembly
500
Painting, spraying
750
chamber, polishing
chamber
Painting: touch-up,
1000
inspection
Upholstery manufacture
1000
(manned)
Final inspection
1000
21. Wood working & furniture industry
Automatic processing e.g.
50
drying plywood
manufacturing
Steam pits
150
Saw frame
300
Work at joiners bench,
gluing, assembly
Polishing, painting, fancy
joinery
Work on wood working
machines e.g. turning,
fluting, dressing, rebating,
grooving, cutting, sawing,
sinking
Selection of veneer
woods, maquetry, inlay
work
Quality control
22. Offices
Filing, copying, circulation,
etc.

-25-

TCP at least 4000 K

Prevent stroboscopic
effects

SASO/2009

Writing, typing, reading,


data processing
Technical drawing
CAD workstation

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

500

19

80

750
500

16
19

80
80

500

19

80

300
200

22
25

80
80

300
500
500
500

22
22
19
19

80
80
80
80

300

22

80

500
200

22
22

80
80

Self-service restaurant
Buffet
Conference rooms

200
300
500

22
22
19

80
80
80

Corridors

100

25

80

200
300
300

22
22
22

80
80
80

300

19

80

26. Libraries
Bookshelves
200
Reading area
500
Counters
500
27. Public car parks (indoor)

19
19
19

80
80
80

Conference and meeting


rooms
Reception desk
Archives
23. Retailing
Sales area small
Sales area large
Till area
Wrapper table
24. Restaurants and hotels
Reception/cashier desk,
porters desk
Kitchen
Restaurant, dining room,
function room

25. Places of entertainment


Theatres & concert halls
Multi purpose halls
Practice rooms, dressing
rooms
Museums (general)

-26-

For VDT-work see clause


4.8.
For VDT-work see clause
4.8.
Lighting should be
controllable.

The lighting should be


designed to create
intimate atmosphere.

Lighting should be
controllable.
During night time lower
levels are acceptable.

Glare free mirror lighting


for make-up required.
Lighting to suit the display
requirements, protect
against radiation effects.

SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

In/out ramps (during the


day)
In/out ramps (at night)

300

25

40

75

25

40

Traffic lanes

75

25

40

Parking areas

75

28

40

Ticket office

300

19

80

28. Educational buildings


Play school room
Nursery class
Nursery craft room
Classrooms, tutorial rooms

300
300
300
300

19
19
19
19

80
80
80
80

Classroom for evening


classes and adults
education
Lecture hall

500

19

80

500

19

80

Black board

500

19

80

Demonstration table
Art and craft rooms
Art rooms in art schools

500
500
750

19
19
19

80
80
90

Technical drawing rooms


Practical rooms and
laboratories
Teaching workshop
Music practice rooms
Computer practice rooms

750
500

16
19

80
80

500
300
500

19
19
19

80
80
80

300
500

19
22

80
80

200

22

80

Language laboratory
Preparation rooms and
workshops
Student common rooms
and

-27-

Safety colors shall be


recognizable.
Safety colors shall be
recognizable.
Safety colors shall be
recognizable.
A high vertical illuminance
increases recognition of
peoples faces and
therefore the feeling of
safety.
1. Avoid reflections in the
windows.
2. Prevent glare from
outside.

Lighting should be
controllable.

Lighting should be
controllable.
Prevent specular
reflections.
In lecture halls 750 lux
TCP at least 5000 K

For VDT-work see clause


4.8.

SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

assembly halls
Teachers rooms
Sports halls, gymnasiums
and
swimming pools
29. Health care premises
Waiting rooms
Corridors: during the day
Corridors: during the night
Day rooms
Staff office
Staff rooms
Wards
- General lighting
- Reading lighting
- Simple examination
Examination and
treatment
Night lighting, observation
lighting
Bathrooms and toilets for
patients
Examination room general
Ear and eye examination
Reading and Color vision
test with vision charts
Scanners with image
enhancers and television
systems
Dialysis rooms
Dermatology rooms
Endoscopy rooms
Plaster rooms
Medical baths
Massage and radiotherapy
Pre-op and recovery
rooms
Operating theatre
Operating cavity

300
300

22
22

80
80

200
200
50
200
500
300

22
22
22
22
19
19

80
80
80
80
80
80

Illuminance at floor level


Illuminance at floor level
Illuminance at floor level
Illuminance at floor level

100
300
300
1000

19
19
19
19

80
80
80
90

Illuminance at floor level

19

80

200

22

80

500
1000

19

90
90

500

16

90

50

19

80

500
500
300
500
300
300
500

19
19
19
19
19
19
19

80
90
80
80
80
80
90

1000
Special

19

90

Local examination
luminaire

For VDT work see clause


4.8.

