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A G N I H OT R I E N G G . & G AT E C L A S S E S
Unit – II , Topic - Laplace Transform

Scripting Success Stories

It is the work of a French Mathamatician dierre – de – Laplace (1749 – 1827). This method reduces the problem of
differential equation with given boundary condition to simple Algebraic problem.
Definition
Let F(t) be a function of ‘t’ defined for all positive value of t; then the Laplace transform F(t) is denoted by

L{F (t )} , 𝑓(𝑠) or F ( s) and is defined as L{F (t )}   e st F (t )dt  f ( s)
0

Here S is a parameter may be real or complex provided that integral is convergent.
Laplace Transformation of some Elementary Functions
(i)

1
S

L{(1)} 

 e st 
11 
1 1 
1
1
Proof By definition L{F (t )}   e F (t )dt So L{1}   e 1dt  
    st      1   [0  1] 
S  e 0
S  
S
S
 s 0
0
0

n 1
S n 1

 

(ii)

L tn 

(iii) 𝐿

{𝑡 𝑛 } 

(iv)

L eat 

n
S

 

(v) L sin at 

n 1

 st

1

a
S  a2

3

5

if n > - 1; n is non integral / fractional value say 2 , 2 , 2 , …
if n is positive integers say 1,2,3….

1
, ( for S > a)
S a
2

 st

Corollary - L(c at )  L eat log c  

(vi) L cos at 

S
S  a2
2

1
if s > a log c, c > 0
s  a log c

(vii) L sin h at 

a
S  a2
2

(viii) L cos h at 

S
S  a2
2

Some Elementary Formulae
1
sin( A  B)  sin( A  B)
2
1
sin A sin B  cos( A  B)  cos( A  B) 
2
1
cos3 A  3cos A  cos 3 A
4
1
cos 2 A  1  cos 2 A
2
eat  e at
cos h at 
2

1. sin A cos B 

2.

cos A cos B 

3.

4.

sin 3 A 

5.
7.
9.

11. cos h2 at  sin h2 at  1

12.

n 1  n

6.
8.
10.
13.

1
cos( A  B)  cos( A  B)
2

1
3sin A  sin 3 A
4
1
sin 2 A  1  cos 2 A
2
eat  e at
sin h at 
2
sin h2 at  cos h2 at  cos h2at

14.

Classes on ED, BEEE, M1, M2, M3, NA, CONTROL, DSP & other GATE oriented Engg. Subjects
By :- Agnihotri sir, B. E. (Hons), M.Tech. (7415712500) B.T.I. Road Sherpura, Vidisha

pg. 1

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Properties of Laplace Transform
1. I-Shifting theorem or I-Translation property
If L{f(t)} = F(s) Then L{eat f(t)} = F(s – a) 𝑏 𝑠

−𝑎
For e.g. – 𝑎) 𝐿{𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑏𝑡} = (𝑠−𝑎)2 +𝑏2 𝑏
) 𝐿{𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑏𝑡} = (𝑠−𝑎)2 +𝑏2 𝑠
−𝑎 𝑑

) 𝐿{𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ℎ 𝑏𝑡} = (𝑠−𝑎)2 − 𝑏2

e) 𝐿{𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑡 𝑛 } = 𝑏 𝑐

) 𝐿{𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ℎ 𝑏𝑡} = (𝑠−𝑎)2 − 𝑏2

(n  1)!
n!
or
n 1
( s  a)
( s  a)n 1

2. II-Shifting theorem
If L{f(t)} = F(s), then L[ f(t - a).u(t – a)] = e-as F(s) i.e. t > a
 2 6 9
For e.g. L{t 2 .u(t  3)}  e3s L{(t  3)2 }  e3s L[t 2  6t  9]  e3s  3  2  
s
s s
3. Multiplication by ‘t’
dn
If L[f(t)] = F(s), then L t n f (t )   (1)n n [ F ( s)]
ds
For e.g. To find Laplace Transform of f (t )  t et sin 2t
[RGPV – June 2004 , Dec.2014]
2
2
Solution. L[sin 2t ]  2
, L[et sin 2t ] 
 F ( s) (say)
( s  1)2  4
s 4

d 
2
4( s  1)
L[t et sin 2t ]   F '(s)   


2
ds  ( s  1)  4 
[( s  1) 2  4]2
4. Division by ‘t’

1

If L[ f (t )]  F (s) , then L  f (t )    F ( s) ds
t
 s
sin 3t 

For e.g. To find Laplace Transform of L e4t
t 

[RGPV – 2007 , 12]

3
s
3

s
s
 sin 3t 
3
 2
ds   tan 1    tan 1  cot 1
Solution.
L[sin 3t ]  2 2  L 

3s
s 3
2
3
3
 t  s s 9
3
sin 3t 
s4
3

L e4t
 cot 1
 tan 1

t 
3
s4

5. Laplace Transform of Derivative of F(t)
If L[ f (t )]  F (s) then L[ f '(t )]  sL[ f (t )]  f (0)
In general L[ f n (t )]  s n L[ f (t )  s n1 f (0)  s n2 f '(0)  s n3 f ''(0)  .....  f n1 (0)
6. Laplace Transform of Integral of F(t)
t
 1
If L[ f (t )]  F (s) then L   f (t ) dt   F ( s )
0
 s
7. Laplace Transform of periodic Function F(t) periodic with Period T
T

If L[ f (t )]  F (s) then L[ f (t )] 

e

 st

f (t )dt

0

1  e sT
Evaluating Integrations using Laplace Transform –

Q. Evaluate ∫0 𝑡𝑒 −𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑑𝑡

0

0

Solution -  te3t sin t dt   te st sin t dt ,{ put s = 3},  L(t sin t )  

[RGPV – 2005, 06, 13]

23
6
3
d  1 
2s
 2


 2  2
2
2
(3  1) 100 50
ds  s  1  (s  1)

Classes on ED, BEEE, M1, M2, M3, NA, CONTROL, DSP & other GATE oriented Engg. Subjects
By :- Agnihotri sir, B. E. (Hons), M.Tech. (7415712500) B.T.I. Road Sherpura, Vidisha

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