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Running Head: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

Functional Behaviour Assessment and Behaviour Support Plan


EDPS 674
University of Calgary

Christina Majcher
February 21, 2015

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

Functional Behaviour Assessment


Date: 2/25/2015
Name: Oliver Smith
Age: 6
Grade: 1st
Classroom teachers: Mrs. Brown and Mrs. Black
Resource Room teacher: Mrs. Green
Educational Assistant: Mrs. Pink
School: ABC
Reason for Referral:
Oliver is a 1st grade student who has attended ABC since Kindergarten. Oliver struggled with
his transition to kindergarten last year. In particular, he demonstrated low social skills and
challenges following class rules, particularly in a group setting. The special education teacher
met with his parents to discuss the schools concerns. Recommendations were made to have
Olivers vision and hearing assessed. In addition, the school suggested a full medical
examination. Olivers parents are divorced. His parents have a strained relationship.
Recommendations were made for family counseling outside of the school. Olivers behaviour
improved slightly in the final term of kindergarten. However, the frequency and intensity of his
behaviors have increased in grade one. Olivers parents and teachers are looking for strategies
to improve his overall success at school.
Summary of information provided by various interviews and report/record reviews:
Parent Interview:
Mrs. Smith was interviewed. In addition, she emailed some information following the initial
meeting. Olivers father, Mr. Smith was invited to participate, but he declined. Both parents
gave informed consent for this assessment.
Health
Mrs. Smith indicated that Oliver has great general health. She stated that he has a hard time
falling asleep and sleeps in her bed three to four nights a week. She furthered that once Oliver
falls asleep, he sleeps a solid 9 to 11 hours a night without interruption. Mrs. Smith commented
that he is a healthy eater. She noted that following a meeting with the school last year, she cut
out dairy, refined sugar and flour. She is not sure that Olivers father follows this same diet.
Oliver does not take any medication.
Educational/School
Mrs. Smith stated that Oliver experiences challenges throughout the school day. He struggles the
most on Mondays. Mrs. Smith feels that Mondays are worse when he has spent the weekend
with his father. She reported that Oliver worked with the school counselor two times in

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

kindergarten and once this year in grade one. She feels that Oliver is better with his classroom
teachers as he respects them and sees them as authority figures. He does not seem to have this
same level of respect for specialist teachers. Mrs. Smith indicated that there is an educational
assistant in Olivers classroom that Oliver often talks about her at home. She is unsure of how
much time Oliver spends with her. She indicated that she chose ABC school as Olivers school
because of its small class size, the community feel of the school, the kindness of the staff and the
academic standards. Lately, she has been wondering if a nature-based classroom might have
been a better fit for Oliver. Mrs. Smith stated that she knows Oliver struggles when there are
changes in his routine, when he is playing with his classmates, and during the assemblies. Lately
Mrs. Smith has been keeping Oliver at home when he seems tired or is having difficult days.
She indicated that she is worried to send him to school on those days. Instead, she keeps him
home and they have special time together.
Moms Household
Mrs. Smith described him as loving, kind, and helpful. They spend a large amount of time
reading books every night. She noted that they walk to and from school four days a week to try
to increase Olivers level of physical activity. He participates in karate, swim club and cubs
outside of school. Oliver does not like team sports and has had challenges with peer interactions
when he has been registered in programs in the past. Mrs. Smith stated that Oliver has at least
two play dates a week. She indicated that she does not feel comfortable with consequences and
prefers to speak with Oliver about his behaviour and shower him with attention. She stated
that she uses role-playing at home. Occasionally, she will prompt Oliver to have down time in
his bedroom. She commented that Olivers father is very strict and has a very different parenting
style. She is most concerned about his lack of friends and the rightness of fit with his current
school.
Teacher Interview:
Olivers two classroom teachers were interviewed. Mrs. Brown teaches Oliver in the morning
and Mrs. Black teaches Oliver in the afternoon.
Both classroom teachers expressed frustrations with Olivers behaviour. Both classroom
teachers use the same token economy incentive system class-wide called Banana Bucks (named
after the class mascot who is a monkey). This system is not used by specialist teachers. Olivers
behaviour is most challenging with specialist teachers. It is clear that he respects his classroom
teachers and sees them as the authority figures. There is an educational assistant in Olivers
current class. She assists him occasionally with time on task, and being physically and verbally
safe with his peers. Oliver requires a significant amount of redirection throughout his school
day.
Olivers teachers indicate that he responds very well to positive feedback. He likes hugs and has
a great sense of humour. Oliver experiences the most challenges during assembly, during times
of transition, classes with specialist teachers and on the playground. He makes lots of explosion
noises while making fast motions with his hands. He does not stop when asked. His teachers are
unsure if Oliver is acting out to gain attention or if he is unable to control these impulses. They
are unsure if he has adequate self-regulation and social skills. Oliver has considerable challenges