Em =10000 lux 100000


lux

-28-

SASO/2009

Intensive care
- General lighting
- Simple examinations
- Examination and
treatment
- Night watch
Dentists

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

100
300
1000

19
19
19

90
90
90

20

19

90

- General lighting

500

19

90

- At the patient

1000

90

- Operating cavity

5000

90

- White teeth matching

5000

90

Lighting should be glare


free for the patient.
Local examination
luminaire
Values higher than 5000
lux may be required.
TCP at least 6000 K

Color inspection
(laboratories)
Sterilization rooms
Disinfection rooms
Autopsy rooms and
mortuaries
Autopsy table and
dissecting table
30. Airports
Arrival and departure
halls, baggage claim areas
Connecting areas,
escalators,
travelators
Information desks, checkin desks
Customs and passport
control desks
Waiting areas
Luggage store rooms
Security check areas

1000

19

90

TCP at least 5000 K

300
300
500

22
22
19

80
80
90

Air traffic control tower

5000

90

Values higher than 5000


lux may be required.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.

200

22

80

150

22

80

500

19

80

500

19

80

200
200
300

22
28
19

80
60
80

500

16

80

-29-

At floor level
At bed level
At bed level

For VDT work see clause


4.8.
Vertical illuminance is
important.

For VDT-work see clause


4.8.
1. Lighting should be
dimmable.
2. For VDT work see
clause 4.8.
3. Glare from daylight
should be avoided.

SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

Air traffic rooms

500

16

80

Testing and repair


hangars
Engine test areas

500

22

80

500

22

80

500

22

80

50

28

40

200
300

28
19

40
80

200

22

80

300

22

80

Measuring areas in
hangars
Platforms and passenger
subways (underpasses)
Ticket hall and concourse
Ticket and luggage offices
and counters
Waiting rooms
31. Mosques
Prayer Area, Mosques

1. Lighting should be
dimmable.
2. For VDT work see
clause 4.8.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.
For high-bay: see also
clause 4.6.2.

6. Energy Efficiency Recommendations


6.0 Lighting must provide a suitable visual environment within a particular space:
sufficient and suitable lighting for the performance of a range of tasks, provision
of a desired appearance etc. This objective should be achieved without waste of
energy. However, it is important not to compromise the visual aspects of a
lighting installation simply to reduce energy consumption. In most organizations
the cost of lighting energy, although substantial, is only a small fraction of the
total costs associated with the activity in the space. For example, the impact of
poor visual conditions on work quality and productivity costs is likely to be many
times greater than the lighting energy costs in an office, or in a factory (labor
costs may typically be around 100 times greater than lighting energy costs). It is
thus a false economy to save energy at the expense of human effectiveness.

The recommendations that follow provide guidance on energy efficiency for


lighting installations. They assume that good design has been combined with the
use of modern equipment. New lighting designs should normally meet these
levels. The recommendations can also be used to gauge the efficiency of existing
installations and to determine whether or not the existing installation needs
remedial action to achieve acceptable energy efficiency.

-30-

SASO/2009

6.1

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

Power and Time

The energy (kWh) used by a lighting installation depends on both the power (kW)
and time (h). Energy efficiency can be achieved:

by using the most efficient lighting equipment to obtain the desired


lighting solution, i.e. the electrical load (kW) is kept to a minimum while
achieving the lighting design objectives
by using effective controls so that the lighting is not in operation at times
when it is not needed, i.e. the period of operation (h) is kept to a minimum.

The lighting designer can limit the electrical power loading and the use of energy,
but it is the operator of the installation who will ultimately be responsible for
achieving high energy efficiency in practice.

