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Symphony Math Manual

Symphony Math Manual

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Published by Dorazio
Symphony runs on Macs and PC's with headphones. It is appropriate for K-3. The manual provides complete documentation on each Symphony activity. It isn't needed to run the online software.
Symphony runs on Macs and PC's with headphones. It is appropriate for K-3. The manual provides complete documentation on each Symphony activity. It isn't needed to run the online software.

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Published by: Dorazio on Apr 30, 2008
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Symphony Math: Foundational Numeracy Teacher Guide

Version 1.0

Symphony Learning Hanover, New Hampshire www.symphonylearning.com

Copyright and Trademark Notice
Symphony Learning, LLC. All rights reserved. Symphony Math is a trademark of Symphony Learning, LLC. Director is a trademark of Adobe. Macintosh is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. MS Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Symphony Math has been created with Adobe Director software. Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Symphony Learning, LLC. The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement or non-disclosure agreement. The software may be used only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. This document and the software described within it may not, in whole or in part, be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated, or reduced to any electronic medium or machine-readable form other than that which has been specified herein without prior written consent from Symphony Learning, LLC. Acknowledgments: We thank the many math researchers, teachers and cognitive scientists for their research and practice in the field of mathematics education upon which this program is based. Published by: Symphony Learning, LLC. PO Box 5491 Hanover, NH 03755 Phone: 800.234.3030 www.symphonylearning.com support@symphonylearning.com Version 1.00a

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION...................................................................... 3 Program Purpose ............................................................................................. 3 Cognitive Model .............................................................................................. 3 Key Features .................................................................................................... 4 Key Benefits .....................................................................................................6 Symphony Approach....................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER 2: USING THE PROGRAM.......................................................... 8 Login................................................................................................................ 8 Module Progress Menu ....................................................................................8 Activities .......................................................................................................... 9 Thinking Environment.................................................................................... 9 Fluency Environment.................................................................................... 10 On-Screen Controls & Indicators ................................................................. 10 CHAPTER 3: OVERVIEW OF THE THREE MODULES........................... 11 Quantity.........................................................................................................11 Addition & Subtraction................................................................................. 12 Multiplication & Division .............................................................................. 13 CHAPTER 4: ADMINISTRATION PANEL................................................... 14 On-Line Administration Panel...................................................................... 14 Managing Students ....................................................................................... 15 Student Properties ......................................................................................... 16 Managing Classes .......................................................................................... 16 User Types .....................................................................................................17 Reports .......................................................................................................... 18 CHAPTER 5: INSTALLATION & SETUP..................................................... 21 System Requirements .................................................................................... 21 Program Installation & Configuration........................................................... 21 Computer Settings .........................................................................................22 Entering Students .......................................................................................... 23 Entering Classes ............................................................................................ 24 Automatic Updates ........................................................................................24 CHAPTER 6: TROUBLESHOOTING........................................................... 25 Remote Hosting............................................................................................. 25 Usernames and Passwords ............................................................................ 25 Contacting Technical Support....................................................................... 25
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CHAPTER 7: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS .................................. 26 Symphony Math Content and Use................................................................26 Symphony Math Installation and Technical Issues ....................................... 28 CHAPTER 8: QUANTITY............................................................................... 31 Activity #1: Manipulatives ............................................................................ 31 Activity #2: Manipulatives & Symbols .......................................................... 41 Activity #3: Symbols ..................................................................................... 49 Activity #4: Auditory Sentences ....................................................................59 Activity #5: Story Problems .......................................................................... 67 CHAPTER 9: ADDITION & SUBTRACTION.............................................. 75 Activity #1: Manipulatives ............................................................................ 75 Activity #2: Manipulatives & Symbols .......................................................... 86 Activity #3: Symbols ................................................................................... 100 Activity #4: Auditory Sentences .................................................................. 111 Activity #5: Story Problems ........................................................................ 122 CHAPTER 9: MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION........................................ 132 Activity #1: Manipulatives .......................................................................... 132 Activity #2: Manipulatives & Symbols ........................................................ 140 Activity #3: Symbols ................................................................................... 144 Activity #4: Auditory Sentences .................................................................. 152 Activity #5: Story Problems ........................................................................ 160

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Program Purpose Symphony Math is designed to help students in kindergarten and first grade develop a strong foundation of mathematical concepts and applications. The program provides an opportunity for students to develop and practice important mathematical ideas such as number conceptualization, part-to-whole relations and groupings of quantities. The program extends these fundamental ideas to operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Symphony Math is intended primarily for kindergarten and first grade students. The program can also be used with older students who have yet to develop a solid conceptual foundation in mathematical reasoning or have not mastered addition and multiplication number relationships. The program is based upon research from the fields of Cognitive Development and Mathematics Education. Cognitive Model Research in the field of Cognitive Development has mapped the landscape of important underlying concepts in mathematical learning and problem solving. The Symphony Math scope and sequence is based upon these insights. Major concepts presented in elementary math curricula are related to fundamental ideas or cognitive schemes. Math understanding and learning will be more effective and meaningful if instruction and practice are explicitly connected to these fundamental ideas. Part of what makes some of these fundamental ideas so important is that they follow a developmental pathway throughout math learning. These ideas repeatedly emerge in successive levels of math learning and build upon one another in increasing complexity. Physical representations of the fundamental ideas provide a mechanism by which students can interact with these concepts, apply them in a variety of situations, and internalize a model that reinforces their meaning. All students come to the classroom with some form of math understanding. The most effective way to improve math understanding is by identifying where a student is within the developmental pathways of math learning and engaging them at that level. Students have the best chance of understanding fundamental ideas and internalizing number relationships if they have the opportunity to apply and represent those skills in a variety of contexts. Physical representations, number sentences, and word problems are some examples of different ways children can interact with and apply math ideas and procedures. The National Research Council and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recommend daily engagement with mathematics. Symphony Math is a supplemental intervention designed to complement instruction. The program provides the opportunity for students to work independently with fundamental concepts and number relationships on a daily basis at home or at school.

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Key Features Each Symphony Math module includes five activities representing fundamental concepts and number relationships: Number Bars: Virtual manipulatives that offer a visual representation of the concepts and number relationships. Bars & Numbers: Tasks that challenge students to coordinate manipulatives with numerals and symbols. Numbers: Number sentences with symbols. If students struggle, the number bars appear to provide representational support. Auditory: Number sentences are presented with spoken words. Students must translate from words to numbers and symbols. Story Problems: Tasks are presented in the form of spoken word problems. Students must translate into numerals and symbols.
Multiple Solutions

Symphony Math emphasizes conceptual understanding by presenting problems that can accept more than one correct answer. Some tasks explicitly require students to provide up to three unique solutions. Students learn that math is more than right and wrong answers as they appreciate the connections between different concepts and number relationships. By requiring multiple solutions, the program promotes deductive reasoning and flexibility of thinking.
Multi-Dimensional Branching

Educational software is often presented as a forward or backward march along a unitary path. The reality is that student learning profiles develop along multiple developmental pathways. Symphony Math is designed to accommodate the complexity and uniqueness of each student. The program tracks student proficiency along three dimensions of learning (Representations, Concepts, & Content) and adapts to student fluctuations in performance in real-time.
Conceptual Understanding

Symphony Math challenges students to make conceptual links between important mathematical concepts. The goal is to promote depth of understanding by providing students with problems that explicitly link concepts that too often are understood in isolation.
Time-Based Fluency

Symphony Math includes activities that challenges students to develop fluency in their recall of known number relationships and procedures. Once a number relationship or math concept is understood with sufficient proficiency the student will begin to solve number relationships and procedures in a timed problem-solving environment.

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Mental Models

The development of mental models can be a powerful mechanism for understanding abstract principles. In Symphony Math students work with virtual manipulatives (number bars) that provide a concrete representation of each concept. Over the course of using the program, students can internalize these concrete representations in the form of mental models. When new concepts are introduced, the student can integrate the new knowledge by updating their mental model of the previous concept.
Auditory Practice

Symphony Math delivers auditory numeracy problems to help students master fundamental number relationships. For example, a student hears “four plus five equals what number?” In the Thinking Environment the student needs to construct the number sentence with the answer. In the Fluency Environment the student must select the answer as quickly as possible. This practice with spoken number sentences helps develop mastery of number relationships.
Detailed Data Tracking

The progress of each student is tracked by the program at a fine level of detail. Symphony Math records student progress through each activity level and records their proficiency with specific number relationships (such as 7+5) or with specific concepts (such as addition) with manipulatives, symbols, and story problems. The program uses these data to determine the proper sequence of tasks by branching the student to tasks that are specific areas of weakness within their developmental range of learning. These data are made available to teachers and administrators through a comprehensive reporting system.
Remote Hosting

Symphony Math uses internet based remote-hosting technology to manage student records and enable the activities. The program uses a secure internet connection to allow administrators to configure student accounts and engage reporting features from a computer with an internet connection. The remote-hosting service allows students to use Symphony Math from any location with an internet connection and a computer that meets the technical requirements.
Administration System

Symphony Math offers an easy to use full-feature administration system to setup and configure the program. Administration features include on-line access, student reports and custom lesson options.
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Key Benefits Symphony Math provides students with the opportunity to build a solid foundational understanding of important mathematical concepts as well as an engaging environment to practice the application of these concepts on a regular basis. The primary benefit of Symphony Math is the development of a solid mathematical foundation in the form of deep understanding of mathematical concepts and automatic recall of number relationships. These skills are fundamental to the larger enterprise of learning math and pave the way to understanding later concepts such as place value and fractions. Too often students do not have the foundational understanding to make sense of these later concepts and/or their poor knowledge of basic number relationships poses problems for them as they attempt to employ decomposing and composing numbers in multi-digit addition and subtraction.
School-to-Home Connection

Symphony Math is an internet-enabled program. Student data is remotely hosted on the Symphony Learning servers. This provides students the opportunity to use Symphony Math from any location with a computer that meets the technical requirements. Teachers can assign Symphony Math as homework to students with computers and internet access at home, or access to a computer with an internet connection at an after-school program. Students can use the program during the school day in the classroom, the computer lab, or the resource room. Symphony Learning does not provide technical support for home users of Symphony Math. Only staff of a school with an active Symphony Support Plan can access technical support.
Optimal Learning Flow

Symphony Math is designed to be an engaging educational program. One of the keys to achieving high levels of student engagement is ensuring that the student learning experience is firmly situated within each student’s zone of Optimal Learning Flow. The zone of Optimal Learning Flow consists of each student’s area of challenge where the level of complexity is appropriately matched to the student’s cognitive abilities. When this occurs, students are neither bored nor overwhelmed; they are fully engaged in the learning task.
Independent Student Participation

The automated branching and tracking technologies allow students to use the program independently. Once an account has been created for a student, he or she can login to the program and begin using the activities. Teachers do not need to place students at specific levels. Symphony Math will automatically determine each student’s level of proficiency and learning style and then provide the appropriate learning experience.

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Symphony Approach
Developmental

Symphony Math is a developmental intervention. The program seeks to find where a student’s math-skill development is along several conceptual pathways and joins the student at that point in their learning. This enables the program to provide problem-solving activities that meet the student at the appropriate level of skill or slightly beyond. As the student progresses, the program provides increasingly complex challenges along each developmental pathway. If the student struggles, help is automatically activated in the form of hints that lead the student towards a solution or it incrementally decreases the level of challenge in real-time.
Individualized

Symphony Math tracks student progress at a fine level in order to adapt to the specific needs of each student. The program adapts to each student’s level of conceptual understanding, learning style and content mastery. One student may be a visual learner who is strong with concepts but weak with number relationships. Another student may be more of a verbal learner who is strong with procedures but weak on applications. Symphony Math identifies these needs and provides the appropriate individualized intervention.
Comprehensive & Systematic

Symphony Math systematically addresses proficiency with concepts, procedures, fluency and applications of numeracy. Each of these skills are interrelated and addressed by the program in a manner that promotes depth of understanding as well as fluency. This approach avoids the common dichotomy of teaching concepts versus teaching procedures. Students need more than a one-track emphasis as they bring a variety of learning profiles to the endeavor of becoming mathematically proficient.
Engaging

Symphony Math is designed to be intrinsically motivating. The program seeks to engage and motivate students by emphasizing the interesting patterns and conceptual links of mathematics. Students are challenged to make links and identify patterns in order to discover the inherent order and systematicity of mathematics. If students’ attention is drawn towards discovering the fundamental nature of math and its applications, this will sustain their interest more profoundly than cartoon characters or interactive narratives.

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CHAPTER 2: USING THE PROGRAM
Symphony Math is designed for children in kindergarten and grade one. It is a complementary program which supplements math instruction by providing children with an opportunity to systematically apply what they are learning in the classroom as well as explore emerging concepts and ideas. Students in grades Two and Three who struggle with math learning may benefit by further reviewing and developing foundational concepts and skills through the use of Symphony Math. The general recommended use of Symphony Math is three to five sessions a week, 15 to 20 minutes per session. See the section on Installation & Setup if Symphony Math is not yet installed on your computer or if no student names appear in the menu. Login The Login Screen allows students to sign in to Symphony Math. To begin, students select their name and then type their password in the panel shown below:

Module Progress Menu After logging in the student is brought to the module progress menu. There are three modules in Symphony Math -- Quantity, Addition & Subtraction, and Multiplication & Division. One or more of the three modules will be enabled on the student’s screen depending on her level of progress through the program. Each module contains five activities. Initially, only the Quantity activity will be enabled. As the student uses Symphony Math the program will determine when the student is ready for subsequent modules. In the illustration on the left, this student has two activities enabled based on her performance in the program. The Multiplication & Division module is not enabled. The program has determined that because she has only emerging understanding of addition, it is not appropriate to present multiplication tasks. The student’s progress is reflected in the green thermometer indicator. The student is free to choose between the modules that are active.

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Activities Each Symphony Math module contains five different activities. The chart below summarizes the five activities. Students do not select the activity; the program automatically determines the appropriate activity based on their performance. Upon entering and exiting each module, students will see the activity progress screen that represents progress in each of the five activities of that module. Number Bars: Virtual manipulatives that offer a visual representation of the concepts and number relationships. Bars & Numbers: Tasks that challenge students to coordinate manipulatives with numerals and symbols. Numbers: Number sentences with symbols. If students struggle, the number bars appear to provide representational support. Auditory: Number sentences are presented with spoken words. Students must translate from words to numbers and symbols. Story Problems: Tasks are presented in the form of spoken word problems. Students must translate into numerals and symbols.

Thinking Environment Each activity begins with nine tasks placed within the Thinking Environment. The Thinking Environment encourages students to explore concepts and think through a variety of possible solutions while making important connections. In the Thinking Environment, students select number bars or symbols and drag them to the blinking areas in order to build solutions. The nine tasks are automatically chosen from the five activities based on student performance. There are two ways students can select onscreen objects and drag them into place. They can place the cursor on the object and click and hold while they drag the object into position. Or they can click and release the mouse button while they drag the bar into position, and then click again to let go of the object.