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

on the playground. They described his behaviour as impulsive, he angers easily, struggles with
the rules of gameplay, and can act inappropriately when adults are not within earshot. They
stated that they either ignore Oliver or redirect him when he is disruptive in class. They feel his
behaviour is better when he is interested in the topic. They noted that he really struggles to stay
quiet during class instruction if he is not interested in the topic. They are particularly frustrated
with Olivers frequent interruptions that can be very disruptive to the classroom learning
environment. They indicated that recently they attempted giving Oliver fidgets, but broke them
or used them inappropriately. They stressed that they are seeking more support and strategies for
Oliver.
Previous Behavior Interventions:
Oliver has a class wide token economy system where he earns or loses banana bucks throughout
his school day. The students are then able to buy items from the banana bucks store at the end of
the month. Oliver has participated in three, five-week friendship groups with the school
counsellor. Two sessions were in kindergarten and one session was in the fall of grade one.
Data Collection:
Office incident reports
Information obtained through school-based team meeting notes
Interview with Mother
Interview with classroom teachers
Review of Antecedent Behaviour Consequence (A-B-C) Data January 19- 22nd, 2015
Behaviour Data collected January 23rd, 2015
Data collected January 23rd, 2015 from 10:35- 1:15
Observation took place in Olivers grade one classroom during instruction at the carpet followed
by seatwork for spelling and math, lunchtime in the classroom, indoor recess in the kindergarten
room and then his transition from lunch to art class in the art room.
Definition of Behaviors:

Physical Behaviour: pulling at peers clothes, pushing peers, grabbing toys/objects away
from peer, swatting at peers

Inappropriate noises: growling at peers, disruptive or loud noises, shouting in the


classroom.

Non-compliance: refusing to work, not following directions, failure to comply with class
routines, saying no, moving to areas without permission, wandering around the classroom
during seatwork.

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

10:35- 10:45 instruction at


carpet
10:45- 12:00 seatwork
spelling and math
12:00- 12:20 lunchtime in
the classroom
12:20- 1:00 indoor recess
1:00- 1:15 transition to art
class

Predictor of Behaviour
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Demand/request

Transition Teacher led instruction

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

Perceived Function
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Actual Consequences
50
40
30
20
10
0

Summary of data:

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

Estimated behaviour rate: Physical behaviour: 1 every 23 minutes, Non-Compliance: 1 every


6 minutes, Inappropriate Noises: 1 every 6 minutes. Total: 1 every 3 minutes
Interpreting the data:
1. Oliver struggles most when a demand or request is made of him, during times of
transition and when there is reduced adult supervision.
2. Oliver appears to be attempting to gain peer and adult attention and escape less preferred
activities. Behaviors appear to increase with decreased attention.
3. The behaviors appear to be a combination of skill and performance deficits. Oliver does
not appear to have strong social problem solving skills. When he does have the skills, he
is not applying them.
Behavior Intervention Recommendations and Strategies
Antecedent Procedures:
1. Classroom adaptations:
o Support with activities that require sustained attention (timers, EA support)
o Self-regulation/movement breaks after task completion
o Increased opportunities to move during lessons
o Visual reminders for expected behaviour (whiteboard, task cards, visual prompts)
2. Pre-correction (reminders before going outside or to other classes, assembly or chapel).
Adding visuals would be helpful. For example, expected behaviour cards that he can
refer to in the setting. These could be attached to social behaviour mapping completed
with the school counsellor. More information regarding social thinking can be found at
http://www.socialthinking.com
3. Support during transitions (keeping him busy, shadowing with a teacher or adult). Oliver
would benefit from visuals to aid with warnings as well as a visual timer.
4. Choice within boundaries (It appears that Oliver is often wanting to control certain
situations). It may help to increase his level of choice within boundaries when possible
and prior to behavior occurring. For example, if Oliver needs to complete his spelling
work, he could be given the choice to complete it at his desk, on the back carpet or at the
think spot.
5. Consider using Effective Instructional Delivery (Speights-Roberts, Tingstrom, Olmi, &
Bellipanni, 2008) to help reduce non-compliance resulting from escaping tasks or gaining
attention. For example,
Provide all instructions/directions with the following components:
- With demanded eye contact (e.g., Oliver, look at me)
- In close proximity to the child (within 5 feet of the child)
- As a directive statement (e.g., Hand me the math book)
- With descriptive wording (e.g., Put the black writing journal on the table)
- Allowing a 5s wait period following the command for response initiation
Skill Acquisition/Replacement Behaviours:

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

1. Oliver would benefit from further social skills instruction. As he has already participated
in three social skills classes, it may be worthwhile to consider having him work with the
school counsellor one-on-one. Oliver appears to have some skill deficits. It may be
useful to complete a brief social skills inventory with Oliver to gain a clear understanding
of his level of social-cognitive functioning. Oliver may also have a performance deficit,
as he did not ask for help from any adults during the entire observation period.
Sessions could focus on Michelle Garcia Winners Social Thinking curriculum
(http://www.socialthinking.com) and begin with the following:
Oliver will learn how to get attention or help from peers in an appropriate way
(expected and unexpected behaviors) by using calm down strategies or walking
away when he is angry or frustrated 8 out of ten times.
Oliver will learn how to get attention or help from adults in an appropriate way
(expected and unexpected behaviors) by asking for breaks or help 8 out of ten
times.
Oliver will learn the expected behavior on the playground, in the classroom and in
all settings at school. This piece could be done with the support of the
educational assistant. All of the expected behaviour cards could be turned into
visuals that can be used with Oliver to help prompt him to use expected behavior,
get help or request breaks in appropriate ways.
Cognitive-behaviour therapy strategies on how to calm down when he is angry or
frustrated (relaxation and anger management techniques). It will be helpful to see
if Oliver is able to recognize and label his feelings as well as identify potential
triggers. He would also benefit from learning how to ask for breaks or walk away
from challenging situations. Breaks could include going to the OT room, a quiet
time to read, a walk around the school or a visit to the learning centre. Frequent
breaks would be more beneficial than longer extended breaks. The 5 point scale
(see attached) can be a helpful tool.
Reinforcement:
1. Please review the rules of the playground and expected behavior with Oliver before he
goes outside. It would be helpful to have Oliver receive direct instruction regarding the
play structures and expectations for play for each structure. This could be supported
through role-play and followed up with an EA, if available. In addition, Oliver would
benefit from a check-in/check-out procedure with an educational assistant to review the
expected rules. The check-in/check out procedure is listed in more detail at
http://www.interventioncentral.org/behavior_management_check_in_check_out.
2. Oliver should be given extra banana bucks when he remembers to work quietly or focus
on his job or when he asks for help from his teacher or the educational assistant in the
classroom. When giving him the banana buck, explicitly state the reason why. For
example: Oliver, I love how quietly you are working at your desk or Oliver, I love it
when you ask for help. It helps me teach you. Feedback is best when it is provided
quickly. Consider having Oliver use banana bucks to earn some time at the end of the
day to do an activity of choice. Ideas might include spending some time in the learning
centre or reading a book with a younger child or a set amount of time on the iPad. This
might decrease the amount of time that Oliver will need to wait to cash out his
reinforcement. Also, please consider having Oliver (and other students) provide a few