6.2

Energy Efficient Equipment

Information on the energy efficiency of lamps and luminaires is given in Lighting


Equipment. While the lighting requirements for different spaces within a building
can be met most appropriately using different lamps or luminaires, an average
initial circuit lamp luminous efficacy of at least 65 lm/W for the fixed lighting
equipment within the building should be achieved. Both emergency lighting
systems and equipment that is not fixed, e.g. track-mounted luminaires are
excluded from this figure. Thus it is possible to use equipment of lower energy
efficiency (e.g. tungsten-halogen spotlights) in some areas combined with more
energy efficient equipment (e.g. fluorescent lamps with high frequency electronic
ballasts) in other areas. This recommendation can be used as a guideline at the
design concept stage, but it does not take account of energy use.
In practice, much energy is wasted outside normal working hours, by lighting
being left on when not required, although some lighting may be needed for
cleaning and security. Override controls should provide full lighting in emergency
conditions at night. Similarly, lighting may not be needed during working hours if
there is sufficient daylight or if spaces in the building are vacant. Adequate
lighting controls should be installed to allow the building occupants to use only
that lighting which is actually needed at any particular time. The control system
should be flexible enough to allow an appropriate level of lighting to be achieved
and lighting which is not required to be switched off. This may be achieved by:

localized switching, using switches provided throughout the space and not
concentrated at the point of entry
time switching, providing automatic switching of luminaires to a
predetermined schedule
automatic switching or dimming of lighting in relation to occupancy and
daylight level measured by a photoelectric sensor.

-31-

SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

The ultimate aim must be to achieve the desired lighting solution at the lowest
practical energy use. It is possible that a higher installed load combined with a
suitable control system to give low hours of use will result in lower energy
consumption than an alternative installation with a lower power loading but
poorer control. It is thus important to consider both aspects.

6.3

Lighting Energy Targets

Average Installed Power Density per Application


The following table provides targets of average power density for a range of
applications with particular maintained task illuminances
and are based on current good practice. The values, have been achieved, using
efficient lamp circuits and luminaires in well designed installations. They are
based on the following criteria:

An average sized empty room (Room Index 2.5)


High room surface reflectances (Ceiling 0.7; Walls 0.5; Floor 0.2)
High degree of installation maintenance (Luminaires cleaned every year,
room surfaces every three years, bulk lamp replacement every 10,000
hours).

It should be noted that the values could be higher or lower where variations in
criteria are made
Lamp Type

CIE general
colour
rendering
index

Task
Average
illuminance installed
power
density
(W/m2)

(Ra)
(lux)
Commercial and other similar application e.g. offices, shops and
schools *
Fluorescent triphosphor
80 90
300
7
500
11
750
17
Compact fluorescent
80 90
300
8
500
14
750
21
Metal halide
60 90
300
11
500
18
750
27
Industrial and manufacturing applications
Fluorescent triphosphor
80 90
300
6
-32-

SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

Metal halide

60 90

High pressure sodium

40 80

6.4

500
750
1000
300
500
750
1000
300
500
750
1000

10
14
19
7
12
17
23
6
11
16
21

Values do not include energy for display lighting

Energy Management

A lighting system must be designed and managed to achieve good control of


energy use. This is important during the working day and outside working hours.

Choice of Controls
The factors which influence the specification of controls include occupancy,
occupancy pattern, available daylight, type of lighting (i.e. can it be dimmed?), the
desired level of control sophistication and, of course, costs.
The cost of a control system installation should be compared with the cost
of a traditional hard-wire installation, and the difference related to the
projected energy savings. Especially with new buildings, the cost difference
may be very small. For existing installations there may be constraints on
selection of controls where the existing wiring gives little scope for
alteration or change. The use of mains-borne signaling may reduce these
constraints and allow a central system to be installed without disturbing
existing wiring but it is essential to ensure compatibility with other electrical
and signaling circuits. Simple reset switches may also be installed without
significantly affecting existing wiring.

