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COMART3

Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

What is Communication?

a process by which information is


exchanged between individuals through a
common system of symbols, signs or
behavior.
--Webster

an intentional or conscious use of any sign


or symbol to transmit a fact, an idea, a
feeling, or an emotion from one individual
to another.
--Greene and Petty

Communication
Session 2

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COMART3

Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

Value of Communication

at the core of humanness


grow into greater maturity
a road to success
oils the wheels of productive change
promotes mental health

Communication
Session 2

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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

Functions of
Communication
We communicate in order to:
a. increase our store of information.
We can better predict what they feel, think and
act if we know them well.
b. build context understanding
The words we say can have varied meanings
depending on how and to whom they are said.
Content Messages

refer to the surface


level of meaning

Relational Messages refer to how a message


is said.

Communication
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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

SELF-CONCEPT
Nobody likes me.
Im afraid to tell you who I am because you may
not like me.
-

We all act like the sort of the person we


conceive ourselves to be.

If we see ourselves as unlikable, most likely, we


will find that we are not liked.

We behave in a manner consistent with our selfimage.

If we think we are not good, we will see


ourselves not really being good .

Fight the Fright


Session 3

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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

HOW SELF-CONCEPT
AFFECTS
COMMUNICATION
1. Hostile attitude invites rejection by others.
2. Messages are controlled because of the
consistency with the self-concept.
3. False cues are given to maintain self-concept.
4. Feelings are covered up; frustrations and anger
are stored up.
5. A lot of pretensions!

Fight the Fright


Session 3

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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

DEVELOPING SELFCONFIDENCE
1. Understand the cause of your fears.
2. Practice as often as you can to acquire the
basic skills of oral communication.
3. Welcome every chance to talk before an
audience.
4. Make sure you have something worth saying.
5. Prepare thoroughly.
6. Rid yourself of negative thoughts.
7. Relax while waiting for your turn to speak.
8. Memorize your opening lines. This will add
confidence in giving the rest of your talk.
9. Act confident.
Fight the Fright
Session 3

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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

Elements of the
Communication Process
Communicator A
-

sender or source of the message


receiver or interpreter of the message
also referred to as the encoder

Communicator B
-

sender or receiver of the message


also referred to as the decoder

Communication Process
Session 4

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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

Elements of the
Communication Process
Encoding
-

process of deciding how best to convey the


message

words, gestures, volume, tone

Decoding
-

process of interpreting the exact meaning of a


message

process of attaching meanings to language


symbols

consider the persons background when giving


meaning to messages

Communication Process
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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

Elements of the
Communication Process
Frame of Reference (Background)
-

educational background, personality, hobbies,


sex, age, attitudes, past experiences, etc.

must be considered during encoding / decoding


to avoid communication breakdowns

Message
-

idea or feeling

Communication Process
Session 4

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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

Elements of the
Communication Process
Code
symbols that carry the message
1. Non-verbal facial expressions, gestures,
appearance, and posture
2. Language spoken or written words used to
communicate thoughts and feelings
3. Paralanguage refers to tone, pitch, rate,
volume, stress
Channel
-

medium selected to convey the message


telephone or mobile phone, radio, television,
magazine, newspaper, face-to-face, etc.
select the medium or channel that would BEST
carry your message

Communication Process
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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

Communication Process
COMMUNICATOR
A

ENCODES/DECODES

N
O
I
S
E

CHANNEL
VERBAL OR
NONVERBAL
MESSAGES

N
O
I
S
E

COMMUNICATOR
B

ENCODES/DECODES

Types of Communication
Process
1. Intrapersonal Communication
- communication within yourself
- involves thinking and analysis

Communication Process
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COMART3

Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

Types of Communication
2. Public Communication
- communication between you and
several other people
- uses mass media
- primarily a monologue than a dialogue
3. Interpersonal Communication
- communication among a small number
of people
- includes both dyadic and small group

Communication Process
Session 4

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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

COMMUNICATION: A
TRANSACTION
Communication is a transaction.
-

communicators dont take turns being the


sender and the receiver

each is both source and receiver simultaneously

they are sending and at the same time receiving


messages

Communication: A Transaction
Session 5

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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

Communication is a
Process
-

Communication is unrepeatable and


irreversible.

Just like life, it is changing.

Even if we say the same line, the same words,


still our communication is different.

Everything around us changes every second,


every minute, every day.

Communication: A Transaction
Session 5

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Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

COMART3

Barriers to Effective
Communication
1. Inadequate Preparation
2. Vague Instructions
3. Poor Listening
a.

Criticizing speakers

b.

Planning a rebuttal

c.

Writing while listening

d.

Differing perceptions

e.

Same words-different meanings;


Same meanings-different words

f.

Improve use of feedback

Communication: A Transaction
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COMART3
Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

Feedback
responses to messages which could
either be verbal or visual.
way to determine if the messages sent
are interpreted as planned or intended.
examples of feedback are strumming
fingers, hostile look, spontaneous
applause, incessant yawning, etc.

Feedback
Session 6

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COMART3
Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

Kinds of Feedback:
1. Immediate receiver answers on the spot.
2. Delayed there is a time lapse on his reply.
3. Thoughtful receiver pauses and considers
what has been heard or read
before replying.
4. Impulsive hasty assumptions are made about
the message.

Feedback
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COMART3
Communication Arts 3 (Effective Speaking Skills)

OPTIMAL USE OF
FEEDBACK
optimize the use of feedback in order to
reduce communication breakdown
-

to share meanings of words and


messages.

be aware of each others reactions.

there are messages hidden behind


reactions.

reactions could be faked to avoid the


speakers retaliation or be dubbed as intent
listeners.

listeners attitude could be a problem.

Feedback
Session 6

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