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

ideas for items to be purchased at the banana buck store. Try to ensure Oliver will be
able to work towards his chosen item. This might help increase his motivation to earn
banana bucks.
3. Oliver is very motivated by positive feedback. Consider sending home positive notes or
positive phone calls when Oliver is showing improved compliance in the classroom and
on the playground.
4. As it appears that Oliver is attempting to gain peer attention, we want to find ways for
him to earn this appropriately. Consider using a contingency map with Oliver. He could
be given a list of the task or tasks he must complete (keep them short and manageable)
and then he can play Lego or on the iPad with a peer. For example, Oliver I need you to
write your name on the page, do the questions I have circled and then put your hand up
and wait for me in your desk to check that you are done (you could write these steps on a
whiteboard). If you are able to do this all on your own, then you can have 5 minutes to
play a game with a friend. The amount of work could then be increased gradually as
Oliver demonstrates an increased ability to sustain his attention.
Consequence:
1. Consider using a contingency map visual with Oliver (see attached). If Oliver raises his
hand to ask for help, asks for a break or works quietly at his desk, he will get a set
amount of banana bucks and time to play with a peer. However, if Oliver is noncompliant (break it down to be explicit for him) then he will not get a break, and the
natural consequence is that he will be expected to complete more work to complete. Be
sure to provide regular attention when Oliver is showing expected behaviors and limit
interactions and responses when he is not demonstrating expected behavior (this is
because attention and escape are likely the function of his behavior).
2. When Oliver is physical with a student (as outlined in description of behaviour), Oliver
should be immediately removed from the situation and asked to fill in a behaviour think
sheet. The sheet will be sent home to be signed by his parents. If he is in class and
misses class work, that work must be completed at a later time. If he is on playground,
then he will miss time to play with peers, but may be provided with time to play by
himself at the end of the play time, provided an EA is available. As Olivers behavior is
driven by peer and adult attention, it is hoped that removing this attention will decrease
the likelihood of the behaviour.
Materials needed for program implementation:
A-B-C data sheet, contingency map sheet, behaviour think sheet
Tracking Effectiveness of Plan
Teachers will be asked to use A-B-C data collection sheets, anecdotal teacher records and the
behavior think sheets to track the effectiveness of the plan.

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

10

Contingency Map
You can use the above outline to help create a contingency map. This is a visual that
demonstrates that when something happens (seatwork), if the student engages in the expected
behaviour (raising his hand to ask for help or works quietly at his desk), he or she will get a
consequence they enjoy (ie. Banana bucks and time to play on a ipad with a friend). If he or she
engages in the negative behaviour (wandering around or not doing his seatwork), then he will not

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

11

get the break. Contingency maps can be created for settings such as playground time, seatwork
time and transition time.

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

12

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

Social Behaviour Map (example for expected and unexpected behaviors)


These can be created an laminated on index cards and then attached to a key ring to be able to
refer to during teachable moments as well as to provide visual reminders.

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FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

14

Functional Behavioural Assessment


Item
Evaluation
General
Information
provided about:
individual,
context, and
behavior (500
words or less)
(5/70)

Information
gathering
(5/70)

Identify
triggering
antecedent
events
(5/70)
Identify
maintaining
consequence
events
Identify possible
setting events
(5/70)
Develop
summary
statement
(5/70)

Very Good (56-70)


Thorough description of
individual and context
(settings/activities, in which
functional assessment was
conducted as well as the
behavior:
Description of behaviour
includes all of the following
characteristics:
Clear Description of specific
actions;
Observable, can be replicated
by a stranger
Measurable Frequency
and/or duration can be counted;
beginning & ending of behavior
are clearly delineated
Gathered thorough information
on antecedents and
consequences with appropriate
information gathering
techniques (i.e., direct
observation, interviews).
Contains information on how
they were collected (e.g., across
how many days)
One or more antecedent events
are identified that
trigger/predict problem behavior
and are described in sufficient
detail to inform intervention
planning
One or more consequences
identified that occur
immediately after the problem
behavior and are described in
sufficient detail to inform
intervention planning
At least one setting event is
identified and described in
sufficient detail to inform
intervention planning or data
confirms no setting event exists
Summary statement includes all
of the following as identified by
the FBA:
Antecedent
Problem behavior
Consequence
Setting event (if applicable)
Function of the behavior

Satisfactory (43-55)
Good description of
individual, but minimal
description of context.
Description of the
problem behavior
includes two of the
following
characteristics:
Clear, observable,
measureable

Gathered some
information on
antecedents and
consequences. Missing
data gathering
techniques and/or how
information was
collected.
Antecedent events are
identified but not
described in sufficient
detail to inform
intervention planning.

Inadequate (42 &


below)
Minimal to no
information provided
on individual, and no
information provided
on context.
Description of the
problem behavior
includes none to one
of the following
characteristics:
Clear, observable,
Measurable

Gathered minimal/no
information on
antecedents and
consequences. Did
not use appropriate
data gathering
techniques and/or did
not include completed
data collection forms.
No antecedent events
identified

Score

5/5

5 /5

5/5

Consequences are
identified but not
described in sufficient
detail to inform
intervention planning.

