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Fazel Department of Foreign Languages



Alireza Zare



)1. An Introduction to criminal law (Alireza Zare, Shiva Irani

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1. The actus reus of murder contains all the following elements of a crime EXCEPT
1. conduct
2. circumstance
3. without the persons consent
4. consequence
2. The maximum penalty for killing by gross carelessness would be years in prison.
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?3. What does duress mean in Persian


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abetting ..
deterrence .
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?What is the difference between real property and intangible property

Unit One: Elements of a crime



crime = offence

criminal proceedings

punishment = penalty

common law

) (

statute law

) (

subordinate legislation


method of trial

trial hearing


) (

arrestable offences

criminal liability

criminal offence


actus reus

guilty act

guilty conduct = guilty behavior

mens rea

guilty mind

an accused


diminished responsibility



strict liability = tighter liability

In English law, all persons are presumed innocent until proven guilty.

A) actus reus = Latin for guilty act

B) mens rea = Latin for guilty mind

Actus reus comprises all the elements of the offence other than the state of mind of the defendant. It
includes the following:
a) an act or conduct
b) the circumstances in which it was committed
c) the consequences of what was done

The crime of rape requires unlawful sexual intercourse by a man with a person without their consent.

Stabbing someone may form:

the actus reus of murder if the victim dies.
the actus reus of causing grievous bodily harm (GBH) if the victim survives.

Voluntary conduct vs. Involuntary conduct

If the accused is to be found guilty of a crime, his or her behavior in committing the actus reus must have
been voluntary.
Behavior will be considered involuntary in the following cases:

A) where the accused was not in control of his/her own body

- when the defence of insanity or automatism may be available
B) where there is extremely strong pressure from someone else
- when the defence of duress may be available
duress = a threat that the accused will be killed if he or she does not commit a particular offence

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Concerning Nationality
Article 976 - The following persons are considered to be Iranian subjects
1 - All persons residing in Iran except those whose foreign nationality is established; the foreign
nationality of such persons is considered to be established if their documents of nationality have not been
objected to by the Iranian Government.
2- Those born Iran or outside whose fathers are Iranian.
3 - Those born in Iran of unknown parentage.
4 - Persons born in Iran of foreign parents, one of whom was also born in Iran.
5 - Persons born in Iran of a father of foreign nationality who have resided at least one more year in Iran
immediately after reaching the full age of 18; in other cases their naturalization as Iranian subjects will be
subject to the stipulations for Iranian naturalization laid down by the law.
6 - Every woman of foreign nationality who marries an Iranian husband.
7- Every foreign n who has obtained Iranian nationality
Note - Children born of foreign diplomatic and consular representatives are not affected by Clause 4 and 5
of this Article.

2. An introduction to Translation (Alireza Zare)

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(adverb) Verb + ing .., subject + verb + .
- Mistakenly believing that he was about to be attacked, he head-butted the victim about three times.
- Mistakenly thinking that the man was a member of the IRA, the soldier shot and killed him.
- Driving up a narrow road, he had been confronted by the gang.
- Taking into account these points, the judge ordered that the trial be adjourned until July.
(adverb) Having + p.p. ., subject + verb + .
- Having lost the control of the car, the defendant hit a woman standing on the side of the road.
(adverb) p.p. + ., subject + verb + .
- Threatened by the defendant, Graham took part in the strangling of his wife with an electric flex.
- Scared that their homelessness would mean their children being taken from them by social services, they
escaped the city overnight.
- Frightened that he was going to rape her, she jumped out of the moving car.

(adverb) Being + p.p. .., subject + verb + .

- Being regarded as a relatively minor offence, intention to avoid payment permanently carries a
maximum sentence of only two years.
(adverb) Having been + p.p. , subject + verb + .
- Having been charged with wounding with intent, he argued that he fell within the defence of automatism.

)3. Essential Contract Law (Alireza Zare, Shiva Irani

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)4. International Conventions and Treaties (Alireza Zare
. :
)- Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Alireza Zare

)- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Alireza Zare

)- The treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) (Alireza Zare

)5. The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Alireza Zare

)6. The Civil Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Alireza Zare

7. Islamic penal code in Farsi

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Article 2
(: ) ( belief in ) The Islamic Republic is a system based on
1. the single God (as stated in the phrase "There is no god except Allah"), His exclusive
;sovereignty and the right to legislate, and the necessity of submission to His commands
( )The right to + noun/V ) (be entitled to .

;2. divine revelation and its fundamental role in setting forth the laws
3. the return to God in the Hereafter, and the constructive role of this belief in the course of man's
;ascent towards God
;4. the justice of God in creation and legislation
5. continuous leadership (imamat) and perpetual guidance, and its fundamental role in ensuring
the uninterrupted process of the revolution of
;6. the exalted dignity and value of man, and his freedom coupled with responsibility before God

( the present Covenant, ) The States Parties to

( in the Charter of the ) Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed
United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members
of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,