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Fluency Environment After completing nine tasks in the Thinking Environment the student is brought to the Fluency Environment. This environment is a series of time based tasks where students are challenged to quickly recall what they have learned in the Thinking Environment. Skills that have been well developed in the Thinking Environment are presented in the Fluency Environment. For every correct solution achieved in the Thinking Environment, five seconds is added to the total time given in the Fluency Environment. If all nine tasks in the Thinking Environment are answered correctly, the student will have 45 seconds to answer as many questions as possible during in the Fluency Environment. In the Fluency Environment, students only need to select the correct object for the solution. They do not need to drag the object to the blinking area. On-Screen Controls & Indicators Press this button in the top right part of the screen to repeat the directions. Press this button in the top right part of the screen to receive some help with the current task. Press this button in the top right part of the screen to stop using the module and return to the previous menu. Press this button in the top left part of the screen to adjust the level of sound. Press this button to indicate that a task has been completed and is ready to be checked. Press this button to indicate that there are no correct answers available to solve this task (i.e., “none of the above”). The green level indicates how much progress has been made in this specific activity. A yellow box around an activity indicator identifies the current task selected from this activity. A star indicates that this activity has been completed. Once an activity has been completed, no more tasks can be selected from it.

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CHAPTER 3: OVERVIEW OF THE THREE MODULES
Quantity This activity helps students develop number conceptualization. Some students can learn to count and solve simple math problems without understanding that a number is a concept that represents quantity. For example, a student may know that “9” comes after “8” but not know that “9” represents a larger quantity than “8”. The student has learned to count similar to saying the alphabet. Unlike saying the alphabet, the sequence of counting numbers represents an increase in magnitude with each number. The sequence of numbers is determined by each number’s magnitude, a concept that not all children appreciate. The Quantity module is designed to move children from thinking of math as counting to understanding math as a means to represent and describe quantities. The module uses virtual manipulatives to develop the following concepts: Number One-to-one correspondence Equality Greater than Less than Not equal Not less than Not greater than

• • • • • • • •

Quantity also emphasizes procedural skills. Once students develop a strong understanding of a concept, they are challenged to accurately solve mathematical statements which incorporate that concept. The activity develops skills to solve the following types of number sentences: • • • • 2=? ?>3 5<?<8 5 ?

Another important component of the Quantity activity is the application of procedural skills. Word problems are presented orally for students to represent by constructing number sentences. Students learn how numbers and symbols can be used to describe real situations. For example: • The student hears, “Suzy has five pencils. Jamal has three pencils.” • The student is asked to represent the problem mathematically (e.g., 5 > 3)

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Addition & Subtraction The Addition & Subtraction module challenges students to construct a solid understanding of the fundamental ideas of addition and subtraction as well as gain mastery of basic number relationships. Many students learn to solve simple arithmetic number statements, but not all children develop a conceptual understanding of what these operations mean. Different types of elementary math problems can be solved by using counting as the primary strategy. Although neither fast nor efficient, students can use counting strategies to find the correct answer. While effective in the early grades, eventually these counting strategies become too cumbersome and inefficient as the complexity of the math curriculum increases. The counting strategies also do not lend themselves to a conceptual understanding of the operations. The Addition & Subtraction module emphasizes the understanding of the concept of part-to-whole relations. This is the key concept that students need to internalize to understand addition and subtraction at the conceptual level. The activity uses virtual manipulatives to develop the part-to-whole concepts that underpin addition and subtraction. These concepts include part-to-whole, missing part, and missing parts. The Addition & Subtraction module develops procedural skills for solving addition and subtraction problems. Once students have developed a conceptual understanding of the fundamental ideas that underpin addition and subtraction, they are challenged to apply that knowledge by solving addition and subtraction problems. The module includes tasks with addends and subtrahends up to 10 in the following formats: •3+5=? •3+?=8 •?+5=8 •?+?=8 •5+3+4=? •5+3=4+? •8-5=? •8-?=3 •?-?=3 •5-3-1=? •8-2=9-? Similar to the Quantity module, the Addition & Subtraction module emphasizes the application of concepts and procedural skills. Word problems are presented orally for students to first represent by constructing number sentences and then solve. For example: • “Suzie has five pencils. Jamal has three pencils. How many pencils do they have all together?” • The student is asked to represent and solve the problem mathematically (i.e. 5 + 3 = 8).
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Multiplication & Division The Multiplication & Division module develops an understanding of grouping and partitioning by building upon the part-to-whole concepts established in the Addition & Subtraction module. Similar to addition, some students can learn multiplication number relationships without understanding their meaning. The Multiplication & Division module helps students develop their conceptual understanding of what these operations mean and then helps them to learn the number relationships through systematic practice and evaluation. The Multiplication & Division module covers number relationships with products and dividends up to thirty. The activities use the repeated addition model of multiplication and the repeated subtraction model of division. This helps students understand the connection between the Addition & Subtraction module and the concepts in Multiplication & Division. The module presents tasks in the following formats: • • • • • • • • 3x5=? 3x?=15 ?x5=15 ?x?=15 15÷5=? 15÷?=3 ?÷5=3 ?÷?=3

The Multiplication & Division module offers the same five activities as the other modules. In the first activity the student needs to find equal bars that are evenly related to the whole. The second activity consists of analyzing the relationship of the bars in order to construct a corresponding number sentence. The third activity presents number sentence problems typical of traditional worksheets. The number bars appear in order to present a concrete model of what the number sentence means if the student makes an error or needs help. The fourth activity offers spoken number sentences that students must construct and solve. The fifth activity presents spoken story problems such as: • “James has three bags of apples. In each bag there are five apples. How many apples does James have altogether?” • The student is asked to represent and solve the problem mathematically (i.e., 3x5=15).

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CHAPTER 4: ADMINISTRATION PANEL
On-Line Administration Panel The administration panel is used by teachers and administrators to manage the school’s Symphony Math site, create and manage student accounts, download the program, as well as view and print student reports. The administration panel can be accessed from within the Symphony Math program or from the Symphony Learning website (www.symphonylearning.com).
Accessing the Administration Panel from Symphony Math

1. Launch the Symphony Math program. 2. Click on the “Settings” button near the top left corner of the sign-in menu. 3. Enter the administrator password when prompted. This is the password that was entered when the program was installed and configured. The purpose of passwordprotecting access to the Administration Panel sign-in screen is to prevent students from accessing a Web browser from the program. 4. Click on the “Go to Admin Panel” button located on the left center of the screen. This action will launch your Web browser and bring you to the administration panel sign-in screen. 5. Enter your school’s site ID, your username and your password.

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Accessing the Administration Panel from the Symphony Learning website.

1. Launch your Web browser. 2. Type in the URL www.symphonylearning.com 3. Locate the sign-in window. 4. Enter your school’s site ID, your username and your password.
Site Administration Controls

Press this button to bring up the site administration panel. This panel is used to specify contact information as well as the username & password for the panel and program. Press this button to bring up the student administration panel. This panel is used to create and modify student accounts. Press this button to bring up the class administration panel. This panel is used to create classes and assign students to classes. Press this button to bring up the reports administration panel. This panel is used to view and print student performance data. Press this button to return to the administration home panel. The Symphony Math program can be downloaded from this panel. Managing Students The student administration panel can be used to create, import, and modify student accounts. To create a student account press the “Add Student” button. To import a list of students from a comma separated file (csv) press the “Import List of Students” button. To modify or update a student account, select the student’s name. To delete a student, press the red “x” at the far right of that student’s name.

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Student Properties The Student Properties panel is found by selecting the student name from the Student List. Only three Student Properties are required for students enrolled in Symphony Math: Username, Password, and First Name. Other properties are optional and can be used at the discretion of each site administrator. In addition to Student Properties, the Administration Panel allows Language and Content Settings to be selected. Below is a description of the different settings offered for each student:
Student Property Description

Program Narration

The spoken language in the program. Choices include American English, Universal Spanish & British English. Use the default branching to activate and deactivate content modules in Symphony Math. Override the branching rules and select certain modules to be active for this student.

Symphony Branching

Activate ONLY These Modules Managing Classes

Students can be assigned to classes to facilitate the management, use, and reporting of Symphony Math. When students sign-in to the program, they can first select their class (e.g., Ms. Williams Class). This will limit the students listed in the selection window to only those assigned to this class, thereby facilitating the sign-in process. When viewing reports, a teacher can select the students assigned to his or her class, thereby specifying the relevant data more quickly. See the Installation & Setup chapter for step-by-step procedures on setting up Symphony Math for first time use.

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To create a new class press the “Add Class” button. To modify or update a class, press the class name. To enroll students in a class, press the class icon to the right of the name of the class. To delete a class, press the red “x” at the far right of that group’s name. Use the “Add Class” function to create usernames and passwords for teachers. Teachers can use their Class username and password to sign-in to the administration panel, create students, and view reports. User Types Symphony Math allows three types of users with different levels of access to program functions: 1. Students, who can only use the Symphony Math program; 2. Class Administrators (usually teachers), who can view students they enroll and see reports on those students only; 3. Site Administrators, who have full access to all Administration Panel functions and Program Settings.

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Access by User Type

The chart below defines the accessibility to each function of Symphony Math and the online Administration Panel for each user type:
Feature Use the Program Change Program Settings Log in to Admin Panel Modify Site Settings Add Students Import Students Modify Student Properties Delete Students Create Classes Modify Classes Enroll Students in Class Delete Classes View Reports Student Class Admin Site Admin

(1)

(2) (2)

(1)

(1) Access is limited to enrolled students (2) Access is limited to the current class Reports The reporting feature in Symphony Math can be used to view and analyze student performance in the program. At the administration panel, select “Reports”. This will bring you to the Student Use panel. This panel displays summary data for each student on their use and progress through the program. The table on the next page explains each column in the panel.

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Student Username Start Date Last Use Days Used Average Daily Use Total Time Percent Complete Rate of Progress

The last and first name of the student. The username of the student. The first day that the student used Symphony Math. The last day that the student used Symphony Math. Total number of days the student has used Symphony Math. The total time divided by the total number of days used. The total time the student has used Symphony Math. The percentage of the curriculum the student has mastered. The ratio of progress to total time using the program.

The Student Use panel is a sortable database. Select any of the column headings to sort the data by that variable.

Student Progress Report

The Student Progress report can be generated by selecting the name of the student in the student use panel. This report provides detailed progress within each module of Symphony Math. There is one report for each module. There are three sections of the Student Progress report. The Proficiency section reports the student’s ratio of correct to incorrect problems solved. The Proficiency section reports scores for informal, formal, and applied problems. The informal scores reflect tasks with the number bars in activity one. The formal scores reflect tasks with symbols in activity three. The applied scores reflect story problem tasks from activity five. The Progress vs. Average chart displays bar graphs that show the student’s progress through each of the five activities. The blue line on each bar represents the progress of all of the students listed in the Administration Panel. The Progress Over Time graph charts the student’s progress over the course of using Symphony Math.

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Student Number Relationship Report

The Addition & Subtraction and the Multiplication & Division modules offer reports on each student’s mastery of basic number relationships. To access a student’s number relationship report, click on the relevant score in the Proficiency report. For example, to see a student’s addition number relationships report, click on the student’s formal proficiency score. The Number Relationship Report displays the student’s proficiency with each number relationship addressed in the module. The report only considers performance with tasks from Activity Three which are number sentences with symbols. The report includes performance on tasks from the Fluency Environment. This means that to have mastered a fact, a student must be able to correctly answer the problem in five seconds or less. The number relationships with a green outline are considered mastered. Those with a dashed-green line are not yet mastered. The yellow outline indicates the student is answering these problems correctly less than 60% of the time. The number relationships with no outlines have not yet been performed by the student.

The Number Relationships Report can be used by teachers to identify specific weaknesses that can be addressed through instruction. The student in the above report has difficulty with addition facts with 9, but is strong with addition facts with 10. The teacher can show the student that the plus 9 number relationships are the same as the plus 10 number relationships minus 1.
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CHAPTER 5: INSTALLATION & SETUP
System Requirements Symphony Math must be used on computer systems that meet the minimum requirements as described below:

• OS X version 10.2 + • 128 mb RAM • 16 mb Video acceleration • 15 mb free hard drive space • Active Internet Connection*

• Windows 2000, ME, XP • 128 mb RAM • 16 mb Video acceleration • 15 mb free hard drive space • Active Internet Connection*

*Symphony Math is an internet-enabled application. Data from student progress is stored and maintained on a secure server. All transactions during use of Symphony Learning programs use SSL encryption to ensure the best privacy of information that is available. Each workstation requires an active internet connection (28 kbps or better per workstation) in order to run the Symphony Learning software. Symphony Learning software is not recommended for sites that do not have reliable internet access. Program Installation & Configuration The installation and setup of Symphony Math involves three steps: 1. Download the Symphony Math program 2. Configure the application 3. Add students and classes in the secure online Administration Panel Initial installation requires the reference of a Symphony Math Welcome Email which contains your school’s Site ID, Username and Password. If you have not received a Symphony Math Welcome Email contact Symphony Support at 800.234.3030 or email support@symphonylearning.com.
Step 1: Download the Application

In your Welcome Email, locate the link for your operating system. Select the Mac OS X link for Macintosh computers or the Windows 2000, ME, or XP link for computers running Microsoft Windows. If you do not have your Welcome Email, go to http://www.symphonylearning.com and follow the link to Support => Downloads.
Step 2: Configure the Program

The first time Symphony Math is used, you must register your Site ID, username, and password. At the screen below, type your Site ID, username, and password. After

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confirmation, you will not see this screen again unless you choose “Settings” from the Login Screen.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Enter your site ID. Enter your Username Enter your Password. Press ‘OK’ to complete the Configuration process.

Important Note for Proxy Server Users: If your network uses a proxy server to control internet usage, click the ‘Network Settings’ icon to enter Proxy Server information before moving forward. You must click the Apply button to activate proxy server configuration.

Computer Settings
Display Settings

This checkbox turns 'fullscreen mode' on and off. When Fullscreen mode is on, Symphony Math uses the entire screen to display program content. When Fullscreen mode is off, the program uses an 800 x 600 window to display content.
Video Driver

You can choose a Video Driver from the pull-down menu under 'Video Driver'.
Network Installation Instructions

Symphony Math is designed to be run locally or from a Local Area Network (LAN). In order to ensure proper performance, the following steps should be followed when performing a network installation: Windows NT, 2000, 2003 Server • Install and configure one copy of Symphony Math on a single client workstation, following the instructions from the previous section.

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• •

Copy the full Symphony Learning folder from your installation directory (the default: C:\Program Files\Symphony Learning) to the network applications location. Prohibit write access on ALL files in the Symphony Learning directory, including the executable and all files within subdirectories. Create shortcuts on client workstations to the ‘SymphonyMath.exe’ program.