No consequences
identified

Setting events are


identified but not
described in sufficient
detail to inform
intervention planning
Summary statement
includes some of the
following as identified
by the FBA:
Antecedent
Problem behavior
Consequence
Setting event (if
applicable)
Function of the
behavior

No indication setting
events were
considered

5/5

5/5

Summary statement
does not exist or one
exists that was not
based upon the FBA
4 /5

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT

Identify desired
replacement
behavior
(5/70)

Identify
alternative
replacement
behavior based
on function of
problem
behavior
(5/70)
Identify common
reinforcing
consequences
for desired
replacement
behavior
(5/70)
Select strategies
&/or
environmental
manipulations
that neutralize
impact of setting
events
(5/70)
Select strategies
&/or
environmental
manipulations
that make
triggering
antecedents
irrelevant
(5/70)
Select strategies
that teach
individual skills
that will
effectively
replace problem
behavior
(5/70)
Select strategies
for reinforcing
appropriate
behavior
(5/70)

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Behaviour Intervention Plan


Replacement behavior identified
Replacement behavior is
that is specific, objective, and
not specific, objective,
measurable and serves the same
and measurable, or
function as the problem behavior or replacement behavior
is incompatible with the problem
does not serve the same
behavior
function as the problem
behavior or is not
incompatible with the
problem behavior
Replacement behavior identified
Replacement behavior is
that is specific, objective, and
not specific, objective,
measurable and serves the same
and measurable, or
function as the problem behavior or replacement behavior
is incompatible with the problem
does not serve the same
behavior
function as the problem
OR
behavior or is not
Not applicable if alternative
incompatible with the
replacement is not appropriate
problem behavior
Reinforcing consequence for
Reinforcing consequence
desired replacement behavior is
is identified and results in
identified, results in same function
same function as problem
as the problem behavior, and is
behavior but is not
described in sufficient detail for
described in sufficient
implementation
detail for implementation

No replacement
behavior is
identified
3/5

No replacement
behavior is
identified
4/5

No reinforcing
consequence is
identified or
reinforcing
consequence
does not result
in same function
as problem
behavior
No strategies
and/or
environmental
manipulations
are identified or
they are not
linked to FBA
data
No strategies
and/or
environmental
manipulations
are identified or
they are not
linked to FBA
data

Strategies and/or environmental


manipulations are identified, linked
to FBA data, and described in
sufficient detail for implementation
or not applicable due to no setting
event documented.

Strategies and/or
environmental
manipulations are
identified, linked to FBA
data but lack sufficient
detail for implementation

Strategies and/or environmental


manipulations are identified, linked
to FBA data, and described in
sufficient detail for implementation

Strategies and/or
environmental
manipulations are
identified, linked to FBA
data but lack sufficient
detail for implementation

Teaching strategies are identified


and described in sufficient detail for
implementation

Teaching strategies are


identified but lack
sufficient detail for
implementation

No teaching
strategies are
identified

Reinforcement strategies
are identified but lack
sufficient detail for
implementation

No
reinforcement
strategies are
identified

Reinforcement strategies are


identified and described in
sufficient detail for implementation

5/5

5/5

5/5

5/5

5/5

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT


Select
consequence
strategies that
make problem
behavior
ineffective
(5/70)

Consequence strategies are


identified and described in
sufficient detail that:
Minimize the impact of the
problem behavior on other
individuals
Reduce the reinforcement of the
problem behavior
Minimize damage to the
individuals reputation

16
Consequence strategies
are identified are
identified that meet some
of the following:
Minimize the impact of
the problem behavior on
other individuals
Reduce the
reinforcement of the
problem behavior
Minimize damage to
the individuals reputation

No consequence
strategies are
identified are
identified or they
focus on
punishments
and/or reinforce
the problem
behavior

Or all of the above are


met but not described in
sufficient detail

Total: _66 / 70
Grade: _ 94%__

Really nice job, Christina. Your data collection and summarization in the first section were fantastic well done.
For the Behaviour Intervention Plan, try to focus more on developing specific plans of action with
measurements tied explicitly to them rather than recommend a whole bunch of things the teacher can choose
from. It can be hard for teachers to decide what to do first, so as the specialist, it can be important for you to
recommend the first line of action and then measure it to see whether its effective before moving to a different
strategy. Just food for thought. Nice work!

5/5