-33-

SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

Alternatively, the use of self-contained luminaires, each with its own


sensor, may be a more practical and economic solution than centralized
control. For this it has to be accepted that certain refinements of centralized
control cannot be achieved.
The following control elements can be considered.
Daylight Linking

One or more of the lighting rows adjacent to the windows may be linked to
either external or internal photocells to monitor daylight and adjust the
electric lighting accordingly, either by switching or dimming.
Constant Illuminance

Designing for maintained illuminance means that initially, when lamps are new and
luminaires and room surfaces are clean, the illuminance will be substantially higher
than the design level. How much higher will depend on the characteristics of the
installation and the maintenance program which the user intends to follow.
High frequency fluorescent lamp systems, which can be regulated, can be linked to
photocells which will hold the lighting at the design maintained illuminance value.
As the system ages, the controls will automatically increase the power to the lamp.
Eventually, the system will operate at full load in order to produce the maintained
illuminance. This is the time at which maintenance should be carried out.
The same control system can also cover change of use. If the function of an area
changes, requiring a lower task illuminance, the system can be adjusted to control
the lighting to the revised level.
Occupancy

Lighting linked to occupancy, or more appropriately occupancy pattern, can show


considerable savings in energy usage.
An example of occupancy detection is where a detector sensing the approach of a
forklift truck switches lighting between warehouse aisles. A predetermined time
delay should be built into the control system to avoid excessive switching which
can shorten lamp life.
This form of control can be applied to a wider range of lamp types as long as the
run-up and re-strike characteristics are taken into account.

-34-

SASO/2009

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

Automatic Control

This can take a number of forms.


A timer control system may switch the whole lighting installation on and off at
predetermined times, or it may be programmed to send signals at certain times
during the day (e.g. lunch time) which switch off selected luminaires. If daylight is
sufficient, or lights go out over unoccupied areas, it is unlikely that these will be
switched on again until needed. This type of system can be used for providing
reduced lighting levels early in the morning and before the majority of staff arrive,
or in the evening to cover cleaning or security operations. Local manual override
switching is essential with this, and all other automatic controls. Security
requirements may also demand a general override control to cover emergency
conditions at night.
Occupancy detectors are used to detect the presence of people and to control the
lighting accordingly. These can rely upon acoustic, infrared, microwave, or other
methods of detection. A time lag must normally be built into the system to prevent
premature switch-offs or excessive switching.
Depending upon the size of area and number of occupants, it is desirable to
provide a degree of individual control which enables personal choice of lighting
conditions. In cellular offices, this could be from a combination of high frequency
ballasts controlled by a potentiometer or suitable infrared transmitter, which can be
used to select or raise and lower the lighting levels. In larger offices, local controls
should not noticeably affect the lighting conditions in, and viewing conditions from,
adjoining areas (see sections Localized Lighting and Local Lighting).
Management control systems can address every luminaire in order to program the
appropriate lighting in individual areas. The main advantage to this system is that
office alterations can be made and the lighting simply adjusted via the computer to
suit the new layout. Combined with local override control, changes can be made
without the need for expensive relocation of luminaires and alteration to switching
arrangements.
It is possible to interface between a building energy management system (BEMS)
and a lighting energy management system (LEMS) in order to provide certain
control commands from the BEMS to the lighting. It is not generally cost-effective to
use the BEMS to provide discrete localized lighting control to individual luminaires,
but rather to achieve load shedding or zone switching.

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Maintenance Control

Through the LEMS it is possible to check the status of the primary and emergency
lighting. The system may be programmed to automatically provide the check at
prescribed times, the status of each luminaire being checked and recorded.

Human Factors
Control systems which are obtrusive are counter-productive and may even be
sabotaged by the staff. For this reason, dimmer systems are often preferred.
Photocells and other sensing circuitry must incorporate a delay to prevent sporadic
and disruptive switch-offs, while responding immediately when a switch is turned
on.
Any control system must ensure that acceptable lighting conditions are always
provided for the occupants. Safety and visual effectiveness and comfort must take
priority over energy saving.

Costs and Energy Use The most powerful constraints on any design are
financial: namely, how much will the scheme cost to install and operate.
Initially it is necessary to establish realistic economic and energy budgets
commensurate with the design objectives. At all stages of the design, capital costs
and running costs must be scrutinized and controlled. The economics and energy
use of the lighting system must be considered within the total building energy use.