Symphony Math has an auto-update capability that is prohibited across network paths. If client workstations report seeing an ‘Update Available’ icon on the login screen, run the Symphony Math program from the local path on the server to download the update.
Step 3: Use the Online Administration Panel to add students and classes

Symphony Math allows administration of students and classes via an online panel. To get started, log in to the module at this address: http://www.symphonylearning.com/admin.html. You will be transferred to a secure Web site where you can enter your site ID, username and password. This information has been sent to you in a welcome email. If you have not received a Symphony Math Welcome Email contact Symphony Support at 800.234.3030 or email support@symphonylearning.com.

Entering Students Once you are logged in to the Administration Panel, use the 'Students' link to add students. Each student added will have their progress individually tracked as they use Symphony Math. Click Add User to add a new user. All users must have a username, password, first name, and last name. All other fields are optional.
Importing a List of Students

The ‘Add Students’ page allows for import of Comma-Separated Value (CSV) files. This means that an administrator can export student information from other programs and import student information directly into Symphony Math. Follow the onscreen instructions to complete the import: 1. Files must be comma-separated (CSV). An import file will look like this in a text editor :

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2. The field order is shown in the following graphic as it would appear in Microsoft Excel before being saved as a CSV file. Note that the first three columns are required fields :

3. Click the ‘Browse...’ button to choose the import file, and click ‘Import File’ to complete the import. Final import will be completed only when NO errors are found in the import file. If errors are found, a message will appear that shows the errors. If errors occur, edit and save the import file, and retry the import. Entering Classes Use the 'Classes' link to add classes to your site. Classes are not mandatory, but provide a convenient way to group students for sign-in and reporting purposes. Automatic Updates Symphony Learning provides automatic updates for Symphony Math. This provides an easy and efficient way to keep your Symphony Math program up-todate with the latest improvements. When a green flag appears at the top of the sign-in screen, this means that an update is available. To download and install the update, click on the green flag.

In restricted user environments, auto-updates will fail. Run the Symphony Math program locally, and use the update while logged into the computer as a user with read/write privileges.

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CHAPTER 6: TROUBLESHOOTING
Remote Hosting Symphony Learning stores and maintains all site, student, and class data in an online server database. All data is confidential, and all transactions between Symphony Learning servers and the client application use secure connections. Remote Hosting has several advantages for customers: • • Schools are not responsible for maintaining data on school servers Symphony Learning Applications like Symphony Math can be installed and used immediately on any machine that meets the minimum technical requirements Students can use the program from home if they have a computer that meets the technical requirements

The single requirement for the benefits above is a consistent, reliable internet connection. Symphony Learning applications use little bandwidth, but require many transactions during the course of normal product use. If you experience problems with connections to the Symphony Learning server during program use, alert prompts will be displayed onscreen. If problems persist, or you are unable to connect, please reference the Symphony Learning Web site, or contact support@symphonylearning.com. Usernames and Passwords All site usernames and passwords are confidential. Symphony Learning adheres to a strict Privacy Policy, and is unable to give passwords to customers. If you need to have a password reset, please see the Symphony Support site for further details. Note that password and user information is CONFIDENTIAL, and should not be distributed to any other person besides the system administrator. Failure to keep this information private can lead to unwanted access to student and site information. Contacting Technical Support Symphony Learning tech support is available to school staff. Toll-free: (800) 234-3030 Fax: (800) 234-3030 email: support@symphonylearning.com

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CHAPTER 7: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Symphony Math Content and Use I see that Symphony Math is a kindergarten and first grade product. Some of the problems look very challenging. Is it OK to use the program for older students who do not have a solid math foundation? Yes, Symphony Math may be used with older students. The program is designed with an age neutral interface that does not use cute cartoon characters or childish themes that make older students feel the program is inappropriate for them. Symphony Math addresses fundamental math skills that struggling students need to master in order for mathematics to be meaningful. The program has been used with middle-school and high-school students in remedial settings. For how long and how often do you recommend that a student use Symphony Math? We recommend 15- to 20-minute sessions three to five times a week. We recommend that students not be permitted to use the program more than 20minutes a day, five days a week. I see that Symphony Math uses number bars. Why not use a different color for each number bar to help students distinguish them? Our research led us to use the blue and yellow bars instead of having a different color for each bar for two reasons. The first is that children who have color perception difficulties would not be able to easily use a program with 10 different colors on the computer screen. The second reason is that with bars that have a unique color for each size bar, we found some students rely mostly on verbal memory of the color relationships of the bar and do not consider the length of the bars. The length of each bar is the important mathematical quality to which the student needs to attend. We found that when we used only two colors, students were more focused on the relative lengths of the bars and thus focused on the key variable of quantity. I find it interesting that you do not have any counting chips, or dots in your program to help students count their way through the numbers. Why is this? One of the key developmental barriers Symphony Math is designed to help students overcome is the transition from solving math problems by counting-on, and solving math problems by number conceptualization. Most students first solve 5+3 by counting “1, 2, 3, 4, 5 . . .” and then counting on three more, “6, 7, 8.” Subtraction is handled in a similar way by counting down. This is an inefficient and unreliable strategy for older students, though it is an important developmental accomplishment in kindergarten. Unfortunately, the sight of third and fifth graders still counting up and counting down is far too prevalent and poses a major barrier to their advancement in math. Number bars are one of the few concrete representations (or mainpulatives) that help students develop number conceptualization. The number bars provide a model to students that five is “five.” Five is not “1, 2, 3, 4, 5”. Three is “three.” Five plus three is eight. It is not “1, 2, 3, 4, 5 . . . 6, 7, 8.” The counting
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chips and other discontinuous representations reinforce the counting strategy. The number bars introduce and reinforce the number conceptualization strategy which is more efficient and helpful for effective math learning in the higher grades. Why don't the bars have lines marking off each unit? The answer to this question is similar to the one preceding it. We could put lines on the bars that would indicate each unit of the bar. The seven bar could have equally spaced lines along the bar that divide it into seven equal sections. This would help students see the quantity that the seven bar represents. Similarly, we could have added lines to the three bar to divide it into three equal sections. To solve the problem 3+7 the student would only need to count the 10 sections on the two bars to arrive at the answer. While this is an effective and important strategy at an early stage in math learning, Symphony Math is designed to help students move beyond the counting strategy to number conceptualization. With Symphony Bars, the student combines the three and the seven bars and then finds the bar that is the same length. The students see qualitatively that three and seven equal ten without falling back on counting strategies. Do we have to use number bars in our classroom? Students are not required to use number bars in the classroom. The program provides scaffolding and automatic support to help students begin using the program. Symphony Math has been field tested in schools across the US and students in grades as early as pre-school and kindergarten have shown that they can get up and running with the program quickly. I noticed the program only uses number bars. Why not use many different representations, such as animals, balls, or cars? We agree with math experts who advocate for a math curriculum that is rich with multiple representations of quantity. Weights on a balance scale, a number line, and dominoes are all examples of effective representations of quantity to help students learn math. Symphony Math is a complementary program that offers an additional representation of quantity and is not intended to be the only representation used in a comprehensive and rich math curriculum. Symphony Math allows students to see systematically how one representation can be used for learning many concepts, such as addition, subtraction, and multiplication with the same representation. By using the same representation for a variety of math concepts, students can see a visual model that shows how these concepts are connected. I noticed that Symphony Math does not have the usual cartoon charters, music, and narratives that I have seen in other educational software. Won’t kids get bored without those cute multimedia experiences? The Symphony Math philosophy is that children are innately curious about their world and if we design a learning environment that presents mathematical concepts in an interesting and developmentally-appropriate manner, they will be engaged by the patterns and relationships of mathematics and will not need unrelated stories, characters or music to maintain their interest. We believe children are intrinsically

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motivated to learn about math and Symphony Math is designed to work with students in that way. Why is the program called Symphony Math? I've heard there is some connection between music and learning math. A “symphony” is something characterized by a harmonious combination of elements. Commonly this is associated with music. The integration of all of the different instruments in a symphony orchestra is one example. In the name Symphony Math, the term refers to the goal of our design philosophy which is to integrate a variety of teaching approaches and methods into one harmonious learning experience for each student. Some students need to explore concepts. Some need to work on mastering number relationships. Others need to work on applying their concepts and facts knowledge. Symphony Math is designed to evaluate a student’s needs and coordinate a variety of learning environments and teaching strategies to provide an appropriate and enjoyable learning experience. In other educational software programs, our school has used the instructions are more explicit and even show the student exactly what to do or how to solve the problem. How come Symphony Math does not model what students are supposed to do? One of the most important skills in math is problem-solving. In order to be able to apply what they have learned and solve novel mathematical problems, students must develop the disposition of active thinkers who identify problems and seek out their solutions. Many of the learning tasks in Symphony Math are presented as puzzles that need to be “figured out.” Students find satisfaction in making these connections without being told in advance exactly how to solve the puzzle. The program does provide scaffolding in the form of instructional feedback when errors are made and in the form of a Help button that can be selected for a clue that may lead the student to the answer. Symphony Math Installation and Technical Issues How do I install Symphony Math within a school network environment? Symphony Math can be installed in two different ways. Both methods are described below. 1. Symphony Math is installed and run as a standalone application on each network workstation. a. Download, install, and configure Symphony Math on a single workstation. This includes running the program one time to enter the site ID, username and password information. b. On a Windows machine, copy the 'C:\Program Files\Symphony Learning\' directory to each network workstation. On a Macintosh machine, copy the 'Symphony Math' package (the bars icon) to other workstations. 2. Symphony Math is installed and run as a shared application that resides on a network file server.

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a. b. c. d.

Download, install, and configure Symphony Math on a single workstation. This includes running the program one time to enter the site ID, username and password information. Copy the program files to a shared network location. Ensure that permissions on all files are set to 'Read Only'. Create shortcuts on each workstation which point to the shared network location.

How do I use Symphony Math at home? Symphony Math can be used by a student of a school that is actively using Symphony Math. The program is installed on a home machine in an identical manner as a school workstation. The single difference is that a student will use their OWN username and password along with the school ID when they configure Symphony Math the first time. Using student usernames and passwords have the following benefits: 1. The sign-in screen will show ONLY the student name that is used during configuration (rather than all student names, as in the school configuration). 2. School administrator usernames and passwords are NOT distributed, preserving access to school-wide settings and reports. A school-to-home letter is available in the Documentation section of the Symphony Learning Web site. This Microsoft Word-formatted document has the information needed to print a take-home letter for students and their families. Please note that technical support for Symphony Math at-home use is the responsibility of the school. The school-to-home worksheet provides an easy way to refer parents to a support representative designated to the participating school. I am getting messages when I try to update my version of Symphony Math saying that a problem has occurred. What should I do? Symphony Learning provides an easy way to update versions of Symphony Math. A green flag at the top of the sign-in screen will alert users that an update is available. Clicking on the flag will start the automatic update, which can take several minutes. In restricted user environments, auto-updates will fail. Problems with updates will occur if one or more of the following conditions exist: • the workstation is running in a restricted environment that prohibits replacement and addition of new files • the workstation is running Symphony Math from a shared network location. In the cases above, the solution is to run the Symphony Math program locally, and use the update while logged into the computer as a user with read/write privileges. I am having problems with the program. One or more of the following symptoms occur: • I cannot complete the configuration process past the '3D test' step. • The performance of the program is very poor. Audio skips and stutters, and it is hard to move objects within activities. • I experience frequent / consistent crashes while trying to use Symphony Math.

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Symphony Math uses a 3D rendering engine throughout the program, and exclusively within the program activity modules. The Symphony platform supports several 3D driver sets, including OpenGL (all platforms), DirectX7.0 (Windows only), DirectX5.2 (Windows only), and Software Rendering (all platforms). Troubleshooting Step 1: Change the Video Driver 1. Start Symphony Math. 2. At the sign-in screen (list of names), click on the 'Settings' button in the upper left of the screen. 3. Choose the 'Computer Settings' tab from the left side of the Settings Control Panel. 4. Choose a Video Driver from the pull-down menu under 'Video Driver'. (Choose the first available driver in the list.) 5. Press 'Apply' to save your changes. 6. Go back to the sign-in screen. Enter the program as a student and select any activity from the menu. If the problem is not resolved, repeat steps 2-6 with the other Video Drivers available in the list above. Troubleshooting Step 2: Update the Video Driver If none of the drivers above produce desirable results, an updated driver may be necessary. A full explanation and description of troubleshooting steps is available at the following address: http://www.adobe.com/support/ director/ts/documents/render_test/ sys_readme.html#CHIPSET%20SUPPORT-DRIVERS

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CHAPTER 8: QUANTITY
Activity #1: Manipulatives

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity One

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Same

• “This bar is the same height as which bar?” • “Find a bar that is the same height as this bar.” • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. • Find a solution for the right side of the same arrow. • Find a solution for the left side of the same arrow. • • • • • The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Five bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students use number bars that represent different quantities of height. The number bars provide a concrete representation that allow students to work with and be evaluated on concepts such as same, taller, and shorter. Level Goals: Students develop an understanding of the concept of “same” with concrete manipulatives. This provides the foundation for understanding equals as a description of a relationship between two quantities, which is an important concept in algebraic thinking. At first, students must place the bar on the left side of the arrow. At the end of the level they place the bar on the right side of the arrow. This emphasizes that the concept of “same” is a description of a relationship between the objects.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Two

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Taller

• “Find a bar that is taller than this bar.” • “This bar is taller than which bar?” • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. • Find a bar that is taller than the given bar. • Find a bar that will make the given bar taller. • • • • • The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Five bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students use number bars that represent different quantities of height. The number bars provide a concrete representation that allow students to work with and be evaluated on concepts such as same, taller, and shorter. Level Goals: In this level, students develop an understanding of the concept of “taller” with concrete manipulatives. This provides the foundation for understanding “greater than” and prepares students to think of the greater than symbol as a relationship between two amounts reading from left to right. The student must place a bar that is taller than the given bar on the left side of the arrow. By the end of the level, the student must place a bar on the right side of the arrow so that the bar on the left is taller. This challenges the student to develop an understanding that the arrow describes a relationship of quantity between the two bars. The student cannot simply select a bar that is taller than the one on the screen. This encourages students to develop conceptual understanding not only rely on strategies to provide the correct answer in limited situations.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Three • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Shorter, Between

“Find a bar that is shorter than this bar.” “This bar is shorter than which bar?” “Find a bar for the blinking area.” “Find a bar for each blinking area.” “Find a bar that is between this bar and this bar.” Find a bar that is shorter than the given bar. Find a bar that will make the given bar shorter. Find several bars that preserve the shorter than relationship. Find a bar that is in between the two given bars. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Five bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students use number bars that represent different quantities of height. The number bars provide a concrete representation that allow students to work with and be evaluated on concepts such as same, taller, and shorter. Level Goals: Students develop an understanding of the concept of “shorter” which provides the foundation for understanding “less.” It prepares students to think of the less-than symbol as a description of a relationship between two amounts. The student must place a bar that is shorter than the given bar on the left side of the arrow. Further into the level, the student must place a bar on the right side of the arrow so that the bar on the left is shorter. This challenges the student to develop an understanding that the arrow describes a relationship of quantity between the two bars.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Four

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Shorter, Taller, Multiple Solutions

• “Find a bar for each blinking area.” • “Find a bar for the blinking area.” • “Find another Solution.” • • • • Find two bars that satisfy the relationship indicated by the arrow. Find three bars that satisfy the relationship indicated by two arrows. Find a bar that satisfies the relationship indicated by the arrows. Solve the problem up to three different ways.

