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Curriculum provides students and teachers with


lived
experiences
that
ideally
foster deep
understandings, sophisticated skills, appropriate
attitudes, and socially constructive values.

Defined by different people according to their


purposes and functions.

Mostly based on an organizations vision, mission,


philosophy, goals and functions

And great care should be given to the creation of


curricula.
Instructional design theories also are enriching ways
of approaching curriculum development

A curriculum can be defined

as a plan for action or a written document


includes strategies for achieving desired goals or
ends.

Popularized by Ralph Tyler and Hilda Taba


through a linear view of curriculum.

The steps of the planner are sequenced in


advance.
The plan has a beginning and end, as well as a
process ( or means ) so that the beginning can
progress to an end.

Most behavioral and some managerial and


systems people today agree with this definition.

J. Galen Saylor: as a plan for providing sets of


learning opportunities for persons to be
educated.

David Pratt : Curriculum is an organized set of


formal education and/or training intentions.

Jon Wiles and Joseph Bondi view curriculum as a


four-step plan involving purposesdesign
implementationassessment.

Curriculum can be defined broadly----as


dealing with the experiences of the learner.

This view considers almost anything in


school, even outside of school ( as long as it
is planned) as part of the curriculum.

It is also stated in Deweys definition, and


also in Caswell and Campbells view, from
1930s, that curriculum was all the
experiences children have under the
guidance of teachers.

week 1--Jan 2005

The word curriculum originates from the


Latin word currere which means a race
course.

Today it became, or the most common


definition of curriculum, is a course of
study.

As a reference, the following are some


definitions of curriculum in this course.

1.

A curriculum is an educational plan


defining:

a)

The aims, goals and objectives of an educational


action;
The ways, means and activities employed to
achieve these goals;
The methods and instruments required to evaluate
the success of the action ( Busshoff, L et al.)

b)

c)

4.

A course of study (Dressel)

5.

The planned and guided learning experience and


intended learning outcomes, formulated through the
systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experience
. For the learners continuous and willful growth in
person-social competence ( Tanner & Tanner, 1975)

6.

A total instructional program composed of syllabus or


individual course programs ( Bowen)

7.

A curriculum is a plan of learning (Taba, 1962)

8.

A plan for providing sets of learning opportunities for


persons to be educated ( Saylor et al., 1981)

9.

A general over-all plan of the content or specific


materials of instruction that the school should offer the
student by way of qualifying him for graduation or
certification for entrance into
a professional or
vocational field. (Good)
week 1--Jan 2005

The word curriculum is often associated


with instruction, where :

Curriculum is the plan or document.

Instruction refers to the method of


presenting or implementing the curriculum
content or plan.

According to Saylor (1981) instruction is the


actual engagements of learners with
planned learning of opportunities.

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For the purpose of instruction, curriculum


can be further sub-divided as follows:
Curriculum
Syllabus
Scheme of work
Lesson plan

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Consisting of one or more course(s) or


subject(s)

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A plan for a particular course or subject

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A detailed outline of the syllabus

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A plan for a particular lesson / instruction.

week 1--Jan 2005

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In developing a curriculum or a course we


are faced with three major questions i.e.
What to teach ?
How to teach it?
How to evaluate it?

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In relation to the above questions,


curriculum development involves the
following steps:
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
-PLANNING
-IMPLEMENTATION
-EVALUATION

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Identifying philosophy and mission

Setting goals and objectives

Designing curriculum

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Implementing curriculum

Managing resources

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Making evaluations

Redesigning curriculum

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Tylers or Objectives Models (Ralph Tyler,


1950)

Interaction or Dynamic Model (Taba, 1962;


Cohen, 1974)

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Tylers models is one of the best known,


technical-scientific models and also is
considered as the most common model in the
field of curriculum development.

He mentioned that those involved in


curriculum inquiry must try to define the
following.

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In the Tylers model, curriculum


development involves four major stages:

1. Thinking about aims and objectives


(OBJECTIVES)
2.

Selecting learning experiences/ educational


experiences that will most likely help students
achieve those objectives (EXTENT)

3.

Organizing learning experiences (METHOD)

4.

Evaluating the effectiveness of the curriculum


(EVALUATION)

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Objectives should be based on the analysis or


guidance from:
The students as learner
The contemporary life outside the school (society)
Specialist in the various subjects

Objectives identified need to be screened and


reduced to a small number of:
Consistent, highly important objectives
Be in line with educational philosophy and aims

Objectives should:
Specify precisely what is supposed to be learned
Specify the changes to be brought about in the students
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Select the content or subject matter

Determine learning experiences that might


lead to the attainment of the stated
objectives.

Give students the opportunity to acquire the


behavior stated in the objectives.

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To produce cumulative impact, the subject matter or


experiences must be carefully organized

Principles of organization:
Principles of continuity
Important objectives need to be repeated time and again in
different ways so that they are learned thoroughly
Principles of sequence
Successively learning experiences should build on one another,
taking students more deeply into the subject each time.
Principles of integration
Learning experiences ought to be coherently and
constructively related to one another.

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Evaluation is a process for determining whether


the curriculum is achieving the desired results.

Evaluation involves an appraisal of the


students actual behavior.

Should be carried out different times

A variety of methods used

Results of evaluation to be used


To indicate strength and weaknesses in the program
Plan for revision.

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THE TABA MODEL

Difference bet Taba and Tylers model:


Taba believed those teaching the curriculum
(teachers) should participate in developing it.
Begin the process by creating specific teachinglearning units for students
Take inductive approach start with specifics and
build to general design
Lists seven steps

TABAS SEVEN STEPS

Diagnosis of needs
Identify needs of students

Formulation of objectives
Specify objectives to be accomplished

Selection of content

Organization of content
Sequencing; take into consideration maturity of learner,
academic achievement and interest

Selection of learning experiences

Organization of learning activities

Evaluation and means of evaluation

See you next week.

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