Financial Evaluation

The methods of financial assessment employed by the designer must be


acceptable to the client.
Comparisons are often made with an existing scheme or an alternative design. If
the comparison is to be meaningful, the schemes must be designed to equitable
standards.
Energy and Demand

Control of the lighting load profile by switching or dimming, so that unnecessary


lighting is not used, will reduce the units consumed. Maximum demand often
occurs in the middle of the day when daylight is available and Maximum Demand

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charges can be reduced if it is possible to shed lighting load at such times (see
below). Conversely, it is often possible to add all-night security lighting without
increasing the daytime maximum demand, incurring only the appropriate unit cost.
Energy Use

Designers should ensure that their designs do not waste energy. However,
the most important consideration about energy consumption is usually
financial. Few users are willing to invest extra money to achieve energy
savings unless the savings offer a reasonable rate of return on that
investment.
If the design objectives call for particular conditions to be created then they should
be provided. If they are not provided, then although the design may use less energy
it will not be effective and cannot, therefore, be regarded as satisfactory.
The section Energy Efficiency Recommendations in this Code gives ranges of
installed power densities appropriate for various applications. These effectively set
limits to the installed load but other means are required to control energy use and
improve operational efficiency.
The load factor for a lighting installation, during a specified period of time, is the
ratio of the energy actually consumed to the energy that would have been
consumed had the full connected load been operated throughout the specified
period. Thus if 25% of the lights in an installation are switched off on average
throughout the working day, the load factor will be 0.75. For many installations the
load factor will be determined by the ability of the lighting control system to switch
the lighting in response to daylight availability. To compare the effectiveness of
alternative control systems, the designer will need to estimate the probable annual
use of electric lighting under each system.

6.5

Lighting Controls

Control systems are an inherent part of any lighting installation. They can take many
forms, varying from a simple wall switch to being a part of a sophisticated
microprocessor-controlled, building management system. Whatever the method used,
the aim of a control system is always to ensure that the lighting is only operating
when it is required, and that when it is, it is operating in the required state. Control
systems vary the light output of the installation, either by switching or by controlling
the output of the lamps and so reducing energy use. The methods of lighting controls
are:
Switching

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Dimming / Regulation
Dimming for Lighting Effects

Switching
In principle, all light sources can be switched but the light output that is immediately
available on switch-on and the interval necessary between switch-off and switch-on
varies with lamp type. Switching can be achieved by a number of different
methods. The simplest is the manual switch. Remote switches which use an infrared transmitter and a receiver in the luminaire are also available. Both forms of
switching directly involve the user. Alternatively, lamps can be controlled by time
switches or in response to the availability of daylight or the occupation of the
interior. Photocells are used to sense the level of daylight available in an interior,
whilst sensors of noise level, movement or body heat have all been used to detect
the presence of people in an interior.
One particular aspect of manual switching which has limited its flexibility in the past
has been the difficulty of switching individual or small groups of luminaires without
excessive wiring costs. It is possible to send switching signals by low voltage wiring
or by introducing high frequency pulses onto the mains supply wiring. However,
luminaires that switch on and off for no obvious reason are distracting and can be
counter-productive in terms of staff satisfaction. High frequency electronic ballasts
for fluorescent lamps allow individual luminaires to respond in several different
ways, e.g. dimming or switching in response to available daylight and occupancy.
Such systems provide greater flexibility in the way the lighting installation can be
unobtrusively controlled either centrally or by individuals at their workstations.

Dimming / Regulation
Not all discharge lamps can be dimmed and those that can, such as tubular
fluorescent lamps, need special control gear. Dimming reduces the energy
consumed by the lamp, not necessarily in proportion to the light output, and can
cause changes in color. Dimmers can be controlled manually or automatically, for
example, in response to daylight availability. The electronic ballast developments,
mentioned in relation to switching, can also provide dimming or regulation.
Current lighting practice favors the use of high frequency systems where individual
ballasts are capable of controlling or regulating lamps' output up or down to suit
changing work patterns and visual needs. This obviates the need for centralized
control systems. The choice and design of energy management lighting control is
covered in more detail in Energy Management.