Scaffolding:

Help:

• The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. • A correct answer will be placed in a blinking area. • Two correct answers will be placed in blinking areas.

Activity Goals: In this activity, students use number bars that represent different quantities of height. The number bars provide a concrete representation that allow students to work with and be evaluated on concepts such as same, taller, and shorter. Level Goals: In this level, students coordinate their understanding of the concepts of “taller” and “shorter.” This level leads to a deeper understanding of the concepts. The tasks in this level present the concepts in challenging configurations in order to promote mastery of the concepts. Early in the level, the student needs to place two bars around the arrow. As they progress, students must place a bar in the middle of two arrows that refer to two other bars. Finally, the student must solve the same task three different ways. This is designed to help students see that number relationships do not necessarily result in a single correct answer. Students see that there are multiple solutions to some numeracy problems. These tasks encourage creative and flexible problem-solving.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Five

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Shorter, Taller

• “Find an arrow for each blinking area.” • Find the arrow that describes the relationship of the two bars. • Find three arrows for the three blinking areas. • Find four arrows for the four blinking areas. • A correct answer will be placed in a blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students use number bars that represent different quantities of height. The number bars provide a concrete representation that allow students to work with and be evaluated on concepts such as same, taller, and shorter. Level Goals: Students must now place the arrows that symbolize the relationship between the bars, instead of placing the bars around the arrows. Students approach the same concepts (taller & shorter) from an alternative perspective. This level helps students deepen their understanding of “shorter” and “taller” with similar problems that must be solved differently. Sometimes students develop strategies for solving problems in a certain format without understanding the concepts involved. By changing the format of the problems in this level, students are challenged to think about the quantity relationships in a different but related way. If a student relied on a narrow strategy for moving through the earlier levels, these problems may provoke a reorganization of understanding that lead to a deeper understanding.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Six

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Not Same

• “This bar is not the same height as which bar?” • “Find a bar that is not the same height as this bar.” • • • • • • • • • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Verbal directions are available by pressing repeat directions button. Find a solution for the right side of the not-same arrow. Find a solution for the left side of the not-same arrow. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Five bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students use number bars that represent different quantities of height. The number bars provide a concrete representation that allow students to work with and be evaluated on concepts such as same, taller, and shorter. Level Goals: Students develop an understanding of the concept of “not same” with concrete manipulatives. This provides the foundation for understanding “not equals” as a description of a relationship between two quantities. Progress in this level builds upon knowledge developed in level one with the concept of “same.” The idea of “not same” is strongly related to understanding the concept of “same.” At first, students must place the bar on the left side of the arrow. At the end of the level they place the bar on the right side of the arrow. This emphasizes that the concept of “not same” is a description of a relationship between the quantities. Understanding the reverse of a concept is fundamental to making connections in math and seeing it as interrelated ideas.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Seven

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Not Taller

• “Find a bar that is not-taller than this bar.” • “This bar is not taller than which bar?” • • • • • • • • • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Verbal directions are available by pressing repeat directions button. Find a bar that is not taller than the given bar. Find a bar that will make the given bar not taller. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Five bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students use number bars that represent different quantities of height. The number bars provide a concrete representation that allow students to work with and be evaluated on concepts such as same, taller, and shorter. Level Goals: Students develop an understanding of the concept of “not taller” with concrete manipulatives. This provides the foundation for understanding “not greater.” and prepares students to think of the not-greater symbol as a relationship between two amounts reading from left to right. This is a level that may enhance a student’s understanding of number relationships. The student must place a bar that is not-taller than the given bar on the left side of the arrow. By the end of the level the student must place a bar on the right side of the arrow so that the bar on the left is “not taller.” This challenges the student to develop an understanding that the arrow describes a relationship of quantity between the two bars.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Eight • • • •

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Not Shorter

“Find a bar that is not shorter than this bar.” “This bar is not shorter than which bar?” “Find a bar for the blinking area.” “Find a bar for each blinking area.”

Scaffolding:

• Find a bar that is not-shorter than the given bar. • Find a bar that will make the given bar not shorter. • Find several bars that preserve the not shorter than relationship. • • • • • The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Five bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students use number bars that represent different quantities of height. The number bars provide a concrete representation that allow students to work with and be evaluated on concepts such as same, taller, and shorter. Level Goals: Students develop an understanding of the concept of “not shorter” with concrete manipulatives. This provides the foundation for understanding not less and prepares students to think of the not-less than symbol as a relationship between two amounts reading from left to right. The student must place a bar that is taller than the given bar on the left side of the arrow. By the end of the level, the student must place a bar on the right side of the arrow so that the bar on the left is taller. This challenges the student to develop an understanding that the arrow describes a relationship of quantity between the two bars. The student cannot simply select a bar that is taller than the one on the screen. Working with reverse concepts helps move students’ thinking to more complex levels while also solidifying the concepts covered earlier in the program.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Nine

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Not Shorter, Not Taller, Multiple Solutions

• “Find a bar for each blinking area.” • “Find a bar for the blinking area.” • “Find another solution.” • • • • Find two bars that satisfy the relationship indicated by the arrow. Find three bars that satisfy the relationship indicated by two arrows. Find a bar that satisfies the relationship indicated by the arrows. Solve the problem up to three different ways.

Scaffolding:

Help:

• The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. • A correct answer will be placed in a blinking area. • Two correct answers will be placed in blinking areas.

Activity Goals: In this activity, students use number bars that represent different quantities of height. The number bars provide a concrete representation that allow students to work with and be evaluated on concepts such as same, taller, and shorter. Level Goals: Students coordinate their understanding of the concepts of “not taller” and “not shorter” in the same tasks. This level leads to a deeper understanding of the concepts as they are used simultaneously. The tasks in this level present the concepts in challenging configurations in order to promote mastery of the concepts. Early in the level, the student needs to place two bars around the arrow. As she progresses the student must place a bar in the middle of two arrows that refers to two other bars. Finally, the student must solve the same task three different ways. These tasks encourage creative and flexible problem-solving. Working with reverse of concepts helps move students’ thinking to more complex levels while also solidifying the concepts covered earlier in the program.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Ten

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Shorter, Taller, Not Shorter, Not Taller

• “Find an arrow for each blinking area.” • Find the arrow that describes the relationship of the two bars. • Find three arrows for the three blinking areas. • Find four arrows for the four blinking areas. • A correct answer will be placed in a blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students use number bars that represent different quantities of height. The number bars provide a concrete representation that allow students to work with and be evaluated on concepts such as same, taller, and shorter. Level Goals: Students must now place the arrows that describe the relationship between the bars, instead of placing the bars around the arrows. Students approach the same concepts (not taller & not shorter) from an alternative perspective. This level helps students deepen their understanding of not shorter and not taller by providing similar problems that must be solved in a different way. Sometimes students develop strategies for solving problems in a certain format without understanding the concepts involved. By changing the format of the problems in this level, students are challenged to think about the quantity relationships in a different but related way. If a student relied on a narrow strategy for moving through the earlier levels, theses problems may provoke a reorganization of her understanding that lead to a deeper understanding. Working with reverse concepts helps move students’ thinking to more complex levels while also solidifying the concepts covered earlier in the program.

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Activity #2: Manipulatives & Symbols
Module: Level: Directions: Quantity One Activity: Concepts: Manipulatives & Symbols Same & Equals

• “Four is equal to what number?” • “Find numbers and symbols for each blinking area.” • “Find the bars and arrows for each blinking area.” • • • • • • • • • • • • • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Numbers and bars are given, one number must be filled in. Bars and symbols are given, numbers must be filled in. Bars are given, numbers and symbols must be filled in. Numbers and symbol are given, bars and arrows must be filled in. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Numbers and symbols will appear beneath the bars. Insert a number or bar into blinking area. Insert a symbol or arrow into blinking area. Four bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: This activity helps students develop an understanding of what the numbers and symbols mean. Students must construct the corresponding number sentence with symbols that represent the number bars. This helps ensure that the student understands the concrete meaning of the symbols. By working from the reverse perspective (filling in the number bars for the symbols), the students learn to use abstract notation to describe relationships of quantity. Level Goals: Students focus on understanding “equal” by relating it to “same.”

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Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Two

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Taller & Greater

• “Four is greater than what number?” • “Find numbers and symbols for each blinking area.” • “Find the bars and arrows for each blinking area.” • • • • • • • • • • • • • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Numbers and bars are given, one number must be filled in. Bars and symbols are given, numbers must be filled in. Bars are given, numbers and symbols must be filled in. Numbers and symbols are given, bars and arrows must be filled in. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Numbers and symbols will appear beneath the bars. Insert a number or bar into blinking area. Insert a symbol or arrow into blinking area. Four bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: This activity helps students develop an understanding of what the numbers and symbols mean. Students must construct the corresponding number sentence with symbols that represent the number bars. This helps ensure that the student understands the concrete meaning of the symbols. By working from the reverse perspective (filling in the number bars for the symbols), the students learn to use abstract notation to describe relationships of quantity. Level Goals: Students focus on understanding “greater” by relating it to “taller.”

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Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Three • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Shorter & Less

“Find a number for the blinking area.” “Find numbers for each blinking area.” “Find numbers and symbols for each blinking area.” “Find the bars and arrows for each blinking area.” Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Numbers and bars are given, one number must be filled in. Bars and symbols are given, numbers must be filled in. Bars are given, numbers and symbols must be filled in. Numbers and symbols are given, bars and arrows must be filled in. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Numbers and symbols will appear beneath the bars. Insert a number or bar into blinking area. Insert a symbol or arrow into blinking area. Four bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: This activity helps students develop an understanding of what the numbers and symbols mean. Students must construct the corresponding number sentence with symbols that represent the number bars. This helps ensure that the student understands the concrete meaning of the symbols. By working from the reverse perspective (filling in the number bars for the symbols), the students learn to use abstract notation to describe relationships of quantity. Level Goals: Students focus on understanding “less” by relating it to “shorter.”

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Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Four • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Shorter & Less, Taller & Greater

“Find a number for the blinking area.” “Find numbers for each blinking area.” “Find numbers and symbols for each blinking area.” “Find the bars and arrows for each blinking area.” Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Numbers and bars are given, one number must be filled in. Bars and symbols are given, numbers must be filled in. Bars are given, numbers and symbols must be filled in. Numbers and symbols are given, bars and arrows must be filled in. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Numbers and symbols will appear beneath the bars. Insert a number or bar into blinking area. Insert a symbol or arrow into blinking area. Four bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: This activity helps students develop an understanding of what the numbers and symbols mean. Students must construct the corresponding number sentence with symbols that represent the number bars. This helps ensure that the student understands the concrete meaning of the symbols. By working from the reverse perspective (filling in the number bars for the symbols), the students learn to use abstract notation to describe relationships of quantity. Level Goals: In this level students focus on understanding “greater” and “less” by relating them to “taller” and “shorter.”

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Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Five

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Not Same & Not Equal

• “Four is not equal to what number?” • “Find numbers and symbols for each blinking area.” • “Find the bars and arrows for each blinking area.” • • • • • • • • • • • • • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Numbers and bars are given, one number must be filled in. Bars and symbols are given, numbers must be filled in. Bars are given, numbers and symbols must be filled in. Numbers and symbols are given, bars and arrows must be filled in. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Numbers and symbols will appear beneath the bars. Insert a number or bar into blinking area. Insert a symbol or arrow into blinking area. Four bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: This activity helps students develop an understanding of what the numbers and symbols mean. Students must construct the corresponding number sentence with symbols that represent the number bars. This helps ensure that the student understands the concrete meaning of the symbols. By working from the reverse perspective (filling in the number bars for the symbols), the students learn to use abstract notation to describe relationships of quantity. Level Goals: In this level, students focus on understanding “not equal” by relating it to “not same.”

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Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Six

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Not Taller & Not Greater

• “Four is not greater than what number?” • “Find numbers and symbols for each blinking area.” • “Find the bars and arrows for each blinking area.” • • • • • • • • • • • • • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Numbers and bars are given, one number must be filled in. Bars and symbols are given, numbers must be filled in. Bars are given, numbers and symbols must be filled in. Numbers and symbols are given, bars and arrows must be filled in. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Numbers and symbols will appear beneath the bars. Insert a number or bar into blinking area. Insert a symbol or arrow into blinking area. Four bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: This activity helps students develop an understanding of what the numbers and symbols mean. Students must construct the corresponding number sentence with symbols that represent the number bars. This helps ensure that the student understands the concrete meaning of the symbols. By working from the reverse perspective (filling in the number bars for the symbols), the students learn to use abstract notation to describe relationships of quantity. Level Goals: In this level, students focus on understanding “not greater” by relating it to “not taller.”

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Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Seven • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Not Shorter & Not Less

“Find a number for the blinking area.” “Find numbers for each blinking area.” “Find numbers and symbols for each blinking area.” “Find the bars and arrows for each blinking area.” Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Numbers and bars are given, one number must be filled in. Bars and symbols are given, numbers must be filled in. Bars are given, numbers and symbols must be filled in. Numbers and symbols are given, bars and arrows must be filled in. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Numbers and symbols will appear beneath the bars. Insert a number or bar into blinking area. Insert a symbol or arrow into blinking area. Four bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: This activity helps students develop an understanding of what the numbers and symbols mean. Students must construct the corresponding number sentence with symbols that represent the number bars. This helps ensure that the student understands the concrete meaning of the symbols. By working from the reverse perspective (filling in the number bars for the symbols), the students learn to use abstract notation to describe relationships of quantity. Level Goals: In this level, students focus on understanding “not less” by relating it to “not shorter.”

47

Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Eight • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Not Taller & Not Greater, Not Shorter & Not Less, Taller & Greater, Shorter & Less

“Find a number for the blinking area.” “Find numbers for each blinking area.” “Find numbers and symbols for each blinking area.” “Find the bars and arrows for each blinking area.” Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Numbers and bars are given, one number must be filled in. Bars and symbols are given, numbers must be filled in. Bars are given, numbers and symbols must be filled in. Numbers and symbols are given, bars and arrows must be filled in. The bars will be organized from shortest to tallest. Numbers and symbols will appear beneath the bars. Insert a number or bar into blinking area. Insert a symbol or arrow into blinking area. Four bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more bars will be removed from the set of possible answers One more bar will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: This activity helps students develop an understanding of what the numbers and symbols mean. Students must construct the corresponding number sentence with symbols that represent the number bars. This helps ensure that the student understands the concrete meaning of the symbols. Level Goals: In this level, students focus on understanding “not greater” and “not less” by relating them to “not taller” and “not shorter.”

