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INSTRUCTIONAL

OBJECTIVES

EDU555
Curriculum & Instruction
Encik Muhamad Furkan Mat Salleh

Instructional
Objectives

To start teaching: teacher must be


guided by instructional
objective, followed by strategies
and tools to accomplish the task,
and then evaluate the
outcomes

Instructional
Objectives

Objectives: desired outcomes of learning


Purpose:
Defining the intents of an educational
plan
Helping teachers to plan steps necessary
to achieve plan
Helping students to know what is
expected of them at the end of the
program

Instructional
Objectives

Helping teachers, administrators and


society to assess the products of the
system
Statement that described the teachers
intent about how students should
change

Mager format of
instructional objectives

Robert Mager (1962)


Objectives must be OBSERVABLE and
MEASURABLE
Behavioral Objectives

Mager format of
instructional objectives

Suggested that objectives of learning need to be

specific in term of:


1) Student behaviour

What the learner will be able to do when he


has mastered the objectives
What learner will be doing or behavior the
teacher will accept as evidence that the
objectives have been achieved
using verbs that denote observable action
at the end of the lesson, the students should
be able to identify.

Mager format of
instructional objectives

2) Testing situation
Under what conditions he will be able to do it
The condition under which the behaviour will be
observed
given the blank world map students should
be able to locate the 5 active volcanoes

Mager format of
instructional objectives

3) Performance criteria

To what standard he will be able to do it


The standard of the performance level defined as
acceptable
indicating correctness, speed, rate of response
given the blank world map students should be
able to locate the 5 active volcanoes

Mager format of
instructional objectives

use precise words that are not open to


many interpretations
Link the 3 parts together when writing the
behavioral objectives
Start by stating students behaviours, condition
and performance

Mager format of
instructional objectives
Examples :
- state
- list down
- identify
- compare
- calculate
- draw
- name the

- colour the..

- measure
- solve
- match the..

Mager format of
instructional objectives

Criticisms:
1) Not practical difficult to write
2) Difficult to accomplish the kind of
specificity
3) Becomes unmanageable for teachers to
write because too many objectives and
specificity

Instructional
Objectives

Groundlund (1970) suggested there


are 2 levels of objectives:
1) General objectives
2) Specific objectives

Instructional
Objectives

General instructional objectives must


be followed by a sample of specific
behavioral outcomes
Teaching may be directed towards
achievement of the general objectives
Specific objectives may form the basis
for testing and assessment

Blooms Instructional
Objectives

There are different types of behaviours


can be specified in writing the
instructional objectives

Blooms Instructional
Objectives

Benjamin Bloom (1956) proposed the most

helpful guides for the behaviour classification


He created a scheme that classifies
instructional objectives in a systematic way
He divided the objectives into 3 domains:
1) Cognitive domain : knowing fact and
information
2) Psychomotor domain: performing physical
skills
3) Affective domain: exhibiting personal
attitudes