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Dimming for Lighting Effects


There are many areas within both commercial and non-commercial buildings, such
as entrance foyers, board or meeting rooms, auditoria, restaurants, museums and
display areas, where accent or display lighting is used to make a statement, convey
an image, command attention or emphasize the architectural form rather than
simply provide task lighting. The introduction of a dimming system provides two
major advantages for this type of lighting scheme. Firstly, the ability to control the
intensity of individual circuits. This makes it possible to change the atmosphere or
mood of the space, adding interest with dramatic or subtle variation. These
balanced lighting scenes or 'presets' may be memorized by the control systems so
that they can be recalled from simple push-button controls positioned within the
area.
The second advantage is being able to make maximum use of the space. If the
lighting of a room is designed to serve a single activity, then it may be unsuitable
for other purposes. The introduction of a dimming system will enable the user to
modify the lighting to match varying demands such as audio-visual presentations,
banquets and conferences.
Dimmer control systems should be 'user friendly'. These can range from simple
manual control for a simple circuit, push-button control of several circuits recalling
pre-programmed lighting scenes to sophisticated multi-circuit, programmed
systems with timed automatic lighting changes and cross-fades.

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7. Verification procedures
7.1

Illuminance

The illuminance shall be measured at specified points on the relevant areas. The
readings shall not be less than that calculated for the point.
The maintained illuminance shall be calculated from measured values on
the same grid points as used in the design calculation and the value shall be not
less than that specified for the task.
For repeat measurements the same points shall be used.

7.2

Unified glare rating

Authenticated UGR data produced by the tabular method at 1:1 spacing to height
ratio in accordance with Publication CIE 117 - 1995 shall be provided for the
luminaire/scheme by the manufacturer of the luminaire. The installation layout
and the surface finishes shall be checked against the design assumptions.
The installation shall be in accordance with the design assumptions.

7.3

Color rendering index (Ra)

Authenticated Ra data shall be provided for the lamps used in the scheme by the
manufacturer of the lamps. The lamps shall be checked against the design
specifications and shall have an Ra not less than the value specified in the
design.
The lamps shall be as specified in the design.

7.4

Color appearance (Tcp)

Authenticated Tcp value shall be provided for the lamps in the scheme by
manufacturer of the lamps. The Tcp value of the lamps shall be not less than the
value specified in the design.

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7.5

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Maintenance Factor

Maintained illuminance (Em) is defined as the average illuminance over the


reference surface at the time maintenance has to be carried out by replacing
lamps and/or cleaning the equipment and room surfaces.
The new definition of maintenance factor is 'the ratio of maintained illuminance to
initial illuminance', i.e. taking account of all losses including lamp lumen
maintenance.
Determination of Maintenance Factor

The maintenance factor (MF) is a multiple of factors:


MF = LLMF x LSF x LMF x RSMF
where LLMF is the lamp lumen maintenance factor;
LSF is the lamp survival factor (used only if spot-replacement of lamps is not
carried out);
LMF is the luminaire maintenance factor;
RSMF is the room surface maintenance factor.
Each of these terms is dealt with more fully in the following sections:
Lamp Lumen (Luminous Flux) Maintenance Factor (LLMF)

The lumen output from all lamp types reduces with time of operation. The rate of
fall-off varies for different lamp types and it is essential to consult manufacturers'
data. From such data it is possible to obtain the lamp lumen maintenance factor
for a specific number of hours of operation. The lamp lumen maintenance factor
is therefore the proportion of the initial light output that is produced after a
specified time and, where the rate of fall-off is regular, may be quoted as a
percentage reduction per thousand hours of operation.
Manufacturers' data will normally be based on local Standards test procedures
which specify the ambient temperature in which the lamp will be tested, with a
regulated voltage applied to the lamp and, if appropriate, a reference set of
control gear. If any of the aspects of the proposed design are unusual, e.g. high
ambient temperature, vibration, switching cycle, operating attitude etc., the

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manufacturer should be made aware of the conditions and will advise if they
affect the life and/or light output of the lamp.
Lamp Survival Factor (LSF)

As with lamp lumen maintenance factor it is essential to consult manufacturers'


data. These will give the percentage of lamp failures for a specific number of
hours operation and is only applicable where group lamp replacement, without
spot replacement, is to be carried out. These data will also be based on
assumptions such as switching cycle, supply voltage and control gear.
Manufacturers should be made aware of these aspects and should advise if
these will affect the lamp life or lamp survival. Typical lumen maintenance and
lamp survival data are given in the table below.