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Activity #3: Symbols
Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Quantity One Activity: Concepts: Symbols Equal

• “Two is equal to what number?” • “Find a number that is equal to four.” • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. • Find a number for the right side of the equal sign • Find a number for the left side of the equal sign. • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: Students work with numbers and symbols to represent relationships between quantities. The concrete manipulatives only appear when the student asks for help or when mistakes are made. This helps students understand the meaning of their errors and how to correct them. Students become proficient in constructing number sentences related to quantity and understanding their meaning. Level Goals: This level focuses on “equals”. By having students fill in the number on both sides of the equal sign they are encouraged to see the equal sign as a description of a relationship as opposed to thinking of it as an operator such as “makes” (e.g., “three plus five makes eight.”)

49

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Two

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Greater

• “Find a number that is greater than one.” • “Five is greater than what number?” • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. • Find a number that is greater than the given number. • Find a number that will make the given number greater. • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: Students work with numbers and symbols to represent relationships between quantities. The concrete manipulatives only appear when the student asks for help or when mistakes are made. This helps students understand the meaning of their errors and how to correct them. Students become proficient in constructing number sentences related to quantity and understanding their meaning. The numbers on the right side of the screen from which the student selects her answer are not presented in order. This encourages the student to appreciate the quantity or magnitude of each number and not merely rely on finding a number that comes before or after the number in the problem. Level Goals: This level focuses on “greater.”

50

Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Three

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Less, Between

• “Find a number that is less than three.” • “Five is less than what number?” • “Find a number that is between five and nine.” • • • • • • • • • • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Find a number that is less than the given bar. Find a number that will make the given bar less. Find a solution between the two numbers. The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: Students work with numbers and symbols to represent relationships between quantities. The concrete manipulatives only appear when the student asks for help or when mistakes are made. This helps students understand the meaning of their errors and how to correct them. Students become proficient in constructing number sentences related to quantity and understanding their meaning. The numbers on the right side of the screen from which the student selects her answer are not presented in order. This encourages the student to appreciate the quantity or magnitude of each number and not merely rely on finding a number that comes before or after the number in the problem. Level Goals: This level focuses on “less” as well as “between.”

51

Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Four

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Less, Greater, Multiple Solutions

• “Find a number for each blinking area.” • “Find a number for the blinking area.” • “Find another Solution.” • • • • Find numbers that satisfy the relationship indicated by the symbol. Find numbers that satisfy the relationship indicated by two symbols. Find a number that satisfies the relationship indicated by the symbols. Solve the problem up to three different ways.

Scaffolding:

Help:

• The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. • A correct answer will be placed in a blinking area. • Two correct answers will be placed in blinking areas.

Activity Goals: Students work with numbers and symbols to represent relationships between quantities. The concrete manipulatives only appear when the student asks for help or when mistakes are made. This helps students understand the meaning of their errors and how to correct them. Students become proficient in constructing number sentences related to quantity and understanding their meaning. Level Goals: Early in the level, the student needs to place two numbers around the symbol. As she progresses, the student must place a number in the middle of two symbols that refer to two other symbols. Finally, the student must solve the same task three different ways. This is designed to help students see that number relationships do not necessarily result in a single correct answer. Students see that there are multiple solutions to some numeracy problems. These tasks encourage creative and flexible problem-solving.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Five

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Less, Greater

• “Find a symbol for each blinking area.” • Find the symbol that describes the relationship of the two numbers. • Find three symbols for the three blinking areas. • Find four symbols for the four blinking areas. • A correct answer will be placed in a blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: Students work with numbers and symbols to represent relationships between quantities. The concrete manipulatives only appear when the student asks for help or when mistakes are made. This helps students understand the meaning of their errors and how to correct them. Students become proficient in constructing number sentences related to quantity and understanding their meaning. The numbers on the right side of the screen from which the student selects her answer are not presented in order. This encourages the student to appreciate the quantity or magnitude of each number and not merely rely on finding a number that comes before or after the number in the problem. Level Goals: Students must now place the symbols that describe the relationship between the numbers, instead of placing the numbers around the symbols. Students approach the same concepts (greater & less) from an alternative problem-solving perspective.

53

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Six

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Not Equal

• “Two is not-equal to what number?” • “Find a number that is not-equal to four.” • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. • Find a number for the right side of the not equal sign • Find a number for the left side of the not equal sign. • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: Students work with numbers and symbols to represent relationships between quantities. The concrete manipulatives only appear when the student asks for help or when mistakes are made. This helps students understand the meaning of their errors and how to correct them. Students become proficient in constructing number sentences related to quantity and understanding their meaning. Level Goals: This level focuses on “not equal.” By having students fill in the number on both sides of the not-equal sign they are encouraged to see the not-equal sign as a description of a relationship as opposed to thinking of it as an operator such as “makes” (e.g., “three plus five makes eight.”)

54

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Seven

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Not Greater

• “Find a number that is not greater than one.” • “Five is not greater than what number?” • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. • Find a number that is not-greater than the given number. • Find a number that will make the given number not-greater. • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: Students work with numbers and symbols to represent relationships between quantities. The concrete manipulatives only appear when the student asks for help or when mistakes are made. This helps students understand the meaning of their errors and how to correct them. Students become proficient in constructing number sentences related to quantity and understanding their meaning. The numbers on the right side of the screen from which the student selects her answer are not presented in order. This encourages the student to appreciate the quantity or magnitude of each number and not merely rely on finding a number that comes before or after the number in the problem. Level Goals: This level focuses on “not greater.”

55

Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Eight

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Not Less

• “Find a number that is not less than one.” • “Five is not less than what number?” • “Find a bar for the blinking area.” • • • • • • • • • • Verbal directions support understanding of concept. Find a number that is not-less than the given number. Find a number that will make the given number not-less. Find a solution between the two numbers. The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. The correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Scaffolding:

Help:

Activity Goals: Students work with numbers and symbols to represent relationships between quantities. The concrete manipulatives only appear when the student asks for help or when mistakes are made. This helps students understand the meaning of their errors and how to correct them. Students become proficient in constructing number sentences related to quantity and understanding their meaning. The numbers on the right side of the screen from which the student selects her answer are not presented in order. This encourages the student to appreciate the quantity or magnitude of each number and not merely rely on finding a number that comes before or after the number in the problem. Level Goals: This level focuses on “not less.”

56

Module: Level: Directions:

Quantity Nine

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Not Less, Not Greater, Multiple Solutions

• “Find a number for each blinking area.” • “Find a number for the blinking area.” • “Find another solution.” • • • • Find numbers that satisfy the relationship indicated by the symbol. Find numbers that satisfy the relationship indicated by two symbols. Find a number that satisfies the relationship indicated by the symbols. Solve the problem up to three different ways.

Scaffolding:

Help:

• The bars will be organized from least to greatest. • A correct answer will be placed in a blinking area. • Two correct answers will be placed in blinking areas.

Activity Goals: Students work with numbers and symbols to represent relationships between quantities. The concrete manipulatives only appear when the student asks for help or when mistakes are made. This helps students understand the meaning of their errors and how to correct them. Students become proficient in constructing number sentences related to quantity and understanding their meaning. The numbers on the right side of the screen from which the student selects her answer are not presented in order. This encourages the student to appreciate the quantity or magnitude of each number and not merely rely on finding a number that comes before or after the number in the problem. Level Goals: Students coordinate their understanding of the concepts of “not less” and “not greater” in the same tasks. This level leads to a deeper understanding of the concepts as they are used simultaneously and multiple solutions are sometimes required.

57

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Ten

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Less, Greater, Not Less, Not Greater

• “Find a symbol for each blinking area.” • Find the symbol that describes the relationship of the two numbers. • Find three symbols for the three blinking areas. • Find four symbols for the four blinking areas. • A correct answer will be placed in a blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: Students work with numbers and symbols to represent relationships between quantities. The concrete manipulatives only appear when the student asks for help or when mistakes are made. This helps students understand the meaning of their errors and how to correct them. Students become proficient in constructing number sentences related to quantity and understand their meaning. The numbers on the right side of the screen from which the student selects her answer are not presented in order. This encourages the student to appreciate the quantity or magnitude of each number and not merely rely on finding a number that comes before or after the number in the problem. Level Goals: Students must now place the symbols that describe the relationship between the numbers, instead of placing the numbers around the symbols. Students approach the same concepts (greater & less, not greater & not less) from an alternative problem-solving perspective.

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Activity #4: Auditory Sentences
Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help: Quantity One Activity: Concepts: Auditory Sentences Equals

• “Write a number sentence that describes what you hear.” • Both numbers must be filled in. • Both numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: Students learn how to construct number sentences that they hear. This develops an understanding of how the mathematical statements are spoken and how they appear visually and prepares students for story problems. This level focuses on “equals.” At first, students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbol. These auditory sentences challenge students to remember the visual representation of the symbols. In addition to completing number sentences with missing elements, students learn the association between the spoken names of the symbols and their visual representations. Level Goals: This level focuses on number sentences with “equals.”

Eight is equal to what number?

59

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help:

Quantity Two

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Greater

• “Write a number sentence that describes what you hear.” • Both numbers must be filled in. • Both numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: Students learn how to construct number sentences that they hear. This develops an understanding of how the mathematical statements are spoken and how they appear visually and prepares students for story problems. This level focuses on “greater.” At first students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbol. These auditory sentences challenge students to remember the visual representation of the symbols. In addition to completing number sentences with missing elements, students learn the association between the spoken names of the symbols and their visual representations. Level Goals: This level focuses on number sentences with “greater.”

Six is greater than what number?

60

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Three

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Less

• “Write a number sentence that describes what you hear.” • Two numbers must be filled in. • Two numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • Three numbers and two relational symbols must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: Students learn how to construct number sentences that they hear. This develops an understanding of how the mathematical statements are spoken and how they appear visually and prepares students for story problems. This level focuses on “less.” At first students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbol. These auditory sentences challenge students to remember the visual representation of the symbols. In addition to completing number sentences with missing elements, students learn the association between the spoken names of the symbols and their visual representations. Level Goals: This level focuses on number sentences with “less.”

Four is less than what number? What number is less than what number?

61

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Four

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Less, Greater

• “Write a number sentence that describes what you hear.” • Two numbers must be filled in. • Two numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • Three numbers and two relational symbols must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: Students learn how to construct number sentences that they hear. This develops an understanding of how the mathematical statements are spoken and how they appear visually and prepares students for story problems. This level focuses on “less and greater.” At first students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbol. These auditory sentences challenge students to remember the visual representation of the symbols. In addition to completing number sentences with missing elements, students learn the association between the spoken names of the symbols and their visual representations. Level Goals: This level focuses on number sentences with “less” and “greater.”

Five is less than what number? What number is greater than what number?

62

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help:

Quantity Five

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Not Equal

• “Write a number sentence that describes what you hear.” • Both numbers must be filled in. • Both numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: Students learn how to construct number sentences that they hear. This develops an understanding of coordination between how the mathematical statements are spoken and how they appear visually and prepares students for story problems. This level focuses on “not equal.” At first students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbol. These auditory sentences challenge students to remember the visual representation of the symbols. In addition to completing number sentences with missing elements, students learn the association between the spoken names of the symbols and their visual representations. Level Goals: This level focuses on number sentences with “not equal.”

Six is not equal to what number?

63

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help:

Quantity Six

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Not Greater

• “Write a number sentence that describes what you hear.” • Both numbers must be filled in. • Both numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: Students learn how to construct number sentences that they hear. This develops an understanding of how the mathematical statements are spoken and how they appear visually and prepares students for story problems. This level focuses on “not greater.” At first students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbol. These auditory sentences challenge students to remember the visual representation of the symbols. In addition to completing number sentences with missing elements, students learn the association between the spoken names of the symbols and their visual representations. Level Goals: This level focuses on number sentences with “not greater.”

Three is not greater than what number?

64

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Seven

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Not Less

• “Write a number sentence that describes what you hear.” • Two numbers must be filled in. • Two numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • Three numbers and two relational symbols must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: Students learn how to construct number sentences that they hear. This develops an understanding of how the mathematical statements are spoken and how they appear visually and prepares students for story problems. This level focuses on “not less.” At first students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbol. These auditory sentences challenge students to remember the visual representation of the symbols. In addition to completing number sentences with missing elements, students learn the association between the spoken names of the symbols and their visual representations. Level Goals: This level focuses on number sentences with “not less.”

Three is not less than what number? What number is not less than what number?

65

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Eight

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Not Greater, Not Less, Greater, Less

• “Write a number sentence that describes what you hear.” • Two numbers must be filled in. • Two numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • Three numbers and two relational symbols must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: Students learn how to construct number sentences that they hear. This develops an understanding of how the mathematical statements are spoken and how they appear visually and prepares students for story problems. This level focuses on “not greater,” “not less,” “greater,” and “less.” At first students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbol. These auditory sentences challenge students to remember the visual representation of the symbols. In addition to completing number sentences with missing elements, students learn the association between the spoken names of the symbols and their visual representations. Level Goals: This level focuses on number sentences with “not greater,” “not less,” “greater” and “less.”

Nine is not greater than what number? What number is greater than what number?

66

Activity #5: Story Problems
Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help: Quantity One Activity: Concepts: Story Problems Equal

• “Write a number sentence that describes this story” • Both numbers must be filled in. • Both numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: In this activity, students learn how to represent everyday situations with mathematical statements. The problems in this activity introduce the idea of using abstract mathematical symbols to describe real-life situations. At first, students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbols. Representing these story problems helps develop listening skills as students must listen to the story and determine which information is relevant as they select the appropriate numbers and relational symbols. Level Goals: This level focuses on story problems represented with “equals.”

Cecile has a cat that weighs nine pounds. George has a cat that weighs nine pounds.

67

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help:

Quantity Two

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Greater

• “Write a number sentence that describes this story” • Both numbers must be filled in. • Both numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: In this activity, students learn how to represent everyday situations with mathematical statements. The problems in this activity introduce the idea of using abstract mathematical symbols to describe real-life situations. At first, students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbols. Representing these story problems helps develop listening skills as students must listen to the story and determine which information is relevant as they select the appropriate numbers and relational symbols. Level Goals: This level focuses on story problems represented with “greater.”

Lisa read one page of a book. Sandra read four pages of a book.

68

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Three

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Less

• “Write a number sentence that describes this story” • Two numbers must be filled in. • Two numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • Three numbers and two relational symbols must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students learn how to represent everyday situations with mathematical statements. The problems in this activity introduce the idea of using abstract mathematical symbols to describe real-life situations. At first students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbols. Representing these story problems helps develop listening skills as students must listen to the story and determine which information is relevant as they select the appropriate numbers and relational symbols. Level Goals: This level focuses on story problems represented with “less.”

George has a dog that weighs eight pounds. Rondel has a dog that weighs three pounds.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Four

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Less, Greater

• “Write a number sentence that describes this story” • Two numbers must be filled in. • Two numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • Three numbers and two relational symbols must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students learn how to represent everyday situations with mathematical statements. The problems in this activity introduce the idea of using abstract mathematical symbols to describe real-life situations. At first, students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbols. Representing these story problems helps develop listening skills as students must listen to the story and determine which information is relevant as they select the appropriate numbers and relational symbols. Level Goals: This level focuses on story problems represented with “less” or “greater.”

Donald was five minutes late for the bus. Cecile was three minutes late for the bus. Miguel was six minutes late for the bus.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help:

Quantity Five

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Not Equal

• “Write a number sentence that describes this story” • Both numbers must be filled in. • Both numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: In this activity, students learn how to represent everyday situations with mathematical statements. The problems in this activity introduce the idea of using abstract mathematical symbols to describe real-life situations. At first, students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbols. Representing these story problems helps develop listening skills as students must listen to the story and determine which information is relevant as they select the appropriate numbers and relational symbols. Level Goals: This level focuses on story problems represented with “not equal.”

Miguel is two years old. Sarah is three years old.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help:

Quantity Six

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Not Greater

• “Write a number sentence that describes this story” • Both numbers must be filled in. • Both numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: In this activity, students learn how to represent everyday situations with mathematical statements. The problems in this activity introduce the idea of using abstract mathematical symbols to describe real-life situations. At first, students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbols. Representing these story problems helps develop listening skills as students must listen to the story and determine which information is relevant as they select the appropriate numbers and relational symbols. Level Goals: This level focuses on story problems represented with “not greater.”

Susan has a dog that weighs seven pounds. Maria has a dog that weighs four pounds.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Seven

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Not Less

• “Write a number sentence that describes this story” • Two numbers must be filled in. • Two numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • Three numbers and two relational symbols must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students learn how to represent everyday situations with mathematical statements. The problems in this activity introduce the idea of using abstract mathematical symbols to describe real-life situations. At first, students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbols. Representing these story problems helps develop listening skills as students must listen to the story and determine which information is relevant as they select the appropriate numbers and relational symbols. Level Goals: This level focuses on story problems represented with “not less.”

Charles has two pencils. Miguel has three pencils. Elizabeth has five pencils.

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Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding:

Quantity Eight

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Not Greater, Not Less, Greater, Less

• “Write a number sentence that describes this story” • Two numbers must be filled in. • Two numbers and the relational symbol must be filled in. • Three numbers and two relational symbols must be filled in. • • • • • • • The numbers will be organized from least to greatest. The corresponding bars will be placed above the numbers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area. Five numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers. Two more numbers will be removed from the set of possible answers One more number will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct answer will be placed in the blinking area.

Help:

Activity Goals: In this activity, students learn how to represent everyday situations with mathematical statements. The problems in this activity introduce the idea of using abstract mathematical symbols to describe real-life situations. At first, students only need to fill in the numbers. At the end of the level they must fill in the numbers and the relational symbols. Representing these story problems helps develop listening skills as students must listen to the story and determine which information is relevant as they select the appropriate numbers and relational symbols. Level Goals: This level focuses on story problems represented with “not greater”, “not less”, “greater,” and “less.”

Donald has two erasers. Beth has one eraser. Maria has nine erasers.

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CHAPTER 9: ADDITION & SUBTRACTION
Activity #1: Manipulatives
Module: Level: Directions: Addition & Subtraction One Activity: Concepts: Manipulatives Addition

• “Find a bar that is the same length as these bars.” • “Find a bar that would be the same length as these bars if we put them together.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find a solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area. • The second bar will be placed in the blinking area if needed (i.e., for sums greater than 10).

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first, the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level, the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for two parts joining together to form a whole. This provides a foundation for addition.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Two

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Missing Addend

• “Add a bar to this bar to make them the same length as this bar.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find a solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first, the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for missing parts. Prepares the foundation for “missing addend.”

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Three

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Missing Addends, Multiple Solutions

• “Add bars to make them the same length as these bars.” • “Find another solution.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find a solution by trial and error. • Up to three different solutions must be found. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for missing parts and how different combinations of parts can be related to the same whole. Prepares the foundation for “missing addends” which is important for decomposing and composing numbers in addition and subtraction.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Four

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Subtraction

• “If you took this bar away from this bar, what bar would be left?”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find a solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for a part being taken away from the whole. By using the same concrete model for subtraction as for addition, students can see the connection between these two concepts. Subtraction is similar to “missing addend,” which students learned in level two is similar to addition.

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Module: Level:

Addition & Subtraction Five

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Missing Subtrahend, Commutative Property, Relationship of Addition to Subtraction

Directions:

• “Which bar would you take away from this bar to get this bar?”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find a solution by trial and error. • Student must solve four problems of connected number relationships. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for “missing subtrahend.” Prepares the foundation for composing and decomposing numbers. Connection is made between addition and subtraction. Students are asked to solve four problems from the fact family: 10-8=2, 10-2=8, 8+2=10, 2+8=10.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Six

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Missing Subtrahend & Minuend, Multiple Solutions.

• “When you take away the bar you place here, from the bar you place here, you must have this bar left over.” • “Find another solution.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find a solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for “missing minuend” and “subtrahend.” The level prepares the foundation for composing and decomposing numbers and further exemplifies the interrelationship of parts and wholes. Students need to find multiple ways of taking a part away from a whole to have the given part remain.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Seven

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Three-Part Addition

• “Find a bar that is the same length as these bars.” • “Find a bar that would be the same length as these bars if we put them together.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find a solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area. • The second bar will be placed in the blinking area if needed (i.e., for sums greater than 10).

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for three parts joining together to form a whole. This provides a foundation for addition with more than two addends. Also prepares students for multiplication which can involve combining more than two parts.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Eight

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Three-Part Addition - Missing Addend

• “Add a bar to these bars to make them the same length as this bar.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to a find solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for a missing addend with three parts. Consolidates skills developed earlier in the activity.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Nine

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Four-Part Addition - Missing Addend

• “Add a bar to this bars to make them the same length as these bars.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find a solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Prepares students for algebraic thinking by showing there can be multiple parts that are the same length as another group of multiple parts. The goal is to keep the two groups equal to each other.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Ten

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Three-Part Subtraction

• “If you took these bars away from this bar, what bar would be left?”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find a solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Introduces a model of two parts being subtracted from a whole. Consolidates skills developed earlier in the activity.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Eleven

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives Three-Part Subtraction - Missing Subtrahend

• “Which bar would you take away from these bars to get this bar?”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find a solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students develop a mental model of the parts-to-whole concept, which is fundamental to addition and subtraction. By using the same concrete model for addition and subtraction, the connections between them are more evident. At first the bars on the bottom row are pushed together. This allows for visual problem-solving by trial-and-error. At the end of each level the bars are off-set. This makes it harder to progress by trial-and-error and encourages students to identify the quantity of each bar and mentally combine them to determine if the parts equal the whole. Proficiency with each number relationship is tracked. The activity gradually focuses on the more problematic number relationships. Level Goals: Missing subtrahend with two parts being subtracted from a whole. Consolidates skills developed earlier in the activity.

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Activity #2: Manipulatives & Symbols
Module: Level: Directions: Addition & Subtraction One Activity: Concepts: Manipulatives & Symbols Addition

• “Find a number for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.” The number sentence is given and the sum must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the addend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the other addend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and both addends must be filled in.

Scaffolding: • • • • Help:

• Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to solve addition and missing addend problems with symbols by using the number bars as a model.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Two

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Addition

• “Find bars for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.” The number sentence is given and the sum must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the addend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the other addend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and both addends must be filled in.

Scaffolding: • • • • Help:

• Any incorrect bars will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct bar will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to solve addition and missing addend problems with number bars by using the symbols as a model.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Three

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Addition

• “Find a number for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and the numbers must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the numbers and equal sign must be filled in.. • The number sentence is given and all the blinking areas must be filled in. Help: • Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to represent addition problems with symbols by coordinating them with the number bars.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Four

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Addition

• “Find bars for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.” The number sentence is given and the sum must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the addend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the other addend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and both addends and the sum must be filled in.

Scaffolding: • • • • Help:

• Any incorrect bars will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct bar will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to construct and solve addition problems with number bars by coordinating them with symbols.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Five

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Subtraction

• “Find a number for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.” The number sentence is given and the difference must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the subtrahend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the minuend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the subtrahend and the minuend must be filled in.

Scaffolding: • • • • Help:

• Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to solve subtraction, missing subtrahend, and missing minuend problems with symbols by using the number bars as a model.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Six

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Subtraction

• “Find bars for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.” The number sentence is given and the difference must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the subtrahend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the other addend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and both addends must be filled in.

Scaffolding: • • • • Help:

• Any incorrect bars will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct bar will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to solve subtraction problems with number bars by using the symbols as a model.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Seven

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Subtraction

• “Find a number for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and the numbers must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the numbers and equal sign must be filled in.. • The number sentence is given and all the blinking areas must be filled in. Help: • Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to represent subtraction problems with symbols by coordinating them with the number bars.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Eight

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Subtraction

• “Find bars for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.” The number sentence is given and the difference must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the subtrahend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the minuend must be filled in. The number sentence is given and the subtrahend, minuend and difference must be filled in.

Scaffolding: • • • • Help:

• Any incorrect bars will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct bar will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to construct and solve subtraction problems with number bars by coordinating them with symbols.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Nine

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Three-Part Addition

• “Find a number for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and the sum must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and an addend must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the addends and the sum must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the addends, the sum, the equal sign and the addition signs must be filled in. Help: • Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to construct and solve three-part addition problems with symbols by using the number bars as a model.

94

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Ten

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Three-Part Addition

• “Find bars for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and the sum must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the addend must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and all addends and the sum must be filled in. Help: • Any incorrect bars will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct bar will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to solve three-part addition and missing addend problems with number bars by using the symbols as a model.

95

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Eleven

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Three-Part Subtraction

• “Find a number for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and the difference must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and a subtrahend must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the minuend, subtrahends and the difference must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the minuend, subtrahends, the difference and the equal sign and the subtraction signs must be filled in. Help: • Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to construct and solve three-part subtraction problems with symbols by using the number bars as a model.

96

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Twelve

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Three-Part Subtraction

• “Find bars for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and the difference must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and a subtrahend must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the subtrahends, minuend and the difference must be filled in. Help: • Any incorrect bars will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct bar will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to solve three-part subtraction and missing subtrahend problems with number bars by using the symbols as a model.

97

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Thirteen

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Four-Part Addition

• “Find a number for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and the sum must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and an addend must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the addends and the sum must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the addends, the sum, the equal sign and the addition signs must be filled in. Help: • Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to construct and solve four-part addition problems with symbols by using the number bars as a model.

98

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Fourteen

Activity: Concepts:

Manipulatives & Symbols Four-Part Addition

• “Find bars for each blinking area so the numbers and the bars match.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and the sum must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and the addend must be filled in. • The number sentence is given and all addends and the sum must be filled in. Help: • Any incorrect bars will be removed from the blinking areas. • A correct bar will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars, or assemble the number bars for the problem indicated by the symbols. The bars or symbols are presented in patterns from activity one and involve either combining values or taking values away. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to solve four-part addition and missing addend problems with number bars by using the symbols as a model.

99

Activity #3: Symbols
Module: Level: Addition & Subtraction One Activity: Concepts: Symbols Addition

Directions: • “Seven plus one equals what number?” Scaffolding: • Addition number relationship levels. Help: • • • • A related number relationship is shown. A second related number relationship is shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn addition number relationships with symbols.

100

Module: Level: Directions: Help:

Addition & Subtraction Two

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Missing Addend

• “One plus what number equals seven?” • • • • A related number relationship is shown. A second related number relationship is shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Scaffolding: • Addition number relationship levels for missing addends.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn the addition number relationships for missing addends. This prepares students for subtraction.

101

Module: Level:

Addition & Subtraction Activity: Three

Symbols

Concepts: Missing Addends, Multiple Solutions

Directions: • “What number plus what number equals ten?” Scaffolding: • Addition number relationship levels for missing addends. Help: • • • • A related number relationship is shown. A second related number relationship is shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: This level challenges students to deduce up to three different ways of making a sum. This helps students see that the same numbers can be composed with different addends and prepares them for addition and subtraction with larger numbers that involve composing and decomposing.

102

Module: Level: Directions: Help:

Addition & Subtraction Four

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Subtraction

• “Eleven minus one equals what number?” • • • • A related number relationship is shown. A second related number relationship is shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Scaffolding: • Subtraction number relationship levels.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn subtraction number relationships with symbols.

103

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help:

Addition & Subtraction Five

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Missing Subtrahend

• “Seven plus one equals what number?” • Subtraction number relationship levels for missing subtrahend. • • • • A related number relationship is shown. A second related number relationship is shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn subtraction number relationships for missing subtrahend.

104

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Six

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Missing Subtrahend & Minuend, Multiple Solutions

• “What number minus what number equals three?”

Scaffolding: • Subtraction number relationship levels for missing subtrahend and minuend. Help: • • • • A related number relationship is shown. A second related number relationship is shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: This level challenges students to deduce up to three different ways of making a difference between two numbers. This helps students see that numbers can be decomposed in different ways and prepares them for addition and subtraction with larger numbers that involve composing and decomposing.

105

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help:

Addition & Subtraction Seven

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Three-Part Addition

• “Six plus one plus four equals what number?” • Addition number relationship levels for three addends. • • • • A related number relationship is shown. A second related number relationship is shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn addition number relationships with three addends.

106

Module: Level: Directions: Help:

Addition & Subtraction Eight

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Three-Part Addition - Missing Addend

• “Ten plus what number plus three equals 14?” • • • • A related number relationship is shown. A second related number relationship is shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Scaffolding: • Addition number relationship levels for three addends.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: Three-part addition with a missing addend helps students learn that they can apply various strategies to solving more complex numeracy problems. This is important for multi-digit addition and subtraction where there is sometimes not a single best strategy. In the below example, the student can mentally subtract three from fourteen and ask herself “ten plus what number equals eleven?” Or she can add the three to the ten and ask herself “thirteen plus what number equals fourteen?”