Typical Values of LLMF & LSF


Operation Time (1,000h)
0.1

0.5

1.5

10

12

14

Fluorescent
multi and
triphosphor

LLMF

0.98

0.96

0.95

0.94

0.91

0.87

0.86

0.85

0.84

0.83

LSF

0.99

0.95

0.85

0.75

0.64

Fluorescent
Halophosphor

LLMF

0.97

0.94

0.91

0.89

0.83

0.8

0.78

0.76

0.74

0.72

LSF

0.99

0.95

0.85

0.75

0.64

LLMF

0.99

0.97

0.95

0.93

0.87

0.8

0.76

0.72

0.68

0.64

LSF

0.99

0.98

0.97

0.95

0.92

0.88

0.84

High pressure
sodium

LLMF

0.98

0.97

0.96

0.93

0.91

0.89

0.88

0.87

0.86

LSF

0.99

0.98

0.96

0.94

0.92

0.89

0.85

High pressure
sodium,
improved
color

LLMF

0.99

0.97

0.95

0.94

0.89

0.84

0.81

0.79

0.78

LSF

0.99

0.98

0.96

0.9

0.79

0.65

0.5

Mercury

Luminaire Maintenance Factor (LMF)

Dirt deposited on or in the luminaire will cause a reduction in light output from the
luminaire. The rate at which dirt is deposited depends on the construction of the
luminaire and on the extent to which dirt is present in the atmosphere, which in
turn is related to the nature of the dirt generated in the specific environment. The
following table gives a list of the luminaire classes and a list of typical locations
where the various environmental conditions may be found
Class
A

Description
Bare lamp batten

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B
C
D
E
F

Open top reflector (ventilated self-cleaning)


Closed top reflector (unventilated)
Enclosed (IP2X)
Dustproof (IP5X)
Indirect uplighter

Environment
Clean (C)

Typical Locations
clean rooms, computer centers, electronic assembly,
hospitals.
offices, shops, schools, laboratories, restaurants,
warehouses, assembly workshops.

Normal (N)
Dirty (D)

steelworks, chemical works, foundries, welding, polishing,


wood work areas.

The table below shows typical changes in light output from a luminaire caused by dirt
deposition, for a number of luminaire and environment classes.
Time Between
Cleaning (Years)
Environment
Luminaire Class
A
B
C
D
E
F
Time Between
Cleaning (Years)
Environment
Luminaire Class
A
B
C
D
E
F

0.5

1.5

0.95
0.95
0.93
0.92
0.96
0.92

0.92
0.91
0.89
0.87
0.93
0.89
2

0.88
0.88
0.83
0.83
0.91
0.85

0.93
0.9
0.89
0.88
0.94
0.86

0.89
0.86
0.81
0.82
0.9
0.81
2.5

0.83
0.83
0.72
0.77
0.86
0.74

0.91
0.87
0.84
0.85
0.92
0.81

0.87
0.83
0.74
0.79
0.88
0.73
3

0.8
0.79
0.64
0.73
0.83
0.65

0.89
0.84
0.8
0.83
0.91
0.77

0.84
0.8
0.69
0.77
0.86
0.66

0.78
0.75
0.59
0.71
0.81
0.57

0.87
0.82
0.77
0.81
0.9
0.73

0.82
0.76
0.64
0.75
0.85
0.6

0.75
0.71
0.54
0.68
0.8
0.51

0.85
0.79
0.74
0.79
0.9
0.7

0.79
0.74
0.61
0.73
0.84
0.55

0.73
0.68
0.52
0.65
0.79
0.45

Room Surface Maintenance Factor (RSMF)

Changes in room surface reflectance caused by dirt deposition will cause


changes in the illuminance produced by the lighting installation. The magnitude
of these changes is governed by the extent of dirt deposition and the importance
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of inter-reflection to the illuminance produced. Inter-reflection is closely related to


the distribution of light from the luminaire and the room index (K). For luminaires
which have a strongly downward distribution, i.e. direct luminaires, inter-reflection
has little effect on the illuminance produced on the horizontal working plane.
Conversely, indirect lighting is completely dependent on inter-reflections. Most
luminaires lie somewhere between these extremes so most lighting installations
are dependent to some extent on inter-reflection.
The table below shows the typical changes in the illuminance from an installation
that occur with time due to dirt deposition on the room surfaces for clean, normal
and dirty conditions in small, medium or large rooms lit by direct, semi-direct and
indirect luminaires. From the table it is possible to select a room surface
maintenance factor appropriate to the circumstances. The areas in which Clean,
Normal and Dirty environments are found are given in the above Environment
Table in the Luminaire Maintenance Factor (LMF) section
Time Between
Cleaning
(Years)
Room Size (K)
Small K=0.7