107

Module: Level: Directions: Help:

Addition & Subtraction Nine

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Four-Part Addition - Missing Addend

• “What number plus one equals two plus eight?” • • • • A related number relationship is shown. A second related number relationship is shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Scaffolding: • Addition number relationship levels for four-part addition.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: Four-part addition with a missing addend helps students learn that they can apply various strategies to solving more complex numeracy problems. The level also supports the development of algebraic thinking where students learn to balance the two sides of the equation. In the below example, a student could mentally subtract one from both sides of the equation and then solve for one plus eight. Or, a student could mentally combine two plus eight and then solve for what number plus one equals ten.

108

Module: Level: Directions: Help:

Addition & Subtraction Ten

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Three-Part Subtraction

• “Eight minus one minus five equals what number?” • • • • A related number relationship s shown. A second related number relationship is shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Scaffolding: • Subtraction number relationship levels for three-part subtraction.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: Three-part subtraction provides another format for students to consolidate their knowledge of number relationships while also practicing different strategies for decomposing numbers.

109

Module: Level: Directions: Help:

Addition & Subtraction Eleven

Activity: Concepts:

Symbols Three-Part Subtraction - Missing Subtrahend

• “Eleven minus one minus what number equals two?” • • • • A related number relationship will be shown. A second related number relationship will be shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Scaffolding: • Subtraction number relationship levels for three-part subtraction.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: Three-part subtraction with a missing subtrahend challenges students to explore a variety of strategies in solving more complex number-relationship problems as well as providing an opportunity to consolidate basic number relationships.

110

Activity #4: Auditory Sentences

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction One

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Addition

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Auditory Sentences activity is designed to help students in several ways. The first is to provide the opportunity to construct number sentences from auditory information. The activity is also designed to bring students knowledge of number relationships to a different level of understanding. Some students visualize quantities within the written numeric symbols. When solving these problems through listening, students are challenged to use different strategies. The activity also prepares students for story problems. Level Goals: To learn spoken addition number relationships.

Seven plus one equals what number?

111

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Two

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Missing Addend

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn spoken addition number relationships with missing addends.

Two plus what number equals eleven?

112

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Three

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Missing Addends

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn spoken addition number relationships with two missing addends.

What number plus what number equals ten?

113

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Four

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Subtraction

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn spoken subtraction number relationships.

Seven minus three equals what number?

114

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Five

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Missing Subtrahend

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn spoken subtraction number relationships with missing subtrahends.

Ten minus what number equals eight?

115

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Six

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Missing Subtrahend & Minuend

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn spoken subtraction number relationships with missing subtrahends and minuends.

What number minus what number equals seven?

116

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Seven

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Three-Part Addition

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn spoken addition number relationships with three-part addition.

Four plus two, plus eight, equals what number?

117

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Eight

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Three-Part Addition - Missing Addend

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn spoken addition number relationships with three parts and a missing addend.

What number plus four, plus three, equals ten?

118

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Nine

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Four Part Addition - Missing Addend

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn spoken addition number relationships with four addends.

Eight plus three equals what number plus seven?

119

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Ten

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Three-Part Subtraction

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn spoken subtraction number relationships with two subtrahends.

Seven minus three, minus one, equals what number?

120

Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Eleven

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Three-Part Subtraction - Missing Subtrahend

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of addition and subtraction with symbols. The activity includes addends from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, a related number relationship is provided that helps the student make connections between number relationships that they know and ones they are learning. Level Goals: To learn spoken subtraction number relationships with one subtrahend and one missing subtrahend.

Nine minus three minus what number equals three?

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Activity #5: Story Problems
Module: Level: Directions: Addition & Subtraction One Activity: Concepts: Story Problems Addition

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills on real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the other four activities. When errors are made, the number bars will appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar problems and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: To solve applied problems of addition, and learn to identify a “join” problem with an unknown result.

Sandra has a dog that weighs three pounds. Max has a dog that weighs five pounds. How much do the dogs weigh all together?

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Two

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Missing Addend

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills on real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the other four activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar problems and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: To solve applied problems of addition and learn to identify a “join” problem with an unknown change.

Jose found a pumpkin that weighs six pounds. How many more pounds does the pumpkin need to be in order to weigh ten pounds?

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Three

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Missing Addends

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills on real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the other four activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar problems and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: To solve applied problems of addition, and learning to identify a “join” problem with an unknown start, an unknown change, and a known result.

Karen scored some goals. Lamar scored some goals. They scored nine goals all together.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Four

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Subtraction

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills on real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the other four activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar problems and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: To solve applied problems of subtraction, learning to identify a “compare” problem with an unknown referent.

Sandra is seven years old. She is one year older than Maria. How old is Maria?

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Five

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Missing Subtrahend

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills on real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the other four activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar problems and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: To solve applied problems of subtraction and learning to identify a separate problem with an unknown change.

George built a tower that is eleven blocks tall. Some of the blocks fell off the tower. The tower is now seven blocks tall. How many blocks fell off the tower?

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Six

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Missing Subtrahend & Minuend

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills on real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the other four activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar problems and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: To solve applied problems of subtraction and learn to identify a compare problem with a known difference, an unknown quantity and an unknown referent.

Julia scored one more goal that george. How many goals could Julia have scored, and how many goals would george have scored?

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Seven

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Three-Part Addition

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills on real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the other four activities. When errors are made, the number bars will appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar problems and symbol problems students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: To solve applied problems of addition and learn to identify a three-part “join” problem with an unknown result.

Max has a dog that weighs three pounds. Maria has a dog that weighs five pounds. Sandra has a dog that weighs four pounds. How much do the dogs weigh all together?

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Eight

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Three-Part Addition - Missing Addend

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills on real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the other four activities. When errors are made, the number bars will appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar problems and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: To solve applied problems of addition, learn to identify a three-part “join” problem with an unknown change.

Max found a pumpkin that weighs five pounds. It grew another four pounds. How many more pounds does the pumpkin need to grow to weigh thirteen pounds?

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Nine

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Three-Part Subtraction

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills on real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the other four activities. When errors are made, the number bars will appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar problems and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: To solve applied problems of subtraction, and learn to identify a separate problem with an unknown result.

Rondel has fourteen marbles. He gave one to Hector. He gave five to Elizabeth. How many marbles does Rondel have left?

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Module: Level: Directions:

Addition & Subtraction Ten

Activity: Concepts:

Story Problems Three-Part Subtraction - Missing Subtrahend

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills on real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the other four activities. When errors are made, the number bars will appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar problems and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: To solve applied problems of subtraction, and learn to identify a separate problem with an unknown change.

Michael has eleven cookies. He gave four to Dontrelle and he gave some to Maria. Michael has one cookie left. How many cookies did he give to Dontrelle?

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CHAPTER 9: MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION
Activity #1: Manipulatives
Module: Level: Directions: Multiplication & Division Activity: One Concepts: Manipulatives Multiplication

• “Find a bar that is the same length as this bar repeated five times.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in the blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area. • Additional bars will be placed in the blinking area if needed (i.e., for sums greater than 10).

Activity Goals: This activity helps students understand multiplication and division by extending the parts-to-whole model developed in Module #2. Multiplication is represented as repeated addition. Division is represented as repeated subtraction. Extending the parts-to-whole model into multiplication and division makes the conceptual links between multiplication and addition (as well as division and subtraction) easier for students to grasp. Another goal of the activity is to help students distinguish between the multiplicand and the multiplier. Through the use of manipulatives, students see that 3x5 is not necessarily the same as 5x3 (though they produce the same product). Students will build 3x5 as five added three times and 5x3 as three added five times and recognize that they have a common product. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for repeated addition as multiplication. Students must provide the product for the repeated number bar.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Two

Manipulatives

Concepts: Missing Multiplier

• “Use one or more bars to make them the same length as this bar.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in the blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find solution by trial and error. Help: • The bars will be pushed together. • A correct bar will be placed in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity helps students understand multiplication and division by extending the parts-to-whole model developed in Module #2. Multiplication is represented as repeated addition. Division is represented as repeated subtraction. Extending the parts-to-whole model into multiplication and division makes the conceptual links between multiplication and addition (as well as division and subtraction) easier for students to grasp. Another goal of the activity is to help students distinguish between the multiplicand and the multiplier. Through the use of manipulatives, students see that 3x5 is not necessarily the same as 5x3 (though they produce the same product). Students will build 3x5 as five added three times and 5x3 as three added five times and recognize that they have a common product. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for “missing multiplier.” The product and the multiplicand are given. Students need to determine how many multiplicands will equal the product.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Three

Manipulatives

Concepts: Missing Multiplicand

• “Find a bar for each blinking area to make them the same length as these bars.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in the blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find solution by trial and error. Help: • The blinking areas will be resized to match the size of the missing multiplicand. • Six bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. • Three bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. • A correct answer will be inserted into the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity helps students understand multiplication and division by extending the parts-to-whole model developed in Module #2. Multiplication is represented as repeated addition. Division is represented as repeated subtraction. Extending the parts-to-whole model into multiplication and division makes the conceptual links between multiplication and addition (as well as division and subtraction) easier for students to grasp. Another goal of the activity is to help students distinguish between the multiplicand and the multiplier. Through the use of manipulatives, students see that 3x5 is not necessarily the same as 5x3 (though they produce the same product). Students will build 3x5 as five added three times and 5x3 as three added five times and recognize that they have a common product. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for missing multiplicand. The product and the multiplier are given. The multiplier is indicated by the number of blinking areas. The student must find the correct size bar to be repeated in each blinking area. Helps students understand the distinction between multiplier and multiplicand.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Four

Manipulatives

Concepts: Missing Multiplier & Multiplicand, Multiple Solutions

• “Use one or more bars to make them the same length as this bar. Each bar you use must be the same length.” • Find another solution.

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in the blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find solution by trial and error. • Three unique solutions are required. Help: • • • • The bars will be pushed together. Five bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Three bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct solution will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity helps students understand multiplication and division by extending the parts-to-whole model developed in Module #2. Multiplication is represented as repeated addition. Division is represented as repeated subtraction. Extending the parts-to-whole model into multiplication and division makes the conceptual links between multiplication and addition (as well as division and subtraction) easier for students to grasp. Another goal of the activity is to help students distinguish between the multiplicand and the multiplier. Through the use of manipulatives, students see that 3x5 is not necessarily the same as 5x3 (though they produce the same product). Students will build 3x5 as five added three times and 5x3 as three added five times and recognize that they have a common product. Level Goals: In this level, students need to supply both the multiplier and the multiplicand. Up to three unique solutions are required. This emphasizes that numbers can be composed several different ways by multiplying different combinations of factors.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Five

Manipulatives

Concepts: Division

• “Find a bar that can be taken away from this bar one or more times so that nothing will be left over.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in the blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find solution by trial and error. Help: • The blinking areas will be resized to match the size of the missing multiplicand. • A correct answer will be inserted into the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity helps students understand multiplication and division by extending the parts-to-whole model developed in Module #2. Multiplication is represented as repeated addition. Division is represented as repeated subtraction. Extending the parts-to-whole model into multiplication and division makes the conceptual links between multiplication and addition (as well as division and subtraction) easier for students to grasp. Another goal of the activity is to help students distinguish between the multiplicand and the multiplier. Through the use of manipulatives, students see that 3x5 is not necessarily the same as 5x3 (though they produce the same product). Students will build 3x5 as five added three times and 5x3 as three added five times and recognize that they have a common product. Level Goals: Students develop a mental model for repeated subtraction as division. Students need to provide the quotient. The divisor and the dividend are provided.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Six

Manipulatives

Concepts: Missing Dividend

• “Find a bar that will let you take away this bar five times so that nothing will be left over.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in the blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find solution by trial and error. Help: • • • • The bars will be pushed together. Five bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. Three bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. A correct solution will be placed in a blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity helps students understand multiplication and division by extending the parts-to-whole model developed in Module #2. Multiplication is represented as repeated addition. Division is represented as repeated subtraction. Extending the parts-to-whole model into multiplication and division makes the conceptual links between multiplication and addition (as well as division and subtraction) easier for students to grasp. Another goal of the activity is to help students distinguish between the multiplicand and the multiplier. Through the use of manipulatives students see that 3x5 is not necessarily the same as 5x3 (though they produce the same product). Students will build 3x5 as five added three times and 5x3 as three added five times and recognize that they have a common product. Level Goals: This level focuses on finding the missing dividend to complete the problem. The student needs to find thee bar from which the provided bars can be evenly subtracted.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Seven

Manipulatives

Concepts: Missing Divisor, Relationship of Division to Multiplication.

• “Find a bar that can be taken away from this bar five times so that nothing will be left over.” • “Find another solution.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in the blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find solution by trial and error. • The related multiplication problem must be solved. Help: • The blinking areas will be resized to match the size of the missing multiplicand. • Six bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. • Three bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. • A correct answer will be inserted into the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity helps students understand multiplication and division by extending the parts-to-whole model developed in Module #2. Multiplication is represented as repeated addition. Division is represented as repeated subtraction. Extending the parts-to-whole model into multiplication and division makes the conceptual links between multiplication and addition (as well as division and subtraction) easier for students to grasp. Another goal of the activity is to help students distinguish between the multiplicand and the multiplier. Through the use of manipulatives students see that 3x5 is not necessarily the same as 5x3 (though they produce the same product). Students will build 3x5 as five added three times and 5x3 as three added five times and recognize that they have a common product. Level Goals: Students must select the appropriate divisor to solve the problem. The quotient is represented by the number of blinking areas that must be filled in. After solving the division problem, the related multiplication problem is presented to help students see the relationship between the two concepts.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Eight

Manipulatives

Concepts: Missing Divisor & Quotient, Multiple Solutions

• “Find a bar that can be taken away from this bar one or more times so that nothing will be left over.”

Scaffolding: • Bars are pushed together so different bars can be tried in the blinking area to discover the solution. • Bars are off-set, making it harder to find solution by trial and error. • Up to three unique solutions must be found. Help: • Six bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. • Three bars will be removed from the set of possible answers. • A correct answer will be inserted into the blinking area.

Activity Goals: This activity helps students understand multiplication and division by extending the parts-to-whole model developed in Module #2. Multiplication is represented as repeated addition. Division is represented as repeated subtraction. Extending the parts-to-whole model into multiplication and division makes the conceptual links between multiplication and addition (as well as division and subtraction) easier for students to grasp. Another goal of the activity is to help students distinguish between the multiplicand and the multiplier. Through the use of manipulatives students see that 3x5 is not necessarily the same as 5x3 (though they produce the same product). Students will build 3x5 as five added three times and 5x3 as three added five times and recognize that they have a common product. Level Goals: In this level students need to supply both the divisor and the quotient. Up to three unique solutions are required. This emphasizes that numbers can be decomposed several different ways by dividing different combinations of numbers.