Medium Large K=2.5 5.0

0.5
N

1
N

Direct

0.97

0.96

0.95

0.97

0.94

Direct /
Indirect

0.94

0.88

0.84

0.9

Indirect

0.9

0.84

0.8

Direct

0.98

0.97

Direct /
Indirect

0.95

Indirect

0.92

Luminaire
Distribution

1.5
N

0.93

0.96

0.94

0.92

0.86

0.82

0.89

0.83

0.8

0.85

0.78

0.73

0.83

0.75

0.69

0.96

0.98

0.96

0.95

0.97

0.96

0.95

0.9

0.86

0.92

0.88

0.85

0.9

0.86

0.83

0.87

0.83

0.88

0.82

0.77

0.86

0.79

0.74

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Time Between
Cleaning
(Years)
Room Size (K)
Small K=0.7

Medium Large K=2.5 5.0

7.6

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

2
N

2.5
N

3
N

Direct

0.95

0.93

0.9

0.94

0.92

0.89

0.94

0.92

0.88

Direct /
Indirect

0.87

0.82

0.78

0.85

0.8

0.75

0.84

0.79

0.74

Indirect

0.81

0.73

0.66

0.77

0.7

0.62

0.75

0.68

0.59

Direct

0.96

0.95

0.94

0.96

0.95

0.94

0.96

0.95

0.94

Direct /
Indirect

0.89

0.85

0.81

0.87

0.84

0.79

0.86

0.82

0.78

Indirect

0.84

0.77

0.7

0.81

0.74

0.67

0.78

0.72

0.64

Luminaire
Distribution

Luminaire luminance

The average luminance of the luminous part of the luminaire shall be measured
and/or calculated radially in the C-plane at intervals of 15 starting at 0 and the
elevation in - angles of 65, 75 and 85. Normally the manufacturer of the
luminaire shall provide these data based on maximum (lamp/luminaire) output.
The values shall not exceed the limits specified in clause 4.8.

7.7

Tolerances in measurements

There can be many factors which can cause disparity between the calculated
prediction and the measured performance of a lighting installation. The main
reason for this is that, even if the calculation process is of the highest possible
accuracy, it is assumed that all the individual lamps, circuits and luminaires
provide an identical photometric performance. This is clearly impossible and
some tolerance must be expected. The magnitude of the difference based on
practical experience expected to be within 10% for illuminance and luminance
measures.

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7.8

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS

Lighting commissioning

It is essential that the lighting design intent is realized in the final installation. The
luminaires should be of the specified type, with the correct lamps, in their
intended positions and should all work correctly. The control system should work
and be programmed correctly. The commissioning should be documented (by the
designated person) to allow others to maintain the lighting installation
documentation that are necessary to achieve this.
Once an installation has been installed, it should be checked to ensure that the
illuminances meet the required levels.
It is important that the aiming and focusing of adjustable luminaires are
adequately addressed. If all other lighting needs to be switched off during this
process, project schedules must allow the site to be free from other workers
requiring light.
Safety method statements must allow those aiming and focusing the luminaires
to use appropriate access gear belonging to, or hired by, the installer.

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The preliminary draft of this standard has been developed by the work composed of
Name
1.Eng. Mohammed J. Yousef, MSLL, AMILE
2. Eng, Mohd. Ezzat Baroudi

Agency
Saudi Lighting Company Ltd.
Omrania & AssociatesArchitecture & Engineering Consultant

The draft standard was studied and the comments received thereon from concerned
bodies discussed. It has adopted in its present form, by the following members of
Technical Committee No. (4).
Agency

Name
1. Dr. Mohammed Salah Simaie

King Abdul Aziz City for Sciences &


Technology

2. Dr. Ibrahim Omar Habiballah


3. Eng. Mohammed J. Yousef Saleh

King Fahad University for Petroleum


& Mineral
Saudi Lighting Company

4. Eng. Abbas Mohammad Abo Al-Naja

Ministry of Transportation

5. Eng. Mohammed Alsawi Farahart

SASO-Riyadh

6. Eng, Mohd. Ezzat Baroudi

Omrania & Associates- Architecture &


Engineering Consultant

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