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Activity #2: Manipulatives & Symbols
Module: Level: Directions: Multiplication & Division Activity: One Manipulatives & Symbols

Concepts: Multiplication

• “Build a number sentence that matches the bars.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. Help: • • • • Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area. Two more correct symbols will be placed in blinking areas. The remaining blinking areas will be filled in.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives, to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars. The bars are presented in configurations from activity one and involve either combining bars or taking bars away. At the beginning of the level, the first part of the number sentence is given and the student must complete it. This provides a model of how the symbols are associated with the bars. As the student moves through the level, fewer symbols in the number sentence will be provided and the student will need to fill in more of the blinking area. At the end of the level the student needs to construct the entire number sentence. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to represent repeated addition problems with multiplication notation. The numbers must be filled in but the multiplication and equals symbols are provided.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Two

Manipulatives & Symbols

Concepts: Multiplication

• “Build a number sentence that matches the bars.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • • • • Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area. Two more correct symbols will be placed in blinking areas. The remaining blinking areas will be filled in.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives, to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars. The bars are presented in configurations from activity one and involve either combining bars or taking bars away. At the beginning of the level, the first part of the number sentence is given and the student must complete it. This provides a model of how the symbols are associated with the bars. As the student moves through the level, fewer symbols in the number sentence will be provided and the student will need to fill in more of the blinking area. At the end of the level the student needs to construct the entire number sentence. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to represent repeated addition problems with multiplication notation. The numbers need to be filled in as well as the multiplication and equals symbols.

141

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Three

Manipulatives & Symbols

Concepts: Division

• “Build a number sentence that matches the bars.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer needs to be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. Help: • • • • Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area. Two more correct symbols will be placed in blinking areas. The remaining blinking areas will be filled in.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives, to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars. The bars are presented in configurations from activity one and involve either combining bars or taking bars away. At the beginning of the level, the first part of the number sentence is given and the student must complete it. This provides a model of how the symbols are associated with the bars. As the student moves through the level, fewer symbols in the number sentence will be provided and the student will need to fill in more of the blinking area. At the end of the level the student needs to construct the entire number sentence. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to represent repeated subtraction problems with division notation. The numbers must be filled in but the division and equals symbols are provided.

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Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Four

Manipulatives & Symbols

Concepts: Division

• “Build a number sentence that matches the bars.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • • • • Any incorrect symbols will be removed from the blinking areas. A correct symbol will be placed in a blinking area. Two more correct symbols will be placed in blinking areas. The remaining blinking areas will be filled in.

Activity Goals: This activity is designed to help students make the transition from solving informal mathematical problems with concrete manipulatives, to solving formal mathematical problems with abstract notation. Students need to construct the number sentence for the problem indicated by the bars. The bars are presented in configurations from activity one and involve either combining bars or taking bars away. At the beginning of the level, the first part of the number sentence is given and the student must complete it. This provides a model of how the symbols are associated with the bars. As the student moves through the level, fewer symbols in the number sentence will be provided and the student will need to fill in more of the blinking area. At the end of the level the student needs to construct the entire number sentence. This activity is helpful for students who are comfortable with informal math using concrete objects but have not mastered the appropriate notation. The activity also provides support for students who have learned how to solve number sentence problems but are not completely clear on their meaning. Level Goals: Students learn how to represent repeated subtraction problems with division notation. The numbers need to be filled in as well as the division and equals symbols.

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Activity #3: Symbols
Module: Level: Multiplication & Division Activity: One Concepts: Symbols Multiplication

Directions: • “Nine times one equals what number?” Scaffolding: • Multiplication number relationship levels. Help: • Two related number relationships are shown. • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of multiplication and division with symbols. The activity includes factors from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, two related number relationships are provided that help students to make connections between the number relationships they know and the one they are learning. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn multiplication number relationships with symbols.

144

Module: Level: Directions: Help:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Two • “Four times what number equals four.”

Symbols

Concepts: Missing Multiplicand

Scaffolding: • Multiplication number relationship levels for missing addends. • Two related number relationships are shown. • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of multiplication and division with symbols. The activity includes factors from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, two related number relationships are provided that help students to make connections between the number relationships they know and the one they are learning. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn the multiplication number relationships for missing multiplicand.

145

Module: Level:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Three

Symbols

Concepts: Missing Multiplier

Directions: • “What number times nine equals nine?” Scaffolding: • Multiplication number relationship levels for missing multiplier. Help: • Two related number relationships are shown. • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of multiplication and division with symbols. The activity includes factors from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, two related number relationships are provided that help students to make connections between the number relationships they know and the one they are learning. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn the multiplication number relationships for missing multiplier. This prepares students for division.

146

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Four

Symbols

Concepts: Missing Multiplier, Missing Multiplicand

• “What number times what number equals four?”

Scaffolding: • Multiplication number relationship levels for missing multiplier & multiplicand. • Up to three unique solutions must be provided. Help: • Two related number relationships are shown. • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of multiplication and division with symbols. The activity includes factors from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, two related number relationships are provided that help students to make connections between the number relationships they know and the one they are learning. Level Goals: In this level, students learn that numbers can be composed with different combinations of factors using multiplication.

147

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Five

Symbols

Concepts: Division

• “Five divided by five equals what number?” • Division number relationship levels. • Two related number relationships are shown. • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of multiplication and division with symbols. The activity includes factors from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, two related number relationships are provided that help students to make connections between the number relationships they know and the one they are learning. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn division number relationships.

148

Module: Level: Directions: Help:

Multiplication & Division Six

Activity:

Symbols

Concepts: Missing Dividend

• “What number divided by what number equals one?” • Two related number relationships are shown. • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Scaffolding: • Division number relationship levels for missing dividends.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of multiplication and division with symbols. The activity includes factors from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, two related number relationships are provided that help students to make connections between the number relationships they know and the one they are learning. Level Goals: This level challenges students to further their understanding of division by solving for the missing dividend.

149

Module: Level: Directions: Scaffolding: Help:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Seven

Symbols

Concepts: Missing Divisor, Relationship of Division to Multiplication.

• “Five divided by what number equals five?” • Division number relationship levels for missing divisor. • Related multiplication and division problems must be solved. • Two related number relationships are shown. • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of multiplication and division with symbols. The activity includes factors from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, two related number relationships are provided that help students to make connections between the number relationships they know and the one they are learning. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn division number relationships by solving for missing divisors. Once the missing divisor problem is solved correctly, the student must solve related multiplication and division problems. This helps students connect their understanding of division with multiplication.

150

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Eight

Symbols

Concepts: Missing Divisor & Quotient, Multiple Solutions

• “Four divided by what number equals what number?

Scaffolding: • Division number relationship levels for missing divisors and quotients. • Up to three unique solutions must be found. Help: • • • • A related number relationship will be shown. A second related number relationship will be shown. The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The purpose of this activity is to develop mastery of multiplication and division with symbols. The activity includes factors from zero to ten. Each number relationship is tracked. Students begin with easier number relationships and progress to more difficult ones. If a student makes an error, the number relationship they constructed is shown with number bars, making the meaning of their error more concrete. Help is available in the form of related number relationships. Instead of immediately giving the student the correct answer, two related number relationships are provided that help students to make connections between the number relationships they know and the one they are learning. Level Goals: In this level, students deepen their understanding of division by finding three different pairs of divisors and quotients for the given dividend. Students see there are a variety of ways to decompose numbers using division.

151

Activity #4: Auditory Sentences

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: One

Auditory Sentences

Concepts: Multiplication

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Auditory Sentences activity is designed to help students in several ways. The first is by providing the opportunity to construct number sentences from auditory information. The activity is also designed to bring students knowledge of number relationships to a different level of understanding. Some students visualize quantities within the written numerical symbols. When solving these problems through listening, students are challenged to use different strategies. The activity also prepares students for story problems. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn spoken multiplication number relationships.

Four times seven equals what number?

152

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Two

Auditory Sentences

Concepts: Missing Multiplicand

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Auditory Sentences activity is designed to help students in several ways. The first is by providing the opportunity to construct number sentences from auditory information. The activity is also designed to bring students knowledge of number relationships to a different level of understanding. Some students visualize quantities within the written numerical symbols. When solving these problems through listening, students are challenged to use different strategies. The activity also prepares students for story problems. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn spoken multiplication number relationships with missing multiplicands.

Nine times what number equals twenty-seven?

153

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Three

Auditory Sentences

Concepts: Missing Multiplier

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Auditory Sentences activity is designed to help students in several ways. The first is by providing the opportunity to construct number sentences from auditory information. The activity is also designed to bring students knowledge of number relationships to a different level of understanding. Some students visualize quantities within the written numerical symbols. When solving these problems through listening, students are challenged to use different strategies. The activity also prepares students for story problems. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn spoken multiplication number relationships with missing multipliers.

What number times five equals twenty?

154

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Four

Activity:

Auditory Sentences

Concepts: Missing Multiplier & Multiplicand

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Auditory Sentences activity is designed to help students in several ways. The first is by providing the opportunity to construct number sentences from auditory information. The activity is also designed to bring students knowledge of number relationships to a different level of understanding. Some students visualize quantities within the written numerical symbols. When solving these problems through listening, students are challenged to use different strategies. The activity also prepares students for story problems. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn spoken multiplication number relationships with missing multipliers and multiplicands.

What number times what number equals sixteen?

155

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Five

Auditory Sentences

Concepts: Division

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Auditory Sentences activity is designed to help students in several ways. The first is by providing the opportunity to construct number sentences from auditory information. The activity is also designed to bring students knowledge of number relationships to a different level of understanding. Some students visualize quantities within the written numerical symbols. When solving these problems through listening, students are challenged to use different strategies. The activity also prepares students for story problems. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn spoken division number relationships.

Eight divided by two equals what number?

156

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Six

Auditory Sentences

Concepts: Missing Dividend

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Auditory Sentences activity is designed to help students in several ways. The first is by providing the opportunity to construct number sentences from auditory information. The activity is also designed to bring students knowledge of number relationships to a different level of understanding. Some students visualize quantities within the written numerical symbols. When solving these problems through listening, students are challenged to use different strategies. The activity also prepares students for story problems. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn spoken division number relationships with missing dividends.

What number divided by three equals three?

157

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Seven

Activity: Concepts:

Auditory Sentences Missing Divisor

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Auditory Sentences activity is designed to help students in several ways. The first is by providing the opportunity to construct number sentences from auditory information. The activity is also designed to bring students knowledge of number relationships to a different level of understanding. Some students visualize quantities within the written numerical symbols. When solving these problems through listening, students are challenged to use different strategies. The activity also prepares students for story problems. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn spoken division number relationships with missing divisors.

Fifteen divided by what number equals five?

158

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Eight

Auditory Sentences

Concepts: Missing Divisor & Quotient

• “Make a number sentence that describes what you hear.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Auditory Sentences activity is designed to help students in several ways. The first is by providing the opportunity to construct number sentences from auditory information. The activity is also designed to bring students knowledge of number relationships to a different level of understanding. Some students visualize quantities within the written numerical symbols. When solving these problems through listening, students are challenged to use different strategies. The activity also prepares students for story problems. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to learn spoken division number relationships with missing divisors and quotients.

Eight divided by what number equals what number?

159

Activity #5: Story Problems

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: One

Story Problems

Concepts: Multiplication

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills to real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the four other activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to solve applied problems of multiplication. Learning to identify an “equal groups” problem with the whole unknown.

Jose has five bags of apples. There are two apples in each bag. How many apples does Jose have all together?

160

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Two

Story Problems

Concepts: Missing Multiplicand

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills to real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the four other activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to solve applied problems of multiplication with a missing multiplicand. Learning to identify an “equal groups” problem with the size of the groups unknown.

Cecile has twelve cookies. She wants to share them equally among two friends. How many cookies will each friend receive?

161

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Three

Story Problems

Concepts: Missing Multiplier

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills to real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the four other activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to solve applied problems of multiplication with missing multipliers. Learning to identify an “equal groups” problem with the number of groups unknown.

Maria has twenty oranges. She put two oranges in each bag. How many bags did Maria use?

162

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Four

Story Problems

Concepts: Missing Multiplier & Multiplicand

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills to real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the four other activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to solve applied problems of multiplication with missing multipliers and multiplicands. Learning to identify an “equal groups” problem with the unknown number of groups and the unknown size of groups.

George has some bags of apples. He has six apple all together. How many bags could he have and how many apples would be in each bag.

163

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Five

Story Problems

Concepts: Division

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills to real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the four other activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to solve applied problems of division. Learning to identify an “equal groups” problem with the size of the groups unknown.

Donald has 14 apples divided evenly into seven bags. How many apples does he have in each bag?

164

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Six Concepts:

Story Problems Missing Dividend

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills to real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the four other activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to solve applied problems of division with missing dividends. Learning to identify an “equal groups” problem with the whole unknown.

Rondel has some oranges. He put nine oranges in three bags. How many oranges does he have?

165

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Seven

Story Problems

Concepts: Missing Divisor

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills to real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the four other activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to solve applied problems of division with missing divisors. Learning to identify an “equal groups” problem with the number of groups unknown.

Cecile has sixteen marbles. She was able to give eight marbles to each of her friends. How many friends does she have?

166

Module: Level: Directions:

Multiplication & Division Activity: Eight

Story Problems

Concepts: Missing Dividend & Divisor

• “Make a number sentence that describes this story.”

Scaffolding: • The number sentence is given and only the answer must be filled in. • The operator and the equal sign are given. The numbers must be filled in. • The numbers, operator, and equal sign must be filled in. Help: • The first part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The second part of the number relationship is shown with number bars. • The third part of the number relationship is shown and the correct answer is inserted in the blinking area.

Activity Goals: The Story Problems activity gives students an opportunity to apply their developing skills to real-life problems. The story problems have the same structure and follow the same conceptual progression as the four other activities. When errors are made, the number bars appear, helping students to connect what they have learned in earlier activities to the story problems. By presenting the story problems in the same sequence and the same structure as the number bar and symbol problems, students can use the same parts-to-whole mental model to identify the structure of the story problem. Level Goals: The focus of this level is to solve applied problems of division with missing dividends and divisors. Learning to identify an “equal groups” problem with the unknown size of groups and number of groups.

Sandra has eighteen cookies. She divides them evenly among her friends. How many did each friend get and how many friends does she have.

167

Curriculum
Educational software for foundational numeracy Designed to develop important mathematical concepts Immediate visual and auditory recall of number relationships Three modules; Quantity, Addition & Subtraction, Multiplication & Division Story problems Instructions in English and Spanish Students use it independently for individualized practice

Technology
Internet delivery All student records stored and managed by Symphony Learning Secure internet connection No school server required Students can use the program at home and at school Automatic software updates & upgrades included with Symphony Support Plan Detailed data tracking and reporting Student reports can be viewed from Web browser
• • • • •

Requirements
Windows 2000, ME, XP 128 mb RAM 16 mb Video acceleration 15 mb free hard-drive space Active Internet Connection

• • • • •

Mac OS X version 10.2 + 128 mb RAM 16 mb Video acceleration 15 mb free hard-drive space Active internet connection

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